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BMW M5

BMW M5
BMW M5 Manufacturer Production Class Layout Related BMW M GmbH 1985–present Mid-size luxury car/executive car FR layout BMW 5 Series Kerb weight Related 1,550 kg (3,417 lb) BMW 5-Series

The BMW M5 is a higher performance version of the BMW 5-Series automobile made by BMW Motorsport. First introduced at the Amsterdam Motor Show in 1984, the M5 has been made from various 5-Series versions throughout the years, including the E28, E34, E39 and most recently the E60 and E61. Originally, the M5 was hand-built utilising the 535i chassis and a modified BMW M1 engine. When introduced, it was the fastest production saloon/sedan in the world.

E28 M5 (1985–1988)
BMW E28 M5

Production Assembly Successor Body style(s) Platform Engine(s) Transmission(s) Wheelbase Length Width Height

1985–1988 Garching, Germany Rosslyn, South Africa E34 M5 4-door saloon/sedan BMW E28 3.5 L I6 petrol engine 5-speed manual 2,624 mm (103.3 in) 4,801 mm (189.0 in) 1,699 mm (66.9 in) 1,415 mm (55.7 in)

The first M5, which is based on the E28 5-Series, made its debut at the 1984 Amsterdam Motor Show. It was the product of demand for an automobile with the carrying capacity of a saloon (sedan), but the overall performance of a sports car. It utilised the 535i chassis, and an evolution of the engine from the BMW M1. The M5 was handbuilt by Motorsport technicians and was the fastest production saloon (sedan) in the world. The M5 was offered in four different versions. The first version was the left-hand drive (LHD) European spec M5. The second version was the right-hand drive (RHD) British spec M5. The third version was the North American spec (NA or so-called 1988) M5. The fourth version was the South African (ZA) spec M5. It is worth noting that production of the M5 continued until November 1988, well after production of the E28 chassis ended in Germany in December 1987. The LHD and RHD Euro specifications M5s, and the ZA specifications M5s had the M88/3 powerplant which delivered 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp), whereas the North American 1988 M5 was equipped with the S38 6-cylinder engine that had a catalytic converter, which reduced the power output to 191 kW (260 PS; 256 bhp). The S38 differed from the M88/3 in that it had 9.8:1 compression versus the M88/3’s 10.5:1. The S38 also used a dual-row timing chain, where the M88/1 used a single-row chain. Initially 500 were to be made for the US Market, BMW later increased production to as many as 1,370 units for the US and Canadian markets, although the generally accepted figure is 1,244 units sold. The North American spec models are unique, in that technically they were all finished in Schwarz (Black) with Natur (Tan) interiors. The otherwise virtually identical Canadian spec M5s were also available with Black interiors as an option, however a limited number of US Models were also equipped with Black interiors

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United States Vehicle Identification Numbers (VINs) range from 2791000-2792000 and 2875000-2875320. Car # 2791000 is not known to have been built, and not all VINs are known to have been used. The first few cars built in November and December 1986 were issued Federal compliance labels showing a 1/87 build date. As has been speculated earlier, physical confirmation of the VIN of the United States M5 kept in BMW North America’s Mobile Tradition collection is a 287 series car, a later 1987 build date car. While every North American spec E28 M5 was a 1988 model year car, production of North American specification M5s commenced in November 1986 and ended in November 1987. Excepting 96 units that were assembled in kit form at BMW’s Plant in Rosslyn, South Africa, all E28 M5s were assembled by hand at BMW Motorsport in Garching, Germany. With a total production of 2,191 the E28 M5 remains among the rarest regular production BMW Motorsport cars - after the BMW M1 (456 units), BMW E34 M5 Touring (891 units), and the BMW 850CSi (1510 units).

BMW M5
• (USA) - 191 kW (260 PS; 256 bhp) 0-60 mph - 6.5 seconds. Top Speed: 238 km/h (148 mph)

Tuners
• Whilst BMW Motorsport did not build any special versions of the E28 M5, the German tuner Hartge produced the Hartge H35S-24, a 330 PS (243 kW; 325 bhp) version of the E28 M5. Main modifications over and above the standard E28 M5 were revised cams, a modified exhaust, modified Bosch Motronic ECU programming, and a revised (and lowered) suspension setup. • Alpina limited their tuning efforts to the older M30 engine powered models. The Alpina B7 Turbo produced 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) with 0-60 mph times of 4.7 sec and a top speed of 270 km/h (168 mph).

E34 M5 (1989–1995)
BMW E34 M5

Specification
• DC91: (LHD Euro) => M88/3 engine 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp), 588 units produced • DC92: (RHD Euro) => M88/3 engine 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp), 187 units produced • DC93: (LHD US) => S38B35 engine 191 kW (260 PS; 256 bhp), 1,320 units produced • DC98: (RHD ZA) => M88/3 engine 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp), 96 units produced (DC98 and DC99) • DC99: (RHD ZA) => M88/3 naucer engine 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp)

Production Assembly Predecessor Successor Body style(s) Platform Engine(s) Transmission(s) Wheelbase Length Width

1989–1995 Garching, Germany E28 M5 E39 M5 4-door saloon/sedan, 5-door estate/wagon BMW E34 3.6 L I6 3.8 L I6 5-speed and 6-speed manual 2,761 mm (108.7 in) 4,719 mm (185.8 in) 1,750 mm (68.9 in)

Performance
At the time of sale, BMW quoted the following 0-60 times to give the impression that the E28 M5 did not outperform the more expensive, heavier and top-of-the-range E24 M635csi (BMW M6). • (Euro) - 210 kW (286 PS; 282 bhp) 0-60 mph - 6.2 seconds. Top Speed: 246 km/h (153 mph)

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Height Kerb weight Related 1,392 mm (54.8 in) 1,670 kg (3,682 lb) BMW 5-Series

BMW M5
M-System wheels. These wheels were 17x8J, but came with a bolted-on wheel cover. Under the cover was a black 5-spoke alloy wheel. The press was critical of the design, often claiming it gave the M5 the appearance of having "white-wall" tyres. In 1992, BMW changed the design and a new cover was produced — the M-System II. The original intent of the M-System cover was to direct more air to the brake assembly to increase cooling. The cover actually integrated a fin assembly behind the cover. The M-System II covers, known as the "throwing stars" did not have as much capability to direct air to the brake assemblies. In May 1994, the M5 came with M Parallel wheels that did away with the cover.

The E34 M5 was produced from 1989 to 1995, although sales in North America started in 1991 and ended in 1993. It was produced at BMW M GmbH in Garching, Germany, and, like the previous M5, was entirely hand-built. It utilised the 535i chassis which was produced at BMW’s Dingolfing plant. Assembly was done either by a single M employee, or a team of M employees, and generally took about two weeks. It is rumoured that the test drivers of the E34 M5 could determine who or what team made each specific M5, due to characteristic quirks of the hand built nature of the E34 M5. The engines were also built by hand by BMW M technicians. All of the E34 M5 petrol engines were built to a tolerance of within 5% of advertised output. The early E34 M5 used an evolution of the 24-valve straight-6 found in the E28 M5 and E24 M635CSi/M6. The engine was designated S38B36, with a bore of 93.4 mm (3.677 in) and stroke of 86 mm (3.386 in) for a total capacity of 3,535 cc (215.7 cu in). The added stroke is due to a new forged steel crankshaft, though the camshafts were also changed. Compression ratio was up slightly (10:1 versus 9.8:1). Other adjustments made included an electronically controlled butterfly valve in the intake plenum, which provided better low rpm and mid-range power. The engine also featured an improved flywheel, Bosch Motronic fuel injection, equal length stainless steel exhaust headers, and three way ceramic catalysts. Originally it had a displacement of 3.5 litres, and produced 235 kW (320 PS; 315 bhp), and 361 N·m (266 ft·lbf) at 4750 rpm. Cars sold in North America and Switzerland, due to a different catalytic converter, produced 229 kW (311 PS; 307 bhp). In second half of 1991, the engine displacement was increased to 3.8 litres with the S38B38, except in North America and South Africa, which continued with the 3.5 litre engine. Power was now increased to 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp). Also in 1992, a five-door Touring version (estate/wagon) was introduced in LHD form, with 891 cars made. The M5 came with an unusual roadwheel design. From 1989-1992 the M5 featured the

Specification
• HD91 (89-92 LHD Euro) I6-24v 3.6 litre 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) (only available with 5-speed manual transmission) • HD92 (89-91 RHD Euro) I6-24v 3.6 litre 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) (only available with 5-speed manual transmission) • HD93 (89-93 LHD US) I6-24v 3.6 litre 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) (only available with 5-speed manual transmission) • HD98 (90-93 RHD SA) I6-24v 3.6 litre 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) (only available with 5-speed manual transmission) made in South Africa from CKD kit supplied from Germany. • HC91 (91-94 LHD Euro) I6-24v 3.8 litre 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) (available with 5-speed or 6-speed manual transmission) • HC92 (92-94 RHD Euro) I6-24v 3.8 litre 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) (available with 5-speed or 6-speed manual transmission) • HJ91 (92-94 LHD Euro Touring) I6-24v 3.8 litre - 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) (available with 5-speed or 6-speed manual transmission) • 89-95 (ECE/GB/USA) - (no automatic transmission available)

Performance
• 89-92 (Euro) I6-24v 3.6 L - 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) - 0-100 km/h (62 mph): 6.3 secs. Top speed: 250 km/h (155 mph) (electronically limited)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• 92-95 (Euro) I6-24v 3.8 L - 250 kW (340 PS; 335 bhp) - 0-100 km/h (62 mph): 5.9 secs. Top speed: 250 km/h (155 mph) (electronically limited), or 280 km/h (174 mph) - without electronic limiter. • 91-93 (USA) I6-24v 3.6 L - 232 kW (315 PS; 311 bhp) - 0-60 mph: 6.4 secs. Top speed: 250 km/h (155 mph) (electronically limited)

BMW M5
1993 and 1995, two transmissions 6-speed manual (from 1994) and 5-speed automatic. • — with 254 kW (345 PS; 341 bhp), 480 N·m (354 ft·lbf) with an engine specially made for this model that also have 540i as a ground model, 27 saloon and 19 Touring was made between 1994 and 1996, two transmissions 6 speed manual and Switchtronic.

Special versions
• — A total of 22 Cecotto E34 M5s were produced with options of having either Lagoon Green metallic (266) and Mauritius Blue metallic paint (287). • — A total of 51 Winkelhock E34 M5s were produced with the options of having Jet Black (668) with contrasting lower body panels in Sterling Silver metallic paint (244), no fog lights and manual rear windows helped to lower the weight. • — To celebrate BMW Motorsport 20th anniversary, BMW had built 20 specially equipped Euro-spec M5s in late 1992. • — To commemorate the end of right-hand drive E34 M5 production, 50 examples of the E34 M5 Limited Edition were assembled between March and June 1995. • - 20 M5 Tourings were assembled for distribution in Italy. These were finished in either Sterling Silver over Marine Blue leather, or British Racing Green over Tobacco leather. All were made in 1995. It is debated as to whether or not these cars constitute a true special edition as they were ordered directly by a group of Italian BMW dealers. • — with 189 kW (257 PS; 253 bhp) the 5-series could do 0-60 in 7.0 seconds and maximum of 252 km/h (157 mph). There are only 572 of this Alpina ever produced, 5speed manual and 4speed automatic. • — With the 3.5L twin-turbocharged I6 Alpina produced about 270 kW (367 PS; 362 bhp) and launch from 0-60 in 5.1 second and official speed of 291 km/h (181 mph). 507 Bi-turbo was made, the 50 last has the M60: s wider front and blue instruments. This was also the fastest 4-door saloon (sedan) to 1996, 5speed manual only. • — with 235 kW (320 PS; 315 bhp) a tuned version of the ground model (540i) M60B40 4 litre V8, 45 saloon cars made and only 4 Touring was made between

E39 M5 (1998–2003)
BMW E39 M5

Production Assembly Predecessor Successor Body style(s) Platform Engine(s) Transmission(s) Wheelbase Length Width Height Kerb weight Related

1998–2003 Dingolfing, Germany E34 M5 E60 M5 4-door saloon/sedan BMW E39 4.94L 90° V8 6-speed manual 2,830 mm (111.4 in) 4,783 mm (188.3 in) 1,801 mm (70.9 in) 1,412 mm (55.6 in) 1,826 kg (4,026 lb) BMW 5-Series BMW X5

Unlike its predecessors, the E39 M5 was not handbuilt at the BMW M GmbH factory; it was produced on the same assembly line as the normal E39 5-series at the Dingolfing factory in Germany. In fact, the E39 M5 was almost not built at all; BMW believed that the 213 kW (290 PS; 286 bhp) 540i was powerful enough, but when Jaguar released the 239 kW (325 PS; 321 bhp) XJR, and Mercedes-Benz introduced the W210 E55,

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BMW M5
BMW M. Reduced spring height, 23 mm (0.9 in) lower. A specific shock valving, thicker front and rear anti-roll bars, polyurethane auxiliary springs, and steel balljoints. Like all V8-powered E39 models, the E39 M5 was equipped with a recirculating ball steering system. Overall steering ratio was reduced to 14.7 from 17.9. It featured a Servotronic vehicle-speed-sensitive power assist which provides two levels of resistance controlled via console mounted Sport button. The Sport button also adjusted the electronic throttle butterflies for faster throttle response. The E39 M5 is equipped with fourwheel vented disc brakes measuring 345 mm (13.58 in) in diameter in front and 328 mm (12.91 in) in diameter in the rear. On European-specification models, the rotors are of a "floating" two-piece design for reduced risk of cone distortion. Their lower unsprung weight improves ride quality and traction on bumpy surfaces as well. Anti-lock brakes were standard. During its five years in production, there were some cosmetic changes in 2001 to include: • Revised headlight design incorporating illuminated "Angel Eyes" (incadescent glass rings surrounding the headlights) • Jewel tone Celis tail light design • Park Distance Control sensors in the front bumper (previously in rear only) • Thicker three-spoke M steering wheel identical to the one fitted to the E46 M3 • Grey instrument panel • Improved solar sensor for standard automatic climate control • Revised navigation/audio unit with larger (6.5-inch) monitor (Standard on US Spec 2001-2003) • Rear head protection airbags added • Second-generation M Mobility tyre repair system in place of earlier version • Available M Audio System with special tweeters, Kevlar/carbon coaxial speakers and two subwoofers behind the rear console • Alcantara headliner included with Extended Leather interior (previously only included with Complete Leather) For the subsequent two model years, changes were limited to the addition of new exterior colors (from 9/01 production) and the upgrade to a DVD-based navigation system (from 9/02 production).

2003 BMW M5 Interior (US spec) which had over 261 kW (355 PS; 350 bhp) 350 bhp (354 hp), BMW responded to the competition with a 294 kW (400 PS; 394 bhp) M5. Introduced in 1998 at the Geneva Motor Show, production did not begin until late October of that year. A total of 20,482 E39 M5s were made from 1999 to 2003. BMW M produced three versions of the E39 M5, the European LHD and RHD versions, and the North American specification version. The E39 M5 had a highly tuned V8 engine based on the M62 engine called the S62, which displaced 4.9 litres and produced 294 kW (400 PS; 394 bhp). The engine featured a 7000 rpm redline, Double-VANOS, which varies the intake and exhaust valves for both cylinder banks, and individual throttle butterflies for each of the cylinders, allowing for a much faster engine response time. All E39 M5s were equipped with a Getrag Type D six-speed manual transmission which provided the following gearing ratios: • 1st gear: 4.23 • 2nd gear: 2.54 • 3rd gear: 1.62 • 4th gear: 1.23 • 5th gear: 1.00 • 6th gear: 0.83 It is the same transmission used in the E39 540i, but some changes were made to cope with the extra power the S62 engine produced. A reinforced clutch, rear differential utilising a shorter 3.15:1 ratio, and a limited slip differential with 25% maximum locking. The E39 M5 suspension shared its basic aluminium-intensive MacPherson strut/multilink design of the V8 engined E39 5 series. However, several changes were made by

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The E39 M5 is capable of accelerating from 0-100 km/h (62 mph) in 5.3 seconds, although many reviewers claim to have achieved this under 5 seconds. It is electronically limited to a top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph)[1], making it the fastest 4-door saloon in the world at the time it was manufactured. Once delimited, top speeds of an indicated 301 km/h (187 mph) (290 km/h (180 mph) actual) are possible. Although an E39 M5 Touring was considered, and at least one prototype was constructed (in Titanium Silver with a Black Exclusive leather interior), BMW M decided not to produce an E39 M5 Touring due to financial considerations.

BMW M5
redlining at 8250 rpm, and developing a peak output of 373 kW (507 PS; 500 bhp) with 520 N·m (384 ft·lbf) of torque. Unlike some other BMW engines which utilise Valvetronic to infinitely vary valve lift to eliminate the throttle plate, this engine has individual throttle bodies per cylinder. Other key features include a stiffened aluminium chassis and a 7-speed Sequential Manual Gearbox SMG III automatic transmission. The BMW M5, along with the new M6, were designed to use the new SMG III electrohydraulic manual transmission. The transmission, while responsive at the track, has been criticised for its general lack of smoothness in everyday driving. In October 2006, BMW announced that a 6-speed manual transmission would be available in North America, based on suggestions from the motoring press. The 6-speed manual M5 was marginally slower, since the stability control cannot be disengaged as per the SMG version. The SMG III includes the "Launch Control" feature, which allows maximum performance standing starts automatically. However, the US spec vehicles have a reduced rpm to prevent vehicle damage and abuse.

E60 M5 (2005–present)
BMW E60 M5 BMW M5 E60 Production Assembly Predecessor Body style(s) 2005–present Dingolfing, Germany E39 M5 4-door saloon/sedan, 5-door Touring (estate/ wagon) BMW E60 5.0L V10 petrol engine 6-speed manual, 7-speed Sequential Manual Gearbox (SMG) saloon: 2,889 mm (113.7 in), Touring: 2,880 mm (113.4 in) 4,855 mm (191.1 in) 1,846 mm (72.7 in) saloon: 1,469 mm (57.8 in), Touring: 1,512 mm (59.5 in) saloon: 1,855 kg (4,090 lb), Touring: 1,955 kg (4,310 lb) 70 L (15.4 imp gal; 18.5 US gal) BMW 5-Series BMW M6 Chris Bangle

Platform Engine(s) Transmission(s)

Wheelbase

Length Width Height

E60 BMW M5 V10 engine

Kerb weight Fuel capacity Related Designer

E60 BMW M5 used as a ring taxi in Nürburgring Nordschleife The M5 features several Formula One inspired engine and transmission controls, including launch control, dynamic stability control, and the option of changing to either automated or manual, as well as the speed at which shifts are completed (there are 11 shift programmes in total forming what BMW calls Drivelogic). Manual shifting can be done

The E60 M5 was introduced in 2005. It has a 4,999 cc (305.1 cu in) BMW V10 S85 engine

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
with either a console shifter, or the steering wheel mounted shift paddles, both of which are fitted to all SMG M5s. The console shifter is the type used on manumatic transmissions; tipping it backward (toward the "+") shifts up, while a forward tip (toward the "-") shifts down. The shifter can be moved to the left to access neutral and reverse. The car also features a "power" button on the steering wheel (labeled "M") which offers access to three modes: P400 (limiting the engine to 400 PS (294 kW; 395 bhp) for daily driving use), P500 (unleashes the full 507 PS (373 kW; 500 bhp)), and P500 S (for full power and sharper throttle response, selectable only from the "M Drive Settings" in the iDrive menu). P400 is the default start-up mode, the P500 modes are preselected using iDrive and then activated from P500 S using the "M" button. Other than a firm ride, the E60’s criticisms are excessive fuel consumption, and the general design criticisms of the Chris Bangle-designed E60 body. Recent developments by other manufacturers, specifically the production of the more powerful Audi RS6 (C6) (426 kW (579 PS; 571 bhp)), and the second generation Cadillac CTS-V (556 bhp (415 kW; 564 PS)) which bested the M5’s Nürburgring lap time, has inspired BMW to go back to the drawing board. The 2011 M5’s power output is expected to hit the 600+ bhp mark, up from its current 500 PS (368 kW; 493 bhp). Front fog lights are unavailable for the E60 M5: The amount of air required by the engine forces the space normally occupied by the front fog lights under the bumper to be reallocated for air intakes.

BMW M5

Innovations
The new 2005-2007 M5 features some of BMW latest innovations, including a new head-up display, a new iteration of BMW’s EDC (Electronic Damper Control), which constantly adjusts the suspension to environmental and vehicular conditions, and can also be set in three modes, comfort, normal and sport. Furthermore, the new M5 also features the VANOS variable valve timing system, and EMC (engine management system) which sports the most powerful computer processor currently approved for automobiles, the MS S65 processor. This processor also controls and measures many other now ’standard’ safety and performance systems such as the DSC (dynamic stability control)), which incorporates traction control as well as various other mechanical and electronic systems. The M5 also includes more then 18 different transmission settings.

Tuners
• BMW Motorsport has not yet produced any special variants of the E60. However, German tuner Hartge has created a modified version without the electronic speed limiter; it also features upgraded wheels and tyres to cope with high speed. • — Tuner Hamann produces several E60 variants, but the most exotic is "Edition Race," with a wide body-kit, larger wheels and tyres, a tuned engine (including removal of the speed limiter), and customized interior details. It has a top speed of about 309 km/h (192 mph) (down from the standard +314 km/h (195 mph) due to the extra drag/weight from the wider, heavier tyres and bodykit). • Italian tuner Racing Dynamics (RD Sport in US) offers an engine tuning programme for the E60 M5 called the RS56 with increased capacity from 5.0 to 5.6 L and 483 kW (657 PS; 648 bhp).[3] • Dinan Cars produces an uprated NA version of the V10 with a displacement of 5.7 litres for up to 468 kW (636 PS; 628 bhp). • G-Power — This German based tuning company has recently released a powerful twin-supercharged variant of the E60 M5 called the "G-Power Hurricane M5". As of this article, this company claims to have produced the worlds fastest M5. This claim can rightfully be made considering

Performance
• 0-100 km/h (62 mph): 4.5s[2] • (0-100 mph: 10.1s, Road & Track [2/ 06]) • (0-60 mph: 4.1s, Road & Track [2/06]) • Top speed: 250 km/h (155 mph) actual (or 163mph indicated) with electronic speed limiter; 330 km/h (205 mph) indicated, 193mph actual with limiter removed • Power: 373 kW (507 PS; 500 bhp) at 7750 rpm • Torque: 520 N·m (384 ft·lbf) at 6100 rpm

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
that this variant of the M5 boasts over 560 kW (761 PS; 751 bhp) and has set the world record for the fastest Sedan with a top speed of 367.4 km/h (228.3 mph). • BMW M6

BMW M5

References
[1] Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990, vol.5. Stuttgart: Motorbuch. p. 187. ISBN 3-613-02128-5. [2] "Equipment and Technical data" (PDF). BMW AG. http://www.bmw.com/com/en/ newvehicles/mseries/m5/2007/_shared/ pdf/m5_sedan_touring_datasheet.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. [3] "M5 (E60) Motor Performance". racdyn.com. http://www.racdyn.com/ Localized/NorthAmerica/Series/M/ M5_E60/RD_NA_M5_E60_Motor/ RD_NA_M5_E60_Motor.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.

E61 M5 Touring (2007–present)
The E61 M5 Touring was introduced in 2007, only the second M version of the 5-Series Touring after the E34. It shares the same drivetrain with its saloon sibling, and serves as a rival to the Audi RS6 Avant and Mercedes-Benz E63 AMG Estate. BMW of North America has stated that there are no plans to import the M5 Touring to North America.

See also
• BMW M3 • BMW M535i

External links
• BMW M5 Official BMW M5 Site • 2008 M5 prices and specs

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMW_M5" Categories: BMW vehicles, Rear wheel drive vehicles, Sedans, Sports sedans, 1980s automobiles, 1990s automobiles, 2000s automobiles, Vehicles introduced in 1985 This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 09:28 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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