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					              CEE 404 Winter 2010




    Infrastructure




1
                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010




    A Short Survey

    1. How much is all the transportation
       infrastructure in Seattle worth?
    2. How do you rate Washington’s road
       conditions? (poor, mediocre, good,
       excellent)
    3. Is the Alaskan Way viaduct bored tunnel
       project necessary? Is it too expensive?
    4. Is the SR 520 Bridge project necessary?
       Is it too expensive?

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                                                        CEE 404 Winter 2010




    Infrastructure
    The basic physical systems of a community's population,
    including roads, utilities, water, sewage, etc. These
    systems are considered essential for enabling productivity
    in the economy.




3
                                CEE 404 Winter 2010




Transportation Infrastructure




4
                                                                                                                   CEE 404 Winter 2010




        U.S. Gross Domestic Product




    a Includes all consumer and government purchases of goods (e.g., vehicles and fuel) and services (e.g., auto insurance) and
    exports related to transportation.
    b Includes all other categories (e.g., entertainment, personal care products and services, and payments to pension plans).


5                                                                            2006 data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics
                                                                     CEE 404 Winter 2010




    Federal Funding for Transportation

    • 2010 Federal Transportation Bill (THUD)
       – HR3288 (Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and
         Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010)
       – Reauthorizes federal highway, public transportation, highway
         safety, and motor carrier safety programs for six years
       – $447 billion over 6 years
       – FY2010: 1$117.1 billion
       – 56% increase over SAFETEA LU
    • SAFETEA LU (old version)
       – Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act:
         A Legacy For Users
       – $286.4 billion in funding
       – 42% increase over last bill (TEA-21)
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                                                                                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010




                      Public Expenditures on
               Construction of Highways and Streets




        Notes:
        •Annual spending (Oct 2009 seasonally adjusted): $87.3 billion total
            •Almost all public spending
        •Highways and streets = largest component of public transportation spending
        •Pavement is by far the largest part of that spending (about 70%)

    Data from BTS: TABLE 4-18
7   Federal, State, and Local Expenditures on Highways and Streets Construction: January 2007–June 2008
                                                                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010




                 Public Expenditures on
         Non-Roadway Transportation Construction




       Notes:
       •Only state and local numbers reported
       •2008 spending: $23.5 billion total (about 27% of roads)
           •$11.9 billion on air transportation
           •$9.8 billion on land transportation (e.g., rail, bus, etc.)
           •$1.7 billion on water transportation


8   Data from BTS: FIGURE 4-7 Public Expenditures on Nonroadway Transportation Construction: 1996-2008
                                                                                                      CEE 404 Winter 2010




               Private Expenditures on
       Transportation Infrastructure Construction




     Notes:
     •2008 spending: $10.0 billion total
         •$0.66 billion on air transportation
         •$9.0 billion on land transportation
         •$0.3 billion on water transportation



9   Data from BTS: FIGURE 4-8a Private Expenditures on Transportation-Related Construction: January 1996–June 2008
                                                            CEE 404 Winter 2010




     American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)


     • $787 billion economic stimulus bill
        – $30 billion for transportation
     • Washington Funding
        – $492 million for WA highway projects
        – $179 million in transit system capital projects




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                                                                                                CEE 404 Winter 2010



 Top 20 States in Transportation                              State                    Total Jobs*
                                                              Washington                  3,481
 and Clean-Water ARRA Jobs                                    Oregon                      3,188
                                                              Pennsylvania                2,744
                                                              Indiana                     2,565
                                                              Illinois                    2,315




                                                                                                                Table from ENR, 9.2.09
                                                              Utah                        2,288
                                                              Oklahoma                    2,198
                                                              Minnesota                   2,143
                                                              Texas                       2,056
                                                              Iowa                        1,795
                                                              North Carolina              1,786
                                                              Arkansas                    1,636
                                                              Wisconsin                   1,624
                                                              Missouri                    1,490
                                                              South Dakota                1,427
                                                              California                  1,376
     First ARRA job in Washington State:                      Mississippi                 1,270
    I-90 Yakima River to West Ellensburg                      Maine                       1,242
         Advertisement date: 3/9/2009                         New Jersey                  1,171
        $2.43 million in stimulus money                       New York                     981

*Number of direct, on-project jobs created or sustained with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
funds through June 30, 2009. Projects are in categories of highway infrastructure, transit capital assistance,
                                                   11
fixed guideway and clean- water state revolving funds. Not all categories were reported by states.
Source: House Transportation and Infrastructure
                                                                                     CEE 404 Winter 2010




         Seattle Transportation Infrastructure Inventory
              (not all are shown here but the total is right)

     Category                  Some of the Inventory                                   Value
     Pavement                  3,943 lane-miles                                $3.25 billion
     Structures                125 bridges                                       $3.1 billion
                               205 walls
                               Retaining walls (incl. seawall)
     Traffic and parking       1,001 traffic signals                           $125 million
                               46 cameras
                               150,000 signs
                               1,845 parking pay stations
                               1,000 traffic circles
     Pedestrian/bike system    2,256 miles of sidewalks                        $2.77 billion
                               120 miles of bike routes
                               6 miles of stairs
                               39.4 miles of trails
     Street landscaping        35,000 trees                                      $49 million
     Grand Total                                                            $12.1 billion
12                             2008 data from http://www.ci.seattle.wa.us/transportation/inventory.htm
                                                                             CEE 404 Winter 2010




     General Condition and Age

       Public agencies invest $30 billion annually to
       maintain highway and transit infrastructure
                               Rockefeller Road Bridge in Cleveland, OH from ASCE website




     from ASCE website
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                                   CEE 404 Winter 2010




     I-5 Bridge Decks in Seattle
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                                            Alaskan Way Viaduct
                                                  (current)




   Eroded viaduct deck




All photos from WSDOT website
       www.wsdot.wa.gov




                                Damaged beam after 2001 Nisqually earthquake
Alaskan Way Viaduct
      (2006)
Alaskan Way Viaduct
      (current)




                             Installing column supports
                           after the Nisqually earthquake




                          All photos from WSDOT website
                                 www.wsdot.wa.gov




         Column support
           SR 520 Bridge
        All photos from WSDOT website
               www.wsdot.wa.gov




     Cracks on the inside of floating pontoons



        Simulated Failure by Windstorm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qchD9ltCPG8
                                                 Damage to hollow column in 1999 due to barge collision
                                                                                                                                       CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Rural Road Conditions
                                            RuralRoads in Poor or Mediocre Condition
                                      35
                                                by Functional Class: 1995–2006
                                                                                                          Interstates




                                                                                                                                                    Transportation Statistics Annual Report September 2008
                                      30                                                                  Other principal arterials




                                                                                                                                                    Graph from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics,
                                                                                                          Minor arterials
        Percentage of total Mileage




                                      25                                                                  Collectors



                                      20



                                      15



                                      10



                                      5



                                      0
                                           1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003    2004         2005    2006

19                                                                               Year
                                                                                                                                        CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Urban Road Conditions
                                           Urban Roads in Poor or Mediocre Condition
                                                by Functional Class: 1995–2006
                                      45                                                                    Interstates
                                                                                                            Other freeways




                                                                                                                                                     Transportation Statistics Annual Report September 2008
                                                                                                            Other principal arterials
                                      40
                                                                                                            Minor arterials




                                                                                                                                                     Graph from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics,
                                                                                                            Collectors
                                      35
        Percentage of total Mileage




                                      30


                                      25


                                      20


                                      15


                                      10


                                      5


                                      0
                                           1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004    2005        2006

20                                                                               Year
                                                                                                                                  CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Bridge Conditions
                                   Structurally Deficient and Functionally Obsolete Bridges
                                                  All Roadways,1990–2007
                             700




                                                                                                                                               Transportation Statistics Annual Report September 2008
                             600




                                                                                                                                               Graph from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics,
                             500
        Number (thousands)




                                                                                          Total all bridges
                             400
                                                                                          Structurally deficient bridges, total

                             300                                                          Functionally obsolete bridges, total



                             200



                             100



                              0
                                   1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

                                                                             Year
21
                                  6:05 p.m. 1 August 2007




July 1967 – Minneapolis Tribune
                                                      CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Building Transportation Infrastructure

      Mega-Project
      Projects with an estimated total cost greater
      than $1.0 billion, or projects approaching $1.0
      billion with a high level of interest by the public.




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                                                             CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Periods of Mega-Projects in the U.S.
     • Pre-1950s era
       – Minimal higher-level aid
       – Very little disruption of existing areas
     • Great mega-project era (1950 – late 1960s)
       – Large amounts of federal aid
       – Retrofit cities for new preferences
     • Transition era (mid 1960s – early 1970s)
       – Community & environment become important
       – Citizen protests
     • Do no harm era (mid 1970s – present)
       – Investment is substantial at all levels
       – Must avoid or mitigate any significant disruption
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                                                                       CEE 404 Winter 2010




      Panama Canal

       Proposed: ~1530
      Completed: 1914
       Total time: ~384 years
             Cost: $375 million
          2008 cost: $8 billion
            Issues: Funding
                    Politics
                    Technology
                    Malaria

                                       From pancanal.com (official site)
26 Information from www.pancanal.com
                                                                                             CEE 404 Winter 2010




      Golden Gate Bridge

       Proposed: 1869
      Completed: 1937
        Total time: 68 years
              Cost: $35 million
           2008 cost: $511 million
             Issues: Funding
                     Politics




                                                         From Metropolitan Transportation Commission
27 Information from the Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
                                                            CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Lake Washington Ship Canal

      Proposed: 1854
       Opened: 1917
     Completed: 1934
      Total time: 80 years
            Cost: $3 million
       2008 cost: $50 million
         Issues: Funding
                 Politics

                                Under construction (1916)


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                                            CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Lake Washington Floating Bridge

      Proposed: 1921                    UW Libraries


     Completed: 1940
     Total Time: 19 years
           Cost: $8.8 million
       2008 cost: $132 million
         Issues: Funding




29                               1940
                                       CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Evergreen Point Floating Bridge

      Proposed: 1948
     Completed: 1963
     Total Time: 15 years
           Cost: $34 million
       2008 cost: $234 million
         Issues: Location
                 Funding
                 Politics



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                                CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Alaskan Way Viaduct

      Proposed: 1930
     Completed: 1959
     Total Time: 29 years
           Cost: $ 11 million
                 (phase 1)
       2008 cost: $80 million
         Issues: Funding
                 Politics




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                                                                     CEE 404 Winter 2010




     First Concession to Citizens
       San Francisco, 1959
       City officials veto most further planned
       expressway construction in the city




32                                                Picture from Halttheramp.com
     CEE 404 Winter 2010




33
                                   CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Embarcadero (San Francisco)




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                                                                       CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Mitigation Begins




                                                                               From AARoads.com
        Philadelphia, 1965
        State alters Delaware Expressway design along the waterfront
        from elevated to depressed and covered.
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                                                         CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Environmentalism

     • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) (1970)
       – Environment to be considered for all major federally
         aided projects
       – Public hearings
       – Authorizes citizen suits to ensure all issues are
         addressed fully and candidly
       – Agency still free to decide after EIS
     • Clean Water Act amendments (1972)
       – Difficult to fill wetlands (Section 404)
       – Runoff cannot pollute water resources (Section 402)
     • Clean Air Act amendments (1990)

36
                                    CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Westway (Manhattan Island)




     1974 plan
     •$1.2 billion
     •Covered structure
     •On fill in the Hudson River
     •General political support

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                                                                  CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Westway (Manhattan Island)
       Relatively Minor Issue Sinks Project
       Do young stripped bass winter under rotting, unused piers that
       are scheduled to be removed by the project?
       •EIS: Few fish live under piers
       •NY and federal studies: Fish live under piers

       U.S. Army Corps of Engineers needs further study

       Failed to prove “no significant impact”

       Clean Water Act says no fill permit can be issued

       1985 U.S. House vote to ban further federal funding
        (NJ backs ban because Westway would move the bass over
         to the NJ side and potentially block NJ development)

38
                                               CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Mitigation Costs

     • Century Freeway (I-105) – Los Angeles
       – 1977 cost estimate: $500 million
       – 1979 cost estimate: $1.6 billion
         • 4,200 units of affordable housing
         • Job training program
         • Minority contracting




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                                                        CEE 404 Winter 2010




      Consensus/Mitigation Costs
     Boston Central Artery/Tunnel Project (“Big Dig”)




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                                                                                                 CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Consensus/Mitigation Costs

     • Boston Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T)
                                                    16


                                                    14
         Cost in Constant 2002 Dollars (billions)




                                                    12


                                                    10


                                                    8


                                                    6


                                                    4


                                                    2


                                                    0
                                                    1980   1985   1990          1995   2000   2005

41                                                                       Year
                                                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Public Financing
     • Local sources
        –   Private investment (not likely)
        –   Excise taxes (hotel rooms, restaurants, rental cars, taxis)
        –   Sales tax
        –   Airport passenger facility charges (PFC)
        –   Airport landing fees
        –   Sales/lease of land at below-market prices
        –   Loans, access to credit at below-market rates
     • State sources
        – Non-tax revenue: lotteries, tolls
        – Regional sales tax
        – Gas tax
     • Federal sources


42
                                                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Private Financing

      Cintra, a subsidiary of the Spanish conglomerate, Ferrovial, develops and
      operates transportation infrastructure (http://www.cintra.es):
      •Chicago Skyway: 7.8 miles of toll road in Chicago, part of I-90
      •Texas SH 130 Segments 5 & 6: Toll road
      •Indiana Toll Road: 157-miles long, leased for 75 years for $3.8 billion




      Macquarie Infrastructure Group, part of Macquarie Bank (an Australian
      bank), develops and operates transportation infrastructure
      (http://www.macquarie.com.au/au/mig):
      •Chicago Skyway: 7.8 miles of toll road in Chicago, part of I-90
      •South Bay Expressway: 9.3 miles of toll road in SD, built for $635 million
      •Indiana Toll Road: 157-miles long, leased for 75 years for $3.8 billion
      •Dulles Greenway: 13.7 miles, Dulles to Leesburg, VA, $533 million
      •Sea-to-Sky: 62 miles, Vancouver to Whistler, $600 million
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                                                                  CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Chicago Skyway
     • $1.83 billion for 99 year lease by Skyway Concession Company
     • Toll revenues = $45 million annually




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                                                       CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Chicago Skyway

                                                Tolls
                                          Axles Day          Night
                                          2    $3.00         $3.00
                                          3    $7.60         $5.40
                                          4    $10.10        $7.20
                                          5    $12.60        $9.00
                                          6    $15.20        $10.80
                                          7+   $17.70        $12.60




45   Map from Skyway Concession Company
                                                      CEE 404 Winter 2010




     South Bay Expressway




47   Pictures from SBX (www.southbayexpressway.com)
                                                     CEE 404 Winter 2010




     South Bay Expressway     Opened November 2007




                                             Picture from SBX
                                (www.southbayexpressway.com)




     Picture from Macquarie

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                                                                                             CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Trends in Mega-Projects
     • Not routine after 1970
     • Support coalitions
         – Usually led by business enterprise
     • Project ideas
         – Usually originate in the public sector
     •   Only successful if they “do no harm”
     •   Mitigation is essential
     •   Support and purpose is local
     •   Avoid increases in broad-based local taxes
     •   Costs rose dramatically from 1970 – 2000
     •   Private investment (2004 – present)
49       From Altshuler and Luberoff (2003) Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment
                CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Cost Effective?




50
Rising Costs
                                                                            Cost per Centerline Mile
                                                  3,500
 Cost per Centerline Mile (millions of dollars)




                                                                                                                                $3 billion
                                                  3,000


                                                  2,500


                                                  2,000                                                    $1.9 billion


                                                  1,500


                                                  1,000


                                                   500
                                                                                  $272 million
                                                            $176 million

                                                     0
                                                          Century Freeway     I-90 (Mercer Island)   Central Artery/Tunnel Alaskan Way Viaduct
                                                                                                 Project
                               CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Some U.S. Mega-Projects




52
                                        Central Texas Turnpike System
                                        $3.8 billion
                                        3 new highways around Austin area
                                        New/upgraded highway interchanges
                                        http://www.texastollways.com/tta




                  Big Dig (Boston)
                        $14.6 billion
      Underground existing viaducts
          2 underwater tunnel routes
New/upgraded highway interchanges
   http://www.masspike.com/bigdig
                                     Tampa Bay Interstate System
                                     $1.5 billion
                                     Freeway improvements
                                     http://www.tbinterstates.com




Miami Intermodal Center
$1.7 billion
Multimodal transportation facility
http://www.micdot.com
New Mississippi River Bridge (St. Louis)
                             $640 million
      New bridge from St. Louis to Illinois
    New/upgraded highway interchanges
           http://www.newriverbridge.org




                                              Ohio River Bridges (KY, OH)
                                              $4.1 billion
                                              2 new bridges across Ohio RIver
                                              New/upgraded highway interchanges
                                              http://www.kyinbridges.com
  Katy Freeway (Houston)
                 $2.7 billion
Reconstruct 23 miles of I-10
   2 upgraded interchanges
     27 upgraded crossings
http://www.katyfreeway.org




                                I-4 (Orlando)
                                $1.7 billion
                                Reconstruct 18 miles of I-4
                                http://www.trans4mation.org
  Birmingham, AL Northern Beltline
                          $3.32 billion
52-mile freeway to bypass Birmingham
                     Completion: 2025




                                          Detroit River International Crossing
                                          $1.8 billion
                                          New border crossing, bridge, plaza
                                          www.partnershipborderstudy.com
                                         Twin Span Bridge, Lake Pontchartrain, LA
                                         $800 million
                                         Replace bridge damaged by Katrina
                                         http://www.twinspanbridge.com




   BART Seismic Retrofit (San Francisco)
                               $1.3 billion
                            Retrofit BART
http://www.bart.gov/about/projects/eqs/index.aspx
                                                       I-15 Managed Lanes (San Diego)
                                                       $1.2 billion
                                                       20 miles of HOT-type lanes
                                                       New/upgraded highway interchanges
                                                       http://www.sandag.org/index.asp?projectid=34&fuseaction=projects.detail




I-215 San Bernardino Corridor Imp.
                        $0.8 billion
                 12 new lane-miles
http://www.sanbag.ca.gov/projects/mi_fwy_215-sb.html
I-69 (Michigan to Texas)
$10 billion?
17 miles of highway improvement
Freeway corridor from MI to TX
May happen

                                  New Haven Harbor Crossing (I-95)
                                  $2 billion (doubled since 2002)
                                  7.2 miles of roadway improvements
                                  Transit improvements
                                  http://www.i95newhaven.com
                                 CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Woodrow Wilson Bridge (Potomac)
                             $2.5 billion
            New bridge across Potomac
     New/upgraded highway interchanges
            http://www.wilsonbridge.com
62
                                                                    CEE 404 Winter 2010
     Benicia-Martinez Bridge
     $1 billion
     New bridge in Vallejo area
     http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/tollbridge/Ben-Mar/Ben-Mar.html




63
                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010


 San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge
 $6.3 billion
 New bridge from Oakland to Y.B. Island
 http://www.newbaybridge.org




64
                                   CEE 404 Winter 2010

     Boulder City/Hoover Dam Bypass
                               $0.9 billion
               10 miles of 4-lane freeway
      http://www.bouldercitybypass.com




65
                         Photos from Professor Dave Timm, Auburn University




  Not just the U.S.
Large project in China
Picture from B. Kattanppuram Blog




                                        Great Belt (Storebǽlt - Denmark)
                                                   $3.5 billion (1988 value)
                                          28 Euros ($34) each way for cars
                                      132 Euros ($159) each way for lorries
Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (Pearl Bridge)
   $3.6 billion
   10 years to construct
   ¥ 2,600 ($22) each way for cars
   25,000 vehicles/day




                                                Picture from Mount Holyoke College
Millau Viaduct                       Picture from arzan blog

     $523 million to construct
     39 month construction
     Tolls
     •$6.50 toll one way in winter
     •$8.62 toll one way in summer
                                      Channel Tunnel
                                      $21 billion
                                      Completed 1994




                                                       Picture from Balfour Beatty Rail
 Photo from Biz/ed




Chek Lap Kok Airport (Hong Kong)
                        $20 billion
                  Completed 1998
Strait of Messina (Italy mainland to Sicily)
Projected $5 billion (60% by Italian government, 40% by private investors)
Will be longest single span bridge in the world when (if) completed
http://www.strettodimessina.it
                     Photo from ETH Life International




                                                         Photo from Google Earth




Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland to Italy)
$6 billion
20 year construction (1/2 way now)



                         Thai Canal (Thailand)
                           $20 billion projected
                         May or may not happen
                                          CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Next on the List

     •   SR 167, Tacoma, WA
     •   SR 520 Bridge, Seattle, WA
     •   I-405 Corridor, Bellevue, WA
     •   SR 509, Seattle WA
     •   Alaskan Way Tunnel, Seattle WA




72
                                              SR 520 Bridge Replacement
                                                            $4 to 6 billion
                                                   Replace SR 520 bridge
                                                  Improve SR 520 corridor
SR 167 Extension (Tacoma)
$2.3 billion
Extend SR 167 to I-5 and SR 509




                Pictures from WSDOT website
I-405 Corridor Improvements
$3.2 billion
New lanes
Reconfigured interchanges
Bus direct access




Pictures from WSDOT website




SR 509 Freight/Congestion Relief
$1 billion
Extend SR 509 to I-5 south of Seatac
6 miles of new I-5 lanes
 Alaskan Way Viaduct & Seawall
$2.4 billion in funding available now
 Replace viaduct with bored tunnel
           Reinforce/replace seawall
I-5 - Pavement Reconstruction and Bottleneck Improvement Projects
Undetermined Cost
Repair/replace I-5 pavement from Tukwila to Northgate (14 miles)
Anticipated construction: 2017+
Must coordinate with:
     •Alaskan Way viaduct replacement project
     •SR 520 bridge replacement project
     •Link Light Rail
     •I-405 corridor improvements
     •SR 509 extension
                                                                   CEE 404 Winter 2010




     Primary References
     • Altshuler, A. and Luberoff, D. (2003). Mega-Projects: The Changing
       Politics of Urban Public Investment. Brookings Institute Press,
       Washington, D.C.

     • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). (2008). Mega Projects web
       page. Maintained by the Office of Program Administration.
       www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/mega.




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