Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Research Questions Regarding Library Users

VIEWS: 29 PAGES: 60

Research Questions Regarding Library Users document sample

More Info
									                                              1




  Marketing Research Report

Research Conducted and Reported by:

      Ashley Fiorini
         Kevin Murray
             Van Luong
                 Laura Pease




                                      December 11, 2008
                                                                                                     2



                                    Executive Summary

       Based on the analysis of the 129 surveys we gave out to Pacific Lutheran University

students, only 70 percent of the students know where the reference desk is located in the library.

A common mistake is students believe they are able to get help at the front desk but realize that

they are unable to because of lack of direction, awareness, and resources available. Although

having many options on campus, our research shows that the library is the most used place to

study by individuals and groups. We were able to see direct correlation with student‟s research

capabilities and use of PLU library website. The higher that they were satisfied with the research

capabilities, the more likely they were to use the PLU library website.

       We found that sixty percent of the respondents use the library webpage more than four

times a month. Respondents also revealed that they were relatively content with the overall

clarity and capabilities of the PLU library webpage. Less than 10% were dissatisfied with the

capabilities of the website.

       Although we were unable to show statistically significant trends with the data because of

the relatively small sample we were able to make important conclusions from the data collected.

Our recommendations include an increase in advertising, training, signage, and website usability.
                                                                                                                                                           3


Table of Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Project Background ............................................................................................................................ 4
Project Purpose ................................................................................................................................. 5
Industry Report/ Secondary Research ................................................................................................. 6
      i. Background ............................................................................................................................. 6
      ii. Mission ................................................................................................................................... 6
      iii. Trends .................................................................................................................................... 7
Methodology ................................................................................................................................... 11
      i. Library Surveys ....................................................................................................................... 11
      ii. Campus Surveys..................................................................................................................... 11
      iii. Online Surveys ...................................................................................................................... 11
Key Findings..................................................................................................................................... 12
      i. Reference Services Location .................................................................................................... 12
      ii. Online Use ............................................................................................................................. 13
      iii. Online Research.................................................................................................................... 13
       iv. Library Usage ....................................................................................................................... 14
       v. Study Location ...................................................................................................................... 15
Analysis of Open-ended Response Questions .................................................................................... 15
Recommendations ........................................................................................................................... 18
      i. Office Hours ........................................................................................................................... 18
      ii. Signage and Advertising ......................................................................................................... 18
      iii. PLU Library Website .............................................................................................................. 19
Limitations....................................................................................................................................... 21
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 21
Appendix ......................................................................................................................................... 22
   Appendix A: ............................................................................................................................................ 22
    Appendix B: Industry Report .................................................................................................................. 24
   Appendix (C.1): Library & Campus Survey .............................................................................................. 34
    Appendix (C.2): Online Survey ................................................................................................................ 36
   Appendix D: Statistics ............................................................................................................................. 40
                                                                                                     4


                                         Introduction

               The members that took part in this marketing research project include Ashley

Fiorini, Kevin Murray, Van Luong, and Laura Pease. Our research project was carried out for

just over twelve weeks. Over those twelve weeks, we were able to conduct 129 surveys of the

PLU population. Our goal was to conduct 45 surveys in the library, 25 from upper campus, 25

from lower campus, and 50 from online surveys through Facebook.com. After the surveys were

completed, our group was able to analyze the raw data through the Statistical Package for Social

Sciences (SPSS), a marketing research software program, and draw conclusions and

recommendations to the Library Reference Services.



                                    Project Background

       The Pacific Lutheran University Library Reference Services wants to provide quality

customer service to students. The department, however, is unaware of student perceptions of the

quality of services, personnel, and process. The librarians would like to draw insights on how

students regard the role of librarians, and specific areas they need to improve. A key concern is

that students are unaware of the correct location of the reference desk, and are unaware of the

correct locations to receive help. The librarian‟s location and their roles are unseen because of

lacking visibility, and therefore is confusion between the front desk and reference desk. Another

concern was the Reference Services‟ hours of operation, therefore, it was critical in our study to

determine the time of day students use the library and its resources to study. The librarians

would also like to know how they could assist students in their learning; for example: do they

need to extend their office hours, change their locations and what are the best ways to

communicate with students?
                                                                                                  5


         Another issue that was addressed regarded the Pacific Lutheran University library

website and the usability of the site. They would like to know what resources students use on the

library website, which areas of the website should be improved, and whether or not additional

information is needed within the online resources. In addition, the librarians also want to

identify how students respond to the department‟s online services such as chat 24/7, email, and

phone.

                                       Project Purpose

         This marketing research project‟s purpose was to examine and identify the perception

that undergraduate and graduate students possess regarding the PLU Library Reference Services

and how to improve their current services. We conducted a survey that examined specific topics

focusing on how students perceive the librarian‟s role, the ways in which students use the

services in the library, where students find resources in the library, the amount of webpage

usage, how students contact the librarian and the barriers they might face, and demographics. We

also examined what students believe the role of the librarian should be. The results would allow

us to analyze how the PLU Library Reference Services could improve its current system and be

more helpful in assisting undergraduate and graduate students.
                                                                                                  6


                        Industry Report / Secondary Research

         The industry report and secondary research that we have found contains specific

information about the PLU Library and its Reference Services Department, and highlights

industry trends. This research also aids in the exploration of issues that the department currently

faces and ways that other universities have tackled similar concerns. The following information

generates a setting for effective research.

   i. Background

   The Robert A.L. Mortvedt Library is located on Park Avenue close to the Administrative

building. The PLU Library has flexible hours for students. It opens from 7:30 a.m. to midnight

on Monday through Thursday, 7:30 to 8 p.m. on Friday, 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. on Saturday, and 10

a.m. to midnight on Sunday. The Reference Services Desk is located in the area known as the

Help Desk. The Library Reference Desk is opened at 9am to 8pm from Monday through

Thursday and 9am to 4pm on Friday. Reference librarians are able to provide vast online

resources for each particular major, several books and articles, and statistics free of charge.

Students can access resources both on and off campus.


   ii. Mission

         PLU library‟s mission is to provide access to information and resources in order to help

in the student‟s pursuit of knowledge.        It also aims to provide quality customer service,

“maintain a quality library collection, leadership in the use of information technology on

campus, and promote diversity and freedom of inquiry and expression.” (PLU Library Website,

2008).
                                                                                                 7


   iii. Trends

                                 Library Reference Services

       As many already know, the internet and technology have consumed the lives of 21st

Century people. This has not skipped the current generation of library users. Librarians continue

to physically answer fewer reference questions while an exceedingly increasing number of

people use the internet to conduct research. But new challenges for libraries and reference and

research services are not only technology but “understanding end-user behaviors in context

(Abram, 2008).” To understand the end-user, one needs to learn everything “from usability

through personas and from hit analyses to ethnographic and behavioral studies -- focus on

workplace needs, scholarly behavior, learning styles, and entertainment and demonstrate a

material shift in the library user firmament (Abram, 2008).” For long-term survival and success,

libraries “need to understand, and understand deeply, the role of the library in our end-users'

lives, work, research, and play (Abram, 2008).”

                                        Online Trends

       Retail operations such as Amazon are a prime example of how a company has learned

very quickly that people behave differently online than they do in physical stores. Just as website

users operate differently than physical store users, “online learning is different than in physical

classrooms; and online communication, in all its formats, is different than simple telephone or in-

person conversations (Abram, 2008).” One recommendation for online reference services is to

“introduce complementary in-person and virtual contact… (Since librarians) have to be

everywhere they are, since that's the user expectation, and adapt to the tools that match their

needs (Abram, 2008).” Tools to introduce this through can include Instant Messaging, texting,

smartphones, and social networks including Facebook.com and MySpace.
                                                                                                    8


                                   PLU Library Comparison

       In the following section, we examine the comparison of other universities‟ websites, both

private and public, compared to that of PLU‟s library reference website.

Gonzaga University

       Gonzaga‟s library website is very user-friendly. The homepage is cleanly laid out and

made searching the website easier. One important aspect to examine is the blog topic at the top

of the website. This is a great feature that the PLU library should possibly adopt. It is a great

way for students to post their questions and comments about particular issues in the library or

how to use certain research tools. Gonzaga‟s library website is functional and easily usable to

college students. In addition, its research capabilities are quite extensive because of its wide

degree of programs and its prestigious graduate school. Based on using the website, we found

Gonzaga‟s website usability to be much higher than the usability of PLU‟s library website.

University of Puget Sound

       University of Puget Sound‟s website was quite similar to the design of PLU‟s library‟s

website. The homepage wasn‟t very user-friendly and they did not have a 24 hour chat hotline

with a librarian, which is an important element of the library website. The research link was easy

to find and a link below showcases all the different subjects to research based on particular

degree programs. The overall design of the website was clear, clean and easy to read. The

usability was reasonable; however, Gonzaga‟s website was noticeably more clear and functional

than PLU‟s and UPS‟ library websites.

Harvard University

       The layout of Harvard University‟s library website is clear and concise. Content is

understandable and topic links are located at the bottom of the screen. Important links to notice
                                                                                                      9


include the “My Research” link where students can customize their own website space that is

tailored to their needs, “Citation Linker” that helps with formatting citations, and basic links that

showcase the location, hours, and FAQ for users. Though the presentation of the website is not

very ostentatious, Harvard‟s library website is simple and the content is easy to find.

       Based on Nielsen and Tahir‟s criteria regarding homepage design, their research found

that library website design is comparable, but sometimes distinctly different, than business

websites. They conducted a statistical analysis and revealed that business websites were different

from library websites on four levels: the ability to search the website, the use of the search box,

use of animation, and link colors on the website. Library websites seem to use a search link

instead of search boxes on their homepages. In addition, library websites frequently use different

color changes after the link has been clicked. Library websites have the fastest download time

when doing research and using the website in general. The originality and value of the academic

library websites should seek the usability of college students according to the Nielsen and

Tahir‟s criteria, as this helps the design elements of the website. This provides an effective

framework for libraries when designing or re-designing their websites.

       The criteria are based on usability in connection with the technology-based world that

college students live in. The greater the usability of the website, the better students can quickly

conduct research.

                                       Student Assistants

       A growing trend for library reference services is to employ student workers to assist other

students in properly locating information. This is both cost-effective and generates an increase in

helpful staff.   Though training may take up valuable time through a “one-shot instruction

session,” this proves ineffective for student workers. Another approach is to give out periodic
                                                                                                10


worksheets that pertain to using key databases (Zamnostny, 2008). This has shown to be an

effective way for student workers to learn how to efficiently and effectively use research

databases so that they can properly teach other students.

   iv. Current Issues

       It is particularly difficult to locate a reference librarian as there are no clearly marked

signs and the reference area is located far behind a larger and general “help” desk. Oftentimes,

students use the library‟s front desk to ask questions, but are unable to receive an appropriate

answer as workers are not properly trained.       Reference librarians can helps students with

research for their project; however, they are hardly visible to the student. While the most helpful

resource is invisible in the students‟ mind, the front desk is known and visible to students. The

front desk is set up to check out books, DVDs, CDs, and use course reserve. The front desk is

not supposed to be used to help students in answering questions or research information. In the

front section of the library, the staff is usually work-study students, while most reference

librarians are in the back offices and behind many book shelves. Along with visibility and

training, the Reference Services Department lacks awareness of the current needs of students,

which is an underlying reason for the following research and recommendations.
                                                                                               11


                                        Methodology

   i. Library Surveys

          Our team conducted 45 surveys in the campus library. These surveys were conducted on

various days and times to increase the diversity and accuracy of responses; 15 surveys were

conducted during the hours of 8-12pm, 15 during 12pm-4pm, and 15 during 4pm-8pm. By

surveying students who were currently in the library, we were able to find out the views of

respondents who were using the library‟s services. These surveys were conducted on various

days and times to increase the diversity and accuracy of responses.

   ii. Campus surveys

          Our team conducted 27 surveys on the lower campus of PLU and 26 surveys were carried

out on upper campus. The days and times that the research was carried out were varied in order

to obtain a diverse selection of responses. The campus survey used in our data collection can be

found in the Appendix (Appendix C.1)

   iii.      Online surveys

          An online survey was also conducted through Facebook.com and through emails that

were sent to 100 PLU undergraduate and graduate students. We received a response rate of 31%

(31 responses). The same questions were used on the online survey, with a slightly different

format. The online survey can be found in the Appendix (Appendix C.2).
                                                                                                 12


                                        Key Findings

   i. Reference Services Location

       When students were asked to mark on a library map the specific location in the library

that they would go to receive help, seventy percent answered correctly (See Figure below). This

                                                   shows that over a quarter of the population

                                                   which we surveyed are unaware of the correct

                                                   place to go to receive effective help. This may

                                                   lead to frustration by the student who is

                                                   looking for resources or a reference librarian.

                                                   The relatively small samples by class rank

                                                   preclude us from making comparisons by

class. Our analysis also compared the responses on the Reference Desk location to where the

survey was collected. Our results demonstrated that the respondents who were surveyed in the

library were more aware of the correct location of the Reference Desk (See Figures below). Our

hypothesis proved correct, as those who use the library are more familiar with its resources.
                                                                                                    13


   ii. Online Use

       Our results reveal the process that students go through when they encounter a problem

with research while online (See Figure, Right). The outcome shows that respondents are most

likely to continue searching online to solve the issue themselves (69.8%). Other alternatives are

to ask a friend (59.7%), ask a

professor (44.2%), and visit a

librarian in the library (37.2%).

All other options including

emailing a librarian, calling the

library, and using the „Ask a

Librarian‟ Feature were less

than 15%. From this, we can assume that students might first continue searching online and then

resort to asking a friend if they are unable to solve their problem individually. Students prefer to

utilize a resource that they are most comfortable with. If still unable to resolve the issue, students

are then likely to ask a professor or consult with a librarian.

   iii. Online Research Capabilities

       Our results also showed a statistically significant trend between the rating scores of

students who use the PLU Library Website when searching for an article and the respondents‟

satisfaction regarding the research capabilities of the PLU Website. The higher a respondent

rated their satisfaction with its research capabilities, the higher a respondent rated their likelihood

to search online at the PLU Library Website to find an article. Though there may be many

causes of why students use the PLU Library Website, this correlation may show that they may
                                                                                                     14


use the website more often since they are more satisfied with its research capabilities (See

Appendix).

        Though not as strong and statistically significant, our results also revealed a slight

correlation between the rating score of research capabilities and the likelihood of respondents

using other websites, other than the PLU Library Website, to find an article for an essay they‟re

writing. As satisfaction with it research capabilities decreased, their likelihood to search online

using other websites increase. This may showcase the strong importance that students place on

research capabilities of the website.

   iv. Library Use

        The results in Table 1.1 show that student activity becomes greater as the day goes on.

From 12 a.m. to 7 a.m. only 15 students used the library. From 7 a.m. to 11 a.m., 21 students

                                                                    replied that they were active in
   Table 1.1

                                                                    the library. The busiest time in

                                                                    the library starts at 11 a.m. and

                                                                    carries to late evening around

                                                                    12 a.m. From 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.

                                                                    only 28 students reported

                                                                    studying at that time. From 4

p.m. – 8 p.m. 45 students used the library and 53 students during 8 p.m. – 12 p.m. Although

students are on campus all day long, students prefer using the library later in the day.

   v. Study Location
                                                                                                  15


         Table 1.2 showcases the different places used when studying individually or with a

group. When analyzing the difference between locations, there was a significant difference
 Table 1.2
                                                                            between studying

                                                                            with a group and

                                                                            studying individually

                                                                            regarding the Morken

                                                                            Center, Library and

                                                                            Dorm/Home. Students

                                                                            are more likely to use

The Morken Center and library to work on projects together. In contrast, students are most likely

to study individually in their dorm or house.


                    Analysis of Open-ended Response Questions

         To better understand the thoughts of students regarding the Reference Services, our

surveys included three open-ended questions. The following is a general analysis of the open-

ended responses.

Question 6: How could a librarian help you as a student?

Number of respondents               Roles
7                                   Answer questions
16                                  Be available and Be friendly
6                                   Check out
13                                  Helpful and Knowledgeable
23                                  Help finding books and resources, Direct to resources
16                                  Suggestion on research paper topics and resources
4                                   Show me right direction to get help
                                                                                                   16


       Our first open-ended question identified how a librarian could help you as a student. We

found the majority of the results stating that librarians should be more helpful to students when

conducting research, give helpful research tips and methods, and suggest where to find resources

in the library. Students also said librarians should be more helpful when finding books both on

the website and in the library. Students would like librarians to answer their questions quickly as

well. In addition, the results found it would be useful if librarians made themselves more

available by expanding their hours. When surveyed, many students said they would like

librarians to be helpful and knowledgeable about conducting research and locating resources

online and in the library, and have more suggestions for papers and projects. Librarians should

be more available to helping students check out books and give them direction of where books

are located for the specific topic they are researching.



Question 8: What do you visit the PLU Library Website for?

       The next open-ended question asked the respondent what they do when they visit the

PLU‟s Library Website. The results from the survey show that business students usually go to

the library website to use academic search engines such as ProQuest, EbscoHost, etc. They also

use the library website to find scholarly journals for their research papers and projects. Art

students generally use the website to find articles for their papers, search books, and other media

for projects in their field of study. English, music education, and environmental studies students

usually use the website for course reserves and use the library catalog to conduct research.

Nursing students use the website to access database accounts and CNAHL for their research

papers. After we analyzed the answers of students in various majors, we recognized that the

majority of students access the library website to search for resources and references for their
                                                                                                   17


academic papers and projects. They also use the website to find outside sources such as

academic websites, scholarly journal databases, and company profiles. The survey data found

that seldom do students use the library website to check out or reserve books. The complete

listing of all open-ended responses may be found in the Appendix.

Question 10: What do you do if you have a question about online research?

 Responses:
       Ask a friend who might know
       Parents/Family
       I use 'ask a librarian' as a last resort. Normally, I will just keep searching and searching,
        and if I find nothing of relevance I will THEN use the Ask a Librarian tool.


        Only three responses were generated from the question, “What do you do if you have a

question regarding online research?” The responses that are included are those that respondents

wrote in the „Other‟ section. Though the responses were limited, we can conclude that

oftentimes students will use a source they are more comfortable with, including a friend or

family member, before asking or visiting a librarian for further assistance.
                                                                                                    18


                                     Recommendations

   i. Office Hours

       Some students usually go to the Help Desk when they need assistance from a Reference

Librarian; on the other hand, some students often go to the Front Desk. Students often do not

receive the correct answers, or the employees at the Front Desk are not knowledgeable about the

Reference Services. From our results and analysis, we would recommend librarians should make

themselves more visible to students. Though the current Help Desk hours are Monday-

Thursday, 9 a.m. – 8 p.m., and Friday, 9 a.m. – 4 p.m., an actual librarian is not always

physically present at the desk.

   ii. Signage & Advertising

       Another way to increase the visibility of its services is to renovate the current signage.

For example, librarians could place a sign where the reference desk is in the library, specifically

saying “Reference Desk” or “Need a book?” In addition, a sign with an arrow pointing toward

the help desk should be located at the front desk so students know where to go for assistance. A

substitute or addition to this may be to include a “Check-Out Only” sign located at the front desk

which directs students efficiently and effectively to the correct location in the library. Having

proper and visibly appealing signage that indicates specifically what each desk‟s purpose is

would be more helpful to students.

       Another recommendation would be to perform several tours of the library for freshman

classes and to highlight resources and services that it offers. Our analysis shows that business

students more often use the PLU Website and study in the Morken Center rather than in the

Library, so additional advertisements of how to effectively use the website should be posted. In
                                                                                                    19


addition, reference librarians should visit classrooms more often to showcase how the Reference

Services‟ resources can be applicable to each major and area of study.

       Because our results reveal that students who use the library usually study in the late

evening (8pm-12pm), the Reference Services‟ hours should be extended. If librarians are unable

to be physically present, student workers must be properly trained. Furthermore, librarians

should train student workers or employees at the Front Desk to be more knowledgeable of

Reference Services or properly direct them to the Reference Services desk in order for students

to receive the appropriate help.

   iii. PLU Library Website

       The overall result of where students conduct most of their research is online, specifically

using the PLU library website. Since most students like to do their research online and use

electronic databases to find scholarly journals, we suggest that there should be more advertising

regarding the PLU library website. Librarians should advertise the website and demonstrate how

utilize this resource in classes at the beginning of the school year. Though the current library

website does categorize sections by each major, it is not visibly appealing and most information

blends into the rest, making navigation difficult. Furthermore, the „Ask a Librarian‟ feature,

along with other important links including hours of operation and each category of major, should

be formatted in different fonts and colors so that students can effectively and quickly find what

they are looking for.

       Seattle Pacific University‟s library website (Figure 1) is an excellent example of a user-

friendly website and is easy to navigate around. The homepage has clearly labeled and brightly

colored links, which allows for easy navigation without confusion of finding the correct

reference services. They also have a help tool on every page of the website, so at anytime if the
                                                                                                   20


user needs help, the link is easy to find. The library hours are easily accessible as it is linked to

  Figure 1: SPU Library Website            the homepage and every page throughout the website.

                                           The website‟s overall design is appealing to the user‟s

                                           eyes because the design has consistent elements

                                           throughout the entire website. We recommend that the

                                           PLU Library should follow the techniques used by

                                           Seattle Pacific University on their webpage.

        To raise further awareness about the online services to students, the library could increase

their advertising of online services: chat 24/7, email, and phone at the beginning of the school

year. Also, the librarians could inform the professors about the online services. Professors would

then make announcements to their classes when assigning a research paper or project.

Advertising through demonstration would be the most effective way to inform students about the

services.
                                                                                                       21


                                           Limitations

Lack of Time
       One limitation that occurred during the project was the lack of time available for our

team to conduct research of the student body. We were only given 12 weeks to spend conducting

two surveys of undergraduate and graduate students. The limited time available to collect

surveys from students minimized the sample size for the overall project and the sample size per

category of students (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior).

Demographics

       We were also limited to surveying graduate students because they primarily take classes

at night time and do most of their studying either at home or off campus. This limited our

intended target audience and our overall research, and the end results from graduate students.

Our overall demographic for conducting the surveys was mostly undergraduate students.

                                           Conclusion

       Through this experience of conducting a marketing research project with the Pacific

Lutheran University Library Reference center, it has given our team great insight into the

specific field and great professional experience. We hope this research will be a great aid to the

Library‟s Reference Services to benefit their current services by improving their assistant to

students. We would like to greatly thank Pacific Lutheran University Library Reference Services

for allowing us to work with them and hopefully provide them with beneficial marketing

research results that will benefit their organization in the future and better serve the students of

Pacific Lutheran University.
                                                                                                  22


                                           Appendix

   i. Appendix A: Project Proposal

Problem Definition:

       The PLU Library Reference Services staff would like to identify the image undergraduate

and graduate students have of its services personnel, and process. The services include online

references and webpage and the physical help desk located in the PLU Library, its personnel

include its fulltime and student staff, and its process involves the ways students use the Library

References Services to conduct their own research.

Objective:

       The objective of this marketing research project is to identify the images undergraduate

and graduate students have of the PLU Library References Services in order to provide specific

recommendations of improving their current system.

Method:

       To begin the marketing research project, our team will conduct confirmatory research in

order to gain a better understanding of the ideas and images that PLU students associate with the

Library References Services. Our marketing research team will focus its attention on descriptive

research methods in order to gain a better understanding of PLU undergraduate students toward

the Library Reference Services.

       The research will be conducted through 2-5 minute one-on-one surveys with 45

undergraduate students located in the library (15 during the hours of noon to 2pm, 15 during the

hours of 5-8pm, and 15 during the hours of 8-12pm) and 40 undergraduate students located

around the Pacific Lutheran University campus (20 upper-campus, 20 lower-campus) on a

variety of days. An online survey will also be conducted through Facebook.com. The same
                                                                                                23


topics will be used on both surveys. We will survey 50 undergraduate students of the Pacific

Lutheran University.

Research Design:

        The questions will be carried out verbally, through open-ended and multiple choice

questions. We will ask about the following topics:

      How students perceive the librarians‟ role

      What students do in the library

      How students find resources in the library; preferences of doing so

      How students use the library website

      Barriers to contacting librarians; preferences of doing so

      Successful research projects and their processes

      Demographics (Undergraduate, Graduate, Other)

       The interviews will give our team beneficial insight into the images and thoughts of

undergraduate and graduate students associated with the Library References Services.

Data Analysis:

       The survey data will be input and examined through the Statistical Package of Social

Sciences (SPSS) software. SPSS is a well-known and widely used software program used by

marketing research professionals to conduct and analyze research data.

Reporting:

       The results of our surveys will be analyzed and conveyed in a detailed report at the end of

Fall semester 2008. This report will contain comprehensive analysis of the results as well as

recommendations to improve the Library References Services‟ image and processes.
                                                                                                   24


   ii. Appendix B: Industry Report (and references)

                                          Background

       The PLU Library has flexible hours for students. It opens from 7:30 AM to midnight

from Monday through Thursday, 7:30 to 8PM on Friday, 10AM to 8PM on Saturday, and 10AM

to midnight on Sunday.       Besides regular hours, librarians (not local) can assist students‟

questions by chat 24/7, phone, and email. They will respond to emails within 24 hours, Monday

through Friday. Besides assisting students by technology communication, librarians can also

assist students in person.

       The Library Reference Desk is opened at 9AM to 8pm from Monday through Thursday

and 9AM to 4PM on Friday; however, students do not usually use reference service. It is

particularly difficult to locate a reference librarian as there are no clearly marked signs and is far

behind a larger and general “help” desk. Many times, student use the library‟s front desk to ask

questions, but are unable to receive an appropriate answer, as work study students at the front

desk cannot provide answers for professional field of research. The most inconvenient part of

Reference Services is its location and communication. Reference librarians can helps students in

research for their project; however, they are hardly visible to the student. While the most helpful

resource is invisible in the students‟ mind, the front desk is known and visible to students. The

front desk is set up to check out books, DVDs, CDs, and use course reserve. The front desk is

not supposed to be used to help students in answering questions or research information.

       Some of the library staff is very helpful and friendly, while some are not helpful and cold.

In the front section of the library, the staff is usually work study students, while most reference

librarians are in the back offices and behind many book shelves. The library also has an
                                                                                                   25


impressive collection with “260,000 volumes of books, 23,000 text journals, 9,500 e-books, and

100 electronic databases.” (PLU Library, 2008)


                                     Mission and Policies

       PLU library‟s mission is to provide access to information resources in order to help in the

student‟s pursuit of knowledge. It also wants to provide quality customer services, “maintain a

quality library collection, leadership in the use of information technology on campus, and

promote diversity and freedom of inquiry and expression.” (PLU Library Website, 2008).

       Every student needs to have a Lute card or student ID to borrow books, articles, DVDs,

or CDs. For the first time using a Lute card in the library, library staff will stick a barcode on the

back of the card. If you want to check out one of those items, but you cannot check out at the

time, library staff will put the book on hold.

                                          Technology

       Some computers in the library have advanced software for students such as SPSS

Advanced Module software for marketing and research, Multicare Fastrack for nursing, and

Dragon Natural Speaking. All computers have Microsoft office, DVD burners and players. If

students do not wish to use library computers, they are able to use wireless Internet Access with

their own laptops. Students can also print their photos or documents in black and white or color

with their Lute card. Reference librarians are able to provide vast online resources for each

particular major, several books and articles, and statistics, with no charge. Students can access

resources both on and off campus.


                                  PLU Library Comparison
       In the following section, we examine the comparison of other universities‟ websites, both

private and public, compared to that of PLU‟s library reference website.
                                                                                                    26


Gonzaga University
       Gonzaga‟s library website is very user-friendly. The homepage is cleanly laid out and

made searching the website easier. One important aspect to examine is the blog topic at the top

of the website. This is a great feature that the PLU library should possibly adopt. It is a great

way for students to post their questions and comments about particular issues in the library or

how to use certain research tools. Gonzaga‟s library website is functional and easily usable to

college students. Also, its research capabilities are quite extensive because of its wide degree of

programs and its prestigious graduate school. Based on using the website, we found Gonzaga‟s

website usability to be much higher than the usability of PLU‟s library website.

University of Puget Sound

       University of Puget Sound‟s website was quite similar to the design of PLU‟s library‟s

website. The homepage wasn‟t very user-friendly and they did not have a 24 hour chat hotline

with a librarian, which is an important element of the library website. The research link was easy

to find and under that link it showcased all the different subjects to research based on their

degree programs. The overall design of the website was clear, clean and easy to read. The

usability was reasonable; however, Gonzaga‟s website was noticeably more clear and functional

than PLU‟s and UPS‟ library websites.

Harvard University

       The layout of Harvard University‟s library website is clear and concise. Content is

understandable and topic links are located at the bottom of the screen. Important links to notice

include the “My Research” link where students can customize their own website space that is

tailored to their needs, “Citation Linker” that helps with formatting citations, and basic links that

showcase the location, hours, and FAQ for users. Though the presentation of the website is not

very ostentatious, Harvard‟s library website is simple and the content is easy to find.
                                                                                                   27


       Based on Nielsen and Tahir‟s criteria about homepage design, their research found that

library website design is comparable, but sometimes distinctly different, than business websites.

They conducted a statistical analysis and revealed that business websites were different from

library websites on four levels: the ability to search the website, the use of the search box, use of

animation, and link colors on the website. Library websites seem to use a search link instead of

search boxes on their homepages. Also library websites frequently use different color changes in

the links after the link has been clicked. Also library websites have the fastest download time

when doing research and using the website in general. The originality and value of the academic

library websites should seek the usability of college students according to the Nielsen and

Tahir‟s criteria, as this helps the design elements of the website. This provides an effective

framework for libraries when designing or re-designing their websites.

       Overall, the research of academic websites and the criteria used to design websites was

quite interesting. The criteria are highly based on usability because of the technology-based

world most college students live in. The higher the usability of the website, the more students

can do research at a quicker rate.

                                                Marketing

       When discussing the topic of marketing, a library is one of the last businesses that come

to mind. The truth is, in today‟s world libraries have a very low quality image. Not many people

see libraries as the source for today‟s latest information. They have a very traditional image in

today‟s new age technological world. Because of this, libraries have a very difficult time

marketing themselves.

       There is an “unspoken myth” that libraries often carry and that is that they do not need to

market or promote their business because everyone is already aware of the importance of them.
                                                                                                 28


The library is supposed to be the assumed place to go for information, research and all other

services that it provides. For this reason, libraries often just sit and wait for the consumer to

come to them; therefore marketing gets cut out of the picture all together.

         The obvious problem with marketing libraries is the lack of funding. There is not much

money allotted to libraries in general, let alone for marketing. Many times, university libraries

compete against extracurricular programs including sports, the arts, and educational services

(Spalding, Wang, 2003). Other corporations and businesses have separate marking departments,

while libraries often times do not have a single staff member that is dedicated to marketing.

Another problem that arises by not having enough financial resources coming in is that a large

part of library marketing is also improving the customer‟s experience during their visit. Proper

training of staff, customer service, upgraded interiors and technology all cost money.

         A huge problem in library marketing is the fact that they have such a wide range of

products to market.      A library contains anything from research books, magazines, videos,

children‟s books to internet access. It is hard to have a large marketing campaign when you have

so many products to offer. Along with a wide range of products, they also have a very wide

range of customers. Many different types of people go to libraries for different reasons, whether

it is college students, children, seniors or business people. Often times target marketing is a very

effective way to get customers to walk through your doors. A library would have to have

multiple target marketing campaigns running in order to reach their consumer (Spalding, Wang,

2003).

         The last critical factor in library marketing problems is that the products that they offer

are free. It takes proper training and a lot of educating the consumer to bring value to the
                                                                                                29


library‟s products.   As a business, a library needs to create value for its resources.       This

inevitably leads to needed improvements in order to do so.

                         Trends for Library Reference Services

       As many already know, the internet and technology have consumed the lives of the 21 st

Century people. This has not skipped the current generation of library users. Librarians continue

to physically answer less reference questions while an exceedingly increasing number of people

use the internet to conduct research. But a new challenge for libraries and its reference and

research services are not only technology but “understanding end-user behaviors in context

(Abram, 2008).” To understand the end-user, one needs to learn everything “from usability

through personas and from hit analyses to ethnographic and behavioral studies -- focus on

workplace needs, scholarly behavior, learning styles, and entertainment and demonstrate a

material shift in the library user firmament (Abram, 2008).” For long-term survival and success,

libraries “need to understand, and understand deeply, the role of the library in our end-users'

lives, work, research, and play (Abram, 2008).”

                                        Online Trends

       Retail operations such as Amazon are a prime example of how a company has learned

very quickly that people behave differently online than they do in physical stores. Just as website

user operate differently than physical store users, “online learning is different than in physical

classrooms; and online communication, in all its formats, is different than simple telephone or in-

person conversations (Abram, 2008).” One recommendation for online reference services is to

“introduce complementary in-person and virtual contact… (Since librarians) have to be

everywhere they are, since that's the user expectation, and adapt to the tools that match their
                                                                                                 30


needs (Abram, 2008).” Tools to introduce this through can include Instant Messaging, texting,

smartphones, and social networks including Facebook.com and MySpace.

       At the 2008 ALA, new online reference product tools were the highlight of the

conference. The following products drew much attention (Roncevic, 2008):

      EbscoHost 2.0: The new interface is simple yet intuitive

      Global Issues in Context: Not solely a database on current issues, but a social network

      Oxford Language Dictionaries Online: This language site now showcases translations in

       Oxford French, German, Spanish, Italian, and soon Chinese, along with many other new

       features

      CQ Congress Online: Vast source for statistics and analysis on the U.S. Congress

      Pop Culture Universe: An enormous tool on the world of popular culture.

      World Vital Records.com: WVR.com provides over a billion genealogy records

      Salem Press: Having a reputable and extensive history, Salem Health and Salem History

       both are online and on paper

      Marquis Who‟s Who on the Web: Currently the most comprehensive biographical

       database online, complete with almost 1.4 million biographies

      Credo Reference: An integration of online reference material from 61 publishers now has

       a more sleek design and exceedingly selective content.

                                      Student Assistants

       A growing trend for library reference services is to employ student workers to assist other

students in properly locating information either physically or online. This is both cost-effective

and generates an increase in helpful staff. Though training may take up valuable time through

“one-shot instruction session,” that is not very effective for student workers, another approach is
                                                                                                                        31


to give out periodic worksheets that pertain to using key databases (Zamnostny, 2008). This

proves to be an effective way for student workers to learn how to efficiently and effectively use

research databases so that they can properly teach other students.

                                PLU Library Reference Services Queries

        The following data was collected by library reference service assistants at PLU. Every

time a customer (student, staff, etc.) interacted with the available reference assistant, a tally was

collected. This data enables us to locate trends of questions that are frequently asked and the time

of day that most interactions take place.

TOTALS for                                 ALL TYPES OF QUERIES AT THE REFERENCE
2007-2008                                  DESK                                                                              2007/08

        7:30-            9-    10-   11-   12-                                                            9-    10-   11-
TIME      8       8-9    10    11    12     1      1-2     2-3   3-4   4-5   5-6     6-7    7-8    8-9    10    11    12     TOTALS
JUN         1        5     9    14    17    25      30      26    17    33    17       7      9      6      7                    223
JUL         4       22    21    29    19    24      33      30    13    28    30      11     35     10     13            1       323
AUG         8       23    28    24    39    29      66      51    45    33     7       3     14     10      9    1               390
SEP         6       13    29    69    68    92     114     108    98    67    66      67     36     30     14   15       2       894
OCT         2       15    36    54    62    77      91     107    98    47    49      53     37     27     16    9       5       787
NOV         2       10    12    85    67   100      80      71    80    74    22      44     29     36     15   11       4       742
DEC         0        2    12    28    46    28      33      47    19    28    27      29     15     12      9    6       1       344
JAN         6       11    17    26    34    20      44      48    36    31    25      11      6      6      7                    328
FEB         1        5    17    42    17    35      47      43    49    58    40      18     15     16      3     9      2       417
MAR         0        6     5    29    17    26      52      42    49    48    35      26     26     15     10     4      2       392
APR         3        4    12    37    34    11      55      38    72    59    50      47     49     21     11     9      4       516
MAY         0        4    15    22    29    29      61      57    56    28    22      27     27     11     10     3      1       402
                                                                                                                                5758
TOTAL        33    120   213   459   449   496     706     668   632   534   390     343    298    200   124    67      22      5758
% of
total   0.6%      2.1%   4%    8%    8%    9%      12%     12%   11%   9%    7%       6%    5%     3%     2%    1%    0.4%




        The previous table showcases the months and times that interactions have taken place.

The data shows that highest time of day where most interactions take place is between 1-4pm

(35%). The month of September has the highest amount of interactions (894).



                                                 EMAIL REFERENCE                   (Also counted by type of

2007-2008                                        QUERIES                           query)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       32

                                   7:30-                                    11-                                                                                                              10-        11-

                                    8        8-9       9-10       10-11     12        12-1       1-2       2-3        3-4       4-5        5-6       6-7        7-8       8-9       9-10      11        12        TOTALS

                summer                   1        6      2              1     1             3      3         2         0              1         0     0          0            0          0                            20

                Fall                     0        8      6              6    11             1      7         4         1              3         2     2          0            0          0         0        0         51

                J-Term                   0        1      1              0     1             0      0         1         1              0         0     0          0            0          0                             5

                Spring                   0        5      4              4     3             2      4         3         3              5         0     2          0            0          0         0        0         35

                Total                    1     20       13          11       16             6     14        10         5              9         2     4          0            0          0         0        0        111

                % of All

                Types                3%      17%        6%          2%      4%         1%        2%        1%         1%        2%         1%        1%         0%        0%            0%    0%        0%         1.93%




                                  This table above showcases the amount of emailed reference questions and interactions

                taken place throughout each semester. Most emails are received between 8-9am (17%). Fall

                semester is the period where most reference emails take place (51).


2007-2008                                              VIRTUAL (Librarian Live/Ask a Librarian chat)                                      (Also counted by type of query)

           7:30-                                                                                                                                                                             10-

            8           8-9         9-10     10-11     11-12       12-1     1-2        2-3       3-4        4-5             5-6            6-7        7-8         8-9             9-10       11        11-12      TOTALS

summer          0             1      1        2          0          1        3          3         4          9              4               1         0               0             2         1               1       33

Fall            1             1          2         4          1         2         5          6     18            15               9              6          8         10                 6    11              4      112

J-Term          0             0          0         1          1         1         1          0         5          2               2              0          1             0              1        0           0       15

Spring          1             3          3         4          2         6         6          8     30            31          13                  7          4             6              6        5           3      138

Total           2             5          6     11             4      10       15        17         57            57          28             14         13             16                15    17              8      298


% of All

Types      6.1%        4.2%        2.8%      2.4%      0.9%       2.0%      2.1%      2.5%       9.0%      10.7%        7.2%              4.1%       4.4%        8.0%             12.1%      25%       36.4%        5.2%




                                  The third and final table showcases the amount of questions asked through a virtual

                librarian. This service is available through PLU‟s website. Most questions are asked in the

                Spring semester (138), followed closely by the amount of questions asked in Fall (112). Peak

                hours that questions are asked are between 3-5pm (19.7%).
                                                                                             33


                                          References

Abram, S. (2008). Evolution to Revolution to Chaos? Searcher, 16, 42-48. (AN 34172355).

       Retrieved from ProQuest on October 9, 2008.

E-Reference Ratings. (2008). Library Journal, 133, 97. (AN 34581743). Retrieved from

       ProQuest on October 9, 2008.

Nielsen, J., & Tahir, M. (2002). Homepage usability: 50 websites deconstructed. [Indianapolis,

       IN]: New Riders.

PLU Library. (2008). Vision. Retrieved October 12, 2008 from

         http://www.plu.edu/~libr/about-library/vision.html

PLU Library. (2008). Library Statistics. Retrieved October 12, 2008 from

       http://www.plu.edu/~libr/about-library/library-statistics.html

Roncevic, M. (2008). E-Reference Comes of Age. Library Journal, 13, 116. (AN 33921288).

       Retrieved from ProQuest on October 9, 2008.

Spalding, H., Wang, J. (2003). Marketing Academic Libraries in USA: Challenges and

       Opportunities. Research Paper. Retrieved on October 10, 2008 from

       http://white-clouds.com/iclc/cliej/cl22SpaldingWang.htm

Zamostny, J. (2008). Sheep in Wolves' Clothing. Library Journal,133, 92. (AN 32664084).

       Retrieved from ProQuest on October 9, 2008.
                                                                                                34


   iii. Appendix C:

   (C1) Library and Campus Survey

Library Reference Services
This survey is conducted as a class project by undergraduate students. The results will assist the
Library Reference Services Department at the Pacific Lutheran University to make necessary
improvements to its services.

   A. Library Location

1. The following diagram is representative of the PLU Library (1st floor only). Please draw a
   star in the location of the Library References Services Booth:




2. If you are looking for a reference article for an essay, which of the following would you
   prefer? (check all that apply)

_____ ask a Librarian for help
_____ ask a friend
_____ask a professor
_____search online
_____Other (Specify) ___________________

3. On average, what time(s) of the day do you typically study? (check all that apply)

_____Morning (7am-10am)
_____Midday (11am-3pm)
_____Evening (4pm-12pm)
_____Night (1pm-6am)
                                                                                               35


4. If you are studying for a test by yourself, where do you study? (check all that apply)
_____Dorm/Home
_____A Local Coffee house / restaurant
_____Morken Center (School of Business/Computer Sciences)
_____Other (Specify)____________________

5. If you are working on a project with a group, where do you study? (check all that apply)
_____Dorm/Home
_____A Local Coffee house / restaurant
_____Morken Center (School of Business/Computer Sciences)
_____Other (specify)____________________

6. In what ways should a librarian help students? (Open-ended)
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

   B. PLU Library Website
7. In the last month, how many times have you used the PLU Library Website (circle one)?
0-3 times      4-10 times       11 or more times

8. Please rate your satisfaction with PLU‟s Library Website:
   (1=Very Unsatisfied, 5=Very Satisfied)

Clarity of Layout:     1 2 3 4 5 (circle one)                         10. You are a(n) (check only one):
Research Capabilities: 1 2 3 4 5 (circle one)
                                                                      _____Undergraduate student
Ease of finding what you need: 1 2 3 4 5 (circle one)
                                                                            If so, what year? (circle
                                                                      one)
9. What do you do when you have an online question?                         Freshman Sophomore
   _____Email Librarian                                                     Junior Senior or above
   _____Use Librarian 24/7 Online Assistance Feature                  _____Graduate student
   _____Ask a friend                                                  _____Other
   _____Ask a Librarian                                               (specify)______________
   _____Ask a Professor
   _____Continue searching online                                     11. What is your area of study?
   _____Other (specify)______________________________
                                                                      ____________________________
                                                                      ___
                                                                                                 36


(C2) Online Survey

Pacific Lutheran University
Exit this survey

1. Library Reference Services Survey

This survey is conducted as a class project by undergraduate students. The results will assist the
Library Reference Services Department at the Pacific Lutheran University to make necessary
improvements to its services.




1. The diagram above is representative of the PLU Library (1st floor only). If
you wanted to get help from a Reference Librarian, where would you go?
Please identify the area of the library by the corresponding colored star.

          The diagram above is representative of the PLU Library (1st floor only). If you wanted
to get help from a Reference Librarian, where would you go? Please identify the area of the
library by the corresponding colored star. Green

         Red

         Blue

         Yellow
                                                                                  37


2. If you are looking for an article for an essay you’re writing, how likely would
you be to:
                   Very Unlikely
                                        2           3          4       Very Likely 5
                         1
Ask a Librarian         Very                                                   Very
for help            Unlikely 1              2           3          4
                                                                         Likely 5

Ask a friend             Very                                                  Very
                    Unlikely 1              2           3          4
                                                                         Likely 5

Ask a professor          Very                                                  Very
                    Unlikely 1              2           3          4
                                                                         Likely 5
Search online
@PLU Library             Very                                                  Very
                    Unlikely 1              2           3          4
Website                                                                  Likely 5
Search online            Very                                                  Very
(other websites)    Unlikely 1              2           3          4
                                                                         Likely 5

3. On average, what time(s) of the day do you typically study? (check all that
apply)

         Morning (7am-11am)

        Midday (11am-4pm)

        Evening (4pm-8pm)

        Late Evening (8pm-12am)

        Night (12am-7am)

4. If you are studying for a test by yourself, where are you most likely to study?
(check all that apply)

         Dorm/Home

        A Local Coffee house / restaurant

        Morken Center (School of Business/Computer Sciences)

        Library

        Other (specify)
                                                                                    38


5. If you are working on a project with a group, where do you study? (check all
that apply)
        Dorm/Home

        A Local Coffee house / restaurant

        Morken Center (School of Business/Computer Sciences)

        Library

        Other (specify)


6. How could a librarian help you as a student? (Open-ended)




7. In the last month, how many times have you used the PLU Library Website
(circle one)?

         0-3 times

        4-10 times

        11 or more times

8. What do you visit the PLU Library Website for? (open-ended)




9. Please rate your satisfaction with PLU’s Library Website:


Clarity of Layout:         Very                                        Very
                     Unsatisfied 1      2      3        4      Satisfied 5    N/A
Research                   Very                                        Very
Capabilities:        Unsatisfied 1      2      3        4                     N/A
                                                               Satisfied 5
Ease of finding            Very                                        Very
what you need:       Unsatisfied 1      2      3        4                     N/A
                                                               Satisfied 5
                                                                       39


10. What do you do if you have a question regarding online research?

       Email Librarian

       Use “Ask a Librarian” Online Assistance Feature

       Ask a friend

       Visit a Librarian in the library

       Ask a Professor

       Call a Librarian

       Continue searching online

       Other (specify)


11. You are a(n):

       Undergraduate student - Freshman

       Undergraduate student - Sophomore

       Undergraduate student - Junior

       Undergraduate student - Senior

       Graduate student

       Other (specify)


12. What is your area of study?
                                                                                                  40


iv. Appendix D: Key Findings (Statistics)

A. Frequencies

                      Are a of Librar y the y think is Refe re nce Services

                                                                                    Cumulativ e
                                      Frequenc y     Percent     Valid Percent       Percent
     Valid      Ref erence Serv ic es        81          62.8             66.4            66.4
                Front Des k                  35          27.1             28.7            95.1
                both                          5           3.9              4.1            99.2
                Southeas t Corner             1            .8               .8           100.0
                Total                       122          94.6           100.0
     Mis sing   System                        7           5.4
     Total                                  129         100.0

                   Whe n looking for article, how lik e ly to as k a librarian?

                                                                                 Cumulativ e
                                  Frequenc y       Percent    Valid Percent       Percent
        Valid       Very Unlikely        27            20.9            21.1            21.1
                    2                    29            22.5            22.7            43.8
                    3                    34            26.4            26.6            70.3
                    4                    18            14.0            14.1            84.4
                    Very Likely          20            15.5            15.6           100.0
                    Total               128            99.2          100.0
        Mis sing    System                1              .8
        Total                           129           100.0

                    Whe n looking for article, how lik e ly to as k a frie nd?

                                                                                 Cumulativ e
                                  Frequenc y       Percent    Valid Percent       Percent
        Valid       Very Unlikely        12             9.3             9.4              9.4
                    2                    30            23.3            23.4            32.8
                    3                    30            23.3            23.4            56.3
                    4                    38            29.5            29.7            85.9
                    Very Likely          18            14.0            14.1           100.0
                    Total               128            99.2          100.0
        Mis sing    System                1              .8
        Total                           129           100.0
                                                                                    41


           Whe n looking for article, how lik e ly to as k a profe s sor?

                                                                      Cumulativ e
                           Frequenc y     Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid        Very Unlikely        16          12.4            12.5          12.5
             2                    18          14.0            14.1          26.6
             3                    30          23.3            23.4          50.0
             4                    49          38.0            38.3          88.3
             Very Likely          15          11.6            11.7         100.0
             Total               128          99.2          100.0
Mis sing     System                1            .8
Total                            129         100.0

   Whe n looking for article, how lik e ly to us e PLU Librar y We bs ite ?

                                                                      Cumulativ e
                           Frequenc y     Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid        Very Unlikely         4           3.1             3.1            3.1
             2                     8           6.2             6.3            9.4
             3                    15          11.6            11.8          21.3
             4                    21          16.3            16.5          37.8
             Very Likely          79          61.2            62.2         100.0
             Total               127          98.4          100.0
Mis sing     System                2           1.6
Total                            129         100.0

Whe n looking for article, how lik e ly to se ar ch online (othe r w ebs ite s)?

                                                                      Cumulativ e
                           Frequenc y     Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid        Very Unlikely         3           2.3             2.4            2.4
             2                     7           5.4             5.5            7.9
             3                    13          10.1            10.2          18.1
             4                    32          24.8            25.2          43.3
             Very Likely          72          55.8            56.7         100.0
             Total               127          98.4          100.0
Mis sing     System                2           1.6
Total                            129         100.0

        On ave rage, w hat tim e of day do you typically s tudy?Morning
                                   (7am -11am )

                                                                  Cumulativ e
                       Frequenc y    Percent     V alid Percent    Percent
    V alid     Y es           30         23.3              23.3         23.3
               No             99         76.7              76.7        100.0
               Total         129        100.0            100.0
                                                                              42


      On ave rage, w hat tim e of day do you typically s tudy?Midday
                                (11am -4pm )

                                                             Cumulativ e
                    Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
    Valid   Yes            42        32.6            32.6          32.6
            No             87        67.4            67.4         100.0
            Total         129       100.0          100.0


On ave rage, w hat tim e of day do you typically s tudy?Evening (4pm -8pm )

                                                             Cumulativ e
                    Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
    Valid   Yes            75        58.1            58.1          58.1
            No             54        41.9            41.9         100.0
            Total         129       100.0          100.0

   On ave rage, w hat tim e of day do you typically s tudy?Late Eve ning
                                (8pm -12am )

                                                             Cumulativ e
                    Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
    Valid   Yes            99        76.7            76.7          76.7
            No             30        23.3            23.3         100.0
            Total         129       100.0          100.0


On ave rage, w hat tim e of day do you typically s tudy?Night (12am -7am )

                                                             Cumulativ e
                    Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
    Valid   Yes            30        23.3            23.3          23.3
            No             99        76.7            76.7         100.0
            Total         129       100.0          100.0


                      Study for Tes t - Dor m /Hom e

                                                             Cumulativ e
                    Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
    Valid   Yes           105        81.4            81.4          81.4
            No             24        18.6            18.6         100.0
            Total         129       100.0          100.0


            Study for Tes t - Local Coffee House / re s taur ant

                                                             Cumulativ e
                    Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
    Valid   Yes            26        20.2            20.2          20.2
            No            103        79.8            79.8         100.0
            Total         129       100.0          100.0
                                                                         43


                   Study for Tes t - M ork e n Center

                                                           Cumulativ e
                  Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid   Yes              26        20.2            20.2          20.2
        No              103        79.8            79.8         100.0
        Total           129       100.0          100.0


                       Study for Tes t - Library

                                                           Cumulativ e
                  Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid   Yes              73        56.6            56.6          56.6
        No               56        43.4            43.4         100.0
        Total           129       100.0          100.0


                        Study for Tes t - Other

                                                           Cumulativ e
                  Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid   Yes               8         6.2             6.2            6.2
        No              121        93.8            93.8         100.0
        Total           129       100.0          100.0


           Study for Proje ct w ith Group - Dor m /Hom e

                                                           Cumulativ e
                  Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid   Yes              28        21.7            21.7          21.7
        No              101        78.3            78.3         100.0
        Total           129       100.0          100.0

   Study for Proje ct w ith Group - Coffe e Hous e / Re staurant

                                                           Cumulativ e
                  Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid   Yes              28        21.7            21.7          21.7
        No              101        78.3            78.3         100.0
        Total           129       100.0          100.0

                Study for Proje ct w ith Group - Mork en

                                                           Cumulativ e
                  Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
Valid   Yes              62        48.1            48.1          48.1
        No               67        51.9            51.9         100.0
        Total           129       100.0          100.0
                                                                                                         44


                                    Study for Proje ct w ith Group - Library

                                                                                Cumulativ e
                                      Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent      Percent
                    Valid   Yes              94        72.9            72.9           72.9
                            No               35        27.1            27.1          100.0
                            Total           129       100.0          100.0

                                    Study for Proje ct w ith Group - Other

                                                                                Cumulativ e
                                      Frequenc y   Percent    Valid Percent      Percent
                    Valid   Yes               9         7.0             7.0             7.0
                            No              120        93.0            93.0          100.0
                            Total           129       100.0          100.0

In las t m onth, how often m any tim e s did you us e the PLU Library We bsite?

                                                                                           Cumulativ e
                                    Frequenc y       Percent          V alid Percent        Percent
   V alid      0-3 Times                   54            41.9                   41.9             41.9
               4-10 Times                  40            31.0                   31.0             72.9
               11 or more                  35            27.1                   27.1            100.0
               Total                      129           100.0                 100.0

                                               Clarity of Layout

                                                                                       Cumulativ e
                                           Frequenc y    Percent      Valid Percent     Percent
            Valid       Very Uns atisf ied         3          2.3               2.6            2.6
                        2                         12          9.3              10.4          13.0
                        3                         42         32.6              36.5          49.6
                        4                         45         34.9              39.1          88.7
                        Very Satis f ied          13         10.1              11.3         100.0
                        Total                    115         89.1            100.0
            Mis sing    System                    14         10.9
            Total                                129        100.0

                                            Res earch Capabilitie s

                                                                                       Cumulativ e
                                           Frequenc y    Percent      Valid Percent     Percent
            Valid       Very Uns atisf ied         1           .8                .9              .9
                        2                         11          8.5               9.4          10.3
                        3                         36         27.9              30.8          41.0
                        4                         45         34.9              38.5          79.5
                        Very Satis f ied          24         18.6              20.5         100.0
                        Total                    117         90.7            100.0
            Mis sing    System                    12          9.3
            Total                                129        100.0
                                                                                                           45


                                              Ease of finding what you need

                                                                                          Cumulative
                                                Frequency    Percent      Valid Percent    Percent
               Valid
                           Very Unsatisfied            2          1.6              1.6           2.5
                           2                          18         14.0             14.8          17.2
                           3                          49         38.0             40.2          57.4
                           4                          36         27.9             29.5          86.9
                           Very Satisfied             16         12.4             13.1         100.0
                           Total                     122         94.6            100.0
               Missing     System                      8          5.4
               Total                                 129        100.0


 Wh at d o yo u d o if you have a q u es tio n re g ard in g o n lin e re se arch? Em ail
                                     L ib rar ian

                                                                                           Cumulativ e
                                   Frequenc y        Percent           V alid Percent       Percent
       V alid          Y es                7              5.4                     5.4              5.4
                       No                122             94.6                    94.6           100.0
                       Total             129            100.0                  100.0


 Wh at d o yo u d o if you have a q u es tio n re g ard in g o n lin e re se arch? Us e
                            Ask a Lib rarian Fe atu re

                                                                                           Cumulativ e
                                   Frequenc y        Percent           V alid Percent       Percent
      V alid           Y es               19             14.7                    14.7            14.7
                       No                110             85.3                    85.3           100.0
                       Total             129            100.0                  100.0


Wh at d o yo u d o if you have a q u es tio n re g ard in g o n lin e re se arch? Ask a
                                      frien d

                                                                                            Cumulativ e
                               Frequenc y            Percent           V alid Percent        Percent
     V alid        Y es               77                 59.7                    59.7             59.7
                   No                 52                 40.3                    40.3            100.0
                   Total             129                100.0                  100.0


Wh at d o yo u d o if you have a q u es tio n r e g ar d in g o n lin e r e se ar ch? V is it
                              L ib r ar ian in L ib r ar y

                                                                                             Cumulativ e
                               Frequenc y            Percent            V alid Percent        Percent
     V alid        Y es               48                 37.2                     37.2             37.2
                   No                 81                 62.8                     62.8            100.0
                   Total             129                100.0                   100.0
                                                                                              46


What do you do if you have a ques tion re garding online re se archAs k a
                              profe s sor

                                                                                Cumulativ e
                           Frequenc y      Percent         V alid Percent        Percent
    V alid      yes               57           44.2                  44.2             44.2
                no                72           55.8                  55.8            100.0
                Total            129          100.0                100.0

What do you do if you have a ques tion re garding online re se arch? Call
                               Librar y

                                                                                Cumulativ e
                           Frequenc y      Percent         V alid Percent        Percent
   V alid       Y es               6            4.7                   4.7               4.7
                No               123           95.3                  95.3            100.0
                Total            129          100.0                100.0


       What do you do if you have a ques tion re garding online re se arch?
                           Continue Searching Online

                                                                             Cumulativ e
                             Frequenc y      Percent    V alid Percent        Percent
         V alid    Y es             90           69.8             69.8             69.8
                   No               39           30.2             30.2            100.0
                   Total           129          100.0           100.0

    What do you do if you have a ques tion re garding online re se arch? Othe r

                                                                             Cumulativ e
                             Frequenc y      Percent    Valid Percent         Percent
         Valid     Yes               7            5.4             5.4                5.4
                   No              122           94.6            94.6             100.0
                   Total           129          100.0          100.0


                                          You are an:

                                                                                Cumulativ e
                                Frequenc y      Percent      Valid Percent       Percent
     Valid        Freshman             11            8.5               8.6              8.6
                  Sophoore             17           13.2              13.3            21.9
                  Junior               43           33.3              33.6            55.5
                  Senior               55           42.6              43.0            98.4
                  Graduate              2            1.6               1.6           100.0
                  Total               128           99.2            100.0
     Mis sing     System                1             .8
     Total                            129          100.0


                                          Area of Study
                                                                                                                 47


                                                                                   Cumulative
                                 Frequency      Percent       Valid Percent         Percent
 Valid    Biology/Chemistry            8             6.2             6.2              6.2
              Business                51          39.5               39.5             45.7
         Comm/Journ/Adver             14          10.9               10.9             56.6
              Education                7             5.4             5.4              62.0
               English                 5             3.9             3.9              65.9
               Nursing                 7             5.4             5.4              71.3
          Music Education              3             2.3             2.3              73.6
             Psychology                4             3.1             3.1              76.7
             Undecided                 5             3.9             3.9              80.6
                Other                 17          13.2               13.2             93.8
               Missing                 8             6.2             6.2             100.0
                Total                 129        100.0            100.0




                                            Where survey was collected

                                                                              Cumulative
                              Frequency      Percent       Valid Percent       Percent
 Valid       Library              45          34.9              34.9            34.9
         Upper Campus            26            20.2            20.2                55.0
         Lower Campus            27            20.9            20.9                76.0
              Online             31            24.0            24.0             100.0
              Total             129           100.0           100.0




   B. Crosstabs

Crosstabs

                                      Cas e Proces s ing Sum m ary

                                                              Cases
                                      Valid                   Mis sing                            Total
                                N          Percent          N        Percent                N          Percent
  Area of Library they
  think is Ref erenc e
                                    122      94.6%               7          5.4%                129    100.0%
  Services * Where
  survey w as c ollec ted
                                                                                                                            48


Are a of Librar y the y think is Refe re nce Services * Whe re s urve y w as colle cte d Cross tabulation

                                                                                       Where survey w as
                                                                                             collected
                                                                                                     Upper
                                                                                       Library      Campus               Total
A rea of Library they think Ref erence Serv ic es Count                                      33          53                   86
is Reference Services                             % w ithin Where
                                                                                           76.7%            67.1%         70.5%
                                                  survey w as c ollec ted
                            Front Des k           Count                                        10              26            36
                                                  % w ithin Where
                                                                                           23.3%            32.9%         29.5%
                                                  survey w as c ollec ted
Total                                             Count                                        43              79           122
                                                  % w ithin Where
                                                                                          100.0%         100.0%          100.0%
                                                  survey w as c ollec ted


                                          Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                          A sy mp. Sig.    Ex ac t Sig.     Ex ac t Sig.
                                V alue          df         (2-s ided)      (2-s ided)       (1-s ided)
Pearson Chi-Square                1.248b             1            .264
                    a
Continuity Correction               .827             1            .363
Likelihood Ratio                  1.277              1            .258
Fisher's Exact Test                                                                .304              .182
Linear-by -Linear
                                  1.238              1              .266
A ss ociation
N of V alid Cas es                  122
   a. Computed only f or a 2x 2 table
   b. 0 cells (.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The minimum expected c ount is 12.
      69.



                             Study for Proje ct w ith Group - Mork en * You are an: Cros s tabulation

                                                                                 You are an:
                                                        Freshman    Sophomore       Junior          Senior    Graduate      Total
Study f or Projec t w ith Yes     Count                         1            5            23             32          0           61
Group - Morken                    % w ithin You are an:     9.1%        29.4%         53.5%          58.2%         .0%       47.7%
                        No        Count                        10           12            20             23          2           67
                                  % w ithin You are an:    90.9%        70.6%         46.5%          41.8%     100.0%        52.3%
Total                             Count                        11           17            43             55          2         128
                                  % w ithin You are an:   100.0%       100.0%       100.0%          100.0%     100.0%       100.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                            49


                                                                                   Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                        Value               df                   (2-s ided)
                                               Pearson Chi-Square                        13.677 a                     4                  .008
                                               Likelihood Ratio                          15.697                       4                  .003
                                               Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                           7.874                      1                     .005
                                               Ass ociation
                                               N of Valid Cases                              128
                                                      a. 2 cells (20.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The
                                                         minimum ex pec ted count is .95.



              What do you do if you have a question regarding online research?
                        Use Ask a Librarian Feature * Area of Study

                                                                                                 Crosstab

                                                                                                                   Area of Study
                                                        Biology/                      Comm/                                                 Music
                                                       Chemistry       Business    Journ/Adver Education    English        Nursing        Education Psychology Undecided    Other       Missing    Total
What do you do if   Yes     Count                                  0          8              1         2              1           0                0         2         1            3          1        19
you have a question         % w ithin Area of Study           .0%        15.7%           7.1%      28.6%      20.0%               .0%          .0%        50.0%    20.0%     17.6%        12.5%     14.7%
regarding online
research? Use Ask No        Count                                  8        43             13          5              4              7           3            2        4        14             7       110
a Librarian Feature         % w ithin Area of Study       100.0%         84.3%          92.9%      71.4%      80.0%            100.0%      100.0%         50.0%    80.0%     82.4%        87.5%     85.3%
Total                       Count                               8            51             14         7          5                  7           3           4          5        17           8        129
                            % w ithin Area of Study       100.0%        100.0%         100.0%    100.0%     100.0%             100.0%      100.0%      100.0%     100.0%    100.0%      100.0%     100.0%


                                                                              Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                     Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                      Value                   df                      (2-s ided)
                                       Pearson Chi-Square                               9.186a                            10                  .515
                                       Likelihood Ratio                                10.519                             10                  .396
                                       Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                            .449                           1                       .503
                                       Ass ociation
                                       N of Valid Cases                                      129
                                            a. 14 c ells (63.6%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                               minimum ex pec ted count is .44.

              What do you do if you have a question regarding online research?
                                 Ask a friend * Area of Study

                                                                                                 Crosstab

                                                                                                                      Area of Study
                                                        Biology/                      Comm/                                                Music
                                                        Chemistry       Business    Journ/Adver Education   English            Nursing    Education Psychology Undecided    Other       Missing    Total
What do you do if you Yes     Count                              7            27               9        4          0                  6           3          3         3          8            7        77
have a question               % within Area of Study         87.5%        52.9%           64.3%   57.1%         .0%             85.7%       100.0%      75.0%     60.0%      47.1%       87.5%      59.7%
regarding online       No     Count                              1            24               5        3          5                  1           0          1         2          9            1        52
research? Ask a friend
                              % within Area of Study         12.5%        47.1%           35.7%   42.9%     100.0%              14.3%          .0%      25.0%     40.0%      52.9%       12.5%      40.3%
Total                         Count                              8            51              14        7          5                  7           3          4         5         17            8      129
                              % within Area of Study        100.0%       100.0%          100.0%  100.0%     100.0%             100.0%       100.0%     100.0%    100.0%     100.0%      100.0%     100.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                          50


                                                                              Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                   Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                      Value                  df                     (2-s ided)
                                        Pearson Chi-Square                             19.167 a                       10                    .038
                                        Likelihood Ratio                               23.087                         10                    .010
                                        Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                            .229                          1                    .633
                                        Ass ociation
                                        N of Valid Cases                                     129
                                             a. 16 c ells (72.7%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                                minimum ex pec ted count is 1.21.

               What do you do if you have a question regarding online research?
                           Visit Librarian in Library * Area of Study

                                                                                                 Crosstab

                                                                                                                  Area of Study
                                                        Biology/                      Comm/                                               Music
                                                       Chemistry       Business    Journ/Adver Education    English       Nursing       Education Psychology Undecided    Other        Missing        Total
What do you do if    Yes     Count                                 3         15              3         5              3          4               2         3         3            6           1            48
you have a question          % w ithin Area of Study       37.5%         29.4%          21.4%      71.4%      60.0%            57.1%       66.7%      75.0%     60.0%      35.3%         12.5%         37.2%
regarding online
research? Visit      No      Count                                 5        36             11          2              2            3           1          1          2           11              7         81
Librarian in Library         % w ithin Area of Study       62.5%         70.6%          78.6%      28.6%      40.0%            42.9%       33.3%      25.0%     40.0%      64.7%         87.5%         62.8%
Total                        Count                              8            51             14         7          5                 7          3           4         5        17             8            129
                             % w ithin Area of Study      100.0%        100.0%         100.0%    100.0%     100.0%            100.0%     100.0%      100.0%    100.0%    100.0%        100.0%         100.0%


                                                                              Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                   Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                      Value                  df                     (2-s ided)
                                        Pearson Chi-Square                             15.418 a                       10                    .118
                                        Likelihood Ratio                               15.554                         10                    .113
                                        Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                            .456                          1                    .499
                                        Ass ociation
                                        N of Valid Cases                                     129
                                             a. 14 c ells (63.6%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                                minimum ex pec ted count is 1.12.

              What do you do if you have a question regarding online research ?
                               Ask a professor * Area of Study

                                                                                                 Crosstab

                                                                                                                Area of Study
                                                          Biology/                    Comm/                                   Music
                                                         Chemistry      Business    Journ/Adver Education English Nursing Education Psychology Undecided                 Other        Missing        Total
What do you do if you yes       Count                            4            19               5        3        2          4       0       3          4                       8             5            57
have a question                 % within Area of Study       50.0%        37.3%           35.7%   42.9%    40.0%       57.1%     .0%    75.0%     80.0%                   47.1%        62.5%          44.2%
regarding online        no      Count                            4            32               9        4        3          3       3       1          1                       9             3            72
researchAsk a professor
                                % within Area of Study       50.0%        62.7%           64.3%   57.1%    60.0%       42.9%  100.0%    25.0%     20.0%                   52.9%        37.5%          55.8%
Total                           Count                            8            51              14        7        5          7       3       4          5                      17             8          129
                                % within Area of Study      100.0%       100.0%         100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%           100.0%   100.0%    100.0%                  100.0%       100.0%         100.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                           51


                                                                             Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                    Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                     Value                    df                     (2-s ided)
                                       Pearson Chi-Square                              9.688a                          10                    .468
                                       Likelihood Ratio                               10.946                           10                    .362
                                       Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                         2.700                             1                     .100
                                       Ass ociation
                                       N of Valid Cases                                     129
                                            a. 16 c ells (72.7%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                               minimum ex pec ted count is 1.33.

What do you do if you have a question regarding online research? Call Library *
                                Area of Study

                                                                                                  Crosstab

                                                                                                                       Area of Study
                                                        Biology/                     Comm/                                                   Music
                                                       Chemistry       Business    Journ/Adver Education      English          Nursing     Education Psychology Undecided     Other      Missing     Total
What do you do if you Yes    Count                              1             3               0        0             0                0            0          0         1           1           0         6
have a question              % within Area of Study         12.5%         5.9%             .0%      .0%           .0%               .0%         .0%        .0%     20.0%        5.9%          .0%      4.7%
regarding online       No    Count                              7            48              14        7             5                7            3          4         4          16           8       123
research? Call Library
                             % within Area of Study         87.5%        94.1%          100.0% 100.0%         100.0%           100.0%        100.0%     100.0%     80.0%       94.1%     100.0%       95.3%
Total                        Count                              8            51              14        7             5                7            3          4         5          17           8       129
                             % within Area of Study        100.0%       100.0%          100.0% 100.0%         100.0%           100.0%        100.0%     100.0%    100.0%      100.0%     100.0%      100.0%


                                                                             Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                    Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                     Value                    df                     (2-s ided)
                                       Pearson Chi-Square                             6.341a                           10                    .786
                                       Likelihood Ratio                               7.075                            10                    .718
                                       Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                           .063                            1                     .802
                                       Ass ociation
                                       N of Valid Cases                                     129
                                            a. 15 c ells (68.2%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                               minimum ex pec ted count is .14.

    What do you do if you have a question regarding online research? Continue
                         Searching Online * Area of Study

                                                                                                 Crosstab

                                                                                                                   Area of Study
                                                       Biology/                      Comm/                                                  Music
                                                      Chemistry       Business    Journ/Adver   Education    English       Nursing        Education Psychology   Undecided   Other      Missing     Total
What do you do if   Yes     Count                                 7         37             12           4              3          4                3         2           2       10            6         90
you have a question         % w ithin Area of Study       87.5%         72.5%          85.7%       57.1%       60.0%            57.1%       100.0%      50.0%       40.0%     58.8%       75.0%      69.8%
regarding online
research? Continue No       Count                                 1        14               2          3               2            3            0          2           3          7          2         39
Searching Online            % w ithin Area of Study       12.5%         27.5%          14.3%       42.9%       40.0%            42.9%          .0%      50.0%       60.0%     41.2%       25.0%      30.2%
Total                       Count                              8            51             14          7           5                 7            3          4           5        17          8         129
                            % w ithin Area of Study      100.0%        100.0%         100.0%     100.0%      100.0%            100.0%       100.0%     100.0%      100.0%    100.0%     100.0%      100.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                               52


                                                                                Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                     Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                     Value                    df                      (2-s ided)
                                      Pearson Chi-Square                               9.562a                            10                   .480
                                      Likelihood Ratio                                10.493                             10                   .398
                                      Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                         2.431                            1                       .119
                                      Ass ociation
                                      N of Valid Cases                                         129
                                           a. 15 c ells (68.2%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                              minimum ex pec ted count is .91.

              What do you do if you have a question regarding online research?
                                   Other * Area of Study

                                                                                                Crosstab

                                                                                                                 Area of Study
                                                     Biology/                       Comm/                                               Music
                                                    Chemistry       Business     Journ/Adver Education     English       Nursing      Education Psychology Undecided       Other         Missing        Total
What do you do if   Yes   Count                              0              4               0        0           0              0              0         0         0             2              1             7
you have a question       % w ithin Area of Study         .0%           7.8%             .0%      .0%         .0%            .0%            .0%       .0%        .0%        11.8%          12.5%          5.4%
regarding online    No    Count                              8             47              14        7           5              7              3         4         5            15              7           122
research? Other
                          % w ithin Area of Study      100.0%         92.2%           100.0%   100.0%      100.0%         100.0%        100.0%     100.0%    100.0%         88.2%          87.5%         94.6%
Total                     Count                              8             51              14        7           5              7              3         4         5            17              8           129
                          % w ithin Area of Study      100.0%        100.0%           100.0%   100.0%      100.0%         100.0%        100.0%     100.0%    100.0%        100.0%        100.0%         100.0%


                                                                                Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                                                                                                     Asy mp. Sig.
                                                                                     Value                    df                      (2-s ided)
                                      Pearson Chi-Square                              5.732a                             10                   .837
                                      Likelihood Ratio                                8.022                              10                   .627
                                      Linear-by -Linear
                                                                                           .514                           1                       .474
                                      Ass ociation
                                      N of Valid Cases                                         129
                                           a. 15 c ells (68.2%) have expected c ount less than 5. The
                                              minimum ex pec ted count is .16.

              What do you do if you have a question regarding online research?
                               Email Librarian * Area of Study

                                                                                                Crosstab

                                                                                                                     Area of Study
                                                     Biology/                       Comm/                                                Music
                                                    Chemistry     Business       Journ/Adver Education     English        Nursing      Education Psychology Undecided       Other         Mis sing        Total
What do you do if Yes     Count                                 0        3                 0         1               0           0              0         0         1                2            0               7
you have a                % w ithin Area of Study          .0%          5.9%            .0%       14.3%         .0%           .0%           .0%          .0%    20.0%        11.8%             .0%          5.4%
question regarding
online research? No       Count                                 8         48             14           6              5           7            3            4           4           15               8           122
Email Libraria n          % w ithin Area of Study      100.0%          94.1%         100.0%       85.7%     100.0%         100.0%       100.0%      100.0%      80.0%        88.2%         100.0%          94.6%
Total                     Count                              8            51              14           7          5              7            3           4          5           17              8           129
                          % w ithin Area of Study      100.0%        100.0%          100.0%      100.0%     100.0%         100.0%       100.0%      100.0%     100.0%       100.0%         100.0%        100.0%
                                                                                                       53


Study for Test - Library * On average, what time of day do you typically study?
                              Morning (7am-11am)
                                             Cross tab

                                                            On av erage, w hat time
                                                            of day do y ou typically
                                                                study?Morning
                                                                  (7am-11am)
                                                               Y es          No           Total
      Study f or Test   Y es    Count                               21           52            73
      - Library                 % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                               70.0%         52.5%         56.6%
                                typically study ?Morning
                                (7am-11am)
                        No      Count                                9            47            56
                                % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                               30.0%         47.5%         43.4%
                                typically study ?Morning
                                (7am-11am)
      Total                     Count                               30            99           129
                                % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                              100.0%       100.0%         100.0%
                                typically study ?Morning
                                (7am-11am)


                                         Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                         A sy mp. Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.
                               V alue         df          (2-s ided)     (2-s ided)     (1-s ided)
      Pearson Chi-Square         2.862b            1             .091
                          a
      Continuity Correction      2.195             1             .138
      Likelihood Ratio           2.943             1             .086
      Fisher's Exact Test                                                      .098           .068
      Linear-by -Linear
                                 2.840             1             .092
      A ss ociation
      N of V alid Cas es           129
        a. Computed only f or a 2x 2 table
        b. 0 cells (.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The minimum expected c ount is 13.
           02.


Study for Test - Library * On average, what time of day do you typically study?
                               Midday (11am-4pm)
                                                                                                       54


                                             Cross tab

                                                            On av erage, w hat time
                                                            of day do y ou typically
                                                                study?Midday
                                                                 (11am-4pm)
                                                               Yes           No           Total
      Study f or Test   Yes     Count                              28            45            73
      - Library                 % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                               66.7%         51.7%         56.6%
                                typically study ?Midday
                                (11am-4pm)
                        No      Count                               14            42            56
                                % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                               33.3%         48.3%         43.4%
                                typically study ?Midday
                                (11am-4pm)
      Total                     Count                               42            87           129
                                % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                              100.0%       100.0%         100.0%
                                typically study ?Midday
                                (11am-4pm)


                                         Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                         A sy mp. Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.
                               V alue         df          (2-s ided)     (2-s ided)     (1-s ided)
      Pearson Chi-Square         2.575b            1             .109
                          a
      Continuity Correction      2.002             1             .157
      Likelihood Ratio           2.614             1             .106
      Fisher's Exact Test                                                      .131           .078
      Linear-by -Linear
                                 2.555             1             .110
      A ss ociation
      N of V alid Cas es           129
        a. Computed only f or a 2x 2 table
        b. 0 cells (.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The minimum expected c ount is 18.
           23.

Study for Test - Library * On average, what time of day do you typically study?
                               Evening (4pm-8pm)
                                                                                                        55


                                              Cross tab

                                                            On av erage, w hat time
                                                            of day do y ou typically
                                                                study?Evening
                                                                  (4pm-8pm)
                                                               Y es          No            Total
       Study f or Test   Y es    Count                              45           28             73
       - Library                 % w ithin On average,
                                 w hat time of day do you
                                                                60.0%        51.9%          56.6%
                                 typically study?Evening
                                 (4pm-8pm)
                         No      Count                              30            26            56
                                 % w ithin On average,
                                 w hat time of day do you
                                                                40.0%        48.1%          43.4%
                                 typically study?Evening
                                 (4pm-8pm)
       Total                     Count                              75            54           129
                                 % w ithin On average,
                                 w hat time of day do you
                                                               100.0%       100.0%        100.0%
                                 typically study?Evening
                                 (4pm-8pm)


                                          Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                          A sy mp. Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.
                                V alue         df          (2-s ided)     (2-s ided)     (1-s ided)
      Pearson Chi-Square            .848 b          1             .357
                          a
      Continuity Correction         .549            1             .459
      Likelihood Ratio              .848            1             .357
      Fisher's Exact Test                                                       .374           .229
      Linear-by -Linear
                                   .842             1             .359
      A ss ociation
      N of V alid Cas es            129
        a. Computed only f or a 2x 2 table
        b. 0 cells (.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The minimum expected c ount is 23.
           44.

Study for Test - Library * On average, what time of day do you typically study?
                            Late Evening (8pm-12am)
                                                                                                       56


                                             Cross tab

                                                            On av erage, w hat time
                                                            of day do y ou typically
                                                              study?Late Ev ening
                                                                  (8pm-12am)
                                                               Yes           No           Total
      Study f or Test   Yes     Count                               53           20            73
      - Library                 % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                               53.5%         66.7%         56.6%
                                typically study ?Late
                                Ev ening (8pm-12am)
                        No      Count                               46            10            56
                                % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                               46.5%         33.3%         43.4%
                                typically study ?Late
                                Ev ening (8pm-12am)
      Total                     Count                               99            30           129
                                % w ithin On average,
                                w hat time of day do you
                                                              100.0%       100.0%         100.0%
                                typically study ?Late
                                Ev ening (8pm-12am)


                                         Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                         A sy mp. Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.
                               V alue         df          (2-s ided)     (2-s ided)     (1-s ided)
      Pearson Chi-Square         1.616b            1             .204
                          a
      Continuity Correction      1.126             1             .289
      Likelihood Ratio           1.647             1             .199
      Fisher's Exact Test                                                      .216           .144
      Linear-by -Linear
                                 1.604             1             .205
      A ss ociation
      N of V alid Cas es           129
        a. Computed only f or a 2x 2 table
        b. 0 cells (.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The minimum expected c ount is 13.
           02.

Study for Test - Library * On average, what time of day do you typically study?
                               Night (12am-7am)
                                                                                                  57


                                        Cross tab

                                                       On av erage, w hat time
                                                       of day do y ou typically
                                                             study?Night
                                                             (12am-7am)
                                                          Y es          No           Total
Study f or Test   Y es    Count                                15           58            73
- Library                 % w ithin On average,
                          w hat time of day do you
                                                          50.0%         58.6%         56.6%
                          typically study ?Night
                          (12am-7am)
                  No      Count                                15            41            56
                          % w ithin On average,
                          w hat time of day do you
                                                          50.0%         41.4%         43.4%
                          typically study ?Night
                          (12am-7am)
Total                     Count                                30            99           129
                          % w ithin On average,
                          w hat time of day do you
                                                         100.0%       100.0%         100.0%
                          typically study ?Night
                          (12am-7am)


                                    Chi-Square Te s ts

                                                    A sy mp. Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.   Ex ac t Sig.
                         V alue          df          (2-s ided)     (2-s ided)     (1-s ided)
Pearson Chi-Square           .691 b           1             .406
                    a
Continuity Correction        .386             1             .535
Likelihood Ratio             .687             1             .407
Fisher's Exact Test                                                       .411           .267
Linear-by -Linear
                             .686             1             .408
A ss ociation
N of V alid Cas es           129
  a. Computed only f or a 2x 2 table
  b. 0 cells (.0%) hav e ex pec ted count less than 5. The minimum expected c ount is 13.
     02.
                                                                                                                             58


   C. Correlations

                                                       Cor relations

                                                                                              When
                                                                                           looking f or
                                                                                          artic le, how
                                                                                          likely to us e
                                                                                          PLU Library       Research
                                                                                            Website?        Capabilities
        Spearman's rho       When looking f or article,     Correlation Coef f ic ient            1.000             .224*
                             how likely to use PLU          Sig. (2-tailed)                             .           .015
                             Library Website?               N                                        127             116
                             Research Capabilities          Correlation Coef f ic ient              .224*        1.000
                                                            Sig. (2-tailed)                         .015                 .
                                                            N                                        116             117
           *. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).



                                                        Cor relations

                                                                                        When looking
                                                                                      f or artic le, how
                                                                                           likely to
                                                                                        search online
                                                                                            (other          Research
                                                                                         w ebsites)?        Capabilities
         Spearman's rho      When looking f or article,    Correlation Coef f ic ient              1.000          -.161
                             how likely to s earch         Sig. (2-tailed)                              .           .084
                             online (other w ebsites )?    N                                         127             116
                             Research Capabilities         Correlation Coef f ic ient              -.161         1.000
                                                           Sig. (2-tailed)                          .084                 .
                                                           N                                         116             117




v. Appendix E: Open-ended Responses

Question 10: What do you do if you have a question about online research?

   Responses:

       Ask a friend who might know
       Parents/Family
       I use 'ask a librarian' as a last resort. Normally, I will just keep searching and searching,
        and if I find nothing of relevance I will THEN use the Ask a Librarian tool.
                                                                                            59


Question 6: How could a librarian help you as a student?

  Responses:

      Answer questions                             Help finding books and resources, Direct to resources
      Be available and Be friendly                 Suggestion on research paper topics and resources
      Check out                                    Show me right direction to get help
      Helpful and Knowledgeable
60

								
To top