Chapter Five Equal Rights Struggling Toward Fairness Multiple Choice 1 The focus of civil liberties is the and the focus of civil rights is the a individual individual by bbg10768

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									Chapter Five
Equal Rights: Struggling Toward Fairness

Multiple Choice

1. The focus of civil liberties is the _____ and the focus of civil rights is the _____.
   a. individual; individual
   b. group; group
   c. individual; group
   d. group; individual
   e. Tenth Amendment; Twenty-seventh Amendment

2. Disadvantaged Americans have generally gained their rights
   a. through the enlightened policies of advantaged Americans.
   b. through judicial action only.
   c. through struggle against entrenched interests.
   d. mainly through action by the states rather than the federal government.
   e. by waiting patiently for public opinion to back their cause.

3. Culminating in an historic victory in 1954, black activists in the early twentieth century
   generally pursued civil rights through
   a. legal action.
   b. legislative action.
   c. presidential action.
   d. bureaucratic action.
   e. mass-media action.

4. The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling (1954) held that racial
   segregation in schools violated the
   a. due process clause of the Fifth Amendment.
   b. due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
   c. equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
   d. Civil Rights Act.
   e. establishment clause of the First Amendment.
5. The modern civil rights movement peaked with the March on Washington in
   a. 1954.
   b. 1960.
   c. 1963.
   d. 1968.
   e. 1973.

6. In the case of United States v. Virginia (1996) the Supreme Court ruled that
   a. strict racial quotas were a valid means of ensuring racial diversity on college campuses.
   b. private colleges could refuse to admit prospective students on the basis of sexual
   c. male-only admissions policies at state-supported military academies were
   d. because female instructors created an undue distraction at all-male universities, the
       schools in question could discriminate against women in their hiring practices.
   e. colleges affiliated with a particular religion could not take the religious persuasion of job
       candidates into consideration during the hiring process.

7. Which statement about women’s rights is correct?
   a. The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was ratified by the necessary 38 states in 1982.
   b. The women’s rights movement began in the era of World War I and within a few years
      achieved voting rights for women.
   c. Women have made clear gains in the areas of appointive and elective offices.
   d. Women tend to cast their votes for Republican candidates.
   e. All these answers are correct.

8. The movement for women’s rights was initially aligned with
   a. the abolition movement.
   b. the Progressive movement.
   c. the labor movement.
   d. the modern civil rights movement.
   e. the modern environmental movement.

9. All of the following statements about Latino Americans are true except that
   a. they are the fastest-growing minority in the United States.
   b. they have made major political gains in terms of electing local officials, particularly in
       the Southwestern states.
   c. they tend to be relatively liberal on social issues.
   d. they are not monolithic in their political thinking.
   e. they are one of the nation’s oldest ethnic groups.
10. On average, women earn about _____ as much as men.
    a. one-fourth
    b. one-half
    c. two-thirds
    d. three-fourths
    e. nine-tenths

11. Native Americans
    a. today number more than 2 million.
    b. have lower life expectancies than the national average.
    c. have in recent years filed suit to reclaim their ancestral lands.
    d. are less than half as likely to finish college as other Americans.
    e. All these answers are correct.

12. All of the following statements about Asian American rights are true except
    a. for a long period, Asian people were effectively denied entry to the United States on
        account of their race.
    b. Asian Americans are an upwardly mobile group, but are under represented in top
        positions in society due to past and present discrimination.
    c. Asian Americans were as fully involved as other minorities in the civil rights movements
        of the 1950s and 1960s.
    d. Asian Americans have made notable educational advancements.
    e. discrimination against Asian Americans did not ease substantially until the 1960s.

13. Any law that attempts a racial or ethnic classification is subject to the
    a. reasonable basis test.
    b. strict scrutiny test.
    c. intermediate scrutiny test.
    d. precedent basis test.
    e. suspect classification test.
14. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was aimed chiefly at eliminating discrimination
    a. by governments in their conduct of elections (e.g., registration, placement of polling
    b. by private individuals in their social relations—bigoted statements and other acts of
       prejudice are unlawful under most circumstances.
    c. by governments in their job practices and provision of services (e.g., schools, roads).
    d. by private individuals in their employment practices and in their operation of public
       accommodations (e.g., hotels, restaurants).
    e. against gays and lesbians.

15. De jure discrimination and de facto discrimination are two ways in which some Americans
    are less equal than others. Examples of public policies designed to address each of these
    forms of discrimination are
    a. the Brown decision (de jure), and affirmative action (de facto).
    b. affirmative action (de jure), and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de facto).
    c. the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (de jure), and the Brown decision (de facto).
    d. the Supreme Court’s busing decisions (de jure), and affirmative action decisions (de
    e. None of these answers is correct.

16. In applying the reasonable basis test, courts tend to
    a. give government the benefit of the doubt.
    b. assess whether a law had the support of a two-thirds majority of legislators at the time of
    c. determine whether a law is working well and, if so, to allow it to remain in effect.
    d. prohibit any law that results in the unequal treatment of Americans.
    e. interpret the equal protection clause in a strict manner.

17. Housing in America
    a. falls largely outside the scope of the law—people are free to rent or sell property to
       whomever they want.
    b. is an area where equality in practice is now nearly a reality; people of similar incomes,
       regardless of race or color, find it equally easy to qualify for home mortgages.
    c. is an unimportant civil rights issue, since housing patterns almost completely reflect the
       personal preferences of people, and are not substantially influenced by past or present
       racial bias.
    d. continues to evidence a high degree of racial segregation.
    e. None of these answers is correct.
18. An example of a policy that aimed chiefly to overcome de facto discrimination is
    a. the Equal Rights Amendment.
    b. the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
    c. busing to achieve racial integration in the schools.
    d. the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling.
    e. the Fourteenth Amendment.

19. The policy of affirmative action arose when
    a. it became apparent that disadvantaged Americans would not attain equal employment
       opportunities through law suits that benefited single individuals only.
    b. the Supreme Court declared in Bakke that the Fourteenth Amendment requires
       government and large firms to hire more women and minorities.
    c. the Supreme Court ruled that de facto discrimination is unlawful.
    d. private firms decided on their own that a more diverse workforce was actually a more
       productive and effective workforce.
    e. the Supreme Court rendered its Adarand v. Pena decision in 1995.

20. The Supreme Court’s decision in the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke case
    a. invalidated the principle of affirmative action.
    b. ruled that Bakke could not be admitted to medical school.
    c. established quota systems as a legitimate basis of affirmative action.
    d. upheld the principle of affirmative action.
    e. None of these answers is correct.

21. One reason that affirmative action is so controversial is that
    a. since the 1980s the Supreme Court has imposed it on the American public despite
       congressional attempts to end it.
    b. most Americans admit that they oppose programs that ensure equal treatment for
    c. it is applied only to private businesses and schools, not to government programs and
    d. the Supreme Court has repeatedly declared it unconstitutional both in principle and in
    e. it requires providers of opportunities to demonstrate that they are not disproportionately
       favoring white men.
22. The Supreme Court’s 1980 decision that a congressional spending bill may include a
    provision that10 percent of federal funding for building projects be awarded to minority-
    owned firms was reversed by the 1995 case of
    a. Adarand v. Pena.
    b. Fullilove v. Klutznick.
    c. Craig v. Boren.
    d. Rostker v. Goldberg.
    e. United States v. Virginia.

23. With regard to affirmative action, the Supreme Court in recent years has
    a. moved to outlaw it.
    b. moved to narrow its application.
    c. asked Congress to clarify the policy.
    d. asked the president to clarify the policy.
    e. asked the state legislatures to clarify the policy.

24. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Swann case on busing differed from the Brown decision in
    that Swann
    a. addressed the problem of de facto discrimination.
    b. applied to many northern communities in addition to communities in the South.
    c. sanctioned the use of busing in desegregation.
    d. dealt specifically with the issue of busing.
    e. All these answers are correct.

25. For the past two decades, the trend in public schools has been
    a. toward greater integration.
    b. toward greater segregation.
    c. to rely more and more on busing.
    d. to reinstate de jure racial segregation.
    e. to retain the gains in racial integration achieved through the 1970s, but not to further

26. Native Americans
    a. have always been legal citizens of the United States.
    b. were not given citizenship status en masse until the twentieth century.
    c. do not today have the full legal rights of other U.S. citizens.
    d. are U.S. citizens unless they choose to live on a reservation.
    e. have numbered roughly ten million in the United States since the 1700s.
   27. The demand that women should receive equal pay relative to men for work that is
       similarly demanding, involves similar responsibilities, and that requires similar levels of
       education and training, is the basis of the concept of
   a. equality of opportunity.
   b. affirmative action.
   c. comparable worth.
   d. de jure discrimination.
   e. reverse discrimination.

28. Which region of the world has the highest proportion of women serving in its national
    a. Scandinavia
    b. Latin America
    c. North America
    d. East Asia
    e. Central Europe

29. According to Gunnar Myrdal, what is America’s curse?
    a. greed
    b. racial discrimination
    c. obesity
    d. street violence
    e. religious intolerance

30. Women in America obtained the right to vote in national elections in
    a. 1790.
    b. 1865.
    c. 1890.
    d. 1920.
    e. 1974.

31. Asian Americans account for about _____ percent of professionals and technicians in the
    United States.
    a. 1
    b. 5
    c. 10
    d. 15
    e. 25
32. In 2007 the Supreme Court ruled that the pursuit of racial integration in public schools
    through busing
    a. was a practice that should be left to state governments to adopt or reject.
    b. should be enacted and monitored by the federal government to ensure full compliance.
    c. was as necessary to ensure racial justice as was the ending of de facto segregation in
    d. was a permanent solution to an intractable problem.
    e. deprived white students of their Fourteenth Amendment right to equal protection.

33. Today, the majority of African Americans in the nation
    a. live in neighborhoods where whites are in the minority.
    b. send their children to schools that are predominantly white.
    c. have the same quality of health care as the majority of white Americans.
    d. are less likely than whites to be convicted of a crime if arrested.
    e. have incomes equal to that of the majority of white Americans.

34. How many states ratified the Equal Rights Amendment?
    a. none of them
    b. only a few
    c. about half
    d. nearly three-fourths
    e. all but three of them

35. Which of the following would be considered the worst setback by affirmative action
    a. Adarand v. Pena
    b. Craig v. Boren
    c. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
    d. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education
    e. None of these answers is correct.

36. After the Civil War ended, federal troops were removed from the South in
    a. 1848.
    b. 1865.
    c. 1877.
    d. 1901.
    e. 1912.
37. An immigration reform bill which would have created a guest worker program was defeated
    in 2007 due largely to the opposition of
    a. congressional Republicans.
    b. the Supreme Court.
    c. House Democrats.
    d. prominent businessmen.
    e. President George W. Bush.

38. The gender gap refers to the tendency of women to favor
    a. Green party candidates.
    b. Democrats.
    c. Independents.
    d. Republicans.
    e. libertarians.

39. Which 1980 Supreme Court ruling upheld a quota system requiring ten percent of federal
    public works funds to be set aside for minority-owned firms?
    a. Shaw v. Reno
    b. DeCanas v. Bica
    c. Craig v. Boren
    d. Fullilove v. Klutznick
    e. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education

40. Equality of result policies are primarily directed at _____ discriminatory effects.
    a. de jure
    b. de facto
    c. religious
    d. gender
    e. due process

41. Which of the following is true?
    a. Public schools are becoming more segregated nationally.
    b. Many urban public school districts have ended the use of busing for desegregation
    c. Suburbanization has made it more difficult to desegregate urban schools.
    d. Reformers have shifted away from busing and more toward school financing in recent
    e. All of these answers are correct.
42. The central issue in the Bakke case was
    a. school desegregation.
    b. sexual harassment.
    c. affirmative action.
    d. Native Americans’ civil rights.
    e. comparable worth.

43. Today, women currently hold about _____ percent of the seats in Congress.
    a. 5
    b. 15
    c. 25
    d. 40
    e. 50

44. The Fourteenth Amendment applies to discriminatory action
    a. by government only.
    b. by private parties only.
    c. by both government and private parties.
    d. by the president specifically.
    e. by Congress specifically.

45. Puerto Ricans who immigrate to the United States are most likely to settle in
    a. California.
    b. Texas.
    c. New Jersey.
    d. New Mexico.
    e. Arizona.

46. Native Americans were made “official” citizens of the United States in
    a. 1789.
    b. 1856.
    c. 1924.
    d. 1972.
    e. 1998.
47. Which Latino group identifies most strongly with the Republican party?
    a. Puerto Rican Americans
    b. Mexican Americans
    c. Cuban Americans
    d. Dominican Americans
    e. No Latino group identifies strongly with the Republican party.

48. Current issues of concern to women include
    a. sexual harassment.
    b. the gender gap.
    c. comparable worth.
    d. political representation.
    e. All of these answers are correct.

49. In 2004, by order of the state’s Supreme Court, _____ instituted same-sex marriage.
    a. California
    b. Texas
    c. Vermont
    d. Massachusetts
    e. Alabama

50. What was politically significant about Barbara Boxer and Dianne Feinstein in 1992?
    a. They were the first two women to be elected governors of neighboring states.
    b. They were the first two women to be elected to the two Senate seats from one state.
    c. They were the first two women to serve as governor and lieutenant governor of the same
    d. They were the first two women to hold the top two positions in the U.S. House of
    e. They were the first two women to hold the top two positions in the U.S. Senate.

51. The first woman ever to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court was appointed by President
    a. Truman.
    b. Eisenhower.
    c. Kennedy.
    d. Reagan.
    e. Carter.
52. The first women’s rights convention in the United States was held in 1848 in
    a. Boston, Massachusetts.
    b. San Francisco, California.
    c. Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    d. Seneca Falls, New York.
    e. Madison, Wisconsin.

53. The famous “I have a dream speech” in the civil rights movement was delivered by
    a. Jesse Jackson.
    b. Martin Luther King, Jr.
    c. Thurgood Marshall.
    d. John F. Kennedy.
    e. Robert F. Kennedy.

54. In colonial times, married women were not permitted to
    a. vote.
    b. hold office.
    c. serve on juries.
    d. own and dispense property without the husband’s consent.
    e. All these answers are correct.

55. Compared to Western Europeans, Americans are
    a. more likely to elect women to national office.
    b. less likely to believe that a married woman should stay at home while her husband works.
    c. less likely to believe that society should accept gay and lesbian lifestyles.
    d. less likely to vote incumbents back into office.
    e. more familiar with a proportional system of election.

56. Which one of the following occurred after the Brown decision?
    a. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    b. Voting Rights Act of 1965
    c. Birmingham demonstrations
    d. “I have a dream” speech
    e. All these answers are correct.
57. Which of the following is true?
    a. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2000 that the Boy Scouts can ban gays.
    b. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2003 that states cannot ban homosexual relations
       among consenting adults.
    c. The Supreme Court justices ruled in 1996 that states could not adopt hostile policies
       toward gays and lesbians.
    d. Both of these are true: The Supreme Court justices ruled in 2000 that the Boy Scouts can
       ban gays; and the Supreme Court justices ruled in 1996 that states could not adopt hostile
       policies toward gays and lesbians.
    e. All these answers are correct.

Essay/Short Answer

58. What is the equal protection clause? What three tests are associated with discrimination in
Answer: The equal protection clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment, which reads in part
that no state shall “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
This clause has been used by the courts to protect minorities from discrimination. The tests
associated with legal discrimination are the reasonable-basis test, the strict-scrutiny test, and the
intermediate-basis test. The first test stipulates that some inequalities (such as unequal tax rates
for people of different income levels) are acceptable as long as they are related to legitimate
government interests. The second test is premised on the belief that racial and ethnic-based
classifications are unconstitutional almost by definition. The third test has been used with regard
to sex classifications, and is less rigid than the strict-scrutiny test but more rigid than the
reasonable-basis test. For example, the exclusion of women from the military draft has been
judged by the courts to be constitutional, whereas most other forms of gender discrimination in
law have been judged unconstitutional.

59. What is affirmative action? What is the Supreme Court’s general position on affirmative
ffirmative action is a deliberate effort to counteract de facto discrimination and provide full and
equal opportunity in areas such as education and employment for traditionally disadvantaged
groups. This policy attempts to require providers of opportunities to show that their policies are
not discriminatory. The Supreme Court has limited the application of affirmative action. In
general, the Supreme Court has allowed practices seeking to redress instances of discrimination
unless those practices infringe on the rights of white people already employed and unless they
involve the strict use of quotas.

60. What is equality of result? What relation does it have to de facto and de jure discrimination?
quality of result is the aim of policies intended to reduce or eliminate discriminatory effects so
that members of traditionally disadvantaged groups may obtain the same benefits of society as
members of traditionally advantaged groups. De facto discrimination is discrimination that is a
consequence of social, economic, and cultural biases and conditions. De jure discrimination is
discrimination based on law. Equality of result is intended to combat the effects of de facto
discrimination. Busing and affirmative action are examples of policies designed to achieve
equality of result. Many Americans, however, believe that the government should only address
de jure discrimination.

61. If Americans accepted two societies, one for whites, and another for minorities, what would
    be the consequences for the nation?
Answer: The acceptance of the two societies would mean that American democracy would not
be true to its ideals. It would also mean that consensus and internal stability would both suffer.
Such an arrangement would validate Myrdal’s assessment that racism is America’s curse.

62. Discuss the racial problems addressed by the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
    Kansas decision and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. What provisions of the Constitution
    provided the basis for each of these policy decisions?
Answer: In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954), the Supreme Court justices
overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling. Chief Justice Warren stated that segregated
schools were inherently unequal, and thus violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment. Chief Justice Warren stated that the maintenance of separate school systems
generates feelings of social inferiority on the part of minority students. Because the Fourteenth
Amendment applies only to acts of government, private firms are not affected by it. In the Civil
Rights Act of 1964, Congress used its commerce power to entitle all persons equal access to
establishments serving the general public, and to forbid discrimination in hiring, promotion, and
payment of employees in medium and large firms. Congress’s commerce power was utilized to
restrict discrimination in public places and employment.

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