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Municipality of Chongqing ??? Settled Government - CPC Chongqing - Mayor Area (ranked 26th) - Municipality Elevation Population (2006) - Municipality - Density - Urban - Ranks in China - Major nationalities Time zone Postal code Area code(s) License plate prefixes ISO 3166-2 GDP (2008) - per capita HDI (2006) ca. 316 BC Bo Xilai Committee Secretary Wang Hongju 82,300 km2 (31,776.2 sq mi) 435 m (1,427 ft) 31,442,300 382/km2 (989.5/sq mi) 5,087,197 Populations: 20th; Density: 12th Han - 91% Tujia - 5% Miao - 2% China Standard Time (UTC+8) 4000 00 - 4099 00 23 ? A, B, C, F, G, H CN-50 CNY 509.7 billion CNY 18,025 (19th) 0.764 (18th) — medium
City trees
Ficus lacor

From top:Chongqing Skyline during the night, Ciqikou an ancient town, one of the Dazu Rock Carvings, and The Great Hall of the People.

City flowers
Camellia (Camellia japonica)


(Chinese) (English)

Chongqing Simplified Chinese: Traditional Chinese: ?? ??

Location within China

Coordinates: 29°33′00″N 106°30′25″E / 29.55°N 106.50694°E / 29.55; 106.50694 Country Countylevel divisions Township divisions People’s Republic of China 40 1259

Chongqing (simplified Chinese: ??; traditional Chinese: ??; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Postal map spelling: Chungking; Wade-Giles: Ch’ungch’ing) is the largest and most populous of the People’s Republic of China’s four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western region of China. Formerly (until 14 March 1997) a sub-provincial city within Sichuan


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three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of the municipality, which spans over 80 000 km², is rural. The population of the urban area of Chongqing proper was 5.09 million (2000).[2] The municipal abbreviation, ? (Yú), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. Chongqing was also a municipality of the old Republic of China. Its abbreviated name is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds the Yangtze River.

Commercial high-rise buildings around the People’s Liberation Monument.

Chongqing is said to be the semi-mythical State of Ba that the Ba people supposedly established during the eleventh century BCE. By 316 BCE, however, it had been overrun by the State of Qin. The Qin emperor ordered a new city to be constructed, which was called Jiang (??) and Chu Prefecture (??). Chongqing was subsequently renamed in 581 CE (Sui Dynasty) and 1102, to Yu Prefecture (??) and then Gong Prefecture (??). It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double/repeated happy celebration" (simplified Chinese: ????; traditional Chinese: ????; pinyin: shuāngchóng xǐqìng). Hence, Yu Prefecture became Chongqing subprefecture to mark the occasion. In 1362, (Yuan Dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (??) at Chongqing for a short time. In 1621 (Ming Dynasty), another shortlived kingdom of Daliang (??) was established by She Chongming (???) in Chongqing as its capital. Between 1627-1645, with the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Chongqing, together with Sichuan, were captured by the Revolts who overthrew the Ming Dynasty across the nation. Later during the Qing Dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of Qing emperor. In 1891, Chongqing became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners. From 1929, Chongqing became a municipality of the Republic of China. During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek’s provisional capital and was heavily bombed by the

The confluence of the Jialing River and Yangtze River, as seen from Chongqing.

People’s Liberation Monument (World War II victory monument). Province, the municipality of Chongqing has a registered population of 31,442,300 (2005).[1] The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much further into the city’s hinterland than the boundaries of the other


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Pinyin name Banan Beibei Changshou Dadukou Fuling Hechuan Jiangbei Jiangjin Jiulongpo Nan’an Nanchuan Qianjiang Shapingba Shuangqiao Wansheng Wanzhou Yubei Yongchuan Yuzhong Hanzi ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? Wanxian Chongqing Fuling Qianjiang Chongqing Fuling Chongqing Previous associationa Chongqing

Japanese Air Force. Luckily, due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Many factories and universities were moved from eastern China to Chongqing during WWII, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In 1954, the municipality was demoted to a provincial city within the Sichuan Province of the People’s Republic of China. On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People’s Congress decided to merge the city with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefecture-level districts that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division was the Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China’s effort to develop its western regions and coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997.

Administrative divisions
See also: List of administrative divisions of Chongqing Chongqing Municipality is divided into forty county-level subdivisions (three abolished in 1997), consisting of nineteen districts, seventeen counties, and four autonomous counties.

Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997. The urban area of Chongqing Municipality (???????) includes the following districts: • Yuzhong (???, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government offices are located. • Nan’an (???, or "Southern Bank District") • Jiangbei (???, or "North of the River District") • Shapingba (????) • Jiulongpo (????) • Dadukou (????)


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Pinyin name Bishan Chengkou Dazu Dianjiang Fengdu Fengjie Kai Liangping Qijiang Rongchang Tongliang Tongnan Wulong Wushan Wuxi Yunyang Zhong Hanzi ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? Fuling Wanxian Chongqing Wanxian Previous associationa Chongqing Wanxian Chongqing Fuling

Autonomous counties
Pinyin name Pengshui Miao and Tujia Shizhu Tujia Xiushan Tujia and Miao Youyang Tujia and Miao • Yubei (????the northern district of Chongqing) • Beibu (????, the new district at Northern Chongqing) Hanzi ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? Chongqing Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Chongqing CPC Party Chief". In terms of political status, Chongqing is as important as Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai. Previous associationa Qianjiang

The politics of Chongqing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the People’s Republic of China. The Mayor of Chongqing is the highest ranking official in the People’s Government of Chongqing. Since Chongqing is a centrally administered municipality, the mayor occupies the same level in the order of precedence as provincial governors. However, in the city’s dual party-government governing system, the mayor has less power than the

Geographic coordinates 105°17’-110°11’ East, 28°10’?32°13’ North Annual average temperature 18°C (64°F) Temperature range 0°C - 43°C (32 F - 109 F)


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August. Yet even in the hottest weather the wind is often cold, making such high temperatures more bearable. Winters are fairly mild, but damp and overcast; average January highs are 9°C. Chongqing has one of the lowest sunshine totals annually in China. Chongqing can get foggy sometimes, and suffers from heavy air pollution. Chongqing is famous for its foggy weather in spring and winter days, which gives this city a nickname of "??", in English "the Fog Capital". This special weather once protected Chongqing from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. However, the city government has been aggressively trying to improve its air quality in recent years. The so called "blue sky days" (days with air quality within or better than slight pollution) number keeps rising every year. With the weather at its best in the spring and fall, these are the best time to visit the city of Chongqing.

Chongqing skyscrapers Total annual hours of sunshine 1000 to 1200 Annual precipitation 1000 to 1400 mm (39 in - 47 in) Neighboring provinces Hubei (east), Hunan (southeast), Guizhou (south), Sichuan (west), Shaanxi (north) Located on the edge of the Yungui Plateau, Chongqing is intersected by the Jialing River and the upper reaches of the Yangtze. It contains Daba Shan in the north, Wu Shan in the east, Wuling Shan in the southeast, and Dalou Mountain to the south. The city is very hilly and is the only major metropolitan area in China without significant numbers of bicycles.


2006 Skyline of Chongqing

Chongqing has a humid subtropical climate, with the two-season monsoonal variations typical of South Asia. As one of the "Three Furnaces" (????), Chongqing’s summers are among the hottest in China. The temperature can be as high as 43°C, with an average high of 35°C in

2007 Chongqing at night Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in March 1997[4] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China’s relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy).[5] An


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important industrial area in western China,[6] Chongqing is also rapidly urbanizing. For instance, statistics[7] suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square meters (1.5 million square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.

Automotive Corp - China’s fourth biggest automaker and Lifan Hongda Enterprise. The municipality is also one of the 9 largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium Asia’s largest aluminum plant.[10] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits (especially oranges) are the area’s main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese,[11] although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily-polluting, and unsafe.[12] Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10-millionton-capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar’s western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan province before reaching Chongqing[13] and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East, and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards hi-tech and knowledge-intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ).[14] The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.[9][15] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China have been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam - the world’s largest - will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows ocean-going ships to reach Chongqing’s Yangtze River port.[16] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of several foreign investors in industries ranging from auto to finance and retailing such as Ford, Mazda, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, Wal-Mart, and Carrefour.[17] Chongqing’s nominal GDP in 2008 reached 509.7 billion yuan (US$73.4 billion) while registering an annual growth of 14.3%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 18,025 yuan (US$2,595) - below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a

Close-up view of the People’s Liberation Monument. Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighboring Sichuan are important military bases in weapons research and development.[8] Chongqing’s industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, autos, chemicals, textiles, machinery, and electronics are common. Chongqing is China’s third-largest center of motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million automobiles and 8.6 million motorcycles.[9] Leading makers of cars and motor bikes include Changan


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massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region’s economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country’s western interior to further development.[18]

• Chongqing-Xiangfan (Hubei province) railway • Chongqing-Huaihua (Hunan province) railway • Chongqing-Suining (Sichuan province) express railway • Chongqing Wanzhou-Yichang (Hubei province) railway (under construction) • Chongqing-Lanzhou (Gansu province) railway (under construction)

Economic and Technological Development Zones
• Chongqing Economic & Technological Development Zone • Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone • Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park • Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District) • Chongqing Export Processing Zone

• Chongqing-Chengdu highway • Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction) • Chongqing-Guiyang highway • Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi’a highway (DazhouXi’an section under construction) • Chongqing-Suining highway • Chongqing-Nanchong Expressway

Chongqing is served by the Chongqing People’s Broadcast Station as the largest radio station. The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV station, claimed to be the 4th largest television station. Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one website.

Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport, located in Yubei district, north of Chongqing, provides links to most parts of China and to other countries. In year 2007, a total of 10,355,730 person-time transporting volume was reported, which ranks this airport as the 10th largest one in China and the third largest one in southwest China.

River port

Public transportation
The three main forms of public transport in Chongqing are subway, light rail transit and intercity railway, alongside the ubiquitous bus system. According to the Chongqing Municipal Government’s ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is going to invest 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with light rail. By 2020 this network will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line; Line 1 will be an underground metro while Lines 2 and 3 will be light rail. These improvements will add 363.5 kilometers of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place. As of 2005 only one light rail line, the 19 km long Chongqing light rail line 2 (project 1), had been finished.

Hydrofoil on the Yangtze, within the Chongqing municipality. Chongqing is the biggest inland river port in western China. Historically, most of its transportation, especially to eastern China, is via the Yangtze River.

Chongqing is a major rail hub in south central China. • Chongqing-Chengdu (Sichuan province) railway • Chongqing-Guiyang (Guizhou province) railway


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By 2050 Chongqing is planned to have nine railway lines, totaling 513 kilometers, with 270 stations. [19]

that purpose. Even today, the monument serves as the symbol for the city. • A museum for General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell. • The cemetery for world war II air forces (? ???in Nanshan area (???in memory of those air force heroes who sacrificed their lives to help China during the Japanese invasion; • The former sites for embassies of major countries during 1940s since Chungking was Capital at that time and many residence buildings/sites for the celebrities at that time (Chiang Kai-shek, H.H. Kong, ??Lao She, ???Liang Shiqiu et al.); • Red Rock Village Museum is a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II. It’s where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (October 10th) peace agreement" with the Kuomingtang. Besides those historical places, Chongqing also has many other attractions: • The Dazu Rock Carvings (Chinese: ????; pinyin: Dàzú Shíkè), in Dazu county, are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a UNESCO World cultural Heritage Site, the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some 50,000 statues, with over 100,000 Chinese characters forming inscriptions and epigraphs. • The natural bridges (?????and Furong Cave in Wulong were listed as a (part of South China Karst). • Ciqikou is an ancient 1000-year-old town in the Shapingba District of Chongqing. It is otherwise known as Small Chongqing. The town, located at the lower reaches of the Jialing River, was at one time an important source of chinawares and used to be a busy commercial dock during the Ming and Qing Dynasty. • Fishing Town or Fishing City (Simplified Chinese: ???; Traditional Chinese: ???; Pinyin: diàoyúchéng), also called the “Oriental Mecca” and “the Place That Broke God’s Whip”, is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is famous for its resistance to the Mongol armies in the latter half of the Song Dynasty. One of the most notable events

Culture & Tourism

The Great Hall of the People in Chongqing.

The Great Hall of the People at night. Chongqing has a number of tourist attractions. As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), it was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies. Chongqing has many historical World War II buildings or sites(unfortunately some of them were destroyed): • The People’s Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city, attracts many visitors. It was the highest building in the area but currently is surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Actually this monument tower was originally named as "Monument for the victory over Axis armies" and it is the only building in whole China area for


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Chongqing University Southwest University Chongqing University of Technology Chongqing Jiaotong University Chongqing Normal University Chongqing Technology and Business University Chongqing Three Gorges University Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications Yangtze Normal University Sichuan Fine Arts Institute Sichuan International Studies University Southwest University of Political Science and Law Third Military Medical University Western Chongqing University Chongqing Medical University Chongqing University of Science and Technology University of Logistics Chongqing Yangtze River Normal University was the death of Mongol leader Mongke Khan by cannon shot, which forced the immediate withdrawal of Mongol troops from Europe and Asia and prevented the Mongolian Empire from expanding towards Africa and Western Europe. • Hot pot is Chongqing’s local culinary specialty. Tables in hotpot restaurants usually have a central vat (or pot) where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a very spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig’s kidney, brain, duck’s bowels, and cow’s stomach are often consumed. • The city is home to one of the largest public assembly buildings in China, the Great Hall of the People which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways. • A modern and well stocked zoo exhibits many national and regional animals, including the Giant Panda and the extremely rare South China Tiger. ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????????

founded in 1929 founded in 1906 founded in 1941

founded in 1931

founded in 1961

eclipse of June 26, 1824. The next will be the solar eclipse of 22 July 2009.

Colleges and universities
See also: List of universities and colleges in Chongqing .

International Schools
• Yew Chung International School of Chongqing (????????)

Professional sports teams in Chongqing include: • Chinese Football Association Super League • Chongqing Lifan • Chinese Basketball Association • None

Sister cities
• • • Seattle, USA Hiroshima, Japan Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

Astronomical phenomena
The most recent total solar eclipse as seen from downtown Chongqing was the solar


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• • • • • • • Toronto, Canada Brisbane, Australia Toulouse, France Düsseldorf, Germany Leicester, England, UK Detroit, Michigan, USA Shiraz, Iran

largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m³ - more than 1/5 of China’s total. Has China’s largest reserve of strontium (China has the world’s 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. [12] A survey in 2005 by China’s State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. The clean-up ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280 million yuan. [13] Asia Times Online :: China Business News : China-Myanmar pipeline projects on track [14] welcome to [15] Chongqing Investment Zone Profiles [16] China’s Three Gorges Dam - CNN retrieved on January 31, 2009. [17] Ford weighs third China plant to meet demand | Reuters [18] Innovative City in West China Chongqing (PDF) - Jon Sigurdson and Krystyna Palonka of Stockholm School of Economics, EIJS - retrieved on February 1, 2009. [19] Chongqing Daily (23 March 2008) [20] Why Chongqing? Wales Week The Trade Mission Chongqing, 1 – 8 March [21] Chongqing Municipality and SørTrøndelag county signs TwinningAgreement (Norway - the official site in China)

• Vladimir, Russia Chongqing Municipality has a Memorandum of Understanding (a form of twinning arrangement) with Wales, UK and became a ’sister region’ of Wales in March 2008.[20] In June 2007, a twinning agreement between Chongqing and Sør-Trøndelag was signed.[21]

See also
• List of cities in the People’s Republic of China by population

[1] MountainCity/1918.htm [2] [3] [ weather.php3?s=61575&refer= Historical weather for Chongqing, China [4] Chinese vice premier urges Chongqing to become economic engine for western regions - Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in Australia - retrieved on January 31, 2009. [5] China urges reform, development of Chongqing municipality - Xinhua News Agency - retrieved on January 31, 2009. [6] Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces ( [7] "Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything," Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Penguin, p. 218, 2006. [8] CHONGQING MUNICIPALITY????) - The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales retrieved on January 31, 2009. [9] ^ Critical Eye on Chongqing - Pillar of the West - China Business Review retrieved on January 31, 2009. [10] BBC NEWS | Business | China’s west seeks to impress investors [11] Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China’s

• Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Chongqing," pp.325-362 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-599-9. • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Revisiting Chongqing: China’s Second World War Temporary National Capital," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch, Vol.45. Hong Kong: Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch. • Huang, Jiren (1999). Lao Chongqing (Old Chongqing): Ba Shan Ye Yu (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series. Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe (Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House).


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• Kapp, Robert A. (1974). “Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926-1937,” pp.143-170 in The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, ed. by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press. • Kapp, Robert A. (1973). Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press. • Liao, Qingyu (2005). Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing). Chengdu: Sichuan Da Xue Chubanshe (Sichuan University Press). • Long, Juncai (2005). Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing). Chongqing: Xi Nan Shi Fang Da Xue Chubanshe (Southwest University Press). • McIsaac, Lee (2000). “The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in

Chongqing,” in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900-1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. • Xu, Dongsheng and Liu, Yuchuan, et al (1998). Chongqing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe People’s Fine Arts Publishing House).

External links
• Chongqing Municipal Government website • Chongqing Information Portal • Video: A Bird’s Eye View of the New Chongqing (2008) • CCTV9 Apr. 2009 program - Chongqing: Visions of Change • Chongqing News Portal • Chongqing Food Portal • Chongqing travel guide from Wikitravel • Economic profile for Chongqing at HKTDC

Retrieved from "" Categories: Cities in China, Independent cities, Metropolitan areas of China, Municipalities of the People's Republic of China, Port cities and towns in China, Settlements established in the 5th century BC, Chongqing This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 18:25 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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