Byzantine_Emperor by zzzmarcus


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List of Byzantine emperors

List of Byzantine emperors
Basileus of the Eastern Roman Empire
used as well. For official purposes, their names were preceded by Imperator Caesar and followed by Augustus. Following Heraclius, the title commonly became the Greek Basileus (Gr. Βασιλεύς), which had formerly meant generally "king", "sovereign" but now was used in place of Imperator. Kings were now titled by the neologism Regas (Gr. Ρήγας, from the Lat. "Rex") or by another generic term Archon (Gr. Άρχων, "ruler"). Autokrator (Gr. Αυτοκράτωρ) was also frequently used, along with a plethora of more hyperbolic titles including Kosmokrator (Gr. Κοσμοκράτωρ) ("Master of the World") and "Chronokrator" (Gr. Χρονοκράτωρ) ("Master of Time"). In the later centuries of the Empire, the emperor could be often referred to by Western Christians as the "Emperor of the Greeks," though they still considered themselves "Roman" Emperors.

Coat of Arms of Byzantine Empire

Colossal head of Constantine I First monarch Last monarch Monarchy started Monarchy ended Constantine I Constantine XI 306 1453

This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. This list does not include numerous co-emperors who never attained sole or senior status as rulers. This list begins with Constantine I the Great, the first Christian emperor reigning from Constantinople. Diocletian before him had ruled from Nicomedia and replaced the republican trappings of the office with a straightforward autocracy. All Byzantine Emperors regarded themselves as Roman Emperors.[1] Although the Catholic West recognized the Eastern Empire’s claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned King of Franks Charlemagne as the "Roman Emperor (which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire) due to uneasy relations with the Orthodox East, an act which was considered as a disgrace by the Byzantines. The title of all Emperors listed preceding Heraclius was officially Augustus, although various other titles such as Dominus were

Constantinian dynasty (306-363) Non-dynastic (363-364) Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364-457) Leonid dynasty (457-518) Justinian dynasty (518-602) Non-dynastic (602-610) Heraclian dynasty (610-711) Non-dynastic (711-717)


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Picture Name Constantine I "the Great" (Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus) Status son of the Augustus Constantius Chlorus Birth Emperor from

List of Byzantine emperors
Emperor Death Notes until He declared himself "Augustus" in Eboracum, Britannia (Modern York), upon the death of Constantius Chlorus, and, after a period of prolonged civil war, became sole Emperor. He famously converted to Christianity, and began imperial favour of that religion. He founded Constantinople as a capital of the Empire. Divided the Empire between his three sons upon his death. Later canonised. By inheritance, he succeeded to the Eastern third; after his two brothers died, he became sole Emperor. He was responsible for the deaths of numerous family members in the wake of Constantine’s death, and persecuted those remaining. His last cousin, Julian,

27 25 July 306 22 May 337 February Proclaimed c.280 "Augustus" upon the death of Constantius Chlorus

Constantius II (Flavius Iulius Constantius)

second son of Constantine I

7 August 22 May 337 5 October 361 317 Inherited died of illness on Eastern campaign third of Roman Empire upon his father’s death


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rebelled against him in the last years of his life.

Julian "the Apostate" (Flavius Claudius Iulianus)

grandson of May 332 5 October 361 Constantius Proclaimed Chlorus, by his army cousin of in Gaul, beConstantius came legitII imate Emperor upon the death of Constantius

28 June 363 Mortally wounded in battle

The son of Constantine I’s half brother, Julius Constantius, he was early orphaned by the death of his mother of childbed fever, and the murder of his father by the sons of Constantine I. Raised by Constantius II to the rank of Caesar, he ruled and defended Gaul very ably. He eventually rebelled, being proclaimed Augustus by his army, and seized control of Italy. He succeeded to the entire empire after Constantius’ fortuitous death of illness. He died on campaign against the Sassanids. He is more famous, however, for his rejection of Christianity, and his doomed attempts to rejuvenate Paganism.


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Picture Name Jovian ( Flavius Claudius Iovianus ) Status

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Birth Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until 17 February 364 Died on journey back to Constantinople A non-entity, chosen by the army to succeed following Julian’s intestate death. His only deeds worth mentioning were to secure the escape of the Roman army from Persia by signing a peace treaty; this treaty signed away Rome’s furthest Eastern provinces to the Persians. He died before reaching his capital.

Guards’ c.332 28 June Captain 363 amongst Elected by the Julian’s army Eastern upon forces Julian’s death

Isaurian dynasty (717-802) Nikephoros’ dynasty (802-813) Non-dynastic (813-820) Phrygian dynasty (820-867) Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) Non-dynastic (1056-1057) Komnenid dynasty (1057-1059) Doukid dynasty (1059-1081) Komnenid dynasty (1081-1185) Angelid dynasty (1185-1204)

Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204-1261) Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261-1453) Palaiologan Dynasty (claimants in exile) See also
• • • • Byzantine Empire Latin Empire List of Byzantine Empire-related topics List of Roman Emperors


[1] Hooker, Richard. "The Byzantine Empire." Middle Ages. World Cultures. 4 June 2007 [1]. [2] His profile in [3] Norwich, John Julius, Byzantium, The Decline and Fall, p.446 Roman Emperors by Epoch see also: List of Roman Emperors · Concise list · Roman E Principate • JulioClaudian dynasty Crisis of the 3rd century • Barracks Emperors • Illyrian Emperors Dominate • Tetrarchies • Constantinian dynasty


• W R E

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Picture Name Status Birth 321 Emperor from

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Emperor until Death Notes Shortly after his accession, he chose his brother Valens to rule alongside him. The pair then partitioned the Empire between themselves. Valentinian thereafter ruled in the West only. During his reign, the Empire was repeatedly ravaged by barbarians. His anger at the invasion of the Quadi caused his fatal haemorrhage. Called "The Last True Roman", he was chosen to rule the East by his brother, Valentinian I. His reign was ineffective, and at one point he came close to abdication and suicide following the proclamation of an imperial pretender, Procopius. He was killed in the disastrous Battle of Adrianople, in which most of his armies were destroyed by Gothic invaders. He inherited the rule of the East upon Valens’ death. He

Valentinian I Officer un(Flavius der Julian Valentinianus) and Jovian

26 February 17 November 375 364 Died of cerebral Elected by haemorrhage the army upon Jovian’s death

Valens ( Flavius Iulius Valens )

Minor sol328 dier of the Roman army, brother of Valentinian I

28 March 364 Appointed by his brother

9 August 378 Killed at the Battle of Adrianople

Gratian ( Flavius Gratianus )

Son of Valentinian I, nephew of Valens

18 April/23 May 359

9 August 378 Inherited rule of the

19 January 379 Appointed Theodosius

25 August 383 Assassinated during the


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East upon I as Emper- rebellion of the death of or of the Magnus Maximus Valens East appointed one of his generals, Theodosius, as Emperor in the East in the following year. He was also Emperor in the West (with Valentinian II) 375-383 He was appointed Emperor in the East by Gratian, who needed a loyal ally to deal with the effects of Adrianople. He restored the Eastern armies by taking many barbarian mercenaries into Roman service. After the deaths of Gratian and Valentinian II, he took control of the Western half of the Empire. He was the last Emperor to de facto rule the entire Empire. Made Christianity the official religion of the Empire. A weak Emperor, dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia and ministers. Brother of the Western Emperor Honorius He was heavily influenced by his sister, Pulcheria, who declared herself "Augusta" in 414. During his

Theodosius I "the Great" ( Flavius Theodosius )

Aristocrat 11 and military January leader, 347 brother-inlaw of Gratian

19 January 379 Appointed by Gratian

17 January 395 old age

Arcadius ( Flavius Arcadius )

Son of 377/ Theodosius 378 I

17 January 1 May 408 395 Upon the death of Theodosius I

Theodosius II Son of ( Flavius Arcadius Theodosius )

10 April 1 May 408 401 Upon the death of Arcadius

28 July 450 Riding accident


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reign, her Christian views led to persecution of non-Christians in the Empire. However, the period also saw the construction of Constantinople’s near-impregnable Theodosian Walls, and the publication of the Codex Theodosianus. He died in 450, leaving his sister as his heir.

Pulcheria ( Aelia Pulcheria )

Daughter of 19 January Arcadius, 399 sister of Theodosius II

28 July 450 July 453 Upon the death of Theodosius II

After the death of her father, Arcadius, she became politically prominent. She was responsible for appointing the barbarian Aspar as Eastern Roman "Master of Soldiers", a position he would use to his own ends. Strongly Christian, she encouraged her brother to rule according to Christian values. She became a nun after being forced from the court in 441, but returned after her brother’s death. She then married Marcian, and the pair ruled together until 453. She was later canonised by the Eastern


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Orthodox Church

Marcian ( Flavius Marcianus )

Soldier, politician, husband of Pulcheria


450 January 457 He was elevated Upon his Gangrene contracted on a to the imperial marriage to journey throne by his marriage to Pulcheria Pulcheria. He was supported by Aspar. Under his rule, the Eastern Empire recovered from the political and military vicissitudes of the past ¾ of a century, and faced down Attila the Hun. The West, however, he left to fend for itself. He was canonised after his death by the Eastern Orthodox Church • • Eastern Five Emperors Roman/ (192–193) Byzantine • Severan Emperors dynasty • Holy Roman Emperors

• Four Emperors (68–69) • Flavian dynasty • NervanAntonian dynasty

• Gallic Emperors • Britannic Emperors

• Valentinian dynasty • Theodosian dynasty


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Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from 401

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Emperor until Death Notes He was chosen by Aspar, who attempted to rule through him; Leo resisted and broke Aspar’s power. In order to do this, he was forced to ally with the Isaurians, whose leader Tarasicodissa married Leo’s daughter Ariadne and took the Roman name "Zeno". He raised Theodoric the Great in his court. He was the first Emperor to be crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople. He was the son of Ariadne (daughter of Leo I) by Zeno. He inherited the throne upon his grandfather’s death. It was rumoured that his mother had poisoned him to allow Zeno to take the throne. An Isaurian chieftain, he gave his support to Leo I to overthrow Aspar. In exchange, he was allowed to marry Leo I’s daughter Ariadne, by whom he had a son, Leo II. After the latter’s death, he took the throne. Unpopular due to his barbarian origins, he was deposed by his mother-in-law,

Leo I "the Soldier Thracian" (Flavius Valerius Leo )

7 February 18 January 474 457 Died of dysentery Chosen by Aspar, commanderin-chief of the army

Leo II Grandson of ( Flavius Leo ) Leo I


18 January 474 Succeeded his grandfather Leo I

17 November 474 Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned

Zeno ( Flavius Zeno ) (Born Tarasicodissa)

Roman general c.425 Co-emperof Isaurian or: 9 Februorigins; son-inary 474 Appointed law of Leo I, by his son father of Leo Leo II II Sole Emperor: 17 November 474 Succeeded upon the death of Leo II

9 January 9 475 April Deposed by 491 Basiliscus, brother-inlaw of Leo I


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Verina, and her brother Basiliscus.

Basiliscus ( Flavius Basiliscus )

Army General; brother-in-law of Leo I

9 January August 476 476/ 475 Deposed by 477 Seized Zeno power from Zeno

The brother of Leo I’s wife, Verina. He was favoured by Leo I, who made him the leader of an expedition against Carthage. The expedition failed, however, Initially popular, Basiliscus alienated the Constantinopolitan population, and his own followers, partly through misfortunes of chance, partly through callous treatment of his allies and his support for the Monophysite Heresy. He was betrayed by his allies, and defeated when Zeno returned to the city with an army. He was then starved to death. He rallied an army and restored himself by force. Shortly afterwards, he formally reunited the Roman Empire upon the deposition of the Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, although in reality the West fell under barbarian control. He ruled laxly, but he left the East stronger than he had found it.

Zeno, restored ( Flavius Zeno ) (Born Tarasicodissa)

Roman general c.425 restored of Isaurian August 476 origins; son-inHaving deposed law of Leo I, Basiliscus father of Leo II

9 April 491


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Anastasius I ( Flavius Anastasius )

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He was a reputable palace official chosen by Ariadne (daughter of Leo I, widow of Zeno) to succeed; the pair then married. He was at first popular due to his lowering of taxation; he lost popularity when he adopted a strong monophysite policy in his final years. His leadership in war led to an exhaustive conflict between the Romans and the Persians, resulting in little benefit; he also faced ravaging of the Balkans by Slavic and Bulgar invasions.

Palace official c.430 11 April 491 9 July 518 ("Silentiarius"); Chosen by son-in-law of Ariadne, Leo I widow of Zeno


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Picture Name Justin I (Flavius Iustinus ) Status General, commander of the City Guards under Anastasius I Birth Emperor from

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Emperor Death until Notes He was an illiterate Illyrian peasant, who rose to become commander of the city guards. Through this position and lavish bribery, he secured the throne upon the death of Anastasius I. His reign was marked mainly by conflict with the Ostrogoths and Persians.

c.450 July 518 1 August 527 Elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)

Nephew and 482/ heir of 483 Justin I

1 August 527 Inherited the throne on the death of Justin I

13/14 November 565 The son of Justin I’s sister, Vigilantia, he was adopted by his uncle, then a rising officer of the army, and brought to Constantinople where he was given a good education. He married in 525 Theodora, a shrewd and capable courtesan who acted as the power behind the throne whilst she lived. Often referred to as the last "Roman" emperor Justinian reconquered large swathes of territory in Italy and the Adriatic coastline, North Africa, and Spain, destroying many of the conquered territories in the


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process. Justinian also ordered the construction of the Hagia Sophia patriarchal basilica in 532. This "Renewal of the Empire", however, was ended by an outbreak of the socalled Plague of Justinian across Europe, killing much of the Empire’s population, and seriously weakening it. Against Justinian’s credit of restoring Roman rule in parts of the west, and his work on creating the "Corpus Juris Civilis", must be set the dire legacy he left his heir, Justin II: a hugely reduced army, a crippled economy, and over-stretched resources.

Justin II (Flavius Iustinus Iunior)

Nephew and c.520 14 Novem- 5 October 578 heir of ber 565 Inherited Justinian I the throne on the death of Justinian I

The son of Justinian I’s sister, Vigilantia, he inherited the throne upon his uncle’s death. He proved a dismal successor to Justinian: in 568, Italy was overrun by the Lombards; his refusal to pay tribute to the Avars led to a number of


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unsuccessful campaigns against them; and he lost Syria to the Persians. The stresses of his duties proved too much, and, after making his friend and general Tiberius co-Emperor, he lapsed into insanity.

Tiberius II Constantine (Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)

"Comes" of c.520 5 October 14 August 582 A friend of the Excubit578 possibly poisoned by Justin II, he ors, friend Became full Maurice was adopted and adoptive Emperor on and made coson of the death emperor in 574, Justin II of Justin II upon the advice of the Empress Sophia. He thereafter ruled with the Empress until Justin’s death in 578. During his reign, the Persians were defeated in Armenia, whilst the Roman territories in Spain and Africa were secured. However, he was unable to prevent Slavic invasions of the Balkans. He named his sonin-law, Maurice, heir when he became ill in 582; his death shortly afterwards was attributed by rumour to poison. Commander- 539 in-chief of Cappadocian origins; son14 August 582 Succeeded upon the November 602 Forced to abdicate 27 November 602 Executed One of Constantinople’s outstanding generals, he

Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)


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in-law of Tiberius II

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death of his by father-inPhocas law Tiberius II by Phocas successfully defeated the Persians in 581. He married Constantina, the daughter of Tiberius II in 582, and in the same year became Emperor upon Tiberius’ death. He continued the Persian war until 591, when he secured peace by placing the exiled Sassanid heir Khosrau II on the Persian throne. He also warred mostly successfully with the Avars and Slavs, and instituted the system of the "Exarchates" in Italy and Africa, allowing greater competence in defending Roman territory there. A refusal to pay a ransom demanded by the Avars in exchange for several thousand captured Roman soldiers led to the rebellion of Phocas, who had Maurice executed. His reign saw the last flowering of Roman power, and a weakening of both the Empire and Persia.


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Picture Name Phocas (Flavius Phocas ) Status

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Birth Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until November 610 602 Executed by Seized Heraclius power in a rebellion against Maurice A minor soldier in the Roman army, he led a rebellion against Maurice after the latter ordered the exhausted forces to winter on the unprotected side of the Danube, and then tried to send them on a winter campaign. In the ensuing rebellion, Maurice abdicated; Phocas had himself crowned Emperor, and then executed the ex-emperor and his children. He was initially popular due to his lowering of taxes and his reforms. However, under his rule, the traditional Roman borders in the east began to collapse, whilst the Persians supported rebellions on their border and advanced their control westwards. Eventually, his authority crumbled, and Heraclius proclaimed himself as Emperor and seized control, executing Phocas.

sub-al? tern in the Balkan army, leader of rebellion; deposed Maurice


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Picture Name Herakleios (Ηράκλειος, Hērakleios) Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius) Status Birth Emperor from 5 October 610 Seized power in a rebellion against Phocas

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Emperor until Death Notes He rebelled against Phocas and seized power. After a long war with the Sassanid Empire and the Avars, he emerged victorious, fatally weakening both opponents. He was unable to prevent the loss of Syria, Palestine and Egypt to the newly emergent Arab Caliphate towards the end of his reign. He is credited with organising the system of Themata to defend the Empire, and with making Greek rather than Latin the official language of the Empire. He left the Empire to be ruled jointly by his two sons Constantine III and Heraklonas He was made co-Emperor with his father in 613, but did not fully accede until his father’s death. He died shortly after his accession, his sole noteworthy act being bribing

son of Exc.575 arch Heraclius the Elder; deposed Phocas

11 February 641

Constantine III eldest son of 3 May (Ηράκλειος Herakleios 612 (νέος) Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Novos Kōnstantinos) Constantine III ( Heraclius Novus Constantinus )

11 February 641 Succeeded to throne with Heraklonas following death of Herakleios

24/26 May 641 Tuberculosis, allegedly poisoned by Martina


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the army to safeguard the rights of his son, Constans II. The rumour that his stepmother, Martina, had poisoned him led to the downfall of herself and her son, Heraklonas

Heraklonas younger son (Κωνσταντίνος of Ηράκλειος, Herakleios Kōnstantinos Herakleios) Heraclianus (Constantinus Heraclius)


11 February 641 Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following death of Herakleios

September 641 Deposed by Senate

c.641 Presumed to have died in exile

He was made co-Emperor with his father in 638, but did not fully accede until his father’s death. After his brother’s death, he ruled briefly as co-emperor, then made his nephew, Constans II, coemperor, to quell an army revolt. The people of Constantinople, however, mistrusted him, believing that he and his mother Martina had murdered Constantine III; in September, the Senate deposed him and his mother, subjected both to ritual mutilation (Heraklonas lost his nose, Martina lost her tongue), and exiled them to Rhodes.


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Constans II son of Con- 7 Novem(Κώνστας Β’, stantine III ber 630 Kōnstas II); born Herakleios Constantine (Ηράκλειος Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Kōnstantinos ); called "Constantine the Bearded" (Κωνσταντίνος Πωγωνάτος, Kōnstantinos Pogonatos) Constans II (Constantus II); born Heraclius Constantine ( Heraclius Constantinus ); called "Constantine the Bearded" 641 Made co-Emperor by Hereklonas, sole emperor in that same year

List of Byzantine emperors
15 September 668 His uncle, Assassinated, posHeraklonas, sibly on the orders of made him coMezezius emperor to quell a revolt; the revolt continued, and Heraklonas was deposed. Constans then ruled as sole emperor. In his reign, Egypt was lost completely by the Empire, whilst Carthage was also lost for a time. He stabilised the border in the Balkans. His religious attitudes led him to bring Pope Martin I to trial in Constantinople for his criticism of Constans. After executing his brother, Theodosius, he became hated by the people of Constantinople, and left for Syracuse; he spent the rest of his life in Italy. Rumours that he intended to establish Syracuse as his capital led to his being assassinated in his bath. A noble of the court, Mezesius, then established a military regime in Sicily for


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several months.


Usurper Emperor

Unknown 668


A member of the Gnuni family. Declared Emperor in Sicily and ruled there for several months. Killed in conflict with Constantine IV. He became Emperor following the murder of his father; immediately, he was forced to suppress a revolt in Sicily, led by the imperial pretender Mezezius. In his reign, Constantinople was attacked by an Arab fleet between 672 and 678; Greek fire was used to drive them off. However, several coastal cities, including Smyrna and Cyzicus, were conquered by the Arabs, whilst the Bulgars took advantage of the situation to establish a state in Moesia, to which Constantine was forced to pay tribute. His reign also saw the formal condemnation of monothelitism

Constantine IV son of Con(Κωνσταντίνος, stans II Kōnstantinos) Constantine (Constantinos)


15 Septem- September 685 ber 668 Died of dysentery succeeded following murder of Constans II


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by the Sixth Oecumenical Council.

Justinian II

son of Constantine IV


Co-emperor in 681, sole emperor in 685.

695 December Augmented the Deposed 711 sum paid by by military the Umayyad revolt Caliphate as an annual tribute, regained control of part of Cyprus. The income from the provinces of Armenia and Iberia was divided among the two empires. Defeated Slavic tribes of Macedonia and relocated them to Anatolia. Started war against the Umayyads which resulted in the loss of Armenia to them. Deposed shortly after. 698 705 Deposed by military revolt A strategos from Isauria. Used the army of the Helladic Theme to depose Justinian II. Lost Carthage to Abd al-Malik of the Umayyad Caliphate. Briefly resumed control of the city but the Battle of Carthage firmly established Umayyad control over the Exarchate of Africa. The remnants of the defeated Byzantine


Usurper Emperor

Unknown 695


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expedition revolted against Leontius and deposed him. Executed by Justinian II in 705.

Tiberios III

Usurper Emperor

Unknown 698

705 705 Deposed by a Bulgariansupported revolt

An army officer of Germanic origins. Led remnants of the defeated army expedition for Carthage to successful revolt. War with Abd Al-Malik continued with incoclusive victories and losses for either side. Deposed by Justinian II who had gained the military support of Tervel of Bulgaria. Executed shortly after deposition.

Justinian II

son of Constantine IV



711 December Restored to the Deposed 711 throne by winby military ning the militrevolt ary support of Tervel of Bulgaria. Rewarded Tervel with a number of territories in the Balkans. Attempted to regain said territories by attacking Tervel in 708. The expedition failed and peace was restored. The Ummayyads managed to capture Cilicia and penetrated


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into Cappadocia. Inflicted harsh punishments to the city of Cherson which had served as his exile place for several years. The troops of Cherson revolted against him. He led his own troops against the rebels, fell into their hands and was swiftly executed.


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Emperor until 3 June 713 Deposed by a military revolt Death Later in the 8th century Notes A Monothelite. Led the troops of Cherson in successful revolt against Justinian II. Abolished the canons of the Third Council of Constantinople. Both Tervel of Bulgaria and AlWalid I of the Umayyad Caliphate managed to gain military victories over him. Deposed by a revolt of the troops of the Opsikian Theme, Thrace. He was deposed and blinded. Restored the canons of the Third Council of Constantinople. Attempted to impose discipline in the army and executed officers involved in previous revolts. The troops of the Opsikian Theme again revolted and deposed him. Retired for a while to a monastery in Thessaloniki. Led a Bulgarian-supported revolt against Leo III in 718. He was captured and executed.

Philippikos A general of Unknown December, Armenian 711 origins; deposed Justinian II

Anastasios a bureauII craut, imperial secretary for Philippikos

Unknown June, 713

November, 718 715 Deposed by a military revolt


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Theodosios a financial Unknown May, 715 III officer, tax collector in the Opsikian Theme

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25 March 717 Deposed by a military revolt Later in the 8th century Obscure origins, possibly related to Tiberios III. Laid siege to Constantinople from May to November, 715, prior to gaining entry and deposing Anastasios II. He was facing a renewed threat from the Umayyad Caliphate. Concluded a treaty with Kormesiy of Bulgaria, attempting to secure an alliance with him. Deposed by a combined revolt of generals Leo of the Anatolic Theme and Artabasdus of the Armeniac Theme. Abdicated when the rebels captured his namesake son, father and son joined the clergy. A Theodosios who was bishop of Ephesus c. 729 - 754 was either the former emperor or his son.


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Picture Name Leo III the Isaurian Status Birth

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Emperor Emperor from until 25 March 717 18 June 741 Death 18 June 741 Notes Strategos of the Anatolic theme. Successfully deposed Theodosios III. Faced the Siege of Constantinople (717 - 718) by Maslama. The Byzantines were reinforced by Tervel of Bulgaria and his troops. Maslama and his forces retreated, their Caliph Umar ibn AbdulAziz did not attempt another siege. Leo later also successfully withstood attacks by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Elevated the serfs into a class of free tenants. He was the first of the Iconoclast Emperors. Second of the Iconoclast Emperors. Almost immediately challenged for the throne by his brother-inlaw Artabasdos. Their civil war from 741 to 743, with Constantine as the victor. Branded the worship of relics and

a general c. 685 from Germanikeia, Commagene

Constantine Son of Leo V III

July, 718 Co-ruler in 720, senior ruler in 741

14 14 SeptemSeptember ber 775 775


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prayers to the saints as heretical practices. Reorganized the Byzantine army, introducing the tagma as its core military unit of professional troops. Invaded the Umayyad Caliphate which was falling apart under Marwan II, later leading attacks against As-Saffah, the first Abbasid Caliph. Gained a number of Christian captives from his Arab campaigns, resettling them in the Balkans. Led aggressive campaigns against the First Bulgarian Empire in attempt to extend his borders. His reign marks a turn of Byzantine military activities from mostly defensive actions to offensive campaigns against its eastern and northern neighbors.

Artabasdos Son-in-law of Unknown Rival em- 2 NovemLeo III, peror ber 743 brother-infrom law of

Later in the 8th century

Strategos of the Armeniac theme, helped Leo III rise to


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Constantine V June 741/2

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the throne. Married Anna, daughter of Leo III, and also given command of Opsikion theme. Challenged his brother-in-law Constantine V for the throne soon after the death of Leo. He led the Iconodule faction of the civil war and held Constantinople for its duration. He was defeated, blinded and sent to a monastery. Unknown time of death, there is mention of his bones c. 772. 8 Septem- 8 September Third of the ber 780 780 Iconoclast Emperors. His mother Tzitzak was a Khazar princess. Faced uprisings by his younger halfbrother Nikephoros and the others sons of Constantine V by Eudokia. In his conflict with Al-Mahdi of the Abbassids, the Byzantine army raided into Syria and the Abbassid one into Anatolia. He

Leo IV the Khazar

Son of Constantine V

25 January 750

Co-ruler in 751, senior ruler in 775


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was preparing a campaign against Kardam of Bulgaria at the time of his death.

Constantine Son of Leo 771 VI IV and Irene

Co-ruler in 776, sole emperor in 780

August, 797

c. 797, though sources are contradictory on the subject

He was underage when rising to the throne, his mother becoming his Regent. In 782, betrothed to Rotrude, a daughter of Charlemagne. Engagement broken in 788. Signed the decrees of the Second Council of Nicaea which restored the veneration of icons. Decision considered to reflect the religious views of his mother but not his own. Came to actual power in 790 but managed to alienate both the Orthodox (Iconodule) and the Iconoclast faction by the end of his reign. His divorce from his first wife Maria of Amnia and remarriage to his mistress Theodote caused the socalled "Moechian


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controversy" (from the Greek moichos, "adulterer"), seen as legalization of adultery by circles of the Church. Deposed by his mother and blinded. Accounts in primary sources differ on how long he survived his deposition, ranging from a mere ten days to a full decade.

Irene of Athens

Wife of Leo c. 752 IV, mother of Constantine VI

August, 797

31 October 802

9 August 803 A member of the Sarantapechos from Athens. Wife of Leo IV. Regent from 780 to 790, retained part of her influence. Responsible for the Second Council of Nicaea and its decisions. Deposed and succeeded her son in 797. A fervent Iconodule. Charlemagne crowned Roman Emperor in oppossition to her in 800. Deposed by a patrician conspiracy in 802. Exiled to Lesbos, where she died the following year.


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List of Byzantine emperors
Emperor Emperor Death from until 26 July 811 Notes

Nikephoros logothetēs I tou genikou (finance minister)

Unknown 31 October 802

26 July Deposed Irene 811 through a conspiracy of patricians and palace eunuchs. Created new themes in the Balkans, resettled Anatolian populations in them. Signed the Pax Nicephori with Charlemagne but there were still conflicts over possession of Venetia. Initially refused to pay tribute to Harun al-Rashid as Irene had agreed. Forced to increase the tribute after suffering military defeats. Led troops in a war against Krum of Bulgaria but was killed in the Battle of Pliska, along with most of the army following him. His skull was turned into a skull cup by Krum. 11 Married TheoJanuary phano, a relative of 812 Irene of Athens. He was present at the Battle of Pliska where a swordwound near the neck left him paralyzed. He was transferred from the battlefield by members of the imperial guard. He reportedly intended to abdicate the throne in favor of his wife, instead forced to abdicate in favor of his brother-in-law

Staurakios Son of Unknown Co-ruler Nikephoros in 803, I senior ruler in 811

2 October 811


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Michael I. Retired to a monastery and died months into his retirement, never recovering from his wounds.

Michael I Rangabe

Son-in-law Unknown 2 Octoof Nikephber 811 oros I, brother-inlaw of Staurakios

11 July 813

11 Married Prokopia, January a daughter of Nike844 phoros I. Kouropalates (master of the palace) prior to his elevation to the throne. A fervent iconodule, persecuted iconoclasts and was patron to Theodore the Studite. Recognized Charlemagne as basileus, though not a Roman one. In exchange established control over Venice with no oppossition from the Franks, ending the territorial dispute for the time. Suffered further losses in war against Krum. Abdicated in favor of Leo V, spend the rest of his life in a monastery. His sons were castrated but one of them emerged from monastic life as Patriarch Ignatios of Constantinople.


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Birth Emperor Emperor Death from until 11 July 813

Leo V the Strategos c. Armenian of the 775 Anatolic theme

25 25 Had contacted himself December December well in wars against the 820 820 Abbassids, but fled from the Battle of Versinikia against Krum of Bulgaria. Michael I abdicated in his favor. The war against Krum continued with the Bulgarians capturing both Adrianople and Arkadioupolis (Lüleburgaz). In 814, Krum died and his successor Omurtag of Bulgaria was defeated by Leo V. The two states initiated a peace treaty which lasted for decades. Reinstated the Iconoclast faction to power, fourth of the Iconoclast Emperors. Assassinated in the Hagia Sophia on Christmas, 820. He had entered the church unarmed and was unable to resist a group of dagger-wielding conspirators. His sons were castrated. Nicholas Adontz theorised that Leo V might be the same person as Leo, a great-grandfather of Basil I.


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Picture Name Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian (Μιχαήλ Β’ ο Τραυλός ή Ψελλός) Theophilus (Θεόφιλος) Theodora (Θεοδώρα) Status Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI Birth 770

List of Byzantine emperors
Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until 25 2 October 829 December 820 Fifth of the Iconoclast Emperors. Married Euphrosyne, a daughter of Constantine VI.

son of Michael II


2 October 20 January 842 829 842 855 867

Sixth and last of the Iconoclast Emperors. Reestablished the veneration of the icons. Deposed and entered monastery; canonized by the Orthodox church assassinated

wife of c. 815 Theophilus

Michael III son of the DrunkTheophilos ard (Μιχαήλ Γ’ ο Μέθυσος)

19 842 January 840

23 September 867


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Picture Name Status Birth

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Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until 867 2 August 886 died in hunting accident

Basil I the Macemarried Mi- c. 811 donian (Βασίλειος chael III’s Α’) widow Leo VI the Wise (Λέων ΣΤ’ ο Σοφός) Alexander (Αλέξανδρος Γ’ του Βυζαντίου)

likely either 19 886 son of Basil September I or Mi866 chael III son of Basil 870 I; regent for nephew 912

11 May 912


Constantine VII son of Leo Porphyrogennetos VI (Κωνσταντίνος Ζ’ ο Πορφυρογέννητος) Romanos I Lekapenos (Ρωμανός Α’ ο Λεκαπηνός)

9 Septem- 15 May ber 905 908

9 November 959

father-inc. 870 law of Constantine VII

17 16 15 December December June 920 944 948 November 15 March 963 959

deposed by his sons; entered monastery

Romanos II son of Con- 15 March Porphyrogennetos stantine VII 938 (Ρωμανός Β’ ο Πορφυρογέννητος) Nikephoros II Pho- married c. 912 kas (Νικηφόρος Β’ Theophano, Φωκάς) Romanos II’s widow, regent for Basil II John I Tzimiskes (Ιωάννης Α’ Κουρκούας ο Τσιμισκής) Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer (Βασίλειος Β’ ο Βουλγαροκτόνος) Constantine VIII (Κωνσταντίνος Η’) Zoe (Ζωή) brother-inlaw of Romanus II c. 925

16 August 969 963

Strategos; assassinated

11 10 January 976 December 969

lover of Nicephorus’s wife but banned from marriage; regent for Basil

son of Romanos II


10 January 976

15 December 1025

son of Romanos II


15 15 November December 1028 1025 15 June 1050 November 1028 15 11 April 1034 November 1028

coemperor with Basil II

daughter of c. 978 Constantine VIII 968

Romanos III Zoe’s first Argyros (Ρωμανός husband Γ’ ο Αργυρός)

eparch of Constantinople; murdered


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Michael IV the Paphlagonian (Μιχαήλ Δ’ ο Παφλαγών) Michael V the Caulker (Μιχαήλ Ε’ ο Καλαφάτης) Theodora (Θεοδώρα) Zoe’s second husband Michael IV’s nephew 1010 11 April 1034

List of Byzantine emperors
10 December 1041


10 20 April December 1042 1041 20 April 1042 1042

24 deposed, August blinded, and 1042 castrated after deposed 31 August 1056

daughter of 984 Constantine VIII c. 1000

Constantine IX Zoe’s third Monomachos husband (Κωνσταντίνος Θ’ ο Μονομάχος) Theodora (Θεοδώρα)

11 June 1042

11 January 1055

daughter of 984 Constantine VIII Birth Emperor from

11 January 1055

after 31 August 1056


Picture Name


Emperor Death Notes until c. 1059 A member of the Bringas family, probably related to Joseph Bringas who rose to influence during the reign of Romanos II. He was the designated heir of Theodora. He was supported by the palace bureaucracy but opposed by the military aristocracy. From June to August, 1057, Michael was involved in a civil war again Isaac I Komnenos. He was convinced by Michael I Cerularius to abdicate in favor of his opponent and retire to a monastery. He was eventually allowed to return to his private residence, where he died peacefully.

Michael Court burVI eaucraut, defence minister

Unknown September, 31 1056 August 1057


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Birth Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until 5 June 22 c. 1057 as November 1061 rival em- 1059 peror, sole emperor since 31 August 1057 He was a member of the Komnenos family who had risen to prominence in the reign of Basil II. He conducted a civil war against Michael VI, supported by fellow members of the military aristocracy. He managed to force his opponent to abdicate by the end of the summer. He rewarded his noble partisans with appointments which granted them authority but kept them at a distance from Constantinople. Attempted to repair the depleted finances of the empire by revoking numerous pensions and grants conferred by his predecessors and appropriating revenues from the wealthy monasteries. His only campaign was a defensive expedition against Andrew I of Hungary which threatened the northern borders of the empire. The campaign was successful and led to a peace treaty with the Kingdom of Hungary. He abdicated while convinced he was suffering from a fatal disease. Actually recovered shortly after his abdication. Spent the remainder of his life as a monk and scholar in the Monastery of Stoudios.

Isaac I commander c. Komnenos of the field 1005 army in Anatolia


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Picture Name Constantine X Doukas (Κωνσταντίνος Ι’ ο Δούκας) Michael VII son of ConDoukas stantine X Quarter-short (Μιχαήλ Ζ’ Δούκας Παραπινάκης) Status

List of Byzantine emperors
Birth Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until 1006 24 22 May 1067 November 1059 1050 22 May 1067 24 March 1078 1090 selected by Michael Psellus originally coemperor with two brothers and Romanus; deposed & entered monastery coemperor, deposed & mutilated to death bigamously married Maria of Alania, Michael VII’s wife; deposed & forced into monastery

Romanos IV Diogenes (Ρωμανός Δ’ Διογένης)

married Eudokia 1032 1067 Makrembolitissa, Constantine X’s widow



Nikephoros III Strategos claim- 1001 31 March 10 December Botaneiates ing descent from 1078 1081 (Νικηφόρος Γ’ the Fabii Βοτανειάτης)


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Picture Name Alexios I Komnenos (Αλέξιος Α’ Κομνηνός) Status Birth

List of Byzantine emperors
Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until 4 April 1081 15 August 1118 Arrested the decline following Manzikert in 1071, issued Hyperpyron and married Constantine X’s grandniece Initiated the Komnenian Restoration; pushed back the Turks in the east and to the north-west, died of a hunting accident Continued Komnenian Restoration, annexed Antioch, Balkans and defeated Venetians. Failed to destroy Iconium. Komnenian Restoration ends with his death. Incompetent ruler, murdered with garrotte. Initiated reforms, ceded cities in Asia to the Turks for peace, was deposed, tortured, and executed.

Nephew of 1048 Isaac I, military commander

John II son of Alex- 13 1118 Komnenos ios I September (Ιωάννης Β’ 1087 Κομνηνός o Καλός)

8 April 1143

Manuel I son of John 28 Novem- 1143 Komnenos II ber 1118 (Μανουήλ Α’ Κομνηνός ο Μέγας)

24 September 1180

Alexios II Komnenos (Αλέξιος B’ Κομνηνός)

son of Manuel I

14 1180 September 1169 c. 1118 1183

October 1183

Andronikos nephew of I Komnenos John II (Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός)

2 September 1185


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Picture Name Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος) Status Birth

List of Byzantine emperors
Notes deposed and blinded

Emperor Emperor Death from until 1195 January 1205

greatSeptember 1185 grandson 1156 of Alexios I 1153 1195

Alexios brother III Anof Isaac gelos II (Αλέξιος Γ’ Άγγελος) Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β’ Άγγελος)



deposed by the Fourth Crusade and eventually forced into monastery restored after Alexios III had fled as coemperor with Alexius IV, deposed by Alexios V deposed and killed by Alexios V

greatSeptember 1203 grandson 1156 of Alexios I 1182 1203


January 1205

Alexios son of IV AnIsaac II gelos (Αλέξιος Δ’ Άγγελος) Nikolaos Kanabos


25 Janu- 5 February 1205 ary 1204

refused to accept the election, strangled by Alexios V

Alexios V Doukas (Αλέξιος Ε’ Δούκας)

son-inlaw of Alexios III


5 Febru- 12 April ary 1204 1204

December 1205


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Emperor Death until c. 1205 Notes He was proclaimed emperor by troops still trying to defend Constantinople, following the flight of Alexios V.[2] He married Anna Angelina, a daughter of Alexios III. Founder of the Empire of Nicaea. Allied with Kaloyan of Bulgaria against Henry of Flanders of the Latin Empire.Successfully resisted an invasion by Kaykhusraw I, Sultan of Rum in 1211. Established Nicaean control over Paphlagonia. In 1220, Married Marie de Courtenay, a daughter of Peter II of Courtenay and Yolanda of Flanders of the Latin Empire, in an attempt at peace between the two rival empires. By the end of his reign Nicaea approximately consisted of the old Roman provinces of Asia and Bithynia.

Constantine Defender of Unknown Claimant c. 1205 Laskaris Constantinople emperor in 1204

Theodore I Laskaris

Brother of c. 1174 Constantine Laskaris, sonin-law of Alexios III

proclaimed 1221 1205, crowned 1208


John III Doukas Vatatzes

son-in-law of Theodore I

c. 1192

December, 3 Novem- 3 Novem- He married Irene 1221 ber 1254 ber 1254 Lascarina, eldest daughter of Theodore I. He was designated heir to his father-in-law in 1212. He faced opposition from the surviving brothers of Theodore I from 1221 to 1224. His rivals were allied


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with the Latin Empire. Gained territorial concessions by the Latin Empire in 1225. He seized Adrianople at about this time but lost it to Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus in 1227. Allied with Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria in 1230. Following the death of his ally in 1241, John III annexed much of Bulgarian Thrace. He annexed Thessalonica into his empire in 1246 and concetrated his later efforts against Epirus. He expanded Nicaean control over areas of the Aegean Sea, notably annexing Rhodes. His internal policies are credited with developing the economy of his realm to relative prosperity.

Theodore II son of John III, 1221/ Laskaris grandson of 1222 Theodore I

proclaimed 18 August 18 August 4 Novem- 1258 1258 ber 1254, crowned 1255

He was the only son of John III and Irene Lascarina. Shortly after his succession, Nicaea was invaded by Michael Asen I of Bulgaria who had just reached adulthood and was attempting to recover lost territories. Theodore II countered the invasion and concluded peace with Michael by 1256. He proceeded in the annexation of Durazzo and Servia, outflanking Epirus. In his internal affairs


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Theodore entrusted state affairs to bureaucrats from the middle classes, losing support from the great aristocratic families. He suffered from epilepsy and died during a seizure.

John IV Laskaris

son of Theodore II

25 18 August 25 c. 1305 December 1258 December 1250 1261

He was underage during his reign. His initial regents were George Mouzalon and Arsenius Autoreianus, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. However Michael VIII Palaiologos, a leading aristocrat, arranged the assassination of Mouzalon while Arsenius retreated to a monastery. Michael assumed control of the empire first as regent, then as coemperor. When Nicaean troops captured Constantinople, Michael moved his court to the new capital and left his co-ruler behind in the city of Nicaea. John IV was blinded and deposed on the day of his eleventh birthday. He spend the rest of his life as a monk.


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Picture Name Michael VIII Palaiologos Status Birth Emperor from

List of Byzantine emperors
Emperor until Death Notes He married Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, a grandniece of John III. In 1256, Michael was accused of conspiring with representatives of Kaykaus II, Sultan of Rûm. He went into exile or self-exile to the court of Kaykaus in Iconium. He was recalled in 1258 and appointed Megas Kontostaulos, chief of the Frankish mercenaries. He used his position to assassinate George Mouzalon, Regent for John IV, and claim the regency for himself. He served two years as coemperor prior to Alexios Strategopoulos capturing Constanntinople in his name. Michael transferred his capital to the captured city and shortly after deposed his coemperor. In 1259, Michael defeated an alliance comprised of William II Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, and Michael II Komnenos

Great-grand- 1223 son of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage

1 January 11 Decem- 11 Decem1259 as co- ber 1282 ber 1282 emperor, senior emperor since 25 December 1261


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Doukas of Epirus at the Battle of Pelagonia. In subsequent peace treaties, Michael VIII gained control of Mystras, Monemvasia and Maina in the Morea. Attempted to unify the Orthodox and Catholic Churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274. Secretly incited the rebellion known as the Sicilian Vespers against his enemy Charles I of Sicily, resulting in the split of the Kingdom of Sicily. Michael VIII was forced to drain the treasury to pay the enormous bribe of 60,000 gold pieces to Peter III of Aragon in order for the other ruler to invade Sicily. Died excommunicated from both Churches.

Andronikos II Palaiologos

Son of Michael VIII

25 March nominal 24 May 1259 co-emperor 1328 in September, 1261, crowned in 1272. Senior emperor on 11 December 1282

13 February 1332

Son of Michael VIII and Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina. Repudiated his father’s unpopular Church union with the Papacy (which he had been forced to support while his father was


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still alive), but was unable to resolve the related schism within the Orthodox clergy until 1310. Plagued by economic difficulties, the state treasury accumulated more than seven times less revenue (in nominal coins) than it had done previously. His economic measures included the dismantling of the Byzantine navy, never to be restored to its former strenghth of numbers. The empire grew increasingly depended on the rival republics of Venice and Genoa for naval support. The empire suffered from Turkish advances in Asia Minor throughout the reign, losing Prusa and much of Bithynia by 1326 to the rising Ottoman Dynasty. His second wife Eirene of Montferrat effectively established her own court in Thessalonica from 1303 to 1317. Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria conquered


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much of northeastern Thrace in c. 1305-1307. Andronikos II was involved in a civil war against his grandson Andronikos III from 1320 to 1328. He lost the conflict and spend the last years of his life as a monk.

Michael IX Palaiologos

Son of Andronikos II

17 April 1277

co-emperor 12 Octoin 1281, ber 1320 crowned in 1294/1295.

12 October 1320

Son of Andronikos II and his first wife Anna of Hungary. From 1300 to 1307, Michael led failed campaigns against the Turks, the Catalan Company of mercenaries (who had rebelled against their former employers) and Theodore Svetoslav of Bulgaria. He took over the court of Thessalonica in 1317. His health was seriously affected by the news that Andronikos III (his eldest son) had killed Manuel Palaiologos (his second son) over a conflict about a mistress. He died soon after the news reached him.


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Andronikos III Son of MiPalaiologos chael IX

List of Byzantine emperors
15 June 1341 He set himself as rival emperor to his grandfather since 1321, reigning from Adrianople. He won the civil war between them and settled himself in Constantinople. Effective administrative authority during the reign of Andronikos III was wielded by his megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos, while the emperor enjoyed himself hunting or waging war. Andronikos managed the annexation of Phocaea and the islands of Lesbos and Chios to the empire. However, Orhan I of the Ottoman Dynasty defeated Andronikos III at Pelekanos in 1329, took Nicaea in 1331 and Nicomedia in 1337. After that, only Philadelpheia and a handful of ports remained under Byzantine control in Asia Minor. Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia expanded into Byzantine territory in Macedonia, taking Ohrid, Prilep, Kastoria, Strumica, and

25 March co-emperor 15 June 1297 in 1316, 1341 rival emperor since July, 1321. Senior emperor on 24 May 1328.


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Voden in about 1334. On the other hand, Andronikos secured the extension of Byzantine control over Thessaly in 1333 and Epirus in 1337, by taking advantage of succession crises in these principalities.

John V Palaiologos

Son of Andronikos III

18 June 1332

Emperor in 8 Febru15 June ary 1347 1341

16 February 1391

Son of Andronikos III and his second wife Anna of Savoy. Underage during his first reign, placed under the regency of Anna. Anna did not trust John Kantakouzenos who had been entrusted with the administration. When Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia launched an invasion in Northern Thrace, Kantakouzenos left Constantinople to try to restore order to the area. In his absence, Patriarch John XIV of Constantinople and courtier Alexios Apokavkos convinced Anna that the senior advisor was her enemy. Anna declared Kantakouzenos an enemy of the state and


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offered his title of prefect of Constantinople to Apokavkos. Kantakouzenos answered by declaring himself rival emperor, initiating a civil war which would last until 1347. Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria soon allied with the faction under John V and Anna while Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia sided with John VI. Both rulers were actually taking advantage of the civil war for their own political and territorial gains. In time John VI would ally himself with Orhan I of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate. Anna was attempted to gain support from Western Europe and in Summer, 1343 an emissary proclaimed her loyalty to Pope Clement VI in Avignon. In August, 1343, Anna pawned the Byzantine crown jewels to the Republic of Venice for 30,000 ducats as part of an attempt to secure more finances for the war.


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However, she lost the war, her son demoted to a co-emperor of Kantakouzenos.

John VI A maternal Kantakouzenos relative of the Palaiologoi

c. 1292

rival em4 Decemperor on ber 1354 26 October 1341, senior emperor on 8 February 1347.

15 June 1383

He was a descendant of the Palaiologoi through his mother and the most trusted advisor of Andronikos III. He was in conflict with regent Anna of Savoy. He proclaimed himself rival emperor, ruling from Didymoteicho. He won the civil war, becoming senior emperor with John V as his co-emperor. He married his daughter Helena Kantakouzene to John V. His hazardous alliance with Orhan I allowed the Ottoman Turks to establish their first permanent settlement in Europe, at Gallipoli in Thrace. He attempted to re-establish the Byzantine navy but two fleets met defeat against the Republic of Genoa in 1349 and 1351. Conflict with John V restarted in 1352, with Kantakouzenos loosing the second phase of


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the war. He spend the rest of his life as a monk and scholar.

Matthew Son of John Kantakouzenos VI, brotherin-law of John V

c. 1325

co-emperor December, between on 15 April 1357 1383 and 1353, rival 1391 emperor since 4 December 1354.

He married Irene Palaiologina, a granddaughter of Abdronikos II and Eirene of Montferrat. He was proclaimed coemperor with his father as hostilities with John V had started again. Survived the fall of his father, keeping his title and part of Thrace as his own dominion. He and Irene were captured by Serbian forces in February, 1356. They remained in captivity until delivered to John V in December, 1357. Matthew was forced to abdicate. He moved to the Despotate of Morea, ruled at the time by his brother Manuel Kantakouzenos. He resurfaces as Despot of Morea from 1380 and 1383, before abdicating in favor of his son Demetrios I Kantakouzenos


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John V Palaiologos Son of An18 June dronikos III, 1332 son-in-law of John VI

List of Byzantine emperors
co-emperor 12 August 16 Februin 1347, 1376 ary 1391 rival emperor in 1352. Senior Emperor on 4 December 1354 Restored to the position of senior emperor through a civil war with John V and Matthew Kantakouzenos. In 1371 he recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan Murad I. He was deposed by his son Andronikos IV Palaiologos. Son of John V and Helena Kantakouzene. In 1373, Andronikos IV allied with Savci Bey in a combined revolt against their respective fathers John V and Murad I. Both rebellions failed. Murad I blinded his son and demanded that John V have Andronikos IV blinded as well, but John V blinded only one of his son’s eyes. The Republic of Genoa later helped Andronikos escape prison and assume control of Constantinople in a coup d’état. However he was opposed throughout his brief reign by the Republic of Venice and his old eneemy Murad I. He was effectively

Andronikos IV Son of John Palaiologos V, grandson of John VI

2 April 1348

co-emperor 1 July c. 1352, 1379 Senior Emperor on 12 August 1376

28 June 1385


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deposed in 1379, allowed to keep the title of co-emperor and given the city of Selymbria (Silivri) as his personal domain.

John V Palaiologos

Son of An18 June dronikos III, 1332 son-in-law of John VI

Senior Em- 14 April peror on 1 1390 July 1379

16 February 1391

Restored to the position of senior emperor through the intervention of the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire. Deposed by his grandson John VII Palaiologos. Co-emperor with his father in Constantinople from 1376 to 1379, possibly co-emperor in Selymbria from 1379 to 1385. Probably emperor in Selymbria from 1385 to 1390. Deposed his grandfather John V in 1390 but only held the throne for five months. He was restored to his domain of Selymbria through the intervention of Bayezid I. Maintained good relations with his uncle Manuel II, entrusted with the regency of Constantinople from 1399 to 1403. He then established his own court in

John VII Palaiologos

Son of Andronikos IV


Co-emper- 17 22 or from September September 1376 to 1390 1408 1379, senior emperor on 14 April 1390.


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Thessalonica from 1403 to 1408.

John V Palaiologos

Son of An18 June dronikos III, 1332 son-in-law of John VI

Senior Em- 16 Februperor on ary 1391 17 September 1390

16 February 1391

Restored to the position of senior emperor through the intervention of his son Manuel II and the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire. Died months later. Second son of John V and Helena Kantakouzene. Proclaimed coemperor after the failed revolt of his brother in 1373. He was supplanted by Andronikos IV in 1376-1379 and John VII in 1390. Instrumental in deposing the latter. Succeeded his father. His reign saw a siege of Constantinople by Bayezid I from 1394 to 1402. The siege was only broken when Bayezid had to leave to face an invasion of his own realm by Timur, founder of the Timurid dynasty. Manuel spent 1399-1403 traveling through Europe, trying to secure assistance against the Ottoman Empire. The defeat of Bayezid in the

Manuel II Palaiologos

Son of John V, grandson of John VI, brother of Andronikos IV

27 June 1350

Co-emper- 21 July or in 1373, 1425 Senior Emperor on 16 February 1391

21 July 1425


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Battle of Ankara led to the Ottoman Interregnum, when several of his sons claimed the throne for themselves. Manuel II Palaiologos used this period of respite to bolster the defences of the Despotate of Morea, where the Byzantine Empire was actually expanding at the expense of the remnants of the Latin Empire. He maintained friendly relations with Mehmed I, victor of the Ottoman civil war. But in 1421, Manuel supported Mustafa Çelebi against Murad II. His candidate for the Ottoman throne lost and Murad launched a new assault against Constantinople. By 1424, the Byzantines were again paying tribute to the Ottoman court.

Andronikos V Palaiologos

Son of John VII

c. 1400

co-emperor c. 1407 c. 1403

c. 1407

Co-emperor with his father at the court of Thessalonica. Predeceased his father.


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John VIII Palaiologos Son of Manuel II

List of Byzantine emperors
31 October 1448 Mostly known for the Council of Florence which established a shortlived reconciliation and union of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Ruler of the Despotate of Morea from 1443 to 1449. Succeeded his childless older brother in the throne of Constantinople. He faced conflict with Mehmed II, resulting in the Fall of Constantinople to the latter. Considered to have been killed in battle, corpse not identified.

18 Co-emper- 31 OctoDecember or c. 1416, ber 1448 1392 sole emperor on 21 July 1425

Constantine XI Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII

8 February 1405

6 January 1449

29 May 1453

29 May 1453


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List of Byzantine emperors

Birth Emperor Emperor Death Notes from until c. 1453 1407 1460 1470 He was a co-ruler of the Despotate of Morea since 1451. Became one of two claimants to the imperial succession with his younger brother and co-ruler Thomas. They managed to crush a revolt led by their cousin Manuel Kantakouzenos. However Demetrios and Thomas soon entered a civil war against each other. The war lasted until 1460, when Demetrios opted to surrender Mystras to Mehmed II. Demetrios spent the rest of his life in honorary captivity. His daughter Helena Palaiologina married Mehmed II. He was a co-ruler of the Despotate of Morea with various of his brothers since 1428. Became one of two claimants to the imperial succession with his older brother and coruler Demetrios. Survived the fall of the Despotate by fleeing to the Italian Peninsula. He spend the rest of his life in Rome, recognized as rightful Emperor of the East by the Popes and Christian Europe. created Despot by Pope Pius II, self-styled Imperator Constantinopolitanus sold his titles to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile.[3] See List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown.

Demetrios Son of Palaiologos Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI

Thomas Son of Palaiologos Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI

c. 1453 1409

12 May 1465

12 May 1465

Andreas Son of Palaiologos Thomas

c. 12 May 1453 1465




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of Byzantine emperors

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