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					            Sectoral e-Business Watch
   European Commission, DG Enterprise & Industry

      e-Mail: entr-innov-ict-ebiz@ec.europa.eu
         e-Mail: info@ebusiness-watch.org
          Web: www.ebusiness-watch.org




Table Report No. 01 - 2007

   e-Business in the
    Steel Industry


                  Based on the

     SeBW Survey 2007



            November 2007
                  Version 1.2




          European Commission
Enterprise & Industry Directorate General
About Sectoral e-Business Watch and this report

             The European Commission, Enterprise & Industry Directorate General, launched the
             Sectoral e-Business Watch (SeBW) to study and assess the impact of ICT on
             enterprises, industries and the economy in general across different sectors of the
             economy in the enlarged European Union, EEA and Accession countries. SeBW
             continues the successful work of the e-Business W@tch which, since January 2002, has
             analysed e-business developments and impacts in manufacturing, construction, financial
             and service sectors. All results are available on the internet and can be accessed or
             ordered via the Europa server or directly at the SeBW website
             (www.europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/ict/policy/watch/index.htm, www.ebusiness-
             watch.org).


             This table report contains the main results of the e-Business Manufacturing Survey 2007
             for the steel industry. The survey sample in this sector consists of 449 European
             enterprises from 8 countries. Interviews were conducted with ICT decision-makers by
             telepone, using CATI (computer-assisted telephone interview) method.




Disclaimer

             Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
             responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. The views
             expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of
             the European Commission. Nothing in this report implies or expresses a warranty of any
             kind. Results from this report should only be used as guidelines as part of an overall
             strategy. For detailed advice on corporate planning, business processes and
             management, technology integration and legal or tax issues, the services of a
             professional should be obtained.




Acknowledgements

             This report was prepared by empirica GmbH on behalf of the European Commission,
             Enterprise & Industry Directorate General. It is a deliverable in the context of the Sectoral
             e-Business Watch, which is implemented by empirica GmbH in cooperation with Altran
             Group, Databank Consulting, DIW Berlin, IDC EMEA, Ipsos, GOPA-Cartermill and
             Rambøll Management, based on a service contract with the European Commission.



Contact

             European Commission
             Enterprise and Industry Directorate General
             'Technology for innovation, ICT industries and e-business'
             entr-innov-ict-ebiz@ec.europa.eu

             Sectoral e-Business Watch
             c/o empirica GmbH
             Oxfordstr. 2, 53111 Bonn, Germany
             info@ebusiness-watch.org
Table of Contents

  IMPR     Imprint

 Sheet     Indicators in Overview

   1       Internet access & connection type
   2       Use of LAN, WLAN, website, intranet, extranet & remote access
   3       Use of e-Business software systems and RFID
   4       Design, modelling, engineering & planning systems
   5       Companies placing orders online
   6       Companies receiving orders online
   7       e-Invoicing
   8       Sharing information and data exchange with business partners
   9       Pressure from customers / suppliers to adopt e-business
   10      Use of e-Standards
   11      Use of e-catalogues, secure server technology & open source software
   12      ICT and innovation activity
   13      ICT and employment
   14      ICT investments
   15      Share of processes conducted electronically
   16      Barriers for e-business adoption
   17      ICT and competition
   18      Anticipated ICT impact
   19      New technologies: VoIP, mobile applications & Web 2.0
   20      Background information: market area & customers
   21      Background information: market characteristics




Abbreviations and references

           Nomenclature générale des activités économiques [European industry standard classification system
NACE
           consisting of a 6 digit code.]

This Table-Report distinguishes (where indicated) between the following sub-sectors:
          NACE Rev. 1.1
        1
     sdg NACE 27.1 = Manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys
     fdg2 NACE 27.2+3 = Manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel + other first
          processing of iron and steel
     dfg3 NACE 27.51+52 = Casting of iron + steel
Table 1: Internet access & connection type
                                                                                             Companies whose internet access has a maximum bandwidth of
                                                                     Average share of                                    ...
                                           Companies with            employees with
                Steel
                                           internet access          internet access in                                   ... 144 kbit/s – 2
                                                                          firms                 ... < 144 kbit/s                                     ... > 2Mbit/s
                                                                                                                               Mbit/s

                           Weighting: % of empl.      % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                    100              100          30           24            2             11         64             48         34             41
            1                           100              99           25           22            2             9          50             45         49             46
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                            100              100          25           25            4             15         60             46         36             39
                 3                      100              100          38           23            1             5          79             56         21             39
NACE 27.51+52
Steel -by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                    99                        22                          17                        46                        37
50-249                                                  100                        26                          5                         44                        51
250+                                                   (100)*                     (29)*                       (0)*                      (69)*                     (31)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    100          100           23           27            2              8          63             50         35             42
Spain                                     (100)*       (100)*        (26)*        (19)*         (1)*           (5)*      (33)*          (44)*      (66)*          (51)*
France                                    (100)*       (100)*        (21)*        (24)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
Italy                                      100           99           20           21            3              17         64             41         33             42
Poland                                    (100)*       (100)*        (35)*        (15)*         (6)*          (38)*      (73)*          (50)*      (20)*          (13)*
Sweden                                    (100)*       (100)*        (49)*        (49)*         (0)*           (0)*      (93)*          (55)*       (7)*          (45)*
United Kingdom                            (100)*       (100)*        (61)*        (28)*         (0)*           (4)*      (47)*          (49)*      (52)*          (47)*
USA                                        100           99           45           39            8              10         22             32         70             57
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics               100           99           45           36            4             5          50             55         46             40
Furniture                                  100           99           26           24            7             14         47             47         46             39
                            Base (100%)             all                A1 = Yes, excl. DK      A1 = Yes, excl. DK        A1 = Yes, excl. DK        A1 = Yes, excl. DK
                  N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))            449                         446                      367                       367                       367
                Questionnaire reference             A1                          A2                      A3a                       A3b                       A3c
  Survey Questions:
  A1: "Does your company have access to the internet?";
  A2: “What percentage of your employees have access to the internet at their workplace?;
  A3: "What is the maximum bandwidth of your internet connection available for download?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)
  ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                               1
Table 2: Use of LAN, WLAN, website, intranet, extranet & remote access
                                                                                                       Companies having ...                                                                             Companies whose
                                                                                                                                                                                                          employees can
                Steel                                                                                                                                                                                  remotely access the
                                         a Local Area Network                                                                                                                                            firm's computer
                                                                         a Wireless LAN                 their own website                   an Intranet                    an Extranet
                                                 (LAN)                                                                                                                                                        system

                           Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     94                  78           49                 30           90                 79           71                 36           21                 10           63                 37
            1                            95                  76           50                 30           95                 72           66                 30           24                 10           56                 34
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                             95                  81           44                 31           80                 79           75                 39           14                 11           68                 38
NACE 27.51+523                           93                  73           53                 26           97                 87           70                 36           25                 7            64                 40
Steel -by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                        70                              23                              71                              22                               8                              22
50-249                                                       88                              36                              91                              48                              10                              60
250+                                                        (99)*                           (56)*                           (95)*                           (86)*                           (21)*                           (69)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                      93              76           47                 33           97                 89           83                 46            13                 10          72                 41
Spain                                       (91)*           (74)*        (38)*              (20)*        (89)*              (66)*        (76)*              (31)*         (2)*               (8)*        (45)*              (27)*
France                                      (98)*           (74)*        (27)*              (24)*        (74)*              (59)*        (47)*              (30)*         (2)*              (16)*        (52)*              (49)*
Italy                                        95              78           61                 26           94                 77           74                 29            40                 9           65                 33
Poland                                      (89)*           (92)*        (46)*              (37)*        (90)*              (81)*        (44)*              (20)*         (0)*               (0)*        (35)*              (26)*
Sweden                                      (99)*           (92)*        (48)*              (30)*       (100)*              (97)*        (94)*              (53)*        (24)*              (15)*        (72)*              (47)*
United Kingdom                              (96)*           (77)*        (87)*              (43)*        (96)*              (82)*        (86)*              (41)*        (79)*              (17)*        (91)*              (49)*
USA                                          99              89           79                 65           93                 82           79                 58            26                 20          92                 76
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                 95              82           58                 38           89                 84           69                 43           24                 15           77                 49
Furniture                                    84              71           47                 30           87                 79           45                 31           14                 9            50                 30
                          Base (100%)               all                             all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))              449                          449                             449                             449                             449                             449
                 Questionnaire reference            A4a                         A4b                    A4c                          A4d                        A4e                                                  A5
  Survey Questions:
  A4: "Does your company have (a) a Local Area Network, that is a LAN(b) a Wireless LAN (c) its own website on the internet(d) an Intranet within your business with access
  restricted to employees(e) an Extranet with access restricted to business partners?"
  A5: "Can employees of your company access your computer system remotely from outside the company, for instance from home, from a hotel or while travelling?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                             2
Table 3: Use of e-Business software systems and RFID
                                                                                            Companies having ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Companies
                                        a software                                                                                                                           Companies using      planning to
                                                         an Enterprise                                       a Customer                                     a software for
             Steel                     application to                               a Supply Chain                                   a Document                               or piloting RFID implement RFID
                                                           Resource                                         Relationship                                   product lifecycle    technology     technology within
                                        manage the                                   Management                                     Management
                                                        Planning system                                     Management                                       management                             2 years
                                     placing or receipt                              system (SCM)                                   system (DMS)
                                                             (ERP)                                         system (CRM)                                         (PLM)
                                         of orders

                       Weighting:     % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of        % of firms   % of      % of firms    % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms
                                      empl.                  empl.                  empl.                  empl.                    empl.                   empl.                  empl.                  empl.
Steel - Total (EU-7)                   76            58       59            33       27            14       21              13       27            20        16            7        12            4        6             4
NACE 27.11                             72            44       68            27       27            13       16              15       44            20        13            9        13            6        1             3
              2                        78            64       55            34       29            15       33              12       24            21        7             6        10            2        6             4
NACE 27.2+3
NACE 27.51+523                         76            62       56            39       24            13       13              10       16            18        27            10       13            3        10            6
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                48                     21                      9                        7                     14                       5                      0                     2
50-249                                               71                     47                     17                       21                     28                       9                      8                     5
250+                                                (81)*                  (71)*                  (37)*                    (26)*                  (33)*                   (19)*                  (12)*                  (9)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                93            76       86            54        32            12       14               9       38            28        12            6        0            0         12            5
Spain                                 (90)*         (65)*    (47)*         (29)*    (75)*         (34)*    (51)*            (16)*   (40)*         (20)*     (18)*          (6)*     (4)*         (4)*     (19)*         (10)*
France                                (74)*         (64)*    (29)*         (50)*     (1)*          (5)*    (24)*            (15)*   (23)*          (9)*      (1)*          (5)*    (22)*         (5)*      (0)*          (0)*
Italy                                  36            29       43            17        16            8        20              11       7             13        16            10       30           8         0             1
Poland                                (50)*         (53)*    (44)*         (20)*     (9)*          (5)*    (29)*            (17)*   (37)*         (19)*     (24)*         (8)***    (0)*         (0)*      (9)*          (5)*
Sweden                                (97)*         (77)*    (87)*         (25)*    (43)*          (9)*    (23)*            (11)*   (46)*         (23)*     (21)*          (5)*    (43)*         (9)*      (1)*          (4)*
United Kingdom                        (91)*         (61)*    (80)*         (20)*    (45)*         (22)*     (6)*           (221)*    (6)*         (21)*     (40)*         (11)*     (2)*         (3)*      (0)*          (0)*
USA                                    92            80       45            32        57            35       33              26       39            28        7             7        26           18        0             2
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics           81            67       68            38       39            17       40              23       38            22        16             6       13            3        8             5
Furniture                              67            54       39            21       15            10       25              14       25            19        9              5       1             1        10            4
                       Base (100%)            all                    all                    all                      all                    all                     all                    all                    all
            N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                    449                    449                    449                      449                     449                    449                    449
           Questionnaire reference             A6                   A7a                   A7b                  A7c                   A7d                     A7e                  A12                A13
  Survey Questions:
  A6: "Does your company have a software application to manage the placing or receipt of orders?"
  A7: "Do you use… (a) an ERP system, that is Enterprise Resource Planning; (b) a Supply Chain Management system; (c) a CRM software system, that is a customer relationship management system; (d) a DMS
  software system, that is a document management system for storing and archiving electronic documents; (e) a PLM software system, that is software for product lifecycle management?"
  A12: "Does your company currently use or pilot RFID technology?";
  A13: "Does your company have concrete plans to implement RFID technology within the next 2 years?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                 3
Table 4: Design, modelling, engineering & planning systems
                                                                                                           Companies having ...


                                                                                                            a CAE (Computer a CAM (Computer                       a MRPII
               Steel                    a CAD (Computer                                                                                      a MRP (Material
                                                               a 2D Modelling        a 3D Modelling              Aided           Aided                        (Manufacturing
                                          Aided Design)                                                                                       Requirements
                                                                   system                system               Engineering)   Manufacturing)                     Resources
                                             system                                                                                         Planning) system
                                                                                                                system          system                       Planning) system

                          Weighting: % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                    83         54         64         30         66         34         21         9          30         15         49         16         20         8
NACE 27.11                              81         57         66         27         71         39          2         4          12         13         34         9           9         6
              2                         75         52         61         30         42         25         15         11         25         16         52         18         41         10
NACE 27.2+3
NACE 27.51+523                          92         53         64         35         86         50         41         14         50         18         59         20          9         8
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                   41                    16                    20                        6                    10                     6                     3
50-249                                                  68                    45                    49                       13                    22                    25                    14
250+                                                   (89)*                 (70)*                 (75)*                    (22)*                 (31)*                 (54)*                 (27)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                   76            55      47            29      70            38          13            10     23             12     22             8       21            5
Spain                                    (64)*         (44)*   (39)*         (18)*   (58)*         (28)*      (20)*          (8)*   (37)*         (16)*   (54)*         (15)*   (36)*         (10)*
France                                   (96)*         (53)*   (93)*         (38)*   (72)*         (43)*       (0)*          (0)*   (26)*         (30)*   (71)*         (45)*   (25)*         (25)*
Italy                                     75            53      67            30      42            28          2             2       7             11     31            10       17            5
Poland                                   (85)*         (48)*   (79)*         (50)*   (55)*         (42)*      (43)*         (31)*   (16)*          (6)*   (42)*         (17)*    (7)*          (2)*
Sweden                                   (97)*         (77)*   (71)*         (46)*   (93)*         (46)*      (24)*         (12)*   (46)*         (23)*   (92)*         (44)*   (46)*         (20)*
United Kingdom                           (93)*         (62)*   (46)*         (25)*   (82)*         (27)*      (80)*         (20)*   (83)*         (30)*   (83)*         (28)*    (4)*         (13)*
USA                                       79            68      52            41      65            46          26            21     39             29     26            21       13            12
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics              63            41      31            23      31            25         18            8       31            16      49            20      31            11
Furniture                                 72            55      48            30      51            37         11            8       26            20      23            12      16            7
                         Base (100%)             all                   all                   all                      all                   all                   all                   all
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))            449                   449                   449                      449                   449                   449                   449
               Questionnaire reference          A10a                    A10b              A10c                    A10d                   A11a                A11b                   A11c
  Survey Questions:
  A10: "Do you use (a) a CAD - Computer Aided Design system?; (b) a 2D Modelling system?; (c) a 3D Modelling system?; (d) a CAE, that is a Computer Aided Engineering system?"
  A11: " Do you use …(a) a CAM system, that is Computer Aided Manufacturing; (b) an MRP system, that is Material Requirements Planning; (c) an MRPII system, that is Manufacturing Resources
  Planning?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 25 - 50)




                                                                                                               4
Table 5: Companies placing orders online
                                        Companies ordering                                          Companies that order more than ... of supply goods online
                                        goods or services on
                Steel                    the internet or via
                                          other computer-                        <5%                        5 -10%                    11-25%                       26-50%                      >50%
                                         mediated networks

                           Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms    % of empl.     % of firms    % of empl.   % of firms    % of empl.    % of firms   % of empl.    % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     66                 58           47             57          35                26         10            8             1               5          8              4
            1                            58                 46           40             54          47                31          1            6             2               7          10             2
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                             63                 58           71             62          10                20          4            8             1               5          14             5
NACE 27.51+523                           75                 74          (30)*          (51)*       (50)*             (33)*      (19)*        (11)*          (1)*            (3)*       (1)*           (2)*
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                       52                           61                            22                       9                          7                            1
50-249                                                      67                           53                            29                       9                          4                            6
250+                                                       (73)*                       (--)**                        (--)**                   (--)**                     (--)**                       (--)**
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                     93              78            51             50          45                34         3            12            0             2            1               1
Spain                                      (59)*           (38)*        (--)**         (--)**      (--)**            (--)**     (--)**       (--)**        (--)**        (--)**       (--)**          (--)**
France                                     (30)*           (61)*        (--)**         (--)**      (--)**            (--)**     (--)**       (--)**        (--)**        (--)**       (--)**          (--)**
Italy                                       57              43          (89)*          (71)*        (8)*             (19)*       (0)*         (0)*          (3)*          (8)*         (0)*            (3)*
Poland                                     (50)*           (43)*        (--)**         (--)**      (--)**            (--)**     (--)**       (--)**        (--)**        (--)**       (--)**          (--)**
Sweden                                     (76)*           (80)*        (50)*          (48)*        (4)*             (20)*       (4)*        (13)*          (1)*          (7)*        (42)*           (11)*
United Kingdom                             (93)*           (69)*         (5)*          (37)*       (48)*             (35)*      (42)*        (12)*          (2)*         (11)*         (2)*            (4)*
USA                                         92              75          (37)*          (44)*       (10)*             (14)*      (10)*        (12)*         (26)*         (18)*        (18)*           (13)*
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                 70             62           44             49          26                21         13            11           13              11         4                7
Furniture                                    64             54           47             50          20                23         15            11           8               7          10               9
                                                                      B1 = Yes (firms ordering   B1 = Yes (firms ordering     B1 = Yes (firms ordering   B1 = Yes (firms ordering   B1 = Yes (firms ordering
                          Base (100%)              all
                                                                         online), excl. DK          online), excl. DK            online), excl. DK          online), excl. DK          online), excl. DK

                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                         255                    255                         255                        255                               255
               Questionnaire reference              B1                         B2a                    B2b                         B2c                       B2d                                B2e
  Survey Questions:
  B1: "Does your company use the internet or other computer-mediated networks to order goods or services from suppliers online, not counting manually typed e-mails?";
  B2: "Please estimate the percentage of orders your company places online."
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)
  ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                                      5
Table 6: Companies receiving orders online

                                         Companies where                                           Companies that receive ... of orders from customers online
                                        customers can order
                                        goods or services on
               Steel
                                         the internet or via
                                          other computer-                        <5%                       5 -10%                      11-25%                   26-50%                       >50%
                                         mediated networks

                           Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.     % of firms    % of empl.    % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.    % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     28                 25            29            38          25               21          5             11           22            18          18              12
NACE 27.11                               30                 22          (48)*          (42)*       (5)*             (18)*       (2)*          (11)*        (2)*          (15)*      (43)*           (14)*
              2                          19                 26          (60)*          (35)*      (17)*             (22)*       (5)*          (11)*       (10)*          (20)*       (8)*           (13)*
NACE 27.2+3
                 3                       35                 24           (3)*          (41)*      (39)*             (25)*       (8)*          (10)*       (38)*          (16)*      (11)*            (9)*
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                       25                           40                           18                        12                       (18)*                      (12)*
50-249                                                      23                         (30)*                        (31)*                     (10)*                      (39)*                      (26)*
250+                                                       (28)*                       (--)**                       (--)**                    (--)**                     (--)**                     (--)**
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    29               30          (73)*          (49)*      (13)*             (17)*       (2)*          (10)*        (3)*          (13)*       (9)*           (10)*
Spain                                     (41)*            (30)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
France                                    (24)*            (14)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
Italy                                       7               20          (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
Poland                                    (15)*            (14)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
Sweden                                    (67)*            (40)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
United Kingdom                            (43)*            (24)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**            (--)**     (--)**         (--)**      (--)**         (--)**     (--)**          (--)**
USA                                        39               35          (27)*          (46)*      (48)*             (35)*       (0)*           (0)*       (24)*          (14)*       (1)*            (4)*
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                33              34           26             39         18                24         11              13         16             11         29              13
Furniture                                   32              31           44             54         15                14         16              12         14             9          11              10
                          Base (100%)              all                  B3 = Yes, excl. DK        B3 = Yes, excl. DK           B3 = Yes, excl. DK         B3 = Yes, excl. DK        B3 = Yes, excl. DK
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                            116                        116                         116                        116                       116
               Questionnaire reference              B3                         B4a                      B4b                     B4c                                B4d                       B4e
  Survey Questions:
  B3: "Can customers order goods or services from your company online on the internet or through other computer-mediated networks?";
  B4: "Please estimate the percentage of orders you receive online."
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)
  ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                                     6
Table 7: e-Invoicing
                                                                                                                                                                                 Average percentage of invoices
                                                        Companies that send invoices ...                                 Companies that receive invoices ...
                                                                                                                                                                                         companies ...

                                                                                                                                                                                 send directly   receive directly
               Steel                                      directly from the
                                             as PDF                         which customers     as PDF        from suppliers                             which they can            from their  to their computer
                                                          computer system
                                         documents per e-                   can access on a documents per e- directly to their                            access on a          computer system     system for
                                                             to that of a
                                              mail                              website          mail        computer system                                website             for automated      automated
                                                              customer
                                                                                                                                                                                  processing       processing

                          Weighting: % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                    39         36         24         12          0         2          48         51         15         9          17         13          46        32          28        20
           1                            31         42         21         14          0         2          34         59         20         10          8         17        (--)**    (--)**      (--)**    (--)**
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                            54         37         13         11          1         1          49         50         14         8          11         10        (49)*     (31)*       (--)**    (--)**
                 3                      30         28         38         15          0         1          56         46         13         8          30         14        (--)**    (--)**      (--)**    (--)**
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                    34                      8                   2                     50                      6                    12                      18                    (--)**
50-249                                                   43                     16                   1                     59                     11                    14                      39                    (--)**
250+                                                    (34)*                  (27)*                (0)*                  (42)*                  (18)*                 (15)*                  (--)**                  (--)**
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    27            27        23            16     0            1      44             40        11            5       1             6      (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
Spain                                     (52)*         (43)*    (36)*         (12)*   (0)*         (0)*   (56)*          (56)*    (35)*         (14)*   (38)*         (18)*    (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
France                                    (24)*         (15)*    (24)*         (14)*   (0)*         (0)*   (24)*          (14)*     (1)*          (5)*   (25)*         (30)*    (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
Italy                                      46            42        4             7      2            3      54             68        5             8       4             9      (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
Poland                                    (14)*         (49)*     (2)*          (3)*   (0)*         (0)*   (21)*          (50)*     (7)*          (2)*   (18)*          (9)*    (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
Sweden                                    (48)*         (32)*    (67)*         (24)*   (1)*         (4)*   (71)*          (49)*    (44)*         (19)*    (2)*          (7)*    (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
United Kingdom                            (87)*         (48)*    (45)*         (22)*   (0)*         (3)*   (93)*          (67)*    (44)*         (22)*   (46)*         (30)*    (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
USA                                        53            47        52            40     19           13     60             55        58            41      52            41     (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics               49            39       33            17      5            3      58             55       22            12      25            14       31            36        14            19
Furniture                                  45            35       18            12      2            2      57             48       12            12      17            13       29            25        15            18
                         Base (100%)              all                    all                  all                  all                     all                   all           B5b = Yes; excl. DK     B6b = Yes; excl. DK
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                    449                  449                  449                     449                   449                     74                      61
               Questionnaire reference            B5a                    B5b                  B5c                  B6a                     B6b                   B6c                     B7                      B8




                                                                                                             7
Survey Questions:
B5: "In your company which of the following do you do when you send invoices? (a) Does your company send invoices as PDF documents via e-mail?, (b) Do you send invoices directly from your computer system to
that of a customer so that data can be processed automatically?, (c) Do you issue online-invoices which customers can access on a website?";
B6: And when your company receives invoices from suppliers? (a) Does your company receive invoices from suppliers as PDF documents via e-mail?, (b) Do suppliers send invoices directly from their computer system
to your system so that data can be processed automatically?, (c) Do suppliers issue online invoices which you then access on a website?";
B7: "You said you send invoices directly from your computer system. Please estimate the percentage of invoices your company sends in this way.";
B8:"You said you receive invoices directly from the computer system of your suppliers.Please estimate the percentage of invoices your company receives in this way."
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50); ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                           7
Table 8: Sharing information and data exchange with business partners
                                                                                         Companies who ...                                Companies where orders and related messages ...
                                             Companies
                                               sharing         Companies
                                           information on collaborating with                                                                                                            are electronically
                                                                                                                                                                   are mostly
                                          inventory levels business partners                                                               are mostly                                       processed
                Steel                                                           frequently use    sometimes use                                                 processed and
                                            or production    in the design of                                                           processed and                                     internally, but
                                                                               digital signature digital signature                                               exchanged in
                                                plans        new products or                                                              exchanged                                      then exchanged
                                                                              in messages sent in messages sent                                                  paper based
                                         electronically with     services                                                                electronically                                 in a paper-based
                                                                                                                                                                     format
                                         business partners                                                                                                                                    format

                            Weighting:      % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms    % of      % of firms     % of      % of firms
                                            empl.                  empl.                  empl.                  empl.                  empl.                   empl.                    empl.
Steel - Total (EU-7)                         21            12       25            10        6            7        25            22        31            15       26             52        43             33
NACE 27.11                                   24             9        4             8        9            9        18            30        21            13       26             54        53             34
NACE 27.2+32                                 16            11       20             8        7            6        30            20        44            15       36             49        20             35
NACE 27.51+523                               23            19       45            18        4            7        26            17        26            16       18             57        56             27
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                       7                      5                     6                      21                      11                      59                       31
50-249                                                     19                     17                     8                      22                      16                      48                       36
250+                                                      (23)*                  (22)*                  (7)*                   (28)*                   (38)*                   (23)*                    (39)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                       26            15        7            13        2            3        13            15       24             13       36            47        41             40
Spain                                        (6)*          (6)*    (38)*         (11)*    (20)*         (14)*    (26)*         (26)*    (40)*           (6)*    (46)*          (72)*     (14)*          (23)*
France                                       (1)*         (10)*    (23)*          (9)*     (1)*         (10)*     (3)*         (26)*    (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**
Italy                                         15             9       15             7       16            9        37            31       42             17       32            52        25             31
Poland                                      (27)*         (14)*     (7)*          (2)*     (0)*          (0)*    (66)*         (25)*    (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**
Sweden                                      (43)*         (12)*    (44)*         (13)*    (23)*          (8)*    (26)*         (30)*    (44)*          (18)*     (4)*          (26)*     (52)*          (56)*
United Kingdom                              (44)*         (22)*    (79)*         (17)*     (0)*          (3)*    (41)*          (9)*     (5)*          (11)*    (16)*          (65)*     (79)*          (24)*
USA                                           58            36       33            23       13            9        26            20       45             26        9            26        47             47
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                 24            13       23            13       10            7        24            24        27            20       34             45        39             34
Furniture                                    14             9       17            10        9            7        19            23        26            17       43             57        31             26
                           Base (100%)              all                    all                    all                    all               all excl. DK            all excl. DK             all excl. DK
                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))              449                    449                    449                    449                     444                     444                      444
                   Questionnaire reference            B9                    B10                 B18a                   B18b                     B11a                    B11b                  B11c
  Survey Questions:
  B9: "Does your company share information on inventory levels or production plans electronically with business partners?";
  B10: "Does your company use software applications OTHER THAN e-MAIL to collaborate with business partners in the design of new products or services?";
  B18: "Is your company using a digital signature in any message sent? That is an encryption method assuring the authenticity and integrity of the message. Frequently or sometimes?"
  B11: "All in all, which of the following statements best describes the way your company exchanges data with business partners: Orders and related messages are… (1) mostly processed and
  exchanged electronically, (2) mostly processed and exchanged in paper based format, that is by letter or fax, (3) mostly electronically processed internally, but then exchanged in a paper-based
  format."
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50); ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                        8
Table 9: Pressure from customers / suppliers to adopt e-business
                                               eBiz pressure from customers: Companies ...                              eBiz pressure from suppliers: Companies ...
                                                                                                                                                                                      Companies         Companies
                                             having             having                   expecting that               having            having                     expecting that   demanding from demanding from
                Steel                   experienced that introduced new                 they will have to        experienced that introduced new                  they will have to  suppliers that   customers that
                                         ICT solutions   ICT solutions due               introduce new            ICT solutions   ICT solutions due                introduce new    they implement    they implement
                                           should be      to pressure from              ICT solutions in            should be      to pressure from               ICT solutions in new ICT solutions new ICT solutions
                                            adapted          customers                  the next 2 years             adapted           suppliers                  the next 2 years

                         Weighting:      % of      % of firms   % of       % of firms    % of       % of firms    % of        % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of       % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms
                                         empl.                  empl.                    empl.                    empl.                    empl.                  empl.                   empl.                  empl.
Steel - Total (EU-7)                      43            22        91             67        4              15       18              5       (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    20            9        22            6
            1                             22            14      (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**     20              6       (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    24            9        17            10
NACE 27.1
              2                           43            23      (81)*          (62)*     (12)*          (20)*      21              4       (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    11            8        22            4
NACE 27.2+3
                 3                        61            30      (96)*          (65)*      (1)*          (14)*      13              4       (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    26            10       27            9
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                   12                       61                       24                       1                     (--)**                                           5                      4
50-249                                                  35                       58                       14                       7                     (--)**                  (--)**                  14                      6
250+                                                   (45)*                   (--)**                   (--)**                    20                     (--)**                  (--)**                 (19)*                  (22)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                   50             29     (90)*          (70)*      (3)*          (10)*       22              7      (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**     13            8        12            7
Spain                                    (38)*         (18)*    (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**     (3)*           (4)*     (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    (5)*          (6)*     (0)*          (2)*
France                                   (47)*         (30)*    (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**    (22)*           (5)*     (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    (1)*         (10)*    (45)*         (15)*
Italy                                     10             14     (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**      1               2      (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**     41            12       27            8
Poland                                   (11)*          (8)*    (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**     (7)*           (2)*     (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    (4)*          (6)*     (9)*          (5)*
Sweden                                   (73)*         (54)*    (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**    (23)*           (8)*     (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**    (1)*          (4)*     (0)*          (0)*
United Kingdom                           (81)*         (22)*    (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**    (39)*           (6)*     (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**   (75)*          (6)*    (38)+          (6)*
USA                                       45             29     (--)**         (--)**    (--)**         (--)**      45             26      (--)**        (--)**    (--)**        (--)**     13            8        19            12
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics              44            26       84             72        6              14        21             10        59            61        27            18       21            10       12            9
Furniture                                 28            14       81             64        13             23        11              8        49            52        25            21       21            12       15            8
                        Base (100%)              all               B13 = Yes                B13 = Yes                       all               B15 = Yes               B15 = Yes                   all                    all
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))            449                     100                      100                       449                     31                      31                    449                    449
             Questionnaire reference           B13                  B14a                    B14b                   B15                   B16a                  B16b                 B17a               B17b
  Survey Questions:
  B13: "Has your company ever experienced pressure from customers that your ICT solutions or data exchange formats should be adapted to comply with their requirements?";
  B14a: "Have you introduced any new ICT solutions or exchange formats in order to comply with such requests?"; B14b: "Do you think this will become necessary in the next 2 years?";
  B15: "Has your company experienced pressure from suppliers that your ICT solutions or data exchange formats should be adapted to comply with their requirements?" B16a: "Have you implemented any new ICT
  solutions or exchange formats in order to comply with such requests?"; B16b: "Have you implemented any new ICT solutions or exchange formats in order to comply with such requests?"
  B17: "(a) Is your company demanding from suppliers that they implement new ICT solutions or exchange formats in order to facilitate data exchange with your company?; (b) And what about customers?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50); ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                                        9
Table 10: Use of e-Standards
                                                                                                      Companies using ...

                Steel                                                                                                                                                   other technical
                                                                          XML-based                        proprietary
                                         EDI-based standards                                                                           ESIDEL standards               standards for data
                                                                          standards                        standards
                                                                                                                                                                           exchange

                           Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     34                 12           22                 10           22                 14            0                  1           11                 11
            1                            28                 11           29                 12           24                 13            1                  1           13                 13
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                             26                 12           21                 8            27                 16            1                  1           15                 9
NACE 27.51+523                           45                 15           17                 12           15                 12            0                  1           5                  14
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                        5                               7                               9                              0                               8
50-249                                                      16                              12                              23                              3                               18
250+                                                       (45)*                           (24)*                           (19*                            (0)*                            (9)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                      51              15           3                  6            15                 12           1                 1             5                  11
Spain                                      (32)*            (6)*         (3)*               (8)*         (5)*               (6)*         (0)*              (0)*         (11)*              (11)*
France                                     (28)*           (39)*         (0)*               (0)*        (24)*              (15)*         (0)*              (0)*          (0)*               (0)*
Italy                                        15              6            65                 13           21                 14           1                 1             29               (11)*
Poland                                      (0)*            (0)*        (22)*              (29)*        (15)*              (27)*         (0)*              (0)*         (26)*              (35)*
Sweden                                     (69)*           (11)*        (66)*              (21)*        (47)*              (32)*         (1)*              (4)*         (22)*              (13)*
United Kingdom                             (41)*           (11)*        (39)*               (8)*        (42)*              (16)*         (0)*              (0)*          (0)*               (0)*
USA                                          45              32           32                 20           52                 36           13                7             0                  3
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                38              15           16                 11           31                 18          (--)4              (--)4         15                 12
Furniture                                   21              8            16                 9            34                 18          (--)4              (--)4         16                 11
                          Base (100%)              all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                          449                             449                             437                             449
                  Questionnaire reference              C1a                     C1b                         C1c                      C1e                   C1f
  Survey Questions:
  C1: "Please tell us which of the following technical standards your company uses. Do you use ... (a) EDI-based standards, for example EDIFACT, EANCOM, ANSI X12 or
  TRADACOM, (b) XML-based standards such as ebXML, RosettaNet, UBL, (c) Proprietary standards agreed between you and your business partners, (e) the ESIDEL
  standard, (f) any other standards for data exchange?"
  4
    Not part of the questionnaire
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                           10
Table 11: Use of e-catalogues, secure server technology & open source software


                                                               Companies using                                               Companies using open source ...
                                        Companies who have
                                                                 secure server
                                            an electronic
                                                                technology, for
               Steel                    catalogue describing
                                                             example SSL, TLS or
                                          their products or
                                                                 a comparable
                                               services                                              operating systems               databases such as                browsers such as
                                                              technical standard
                                                                                                       such as Linux                      MySQL                        Mozilla Firefox


                          Weighting: % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                    27                 15           54                 34           39                 16           35                 19           60                 31
NACE 27.11                              27                 19           73                 42           45                 13           49                 25           37                 20
              2                         23                 15           54                 33           34                 17           10                 13           54                 35
NACE 27.2+3
                 3                      29                 11           38                 23           39                 18           49                 25           83                 35
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                      10                              26                               8                              12                              21
50-249                                                     20                              41                              23                              26                              41
250+                                                      (30)*                           (63)*                           (53)*                           (39)*                           (63)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    13               8           60                 32            56                 25          36                  24          53                 38
Spain                                     (54)*           (22)*        (48)*              (33)*        (21)*              (12)*        (23)*              (20)*        (23)*              (20)*
France                                    (22)*            (5)*        (47)*              (24)*        (47)*              (24)*        (46)*              (20)*        (71)*              (33)*
Italy                                      37               23          61                 34            42                 12          23                  16          58                 21
Poland                                    (18)*            (9)*        (53)*              (39)*        (55)*              (18)*        (44)*              (20)*        (59)*              (62)*
Sweden                                    (24)*           (18)*        (50)*              (47)*         (1)*               (9)*        (25)*              (16)*        (66)*              (18)*
United Kingdom                            (42)*           (19)*        (49)*              (40)*         (0)*               (3)*        (38)*               (8)*        (83)*              (30)*
USA                                        33               25          79                 67            33                 28          20                  23          39                 33
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics               14              18           58                 41           34                 18           36                 25           32                 30
Furniture                                  30              24           44                 34           25                 14           26                 16           47                 29
                         Base (100%)              all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                          449                             449                             449                             449
                 Questionnaire reference            C2                          C5                    C6a                        C6b                     C6c
  Survey Questions:
  C2: "Does your company have an electronic catalogue which describes your products or services based on a certain industry standard for e-catalogues?";
  C5: " Is your company using secure server technology, for example SSL, TLS or a comparable technical standard?";
  C6: "Does your company use Open Source Software for the following application areas? What about… (a) Open Source operating systems like Linux, (b) Open Source
  databases like mySQL, (c) Open Source browsers like Mozilla Firefox?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                          11
Table 12: ICT and innovation activity

                                                             Percentage of                    Percentage of                Companies having introduced major changes ...
                                         Companies which
                                                                product     Companies which      process
                                           have launched
                                                           innovators whose have introduced innovators whose
                                                new                                                                                 in their          in their
               Steel                                            product      new processes       process     in their corporate                                   in their marketing
                                         products/services                                                                       management        organisational
                                                             innovation(s)   during the past  innovation(s)    strategy in the                                     concepts in the
                                          during the past
                                                            were enabled by    12 months     were enabled by past 12 months techniques in the structure in the     past 12 months
                                             12 months                                                                          past 12 months    past 12 months
                                                                  ICT                              ICT

                          Weighting: % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                    41         28          48        36         41         37         64         52         38         18         23         17         40         31         22         19
           1                            63         30        (47)*     (50)*        54         36        (48)*     (61)*        30         12          9         12         19         22         10         13
NACE 27.1
              2                         34         28          39        32         37         37         66         47         47         22         29         18         51         33         34         22
NACE 27.2+3
                 3                      30         26        (--)**    (--)**       34         37        (81)*     (51)*        36         16         26         21         46         35         21         21
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                    22                    (23)*                   31                      42                    16                    16                    27                    19
50-249                                                   34                    (48)*                   48                    (58)*                   15                    15                    34                    20
250+                                                    (48)*                  (--)**                 (44)*                  (--)**                 (40)*                 (28)*                 (41)*                 (21)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    37            25     (28)*          (21)*      46           48     (56)*          (43)*     26             23      24            21     31            36       6            21
Spain                                     (43)*         (32)*   (--)**         (--)**   (68)*         (41)*   (93)*          (70)*    (37)*         (20)*   (36)*         (18)*   (40)*         (28)*   (43)*         (26)*
France                                    (24)*         (14)*   (--)**         (--)**   (26)*         (24)*   (--)**         (--)**   (47)*         (30)*    (2)*          (9)*   (27)*         (29)*   (25)*         (20)*
Italy                                      60            25     (76)*          (63)*      39           30      (89*          (65)*     17             10      16            9      36            23       17           13
Poland                                    (65)*         (71)*   (--)**         (--)**   (55)*         (42)*   (--)**         (--)**   (22)*          (5)*   (35)*         (29)*   (59)*         (37)*   (43)*         (31)*
Sweden                                    (26)*         (30)*   (--)**         (--)**    (2)*         (18)*   (--)**         (--)**   (68)*         (28)*   (23)*         (11)*   (27)*         (29)*    (5)*         (18)*
United Kingdom                            (42)*         (16)*   (--)**         (--)**   (43)*         (26)*   (--)**         (--)**   (78)*         (19)*   (43)*         (24)*   (82)*         (35)*   (41)*         (16)*
USA                                        26            21     (--)**         (--)**     45           33     (85)*          (67)*     26             20      20            17     33            26       26           24
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics               55            42      36             34       56            43      73             58       30            23      30            23      45            36      34            24
Furniture                                  47            41      44             37       48            39      67             58       25            22      28            20      38            29      29            27
                         Base (100%)              all               D1 = Yes                    all               D3 = Yes                    all                   all                   all                   all
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             449                    116                    449                    154                    449                   449                   449                   449
               Questionnaire reference            D1                     D2                     D3                     D4                     D5a                   D5b                   D5c                   D5d




                                                                                                               12
Survey Questions:
D1: "IDuring the past 12 months, has your company launched any new or substantially improved PRODUCTS or SERVICES?";
D2: "Have any of these product or service innovations been directly related to or enabled by information or communication technology?";
D3: "During the past 12 months, has your company introduced any new or significantly improved internal PROCESSES, for example for producing or supplying goods or services?";
D4: "Have any of these process innovations been directly related to or enabled by information or communication technology?";
D5: "(a) During the past 12 months, has your company introduced major changes in its corporate strategy?, (b) And in its management techniques?, (c) And in its organisational structure?, (d) And in its marketing
concepts?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50); ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                              12
Table 13: ICT and employment
                                                                                                                                     Companies having
                                                                                                       Companies having
                                                                                                                                     outsourced any ICT    Companies saying
                                                                                                           experienced
                                              Companies                Average number of                                             services to external    that e-business
                                                                                                        difficulties in the
               Steel                        employing ICT               ICT practitioners                                             service providers developments have a
                                                                                                        past 12 months in
                                             practitioners                 employed                                                      which were       significant impact on
                                                                                                      finding qualified ICT
                                                                                                                                         previously        skills requirements
                                                                                                          practitioners
                                                                                                                                     conducted in-house
                           Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.        % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     52                  24            4                2            20                5            19                 22           36                 28
NACE 27.11                               29                  18           (3)*             (2)*         (23)*             (5)*          13                 26           35                 24
NACE 27.2+32                             66                  26           (5)*             (3)*         (17)*             (5)*          37                 23           41                 32
                 3                       57                  25           (3)*             (2)*         (22)*             (6)*          6                  12           34                 24
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                        11                            (--)**                          (0)*                            23                              19
50-249                                                       38                             (2)*                           (0)*                            19                              42
250+                                                         61                             (4)*                          (20)*                            24                              41
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                      45               17         (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**         23                 13           31                 30
Spain                                       (36)*           (12)*        (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (23)*              (18)*        (45)*              (29)*
France                                      (23)*            (9)*        (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        (1)*              (11)*         (1)*               (5)*
Italy                                        63               26          (2)*              (2)*        (19)*              (4)*          39                 39           61                 26
Poland                                      (76)*           (68)*        (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (22)*               (5)*        (75)*              (54)*
Sweden                                      (70)*           (43)*        (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**       (23)*              (17)*        (24)*              (12)*
United Kingdom                              (85)*           (28)*        (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**        (9)*              (31)*        (48)*              (28)*
USA                                          13               12         (--)**            (--)**       (--)**            (--)**         14                 15           33                 28
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                 45              22           13                 4           21                15           30                 28           40                 36
Furniture                                    33              18           3                  2           7                 9            24                 21           53                 39
                          Base (100%)               all                  E1 = Yes; excl. DK                   E1 = Yes                            all                             all
                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))              449                             92                             96                          449                             449
                Questionnaire reference               E1                           E2                         E3                  E4                                              E5
  Survey Questions:
  E1: "Does your company currently employ ICT practitioners? These are persons who were hired primarily to take care of the company's ICT infrastructure.";
  E2: "How many ICT practitioners does your company employ?";
  E3: "Have you experienced difficulties in the past 12 months in finding qualified people for any of these positions?";
  E4: "In the past 12 months, has your company outsourced any ICT services to external service providers which were previously conducted in-house?";
  E5: "Do you think that e-business developments have a significant impact on skills requirements in your company?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)
  ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                                          13
Table 14: ICT investments
                                                                           Companies planning to ... in the forthcoming financial year                                                                   Companies which
                                                                                                                                                                                                        made investments in
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ICT hardware,
                Steel
                                            increase their ICT           increase their ICT             keep the same ICT                decrease their ICT              decrease their ICT             software or networks
                                             budget by >10%               budget by 1-10%                    budget                       budget by 1-10%                 budget by >10%                 during the past 12
                                                                                                                                                                                                               months
                            Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                      18                  8            12                 13           69                 76            0                  1            1                  1           85                 70
NACE 27.11                                18                  6            6                  13           75                 75            0                  3            1                  2           79                 62
NACE 27.2+32                              24                  8            22                 16           54                 75            0                  0            1                  1           91                 72
NACE 27.51+523                            13                  10           7                  9            78                 80            0                  1            2                  1           83                 75
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                          3                              14                              80                              2                               1                               62
50-249                                                        13                              12                              73                              0                               3                               81
250+                                                         (23)*                           (15)*                           (60)*                           (0)*                            (1)*                            (88)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                        22              8            2                  6           75                 85            0                 0             1                 1             83                74
Spain                                        (20)*           (12)*        (37)*              (16)*        (43)*              (72)*         (0)*              (0)*          (0)*              (0)*          (74)*             (61)*
France                                       (23)*            (9)*         (1)*               (5)*        (76)*              (86)*         (0)*              (0)*          (0)*              (0)*          (74)*             (65)*
Italy                                          1               2            19                 18          78                 75            1                 4             1                 1             87                62
Poland                                       (35)*           (16)*        (33)*              (26)*        (25)*              (56)*         (0)*              (0)*          (7)*              (2)*         (100)*            (100)*
Sweden                                       (25)*           (16)*        (24)*              (25)*        (50)*              (56)*         (0)*              (0)*          (1)*              (4)*          (97)*             (76)*
United Kingdom                                (3)*            (8)*         (4)*              (13)*        (91)*              (71)*         (0)*              (3)*          (1)*              (5)*          (95)*             (72)*
USA                                            7               5            1                  7           80                 81            0                 0             13                7             47                46
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                  8                9           11                 15           77                 73            1                  1            3                  2           83                 72
Furniture                                     15               9           25                 20           57                 68            1                  2            1                  1           75                 64
                           Base (100%)               all                             all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                  N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))              449                          449                             449                             449                             449                              449
                   Questionnaire reference            E7a                       E7b                       E6                           E8a                                        E8b                                E9
Survey Questions:
E6: "In the forthcoming financial year, do you expect your company’s ICT budget to increase, decrease or will it roughly stay the same?";
E7:"Will it increase up to 10% or more than 10%?";
E8: "Will it decrease up to 10% or more than 10%?";
E9: "Did your company make investments in ICT during the past 12 months, for example for new hardware, software or networks?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                             14
Table 15: Share of processes conducted electronically

                                                                   Companies saying that ... are conducted as e-business

                Steel
                                            most of their                good deal of their           some of their             none of their
                                         business processes             business processes         business processes        business processes

                           Weighting: % of empl.       % of firms       % of empl.    % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     10                    4            11            14          49            46          31            36
            1                             9                    3            20            18          43            40          28            39
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                             13                    4            13            16          37            50          37            30
                 3                        7                    5            2             7           64            44          27            44
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                      2                              12                        46                        40
50-249                                                     3                              22                        48                        27
250+                                                     (16)*                           (10)*                     (45)*                     (30)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                      11            4                 7             17         54            47           28           32
Spain                                      (16)*          (2)*             (22)*         (13)*       (36)*         (53)*       (26)*         (32)*
France                                      (1)*         (10)*              (0)*          (0)*       (50)*         (55)*       (48)*         (34)*
Italy                                        12            2                 34            17         28            38           26           42
Poland                                     (29)*          (7)*             (13)*         (24)*       (30)*         (41)*       (28)*         (28)*
Sweden                                      (0)*          (3)*              (0)*          (0)*       (47)*         (29)*       (53)*         (68)*
United Kingdom                              (2)*          (3)*              (3)*          (8)*       (87)*         (58)*        (8)*         (31)*
USA                                          0             0                 14            9          64            57           22           34
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                 8                 7            20            17          46            46          26            30
Furniture                                    10                7            20            15          45            46          26            32
                          Base (100%)          all, excl. DK                  all, excl. DK             all, excl. DK             all, excl. DK
                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             433                             433                       433                       433
               Questionnaire reference              F1a                        F1b                      F1c                        F1d
  Survey Questions:
  F1: "In summary, which of the following best describes the relevance of e-business for your company: Would you say that most of your business
  processes are conducted as e-business, a good deal of them, some, or none?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                   15
Table 16: Barriers for e-business adoption

                                                                                      Percentage of firms with low or no e-business use saying that...


                                         their company is                                                                                                              they see
               Steel                                           e-business                      their suppliers or
                                           too small to                          e-business                           they are                                     important legal         it is difficult to
                                                            technologies are                   customers are not
                                        benefit from any e-                  technology is too                    concerned about                                    problems or           find reliable IT
                                                            too expensive to                    prepared for e-
                                             business                           complicated                        security risks                                   complications              suppliers
                                                               implement                           business
                                             activities                                                                                                                involved

                         Weighting:      % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms     % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms   % of       % of firms
                                         empl.                   empl.                     empl.                   empl.                   empl.                   empl.                   empl.
Steel - Total (EU-7)                       12            47        26            36         20             26        57            64        20            27        19            25        15            16
NACE 27.11                                 9             48        4             23         3              12        50            59        27            19        8             9         3             9
              2                            18            52        28            37         35             31        48            64        33            30        33            29        18            19
NACE 27.2+3
                 3                         8             35        37            48         19             33        67            70        5             32        14            33        19            14
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                    61                      41                        32                      66                      29                      25                      15
50-249                                                   29                      26                        14                      65                      26                      23                      19
250+                                                    (2)*                    (26)*                     (21)*                   (49)*                   (18)*                   (24)*                   (13)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    10             41       30             32         28             26       56             69       32             35       47             41       15             14
Spain                                    (35)*          (78)*    (22)*          (43)*      (14)*          (36)*    (39)*          (72)*    (19)*          (35)*     (6)*          (20)*    (26)*          (32)*
France                                   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**
Italy                                      20             48       9              22         9              20       49             48       4              7        4              6        4              7
Poland                                   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**   (--)**         (--)**
Sweden                                    (3)*          (13)*    (48)*          (38)*      (24)*          (18)*     (5)*          (37)*     (4)*          (23)*    (23)*          (14)*     (3)*          (13)*
United Kingdom                           (11)*          (52)*    (12)*          (52)*      (47)*          (38)*    (57)*          (74)*      8            (43)*     (6)*          (23)*     (6)*          (23)*
USA                                        49             44       26             32         9              17       51             58       18             25       18             23       9              13
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics               19            47        26            38         24             27        62            66        34            26        25            23        12            20
Furniture                                  37            54        41            43         30             32        75            70        30            28        25            22        24            22
                        Base (100%)      F1= Some or None        F1= Some or None         F1= Some or None         F1= Some or None        F1= Some or None        F1= Some or None        F1= Some or None
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))             366                     366                       366                     366                     366                     366                     366
              Questionnaire reference             F2a                     F2b                       F2c                     F2d                     F2e                     F2f                     F2g




                                                                                                                    16
Survey Questions:
F2: "For each of the following, please tell me if you think this is an important reason why your company does not use e-business more intensively. Is this an important reason: ... ? (a) Our company is
too small to benefit from e-business activities. (b) The required technologies are too expensive. (c) The required technologies are too complicated. (d) Many of our suppliers or customers are not
prepared for e-business. (e) We are concerned about potential security risks and privacy issues. (f) We think that there are important unsolved legal issues involved. (g) It is difficult to find reliable IT
suppliers.
F1: "In summary, which of the following best describes the relevance of e-business for your company: Would you say that most of your business processes are conducted as e-business, a good deal
of them, some, or none?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50); ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                                   16
Table 17: ICT and competition

                                                                                  Companies saying that ...

                Steel                    ICT has an influence   competition has      competition has     competition has
                                           on competition in      significantly    somewhat increased rather decreased due
                                              their sector    increased due to ICT     due to ICT             to ICT

                           Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms   % of empl.   % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                     54                  29            14             19         83             78         2              3
            1                            73                  27          (14)*          (26)*      (86)*          (74)*       (0)*           (0)*
NACE 27.1
NACE 27.2+32                             41                  29            26             21         73             77         2              2
                 3                       50                  31          (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
NACE 27.51+52
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                        19                         (12)*                     (85)*                     (3)*
50-249                                                       37                         (28)*                     (69)*                     (3)*
250+                                                        (65)*                       (17)*                     (80)*                     (3)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                      50              33           (8)*          (18)*      (89)*          (79)*       (2)*           (4)*
Spain                                       (59)*           (30)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
France                                      (48)*           (34)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
Italy                                        71              22          (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
Poland                                      (59)*           (37)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
Sweden                                      (48)*           (38)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
United Kingdom                              (43)*           (17)*        (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**     (--)**         (--)**
USA                                          20              22           (2)*           (8)*      (97)*          (88)*       (1)*           (4)*
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                 44              33           26             23         69             71          5              5
Furniture                                    45              37           23             25         71             70          6              5
                          Base (100%)               all                  F4 = Yes, excl. DK        F4 = Yes, excl. DK        F4 = Yes, excl. DK
                 N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))              449                           112                       112                       112
                Questionnaire reference               F4                       F5a                       F5b                         F5c
  Survey Questions:
  F4: "Do you think that ICT has an influence on competition in your sector?";
  F5: "To what extent do you think that competition in your sector has changed due to ICT? Has competition significantly increased, somewhat
  increased, or rather decreased?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)
  ** Percentage not displayed because number of observations is too small (n<20)




                                                                                                                  17
Table 18: Anticipated ICT impact

                                                              Companies expecting that ICT will have a high or medium impact on ... in their company in the future



               Steel
                                        management and             administration             research and
                                                                                                                         production                marketing                 logistics           customer service
                                          controlling              and accounting             development



                         Weighting: % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms % of empl. % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                   75         51         86         61         58         34         72         47         55         44         80         47         66         49
NACE 27.11                             86         52         88         62         63         31         73         46         64         34         83         39         61         40
              2                        62         49         78         60         45         31         63         46         49         47         68         47         74         52
NACE 27.2+3
NACE 27.51+523                         78         53         92         62         66         43         78         52         53         50         90         56         63         55
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                    41                        53                       23                        38                       38                        33                       43
50-249                                                   61                        68                       46                        55                       53                        61                       58
250+                                                    (81)*                     (92)*                    (62)*                     (78)*                    (58)*                     (88)*                    (66)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    67            56          77            59         31            30          64            48         44            48          72            48         36            39
Spain                                     (66)*         (48)*       (69)*         (60)*      (65)*         (43)*       (64)*         (53)*      (66)*         (41)*       (66)*         (47)*      (69)*         (54)*
France                                    (72)*         (55)*       (94)*         (60)*      (71)*         (39)*       (72)*         (49)*      (47)*         (35)*       (95)*         (59)*      (74)*         (65)*
Italy                                      66            40          82            51         74            31          67            38         63            30          66            35         79            43
Poland                                    (95)*         (66)*       (95)*         (66)*      (79)*         (36)*       (77)*         (57)*      (81)*         (63)*       (86)*         (48)*      (81)*         (77)*
Sweden                                    (97)*         (71)*       (99)*         (92)*      (72)*         (45)*       (98)*         (78)*      (55)*         (79)*       (99)*         (89)*      (55)*         (71)*
United Kingdom                            (86)*         (46)*       (96)*         (82)*      (43)*         (24)*       (83)*         (37)*      (51)*         (58)*       (88)*         (46)*      (88)*         (51)*
USA                                        15            24          28            38         14            20          34            33         27            30          28            31         34            38
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics               60            53          68            64          55           46          59            50          64           58          68            56          69           58
Furniture                                  68            57          76            68          55           52          68            56          69           63          68            55          62           58
                        Base (100%) all; excl. "Not relevant" all; excl. "Not relevant" all; excl. "Not relevant" all; excl. "Not relevant" all; excl. "Not relevant" all; excl. "Not relevant" all; excl. "Not relevant"
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))           448                       449                       437                       445                       447                       446                       441
              Questionnaire reference             F6a                       F6b                      F6c                       F6d                      F6e                       F6f                      F6g




                                                                                                                       18
Survey Questions:
F6: "Do you expect that ICT will have a high impact, medium impact, low impact or no impact on the following business functions in your company in the future? What about ... (a) management and
controlling, (b) administration and accounting, (c) research and development, (d) production processes, (e) marketing, (f) logistics, (g) customer service"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                            18
Table 19: New technologies: VoIP, mobile applications & Web 2.0
                                                                                                                    Companies saying that ...

                                                                                                           mobile ICT-based                mobile ICT-based
                 Steel                         VoIP is a highly             VoIP is a partly                                                                              Web 2.0 is a highly              Web 2.0 is a partly
                                                                                                            applications is a              applications is a
                                              relevant topic for           relevant topic for                                                                             relevant topic for               relevant topic for
                                                                                                          highly relevant topic           partly relevant topic
                                                    them.                        them.                                                                                          them.                            them.
                                                                                                                for them.                       for them.
                              Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                        15                  10           46                 31           23                 10           48                 41            0                  1           14                 12
NACE 27.11                                   9                  9            56                 37           18                 9            50                 37            1                  3           23                 17
NACE 27.2+32                                11                  9            43                 28           15                 10           64                 44            0                  1           10                 10
NACE 27.51+523                              23                  14           40                 31           34                 12           31                 41            0                  0           10                 13
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                            6                              27                               5                              39                              2                               12
50-249                                                          18                              35                              17                              43                              1                               12
250+                                                           (15)*                           (43)*                           (24)*                           (52)*                           (0)*                            (18)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                          12              7           17                 21            14                 11          63                 46            0                 0             25                 17
Spain                                          (26)*           (17)*        (29)*              (30)*        (41)*              (17)*        (26)*              (34)*         (1)*              (4)*         (20)*              (20)*
France                                          (2)*            (9)*        (72)*              (49)*        (22)*               (5)*        (49)*              (39)*         (0)*              (0)*          (1)*               (5)*
Italy                                            18              10          64                 39            30                 10          37                 32            1                 2             27                 10
Poland                                          (7)*            (2)*        (57)*              (56)*         (0)*               (0)*        (60)*              (86)*         (0)*              (0)*          (4)*               (6)*
Sweden                                          (1)*            (6)*        (46)*              (31)*        (23)*              (11)*        (29)*              (48)*         (0)*              (0)*          (0)*               (0)*
United Kingdom                                 (44)*           (14)*        (41)*              (19)*        (41)*              (11)*        (44)*              (27)*         (0)*              (3)*          (1)*               (8)*
USA                                              20              20          46                 40            14                 18          71                 55            13                9             59                 46
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                    18              12           45                 31           27                 15           39                 39            2                  3           21                 18
Furniture                                       14              12           36                 27           24                 15           37                 34            4                  4           23                 17
                            Base (100%)                all                             all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                   N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))               449                          449                             449                             449                             449                             449
                 Questionnaire reference                F7                       F7                         F7                           F7                         F7                            F7
Survey Questions:
F7: "How relevant are the following technological developments for your company? Is the topic of (…) very relevant, partly relevant, or not relevant for you? And the topic of (...)? (a) Voice-over-IP, that is
telephony via internet protocol, (b) mobile applications, for example data communication via mobile devices, (c) Web 2.0, for example blogs and social networking technologies?"
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




                                                                                                                               19
Table 20: Background information: market area & customers

                                        Companies whose most significant market area is the ...                        Companies which procure mainly from a ...                     Companies which sell mainly to ...



                Steel
                                                                                       international          regional supplier       national supplier       international             regular                a changing
                                         regional market        national market
                                                                                          market                    base                    base              supplier base            customers             customer base



                         Weighting:      % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms    % of      % of firms    % of      % of firms   % of      % of firms   % of       % of firms   % of      % of firms
                                         empl.                  empl.                  empl.                   empl.                   empl.                  empl.                  empl.                   empl.
Steel - Total (EU-7)                       4            19       41            58       55            24        6             17        55            58       40            25       89             86       7              7
            1                              3            20       46            59       51            20        12            21        38            57       50            22       80             85       11             8
NACE 27.1
              2                            6            19       28            55       66            26        4             16        57            57       38            27       89             85       8              7
NACE 27.2+3
NACE 27.51+523                             2            16       50            61       48            23        2             14        64            62       33            24       95             90       4              6
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                   26                     61                     13                      23                      61                     16                      85                      7
50-249                                                  9                      58                     33                       8                      54                     38                      87                      7
250+                                                   (0)*                   (36)*                  (64)*                   (4)*                    (49)*                  (46)*                   (89)*                   (8)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                    4             14      46            58       50             28        3            11        35            55       61            34        96            86        2              5
Spain                                    (16)*         (36)*    (50)*         (50)*    (34)*         (1^4)*    (30)*         (31)*     (40)*         (53)*    (30)*         (16)*     (99)*         (96)*     (1)*           (2)*
France                                    (1)*         (16)*    (29)*         (44)*    (70)*          (39)*     (1)*         (11)*     (71)*         (39)*    (28)*         (51)*    (100)*         (95)*     (0)*           (0)*
Italy                                      5             21      38            58       57             20        6            19        63            66       31            15        58            82        27             10
Poland                                    (0)*          (0)*    (45)*         (82)*    (55)*          (18)*    (10)*         (19)*     (69)*         (66)*    (22)*         (15)*     (76)*         (68)*    (22)*          (29)*
Sweden                                    (1)*         (11)*    (27)*         (42)*    (72)*          (47)*     (2)*         (16)*     (65)*         (53)*    (33)*         (31)*     (95)*         (80)*     (3)*          (11)*
United Kingdom                            (4)*         (18)*    (53)*         (65)*    (43)*          (17)*     (2)*         (13)*     (54)*         (63)*    (44)*         (24)*     (99*          (92)*     (0)*           (3)*
USA                                        27            36      66            58        7              6        20           27        60            55       20            17        92            88        8              10
Other sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics              4             14       39            53       57            33        3              8        42            56       54            36       85             80       9              10
Furniture                                 14            28       45            49       41            23        15            24        54            59       31            17       75             66       17             25
                        Base (100%)         all excl. DK           all excl. DK          all excl. DK            all excl. DK            all excl. DK           all excl. DK            all excl. DK           all excl. DK
                N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))            442                    442                    442                     438                     438                    438                     446                    446
            Questionnaire reference            G4a                    G4b                    G4c                    G5a                   G5b                    G5c                         G16a                    G16b
  Survey Questions:
  G4: "What is your company's most significant market? Is it MAINLY the regional market, the [country] market, or international markets which you consider your main sales area?";
  G5: "Do you procure primarily from suppliers in your region, in [COUNTRY] or from an international supplier base?";
  G16: "What characterises the relationship with your customers: Are you mainly selling to regular customers or rather to a changing customer base?"
  * Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




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Table 21: Background information: market characteristics
                                                                                                            Companies which agree that their ...

                                                                                                                               "products and
                 Steel                                                   "market position is                 "production
                                          "competitors’ actions                                                               services become                            "market demand is               "rivalry in the market
                                                                         threatened by new               technologies change
                                           are not predictable".                                                             quickly obsolete" in                         not predictable".                  is increasing".
                                                                              entrants"                       rapidly".
                                                                                                                                their market.
                             Weighting: % of empl.          % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms   % of empl.         % of firms
Steel - Total (EU-7)                       24                  41           31                 36           40                 37           12                 17           51                 54           69                 65
NACE 27.11                                 30                  36           40                 33           29                 41           21                 22           37                 42           74                 61
NACE 27.2+32                               32                  43           19                 39           37                 39           11                 17           66                 59           52                 67
NACE 27.51+523                             11                  43           35                 32           51                 29           5                  8            50                 55           82                 61
Steel - by Size (EU-7)
10-49                                                          43                              41                              38                              19                              60                              64
50-249                                                         46                              28                              35                              13                              40                              65
250+                                                          (17)*                           (27)*                           (39)*                           (13)*                           (50)*                           (66)*
Steel -by Country (EU-7+USA)
Germany                                        26              49            19                30           30                 35            14                 17          42                 52           62                 69
Spain                                        (49)*            (46)*        (17)*              (46)*        (49)*              (46)*         (5)*              (16)*        (48)*              (48)*        (60)*              (72)*
France                                       (30)*            (44)*        (49)*              (40)*        (26)*              (19)*         (0)*               (0)*        (72)*              (60)*        (73)*              (59)*
Italy                                          19              39            36                39           40                 47            35                 29          58                 56           62                 62
Poland                                       (13)*            (24)*        (33)*              (26)*        (42)*              (17)*        (15)*               (3)*        (47)*              (75)*        (64)*              (57)*
Sweden                                       (27)*            (30)*        (71)*              (46)*        (26)*              (28)*         (0)*               (3)*        (28)*              (40)*        (96)*              (68)*
United Kingdom                                (6)*            (21)*         (9)*              (29)*        (84)*              (35)*         (3)*              (10)*        (44)*              (41)*        (87)*              (55)*
USA                                            47              47            21                28           40                 42            13                 11          41                 47           41                 49
Other manufacturing sectors (EU-7)
Chemicals, rubber & plastics                   44              48           38                 49           40                 41           24                 25           42                 54           71                 72
Furniture                                      45              52           39                 46           52                 55           30                 36           54                 63           68                 69
                            Base (100%)               all                             all                             all                             all                             all                             all
                  N (Steel, (EU-7+USA))              449                           449                             449                             449                             449                             449
                Questionnaire reference            G8a_a                      G8a_b                       G8a_c                    G8a_d                       G8a_e                       G8a_f
Survey Questions:
G8a: "Please describe the type of competition in your main market. Do you agree or disagree to the following statements? (a) Our competitors’ actions are not predictable. (b) Our market position is
threatened by new entrants. (c) Production technologies change rapidly. (d) Products and services become quickly obsolete in our market. (e) Market demand is not predictable. (f) Rivalry in the market is
increasing."
* Percentage only indicative, due to small number of observations (n = 20 - 50)




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