Code of Ethics
Chapter Summary Review
2 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
By Ronald R. Minion, CPP, CPO
Sandi J. Davies
PURPOSE and quality of the sixth edition, but these same enthusiasts
have been liberal with their recommendations for changes
and improvements, and we have listened. Ongoing dialogue
The purpose of this manual is to provide a current, useful, with security managers, supervisors, consultants, educators,
consolidated Security Officer Training Manual that pro- and, of course, protection officers has enabled us to develop
vides “need-to-know” information for protection officers and maintain a training manual that will serve future learn-
throughout the security industry. This manual serves as the ing.
course text for the Certified Protection Officer (CPO) pro- The seventh edition has 12 units and 43 chapters. The
gram. Many security professionals also find the contents of contributors to the seventh edition are among the best writ-
this manual helpful in their day-to-day security manage- ers, academics, and practitioners in the security community.
ment responsibilities. This talented group of professionals has generously pro-
vided readers of this superior manual with unique opportu-
GENERAL INFORMATION nities to acquire current asset protection and life safety
information. These writers are simply outstanding individu-
als who deserve recognition and appreciation for their ser-
The first edition of the Protection Officer Training Manual vice to the security community.
(POTM) originated with the birth of the International Foun- The International Foundation for Protection Officers is
dation for Protection Officers (IFPO) in 1988. Twelve dedi- supported by a team of security professionals throughout
cated security professionals from the United States and North America who, year after year, work diligently on
Canada had a vision: to create an organization that would behalf of the foundation and what it stands for. Because of
provide meaningful career opportunities for line security these men and women, who are committed to excellence
officers throughout North America. and remain steadfast in their obligation to high standards of
To succeed, the newly formed board of directors of the service, the IFPO continues to be successful. You all de-
IFPO realized that a certification program was needed, serve our thanks.
along with a professional training manual. Hence, POTM,
first edition, was created to serve as the course text for the EXPANDED PROTECTION ROLES
Certified Protection Officer (CPO) program. The IFPO, the
CPO program, and POTM all proved to be vital compo- In the past decade, a new kind of private justice has
nents in the realization of the aims and objectives of the emerged to facilitate private/public corporate protection.
foundation. For a number of reasons, not the least of which is a burden-
Today, the IFPO is the recognized catalyst in the devel- some public justice system and declining police availability
opment of professionalism throughout the private security to protect business and industry, management has under-
industry. Thousands of security officers, who have earned taken to develop and maintain a “self-protection” posture.
the CPO accreditation, have gained knowledge and profes- Corporations that once required limited security meas-
sional career enhancement. And, they have unselfishly pro- ures have now placed personnel and asset protection as or-
vided encouragement and information to their colleagues ganization priorities to sustain a safe and productive work
and employers. Hence, a new dimension of opportunities environment.
has spread through the security industry. An integral part of this overall protection process is the
The first edition was simple, short, and limited in scope, professional security manager and supervisor, comple-
but included enough information to help the security officer mented with a security staff capable of attending to ongoing
better understand his/her roles, duties, and responsibilities. protection needs. While public law enforcement and private
However, since that simple beginning, each subsequent protection roles have many similarities, asset protection is
edition has brought new and enlightening information to the becoming a paramount concern for every public organiza-
security professional. POTM is now considered the leading tion.
training manual for line security officers. Who will assume the responsibility for protecting private
Feedback has been the most significant factor, which has and government organizations? We suggest that a new, ef-
led to a standard of excellence for this new manual. We fective, enlightened protection officer is essential to assist
have received countless letters of appreciation for the depth management with the responsibilities of personnel, asset,
and information security. Public law enforcement organiza- • Submit application for enrollment
tions lack the human and financial resources required to • Successfully complete a midterm examination
enhance organizational safety and security. • Successfully complete a supervised final examination
Police organizations will continue to maintain a reactive (A proctor may be located within the candidate’s or-
posture, while protection groups must undertake to develop ganization or community.)
even more effective integrated security systems. There must
be better communication and role appreciation developed (Both examinations are based on the contents of this
among public police and private security organizations. manual.)
This is a different task that requires a creative approach
CERTIFIED PROTECTION OFFICER (CPO)
initiated by security and police administrators.
There should be cooperation, resulting from mutual un- FINAL CHALLENGE PROGRAM
derstanding and a “joint venture” approach to crime preven- The CPO Final Challenge concept reduces the time of study
tion. When we consider that there are more than two—and required in that the midterm examination process has been
soon to be three—private security employees to every one eliminated. The only requirement in this program is to write
public law enforcement officer, there must be cost-effective the CPO final examination. A suitable proctor must be iden-
benefits available to governments and free enterprise that tified to supervise this portion of the program.
recognize the important role of private security in our mod- The CPO program is an internationally recognized certi-
ern society. fication for protection officers.
MANUAL FORMAT Contact the International Foundation for Protection Offi-
cers (IFPO) for more information regarding the Certified
The contents of this manual are sometimes quite basic. Protection Officer and/or other programs.
However, every security supervisor and manager should
fully understand all of the information contained herein so CONCLUSION
as to provide better leadership and interpretation of officer
responsibilities. The term protection officer frequently appears in this man-
This edition is divided into 12 units. The material con- ual. What is a protection officer? A protection officer is the
tained in each unit is arranged so as to provide the reader individual whom this manual is intended to serve, including
with a smooth flow of related security information. The the following:
final part of the manual is a Miscellaneous section that con-
tains a variety of material that is either too short to consti- • A non-police person employed in private or public se-
tute a complete chapter or not relevant to any other part of curity.
the manual. • An individual committed to fulfilling a functional role
At the conclusion of each chapter there are 10 questions in the modern security community.
of the fill-in-the-word, multiple-choice, and true/false vari- • An individual who provides security from a fixed lo-
ety. Before the reader proceeds to the next chapter, it is cation or in the capacity of a patrol officer.
vitally important to be able to answer each question cor-
rectly. Indeed, the manual is a useful tool for security supervi-
CERTIFIED PROTECTION sors and managers, but the primary beneficiary is the pro-
OFFICER (CPO) PROGRAM tection officer.
The editors of the Protection Officer Training Manual
The Protection Officer Training Manual is the course text are honored to work with so many outstanding security
for the Certified Protection Officer (CPO) program. professionals since the planning of the first edition . These
The CPO designation is a professional accreditation that talented and dedicated security professionals have worked
can be earned by completing a self-pacing course based on tirelessly in supporting, promoting and contributing to the
this manual. International Foundation for Protection Officers and all of
Briefly, a candidate must complete the following stages its worthwhile programs. “We could not have done it with-
of progression to earn the CPO designation. out you!”
4 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
Code of Ethics
The Protection Officer Shall
I Respond to employer’s professional needs
II Exhibit exemplary conduct
III Protect confidential information
IV Maintain a safe & secure workplace
V Dress to create professionalism
VI Enforce all lawful rules & regulations
VII Encourage liaison with public officers
VIII Develop good rapport within the profession
IX Strive to attain professional competence
X Encourage high standards of officer ethics
PROTECTION OFFICER CODE OF ETHICS exemplary conduct at all times. Maturity and professional-
ism are the key words to guide all officers.
Today business and the public expect a great deal from the
uniformed security officer. In the past there has been far too
little attention paid to the ethical aspects of the profession. Confidentiality
There have to be solid guidelines that each officer knows Each officer is charged with the responsibility of working in
and understands. More importantly, it is essential that each the interests of his/her employer. Providing protection
manager and supervisor performs his or her duties in a man- means that the officer will encounter confidential informa-
ner that will reflect honesty, integrity, and professionalism. tion that must be carefully guarded and never compromised.
Every training program should address the need for pro-
fessional conduct on and off duty. Line officers must exhibit
Safety and Security
a willingness to gain professional competency and adhere to
The foremost responsibility of all officers is to ensure that
a strict code of ethics that must include the following:
the facility that must be protected is safe and secure for all
persons with lawful access. The officer must fully under-
stand all necessary procedures to eliminate or control secu-
To the employer, the client, and the public. The officer must
rity and safety risks.
have a complete and thorough understanding of all of the
regulations and procedures that are necessary to protect
people and assets on or in relation to the facility assigned to Deportment
protect. Each officer must dress in an immaculate manner. Crisp,
sharp, clean, and polished are the indicators that point to a
Exemplary Conduct professional officer who will execute his/her protection ob-
The officer is under constant scrutiny by everyone in work ligations in a proficient manner and will be a credit to the
and public places. Hence, it is essential that he/she exhibit profession.
Code of Ethics 5
Law Enforcement Liaison
It is the responsibility of each officer to make every effort to
The job of protecting means that the officer must impose
encourage and enhance positive relations with members of
restrictions upon people that frequent the security work-
public law enforcement. Seek assistance when a genuine
place. All human beings must be treated equally, with dig-
need exists and offer assistance whenever possible.
nity and respect, regardless of color, race, religion, or politi-
Strive to Learn
To become professionally competent, each officer must con- Self-Discipline
stantly strive to be knowledgeable about all aspects of With the position of trust comes the responsibility to dili-
his/her chosen career. How to protect people, assets and gently protect life and property. These duties can only be
information must always be a learning priority for every discharged effectively when the officer understands the
officer. gravity of his/her position. Self-discipline means trying
harder and caring more.
It is necessary to be constantly aware of the image that our CONCLUSION
profession projects. All officers can enhance the image
of the industry, their employer, and themselves. Recog- The job of protecting life and property focuses much atten-
nize and respect peers and security leaders throughout the tion on the individual security officer. Hence, it is essential
industry. to be aware of the need for professional conduct at all times.
By strictly adhering to each section in this code of ethics, it
Honesty may be expected that we as individuals and the industry as a
By virtue of the duties and responsibilities of all officers, whole will enjoy a good reputation and gain even more ac-
honest behavior is absolutely essential at all times. Each ceptance from the public as well as private and government
officer occupies a position of trust that must not be violated. corporations. You as the individual officer must be a princi-
Dishonesty can never be tolerated by the security profes- ple in this process.
6 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
Chapter Summary Review
PURPOSE AND SCOPE tion. So, too, does the development of fire protection meas-
ures. Similarly, the development of law mirrors social
For the convenience of readers of this manual, each unit changes and new threats from malevolent humans. Careers
and chapter have been summarized. An abbreviated narra- in asset protection and security continue to develop both in
tive of the contents is set forth in a manner that offers a terms of numbers of jobs and the diversity and specializa-
quick and concise reference to the core material. tion of those positions.
There are 12 units, containing 43 regular chapters and
one separate Miscellaneous section. Pages are numbered by
unit, chapter, and page — for example, Unit 5, Chapter 2,
Page 7 would appear PROTECTION OFFICER TRAINING Field Notes and Report Writing
MANUAL: Unit 5-2-7. This chapter begins by stressing the importance of the
written word, particularly as it relates to the role of the pro-
Protection Officer Ethics
tection officer. The notebook is described as a “tool of the
The security industry has not developed a recognized
trade.” The reader is given guidance in selection of a suit-
code of ethics or standard of conduct for security personnel.
able notebook, proper note taking, notebook maintenance,
Senior management in large corporations, both private and
notes for future reference, and utilizing the notebook as an
public, has often been remiss for failing to develop a code
aid in giving evidence.
of ethics for all employees to be used as a guide to encour-
The best methods of transferring information from the
age integrity-based behavior.
notebook to the report format are discussed in detail. The
Leaders must not only produce a code of ethics but dem-
importance of a well-written report is underscored as the
onstrate by exemplary personal and business conduct that
most effective means by which the work of the protection
rules are for everyone in the organization. Because of the
officer may be evaluated by fellow officers, supervisors, the
nature of the duties performed by protection officers, it is
courts, and other departments and organizations, both pri-
imperative that a code of ethics be readily available for con-
vate and public.
stant reference and application to duties performed.
The chapter discusses the various kinds of reports that
The matter of professional ethics for protection officers
may be encountered by the protection officer and how these
is a topic that is seldom discussed but is of vital importance
reports form an integral part of the security organization’s
to the entire profession. These ethics provide not only a
administration process. Finally, the chapter spells out how
guide for the officer, but also for the various levels of secu-
the written report conveys to the reader how competent the
rity management and the user of security services.
officer really is in terms of effective task completion.
Observation Skills and Memory
UNIT ONE The modern protection officer must improve memory
skills, as do security supervisors and managers. This is a
The Evolution of Asset Protection and Security popular and useful chapter for all security personnel. What
The study of history is essential to understanding present the professional protection officer observes during a normal
and future events. Asset protection (the more all-inclusive tour of duty after studying this chapter and what the officer
term denoting protection from a variety of threats) and se- who has not read the chapter observes will probably be
curity (the traditional term focusing on threats posed by quite different.
malevolent humans) is rich and varied. Generally private By using the methods of observation suggested in this
initiatives to control crime and fire preceded public ones. chapter, readers will discover that there is an opportunity to
Class struggles between the upper and lower classes of so- detect, observe, and report more information than was pre-
ciety are a large part of the history of both security and law viously thought possible.
enforcement (note that security and policing are inextrica- This chapter will enhance the opportunity for the protec-
bly intertwined in many instances). Commerce, marketing tion officer to be more resourceful, observant, and provide
considerations, and demographics play a major role in the more in-depth and meaningful reports. By combining learn-
evolution of assets and threats posed to those assets. Mili- ing skills, study habits, and memory and observation tech-
tary forces are often involved in protection against foreign niques, a much higher level of information retention will
invaders, riots, and international terrorists. Security efforts result, as well as improved performance.
are usually a step behind the actions of criminals.
The development of control forces (contract security, Patrol Principles
state, and city police), the insurance industry, and the disci- The patrol function can be significantly improved by ap-
pline of physical security can all be traced to the presence plying some of the awareness, observation, memory, and
of serious security problems and a need for mutual protec- preventive skills covered in Unit One of this manual. This
Chapter Summary Review 7
is one of the most important functions of the modern pro- This chapter describes the kinds of gatherings that can be
tection officer. defined as a crowd, demonstration, riot, or disaster. The
Results of effective patrolling can enhance the overall reader is made to understand the causes of crowd formation,
protection of personnel, assets, and information. Protection such as casual, social, political, or economic. It discusses
officers are advised as to the kind of facility violations to be countermeasures that can be employed to neutralize a
expected, a description of potential perpetrators, and the crowd that has become unruly.
danger signals that can alert the officer. Manpower considerations are covered as well as liaison
This chapter gives the reader information on patrol with local law enforcement personnel. Additional methods
preparation, execution, and reporting. It clearly illustrates of crowd management, such as isolating individuals, re-
the most effective methods of patrolling and provides excel- moving leaders, diverting attention, and other effective tac-
lent cautionary guidelines to promote officer safety. The tics, are covered in detail. The chapter concludes with a
importance of the connection between the patrol, field crowd control planning checklist and shows illustrations
notes, and the finished report is reiterated in this chapter. that indicate effective personnel deployment.
Safety and the Protection Officer
There has always been a close link between safety and
security. For example, the title “Public Safety Officer” fre-
quently replaces a more traditional security-oriented rank Physical Security Applications
description. And some organizations have attempted to in- This facet of security is vitally important to the protec-
corporate a total “Loss Control Concept” by including tion officer. Every facility requires various forms of physi-
safety, security, and fire protection into one organizational cal security. This can range from a simple access control
job description. system, such as key control, to various sophisticated, inte-
The protection officer is in an ideal position to combine grated control access methods, such as magnetic strip cards,
safety responsibilities with regular security duties. This voice prints, laser readers, and new technology, such as
chapter gives the reader a clear picture of the overall organ- retina scan (eye readers), advanced hi-tech access control
izational safety structure, individual responsibilities, and systems, closed circuit TV, robots, and alarms systems that
how the protection officer can bring safety hazards to light. monitor unauthorized and authorized movement of person-
By close scrutiny of potential safety risks and effective re- nel, as well as the environment, are becoming common
porting, the protection officer can make beneficial contribu- methods designed to improve physical security.
tions to organizational safety. At the top of the list of physical security measures is the
trained protection officer. Adding integrated security sys-
tems to any facility means more effective deployment of
Vehicular movement, at every location that is protected
security personnel. Personnel, hardware, and software are
by security, becomes a responsibility of the protection offi-
part of the protection link.
cer. This chapter first discusses the need for proper prepara-
This chapter discusses physical security in depth, and it
tion for duty by describing the physical items required to
is essential that officers fully understand the connection
get the job done. The importance of “good attitude” is ex-
between the human and technical aspects of physical secu-
plained and the need for full officer attention to safety is
rity. This chapter discusses the five steps that are involved
with physical security, such as the following:
Signs and automatic signals are discussed, as well as a
Identification of assets: Asset protection includes safe-
careful description of hand gestures and the officer’s posi-
guarding personnel, information, and all corporate posses-
tion when directing traffic. The use of the whistle can
sions that can be classified and protected. Corporate assets
maximize effective traffic movement and control. Refer-
must be accurately inventoried so that effective measures of
ence is made to pedestrian traffic; an officer can assist po-
protection can be implemented to preserve these assets.
lice in the execution of this important security function.
Failure to develop and maintain productive asset protection
The chapter concludes by providing some useful tips on
can most certainly result in business failure.
traffic control and site locations from which the protection
Loss events: Threats to organizational assets must be
officer may be expected to perform traffic control duties.
identified. Considering the potential consequences of the
Crowd Control threat, the likelihood of the loss event actually occurring, and
The effective management of large groups of people is the effects that such a loss event would have on the organiza-
becoming a major role of the protection officer. Failure to tion is a vital exercise in physical security planning. The pro-
understand or execute correct procedures can lead to disas- tection officer can be an integral part of the system that
trous consequences. Effective crowd control is the differ- monitors the effectiveness of physical security measures.
ence between a smooth flow of pedestrian traffic and a Occurrence probability: There are a number of methods
hysterical mob of uncontrollable individuals who can cause that will assist in determining, with reasonable accuracy,
serious injury or death to innocent people and severe dam- the likelihood of the loss event actually occurring. This
age to property. condition has significant bearing on the level of physical
8 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
security that must be placed on assets that are affected. Finally, the education of security operators via in-house,
Gathering intelligence from past, present, and anticipated distance, and seminar programs is presented. Formal certi-
events is a function that can be enhanced by effective offi- fications, such as the IPFO protection officer and CSAA
cer observations and reports. Central Station Dispatcher, are defined as well.
Impact of occurrence: The effects that a loss event may In general, the chapter underscores that the security con-
have on an organization are critical in the overall loss con- trol center is the focal point of any protection function,
trol planning process. For example, a disaster, manmade or ranging from a one-man post at the front desk of an office
by act of God, could require numerous contingency plans, building to a fully staffed central alarm station that receives
ranging from auxiliary power to such considerations as mu- worldwide signals.
tual aid from other corporations. When a loss event occurs,
the protection officer is often first on the scene and must Access Control
take immediate remedial action. This chapter is an overview of the function of access
Countermeasures: There are a wide range of counter- control from its most simple form to the use of complex
measures that must be considered in the physical security access control systems. Emphasis is placed not only on the
planning process. Asset identification, potential loss events, common function of granting and denying access, but also
the probability of an occurrence, and the impact this occur- the value of audit trails and the need to follow and enforce
rence (event) would have on the organization are all actors policy with diplomacy.
that influence the level of physical security. Readers should Access control does not only apply to the security officer
relate Emergency, Disaster Planning Techniques covered stationed at a desk checking facility occupants in and deny-
separately in Unit Four of this manual when considering ing those trying to breach security. The function of access
physical security countermeasures. control can range from the control of users on a corporate
network to the facial recognition systems in use at border
Alarm System Fundamentals crossings and airport customs.
An understanding of basic alarm systems should be con- The following chapter describes the various forms of
sidered a “core knowledge” requirement for anyone respon- controlling access and describes the “tools of the trade” in
sible for the protection of people, property, profits, and the world of controlling access.
information. This chapter provides the fundamental infor-
mation today’s protection officer needs to know to be suc-
cessful at her/his job. The material includes a discussion
about different types of monitoring systems, the importance
of an effective operator interface, and a description of the Introduction to Computer Security
most commonly used alarm sensors. This chapter begins with a discussion of the growth of com-
This chapter also includes coverage of “false alarms” and puter crime. As computers become almost universal, the
their various causes. Finally, this section concludes with an protection officer must increase his or her awareness of
important discussion of alarm response procedures and the computer security issues. Presented in a nontechnical man-
importance of officer safety when investigating alarm ner, the chapter provides key definitions as they apply to
events. General in nature, this material must be supple- computer and information security issues. Also included are
mented with specific information as it applies to the alarm various types of security threats, different kinds of hackers
systems at the reader’s duty location. and crackers, and recommended security policies.
Information is the lifeblood of most organizations. Al-
Central Alarm Stations and Dispatch Centers though computer security has become a highly technical
This chapter explains the role of the control room in se- specialty, today’s protection officer is increasingly expected
curity operations and details the physical location, staffing, to support the organization’s computer security program
equipment, and training. and understand its important relationship to traditional pro-
The first major topic is the ergonomics of the dispatch tective tasks.
center, which includes computer monitor and keyboard
location, heating and cooling, and access control to author- Information Security
ized personnel. This chapter begins by explaining the growing impor-
The next topic is staffing, based partially on studies done tance of protecting information as the focus of industry
by the National Burglar and Fire Alarm Association, Un- progresses in its development of technical concepts. The
derwriters Laboratories, and APCO. identification of critical information is discussed as it re-
Communications tools, such as the phone and radio, are lates to the value it represents to the rightful owner. Basic
examined, along with the logging computer, the alarm re- methods of initiating an information security plan are ex-
ceiver, audio recorder, and video surveillance. In addition, plored, including identification of proper users, the nature
electronic access control is further defined as well as me- of the information, and in what form it is retained. The ba-
chanical keys and locks. sic idea of physical security is also highlighted. The proper
Chapter Summary Review 9
use of policy and procedure controls is discussed, inclusive the same substance does not pose a risk to employees and
of obtaining “Trade Secret” status, and the benefits and the public. While the types of materials are not discussed in
limitations of that status. Confidentiality agreements are detail, there are numerous suggestions as to how these ma-
also discussed. Potential sources of threats are explored, terials can be identified.
and the differing levels of threat and goals of the threat are People play a key role in the misuse and abuse of haz-
discussed. ardous materials. The protection officer plays a key role in
enforcing the rules and procedures that are designed to
safeguard a contaminated area. Numerous location and fa-
cilities, both public and private, industrial, commercial, and
recreational, may be adversely affected by improperly
Explosive Devices, Bomb Threats, and Search stored, handled, or transported hazardous materials. By
Procedures developing a broad knowledge base about this topic, the
Legitimate uses of explosives are explained, as well as protection officer can do a great deal to protect people and
possible motivations for unlawful uses. The potential scale the environment.
and scope of damage are discussed as they relate to size and This chapter begins by discussing the response methods
composition of the device. A definition of explosives is to deal with the uncontrolled release of hazardous materials.
provided with further classification as “high” or “low” ex- The statement “Dilution was the solution to pollution” does
plosives. Triggering and detonation methods are also dis- not necessarily hold true today. Diluted hazardous solutions
cussed. Development of an action plan is discussed, as well can have long-term devastating effects on the environment.
as threat checklists and coordination with outside agencies. In years past, the job of dealing with these situations was
The nature of bomb threats is discussed, as well as response primarily a fire department responsibility. Today special-
phases. The initiation and execution of a search is dis- ized hazardous material (HazMat) response teams have
cussed, including methods of searching, identification of been developed to respond to uncontrolled releases of haz-
persons involved in the search process, and response to ardous substances. This chapter deals with the necessary
device discovery. Responses to explosions are explored, response needed to deal with the risk of uncontrolled haz-
including the need to be aware of possible secondary de- ardous materials which includes the following:
vices. Deterrence and designing to mitigate blast effects are
explained, with possible action steps provided. • Activate the contingency plan
• Identify the substance released
Fire Prevention, Detection, and Response • Determine the quantity of the released substance
The basic nature of fire threats is explained in the begin- • Determine the extent of the damage
ning of the chapter with an emphasis on the benefits of pre- • Perform “site security”
vention, as opposed to response. The basics of fire are
explored, including the Fire Triangle and some common This chapter provides details of each of the necessary
fire source areas. Methods of detection are explained, inclu- steps to manage uncontrolled hazardous materials that pose
sive of human observation, electronic systems, and auto- an immediate threat to life and property.
mated sprinkler systems. A definition of the basic types of While each of the five steps is of vital importance, the fi-
fire is provided with an explanation of the corresponding nal step, “site security,” is of primary importance to the
portable extinguishers. Permanent extinguisher and sup- protection officer. This relates to keeping onlookers and
pression hardware is also described with the methods of bystanders out of the contaminated area. Coworkers, the
operation explored. Concepts related to containment are public, and even the media, can all pose serious security
listed, referencing fire doors, construction materials, and the problems. They must be kept clear of the affected area for
importance of monitoring for proper upkeep of the struc- their own safety. The HazMat response team has a big job
tural aspects. The critical importance of development of a to do and can’t be burdened with the task of dealing with
realistic fire plan is stressed with basic components ex- unwanted onlookers.
plained. The possibility of arson and the related hazards are An excellent illustration depicts how the security func-
also explained. tion can be implemented. It describes the three critical
zones: hot, warm, and cold. All nonessential personnel must
Hazardous Materials be kept clear of the contaminated area and restricted to the
Considerably more attention has been focused on the cold zone area where the command post is established and
topic of hazardous materials in recent years. The day-to-day controlled by the incident commander.
and long-term management of these kinds of materials is Once the contamination has been cleaned up or safely
becoming a part of everyday life, particularly in the indus- controlled (decontaminated on DECONed), the incident
trial world. The protection officer is now called upon not commander will make a decision about further security
only to have a good understanding of what constitutes a measures. Only once the area has been classified as safe
hazardous material, but what has to be done to ensure that will the strict security procedures will be relaxed.
10 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
Protection Officers and Emergency Response • Crossing picket lines
Legal and Operational Considerations • Picket line surveillance
The protection officer’s responsibilities increase as each
day passes. Fire prevention, asset protection, and policy Other strike conditions that are discussed in this chapter
enforcement are among the tasks charged to security offi- are searches, employee misconduct and dishonesty, em-
cers. Along with these are many everyday duties like access ployee discipline, types of discipline, arbitration, and inter-
control, maintaining general safety, and the monitoring of views. It must be remembered that the protection officer’s
properties. Security operations are moving toward response role in matters of labor unrest is one of neutrality. It is im-
to medical emergencies, too. With areas and properties get- portant that strikers do not perceive security as an extension
ting larger, security patrols are the only link between a sick of management.
or injured person and help. Security is beginning to encoun- By maintaining a friendly, cooperative attitude, it is pos-
ter legal issues when dealing with first response to medical sible to reduce much of the friction that is normally present
emergencies. What are the legal repercussions of first re- during strike or lockout conditions. However, disgruntled
sponse for security officers? What can the company or de- strikers will resort to numerous tactics designed to intimi-
partment do to protect itself from legal actions? date nonstriking employees and cause management hard-
One such statute that has an effect on everyone, not just ships.
security officers, is the Good Samaritan Law. This law ap- While maintaining good relations is very important,
pears in one form or another in most states and can be re- sometimes it is necessary to compel strikers to adhere to
ferred to as the “Good Samaritan Rule” or the “Firemen’s company strike policy. In the absence of court injunctions,
Rule.” This law is in effect in most states and protects the employee has all of the legal powers necessary to pro-
emergency care providers from civil liability. The law basi- tect the property and the people having legal access to the
cally states, “Any individual who gives emergency care at facility.
the scene of an emergency shall not be held liable to that
same person acting in ‘good faith’ as a result of any actions Workplace Violence
except those that prove intentionally harmful or grossly Violence is pervasive in our world and has been a part of
negligent.” the human society since its earliest recorded time. Violence
Throughout this chapter, recommendations are made as in society, in one form or another, is unfortunate and is sim-
to what sort of recommended training should be provided to ply unavoidable. According to the National Institute for
the security officers in terms of responding to emergency Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), it is clear from
medical needs. Additional information is provided in this the available data that workplace violence is a public health
chapter as it relates to the automated external defibrillator problem of significant proportion. In a report that covered
(AED). the years 1980–1985, it was reported that homicide was the
This chapter also reviews medical emergencies, fire third largest cause of occupational injury death in the work-
safety and hazardous or biohazardous materials. place. Workplace violence is a specialized problem and one
that security professionals must deal with in their day-to-
UNIT SIX day work lives. The cost of a workplace violence incident is
exhorbitant. Therefore, it is incumbent on the organiza-
Strikes, Lockouts, and Labor Relations tional leadership to do all they can, at all levels, to prevent a
Wildcat strikes, lawful strikes, and lockouts are frequent workplace violence incident from occurring. Upon investi-
occurrences on the labor scene. When any of these condi- gation of incidents after they occurred, it was apparent that
tions are anticipated by management, extensive contingency people who have perpetrated workplace violence incidents
plans are developed with a view to protecting nonstriking displayed warning signs prior to the incident occurring.
employees, and the physical aspects of the struck facility. Also, employees who committed workplace violence often
The roles of the protection officer in labor disputes include started out being rude to coworkers. There was an escala-
but are not limited to the following: tion that occurred, culminating in homicide. Security offi-
cers will likely be among the first ones to be on the scene if
• Access control an incident occurs. Thus, it is essential that security officers
• Escorts possess the personal demeanor and professional skills nec-
• Chain of command (security) essary to respond to and successfully manage a workplace
• Police liaison violence incident. The primary purpose of this chapter is to
• Communication provide protection officers with the tools and knowledge
• Prestrike vandalism they need to successfully recognize and respond to work-
• Fire safety place violence.
• Building security
• Security lighting Employee Dishonesty and Crime in Business
• Supply acquisitions Employee theft is not uncommon. In fact, it has been
• Threatening phone calls said that the level of controls and the threat of punishment
Chapter Summary Review 11
are directly linked to the amount of dishonest behavior that Specific workplace issues are discussed and the cost as-
can be expected in an organization. sociated with substance abuse is identified. To effectively
Preventive security and security awareness programs address substance abuse in the workplace, there should be a
have a definite relationship with increased loss control re- comprehensive drug-free workplace program. Such a pro-
sulting from dishonesty in the workplace. gram consists of several components. These components,
This chapter discusses the WAECUP acronym, which is including the security function, will be reviewed.
pronounced “Wake up.” These are the key terms that relate The security response is a critical component of any
to employee theft in the WAECUP program. drug-free workplace program. As such, the protection offi-
cer is presented with information about the various tech-
W Waste niques available to respond to criminality and major policy
A Accident violations.
E Error Finally, this chapter reviews the most prevalent drugs of
C Crime abuse and their signs and symptoms. A chart graphically
UP Unethical Practices displaying this information and more is presented.
By carefully reviewing this chapter, the protection offi-
Each term in this model is discussed, and the connection cer will gain sufficient insight into the general nature of
between each portion of the acronym is explained as it re- substance abuse and drug dependence and a specific aware-
lates to losses resulting from a criminal act committed ness regarding workplace issues, the security response, and
within the organization. the officer’s responsibility.
Not all internal (employee) theft is preventable. We will
learn in this chapter some ways in which to minimize, mod- UNIT SEVEN
erate, and control criminal activity. This will enhance our
ability to be effective protection officers. The protection Effective Communications
officer can have a significant impact on theft prevention. The chapter points out that risk analysis, vulnerability as-
They can deter and displace theft. When security is tight, sessments, integrated countermeasure designs, security of-
thieves look for another place to steal. ficer practice and procedure, and emergency response and
Employees will recognize that effective professional se- contingency planning could not exist without “effective”
curity is in place and generally avoid the risk of detection written and verbal communications. This chapter places
that would precede an illegal act directed against the or- great emphasis on the fact that effective communications is
ganization. not “effective” if a mutual “understanding” between the
This chapter gives tips on observation techniques that sender and receiver of the message is missing. We should
enhance effective theft prevention. It explains the impor- be sending messages using words that are on a level that
tance of effective reports and the correlation between in- will be understood by the new recruit and/or the least
formation related to management and increased security. It knowledgeable person on the team.
will provide a number of suggested actions in theft preven- It reminds us of the obvious: that effective communica-
tion. It also provides the officer with cautionary practices tions become critical when communicating with public as-
that, if followed, will reduce the opportunity for unfavor- sistance personnel, such as fire, police, and emergency
able publicity or even possible lawsuits for acts or omis- medical personnel. The author places the burden for clear
sions on the part of the officer(s). It is essential to and concise communications squarely on the message
understand the protection officer’s authority to search and sender. Message receivers should never have to decipher a
seize. It is also necessary to fully understand company pol- message. Messages sent should be so clear that anyone with
icy and the organization’s expectations of security. a seventh-grade education could understand the message
with little or no effort.
Substance Abuse The chapter also breaks down myths and misconceptions
Substance abuse is one of the leading social problems of regarding the use of abbreviations, shorthand, and brevity.
our time. It adversely affects the health and creative poten- Being brief many times is not an important goal of writing.
tial of individual abusers, and, therefore, deteriorates the Saying as few words as possible and speaking in code are
stability of institutions under individual control. One such not always the best ways to communicate verbally.
institution is the workplace. The chapter ends with suggestions for use of communi-
Throughout this chapter, the protection officer will de- cations devices, including the use of telephone systems,
velop an awareness for the issues related to an individual’s two-way radios, pagers, and intercoms.
motive to abuse drugs, why they continue using drugs in
spite of deteriorating physical and mental health, and how Crisis Intervention
they become dependent. Also, the protection officer will The personal safety of protection officers has to be of
become familiar with the meaning of substance abuse and a paramount importance because each officer working in se-
variety of terms associated with the prevention and treat- curity today is frequently exposed to conflict oriented situa-
ment of the problem. tions. Crisis intervention/management is a technique of
12 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
communicating in a nonthreatening manner with individ- ing calm, being objective, and listening in a sympathetic
ual(s) who are behaving in a disruptive or violent manner. manner, the potentially violent situation can usually be dif-
This chapter deals with the causes that lead to disruptive fused. The author cautions all officers to first ensure that
behavior such as illness, injury, emotional problems, sub- there are sufficient backup personnel before taking a correc-
stance abuse, stress, or anger. To cope with individuals ex- tive action.
hibiting these kinds of characteristics, the protection officer
must develop a plan of action that is designed to reduce the Security Awareness
risk, not only to the distraught individual, but also to em- This chapter begins by explaining the benefits of having
ployees and, of course, the officer. the involvement of all persons in the security efforts. Meth-
Each situation must be evaluated—in other words, ods of creating a team mentality are introduced, as well as
“What is going on here?” Once it has been determined what the possible levels of involvement that others may have.
is actually happening, there has to be a plan of action. This The creation of a clearly communicated plan is described as
deals with ensuring that necessary personnel and other re- essential in the development of the proper environment, as
sources are available to manage the situation. The next step is an understanding of the nature of the target audience.
is to implement the plan. The action taken must be appro- Some additional ideas to increase involvement and aware-
priate and designed to sustain the safety of the officer(s) ness are explained and keyed to the various phases of con-
and subject(s). After the appropriate action has been taken, tact that each person moves through over time.
it is necessary to carefully document the entire crisis situa- Environmental Crime Control Theory
tion. Finally, a review process must take place that includes While the average reader, in reviewing existing security
all of the personnel involved. This gives everyone the op- literature, will read about crime prevention through Envi-
portunity to openly discuss what happened. It is a positive ronmental Design, or CPTED, as it is more commonly re-
critiquing exercise. ferred to, there are a host of other theories that offer as
The writer of this chapter encourages effective listening much or more insight into crime control. If one is consider-
techniques. Listening in an empathetic manner tends to re- ing the implementation of a host of new security applica-
duce anxiety on the part of the subject. By projecting a car- tions, one should start by asking, “Why?” Learning and
ing attitude, there is a greater opportunity to gain the applying these theories will not provide the magic answer,
confidence of the individual. Past prejudices and biases but they will allow one to make informed decisions as to
must be put aside, and the protection officer has to be ob- why or why not security precautions should or should not
jective. A person suffering from distress, frustration, anger, be carried out. Once a deeper understanding of why a per-
or dismay can easily detect insincerity. Be genuine and son chose to carry out the activity in a particular area can be
never ignore the principal of the conflict. Listen carefully to made or just as importantly why an act was not carried out,
clarify any messages. Reinforce in the subject’s mind what then understanding and further applications can be insti-
has been said so that he/she knows that you really do under- tuted.
stand. This section will go into detail and explain the various
The chapter also deals in some length with nonverbal crime control theories that can both help explain and pre-
communications. Almost 85 percent of messages are con- vent criminal activity. It starts with an explanation of the
veyed without words, so it is vitally important to watch for evolution of crime prevention through environmental de-
body language that will give clues as to the emotional state sign before discussing the differences between social crime
of the principal(s) to a conflict. Honor the personal space of prevention and environmental theory. Following this is an
the subject and be aware of posture that may be interpreted explanation of the various theories including rational choice
as threatening. Maintain a position/stance that is nonthreat- theory along with the corresponding 16 situational crime
ening while rendering maximum personal safety. prevention techniques, parts I and II. Following this is an
The “team approach” is suggested in dealing with crisis explanation of both displacement and diffusion of benefits.
situations. It offers more personal safety to other team Routine activity and crime pattern theory are also dis-
members while maintaining a stronger deterrent. Team cussed. Crime prevention through environmental design
members do not feel that aggression is directed at them and defensible space are also highlighted and reviewed.
personally but rather at the team. A team should remain
small, and backup personnel should avoid the scene unless
the situation requires support personnel. Avoid a mass con- UNIT EIGHT
vergence. Preincident training is extremely important. Team
drills are performed to ensure that each player fully under- Operational Risk
stands his/her role. The primary function of security professionals is to pro-
In extreme situations of emotional turmoil that has been tect the safety and security of the people, property, and in-
initiated by an individual(s) that is suffering from severe formation that they are entrusted with protecting. Security
stress or behaving in a violent manner, the action taken by officers need to understand the basic concepts of risk and
the first officer on the scene is critical to successfully re- risk management to be effective in their positions as secu-
solve the situation. By carefully analyzing the threat, keep- rity professionals. To the extent that organizational safety
Chapter Summary Review 13
and security risks can be identified through proper risk • Tornado
analysis, they can be mitigated. One tool that security man- • Flood
agers, as well as all others in the security department, can • Nuclear holocaust, radiation accident
use to reduce losses and minimize risk is to institute an Op-
erational Risk Management (ORM) program in the organi- Once the type of disaster has been identified, it is essen-
zation. In its most elemental form, an ORM process will tial that the correct group(s) or individuals be identified and
cause security personnel at all levels to answer three ques- located to render all possible and necessary assistance. Pro-
tions about any obvious or potential incident. These ques- tection officers must be aware of the signs and effects that
tions are What can hurt my organization or me? How bad will assist in determining the kind of disaster that has oc-
can it hurt me or my organization? What (if anything) can I curred.
do about it? While traditional ORM was originally devel- The next step is to have available a list of personnel and
oped and used in conjunction with military planning and organizations that have been designated to cope with the
operations, it is equally effective when used in day-to-day disaster. Home telephone numbers, as well as alternately
security operations. ORM, as developed, is a five-step deci- designated personnel who are trained to deal with disasters,
sion-making process that is designed to enable individuals must be known to the officer, so as to limit the time con-
to identify hazards, assess risks, and implement controls to sumed in summoning assistance. Other considerations that
reduce risk associated with any action or operation. The involve security personnel are as follows:
ORM process exists on three levels: time-critical (an “on
the run” mental or oral review); deliberate (application of • Plant warning and communication systems
the complete five-step process); and in-depth (a deliberate • Transportation
process with a more thorough risk assessment involving • Medical services
research of available data, use of a diagram and analysis • Employee training—first aid, firefighting, and rescue
tools, formal testing, or long-term tracking of the hazards • Emergency power sources
associated with the operation to identify and assess the haz- • Mutual aid programs
ards). ORM incorporates the four principles of (1) accept- • Availability of facility plans, maps, and diagrams
ing risk when benefits outweigh the cost, (2) accepting no
unnecessary risk, (3) anticipating and managing risk by Security personnel must assume a major responsibility in
planning (risks are more easily controlled when they are such crisis conditions. It is essential that each officer care-
identified early in the planning process), and (4) making fully studies the Emergency Disaster plan and understands
risk decisions at the proper level in the organization. Protec- how his/her responsibilities interface with other designated
tion officers are responsible for continually assessing risk employees named in the plan. Protecting life and property is
and looking for ways to mitigate risk. An organizational a major concern of the protection officer, and it is important
Operational Risk Management program is an essential part to restore full security as quickly as possible. This means
of the risk identification and mitigation process. gaining control of access points, providing direction to
emergency response units, and encouraging an atmosphere
Emergency Planning and Disaster Control that will reduce panic.
Advanced planning is the key to controlling emergencies
and disasters in any workplace. For this reason, such a plan Terrorism
should be a basic part of every safety and accident preven- Terrorism can seem like a “big picture” problem only.
tion program. That is, it can seem like only military forces and to a lesser
This chapter presents general guidelines for setting up a degree, civilian public safety agencies are the only ones that
disaster control plan and then provides a step-by-step deal with terrorism. While these are vital forces in the war
outline of specific actions to be taken, including an organ- on terrorism, the notion that terrorism is only fought by
izational chart showing how to assign individual responsi- military and public safety personnel is off-base and could
bilities for each step of the plan. Prominent in the not be more incorrect. The ever-increasing frequency and
emergency plan is the protection officer, who once again is severity of terrorist acts in the past few years, culminating
often the first officer available to take action. in the horrific events that occurred on September 11, 2001,
These are some of the manmade or act-of-God disasters affected everyone. Those particularly affected are those
discussed in this chapter. who work in the public safety profession. The role of the
protection officer has changed since September 11, 2001.
• Fire Private security professionals now have a key role to play in
• Explosion the fight against terrorism. This chapter provides the reader
• Civil disturbance with an understanding of what terrorism is, why it exists,
• Hazardous chemical or gas leaks and spills and what security professionals can expect of terrorists in
• Earthquake the future. This chapter defines terrorism and provides
• Building collapse readers with information about the two types of terrorist
• Hurricane groups that exist. The best way for protection officers to
14 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
prepare for a terrorist attack is to have a systemwide em- protection. The matter of hostage-taking is discussed at
phasis on emergency planning and incident response. In length and techniques that are essential to improve the
many ways, preparing for a terrorist attack is no different chance of hostage survival are dealt with in considerable
from planning for other disasters. As with any security plan, detail. Hostage negotiation and release measures are also
it is critical to conduct ongoing training and to conduct integral parts of this excellent guide to life-threatening fac-
drills to test the security plans. ets of crisis management.
Counter-terrorism and VIP Protection Weapons of Mass Destruction:
This chapter begins by explaining the current state of ter- The NBC Threats
rorism. Terrorism is a strategy employing the use or threat The chapter begins by defining the nature of Weapons of
of force to achieve political or social objectives. It is a form Mass Destruction, including the definition found in the U.S.
of coercion designed to manipulate an opponent (govern- Code. The nature of each type of potential threat is dis-
ment or private organization). The chapter describes a ter- cussed to identify them individually. Device detection and
rorist as having the following characteristics: incident prevention are also discussed, inclusive of the chal-
lenges of identifying these threats, as they can be easily
• 21 to 40 years old disguised. The immediate response to an incident is ex-
• Often female plained, as is a listing of some common indicators of
• Having no criminal record chemical weapon effects. The fact that nuclear and biologi-
• Well educated cal threats have varied effects is discussed. The treatment
• Skilled in military techniques and long-term response are also explored, with emphasis
• Dedicated to a cause placed on the responsibility of outside agencies in determin-
ing the actual nature of the threat, the decontamination of
This chapter explains the structure of terrorist groups by the area, and the return of control to the rightful owners.
geographical location and provides details on the methods
of operation employed by the various terrorist groups.
Counterterrorist security personnel are given excellent in- UNIT NINE
formation as to the tactics that are employed by terrorists. Crime Scene Procedures
Foremost in terrorist groups are advanced intelligence and How successfully the protection officer is able to protect
careful planning. They will only attempt a mission if they the crime scene and preserve evidence has considerable
believe that it has an excellent opportunity to succeed. impact on the outcome of a criminal investigation, either by
Terrorist plans include the manipulation of existing secu- the police or senior members of the security organization.
rity systems, including the recruitment of personnel from The protection officer who encounters a crime scene
within the organization. They most frequently have inside must first take measures that will afford officer safety.
sources of information that provide them with the ability to Criminal apprehension is less important than reducing the
strike at a time and a place when they are least expected. chance of injury or death to protection personnel.
Frequently, they will kidnap an employee or employee’s Once it has been established that a crime has taken place
family prior to an attack or they will seize a hostage during and in fact a crime scene does exist, the officer must then
the attack. seek backup personnel. The boundaries of the crime scene
Prior to the attack, they will embark upon such measures must be determined and declared a sterile area. No one
as isolating the facility by eliminating power or communi- without authorization from the senior security or police
cation. They are either experts at detonating explosive de- officials may be allowed into the restricted area.
vices, or they recruit sympathetic groups or individuals to The protection officer has specific responsibilities, fore-
assist in the deployment of explosives. They will rehearse most of which is properly preparing notes that may later be
their plan at length and usually implement an attack under helpful in crime detection activities. This chapter explains
adverse weather conditions. what the protection officer might expect to find at a crime
The thrust of this chapter is to point out that effective scene. It also provides information as to how the protection
physical security measures are frequently one of the best officer can best render assistance to investigating officers
means of countering terrorism. The chapter lists more than on the scene. The chapter concludes with a caution to the
25 tactical procedures that can reduce the threat of terror- protection officer: “Don’t touch—preserve and protect.”
The author suggests that a well-trained security force, Foundations for Surveillance
conversant with terrorist tactics and trained in all security The basic goal of surveillance is explained in the begin-
areas ranging from physical fitness to recognizing ploys ning of the chapter as being the obtaining of information
that are utilized by terrorists, is necessary to protect against through focused efforts. The subtypes of surveillance opera-
terrorism. tions are explored, with the basic four being explained in
This chapter also offers readers excellent information on detail. Equipment requirements are also explored as they
current strategies that may be employed to enhance VIP relate to the nature and scope of each type of operation. The
Chapter Summary Review 15
importance of understanding privacy laws and similar re- ing in a conflict situation, or any number of the routine
strictions are emphasized. The importance of recording and occurrences that involve security on a regular basis.
retention of recordings is explained. Generally, the protection officer becomes involved in the
preliminary investigation. This is an important facet of the
Interviewing Techniques entire investigation process because initial information must
The protection officer has been described a number of be factual and accurately recorded. These are the initial
times in this manual as the first officer on the scene. First investigation steps.
officer at a fire, emergency, accident, crime scene, alarm
response, a labor dispute—you name it—the officer must • Attending to injured persons
be there. Interviewing is no exception. • Detaining suspects known to have committed a crime
The officer must carefully record initial remarks made by • Finding and questioning witnesses
witnesses or suspects, record what occurred at a crime or • Preserving the crime/accident scene
accident scene, and take statements given under conditions • Forwarding information to dispatch
of distress. This is not an easy task because how well this • Completing a preliminary report
information is obtained and recorded will frequently have a The chapter goes on to discuss follow-up investigations,
major impact on the action taken by affected parties and auditing, interviews, interrogations, informants, undercover
individuals. investigations, and testifying in court. The role of the pro-
Readers should review the Field Note and Report Writ- tection officer is often limited to the preliminary investiga-
ing chapter in conjunction with this part of the manual. tion, but officers should have an overall understanding of
The basic difference between note taking and interview- the entire investigative process.
ing is that the interviewer must take charge of the situation. With fewer law enforcement personnel available to pri-
There are a number of proven methods that will assist the vate and government organizations, and more crime, corpo-
officer in assuming the command position in these circum- rations are becoming more dependent on professional
stances. There are several stages that should be followed security personnel to provide organizational protection. An
when interviewing. informed officer who understands the entire investigative
process is a valuable asset to any security organization.
• Getting acquainted
• Developing a rapport
• Motivating the subject UNIT TEN
• Keeping the subject talking
• Listening to what is said Legal Aspects of Security
Protection officer discretion is the fundamental message
Many times it is not possible to conduct a structured in- that should be derived from this chapter. The law is a com-
terview, so it is doubly important to carefully record all plex and changing field, and the members of the security
information that is seen or heard. If the formal interview is community cannot be expected to be totally conversant with
conducted by a senior member of the guard force, the pre- all facets of the administration of justice. It is, however, of
liminary information obtained by the field officer will prove vital importance to understand the rights and duties that are
invaluable to the supervisor. exercised in the everyday security role.
This chapter discusses obstacles that can be encountered This section will examine what law is, the sources of our
in an interview and gives the interviewer helpful tips to laws, and the differences between some of the more impor-
avoid losing the lead role. Such tactics as initially avoiding tant parts of the legal framework. The powers of the protec-
specific questions, avoiding yes or no answers, not using tion officer are examined, including arrest and search.
leading questions, avoiding rapid-fire questions, not using When the term “arrest” is mentioned, it is essential that
open-ended questions, avoiding a long pause if necessary, cautionary remarks accompany any reference to this aspect
and not taking the nondirect approach are all useful inter- of security and the law.
viewing techniques. The chapter concludes with helpful Two types of arrest are covered in this chapter: arrest
suggestions on how to successfully conclude the interview. with a warrant and arrest without a warrant. Arrests with a
warrant are generally a matter for police authorities, and the
Investigations: Concepts and Practices for Security only involvement on the part of security personnel would
Professionals be a supportive role.
Protection officers sometimes have misconceptions about Arresting a person without a warrant is a very serious
what constitutes white-collar crime. Because the protection undertaking, which could have far-reaching civil and crimi-
officer is an adjunct member of the management team, it is nal legal repercussions if complete adherence to the law is
his/her duty to provide management with information. not observed. A protection officer, who is in lawful posses-
The officer reports this information after conducting sion of real property, may arrest a person without a warrant
some basic types of investigative activity such as searching, found committing a criminal offense on or in relation to the
interviews, attending an accident or crime scene, interven- property that is being protected.
16 Protection Officer Training Manual, Introduction
If it is essential to execute an arrest, there must be abso- ing the perpetrator’s friends and/or relatives to assist in the
lutely no doubt in the mind of the protection officer that the negotiation by speaking directly to the perpetrator.
offense was committed. The officer protecting the property The key to effecting calmness in a potentially aggressive
must have found the offense being committed. situation is for the security officer to maintain self-control
Before effecting an arrest, every other possible means of at all times. The formula for self-control is presented: con-
detaining the person should be explored. It is inherently trol = I/E, where I and E represent intellect and emotion,
dangerous to take away the liberties of a person. Every pos- respectively. While fear and stress may have the effect of
sible effort should be made to detain the individual on a altering the officer’s physical state, such as inducing sweat-
voluntary basis. An arrest should only be made if there are ing, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and ultimately
no other courses of action available and there is a serious lowering his/her capacity for self-control, intensive profes-
threat to life or property. sional training will allow the officer to quickly regain
If every other course of action has been explored and an his/her confidence and self-control in these threatening
arrest must be effected, support personnel are the prime situations.
consideration. Officer safety and the safety of others are Recognizing potentially dangerous situations before they
essential. start is a very important skill for the security guard to mas-
If a person responsible for committing a criminal offense ter. Several indicators, or “red flags,” are discussed, such as
is arrested, there are several important procedures that are the posture and hand movements of the subject.
followed. The arrested person(s) must be advised of the Finally, the writing of reports is considered with specific
following: reference to a use of force incident. The goal of the report is
to clearly show that, under identical circumstances, anyone
• The reason for the arrest would have done exactly the same things as the attending
• The right to legal counsel officer. However, because of the potential legal and social
• That the person under arrest is not required to say hazards associated with the use of force, it is portrayed
anything throughout this chapter as something to be avoided with
verbal deescalation the much more favored method of deal-
Once arrested, the protection officer is responsible for
ing with potentially violent situations. Successful verbal
the safety of the individual(s). The protection officer has a
deescalation depends on impeccable self-control, which is
legal responsibility to deliver the arrested person(s) to a
considered to be one of the primary goals of every security
police officer as soon as practically possible.
This chapter provides readers with general information
on common law, criminal and civil law, search authority, Defensive Tactics and Officer Safety
use of force, evidence, confessions, and gives the reader an This chapter begins by stressing the importance of main-
overview of legal aspects in security. taining awareness in order to best provide for their own
The objective of the section is to help members of the se- safety. The concept of “observe and report” is stressed, as
curity community to understand the authority that is avail- opposed to involvement in confrontation. Officers are di-
able to them and how it can be applied to the protection of rected to use caution, call for assistance when needed,
life and property. The protection officer who understands properly utilize lighting to their advantage, and utilize all
the nature and extent of their personal authority does the senses. A basic description of combat is given, including
best job for his/her employer without unnecessary exposure the concepts of control of space, timing, and damage. Offi-
to liability. cers are encouraged to gain an understanding of their own
Court actions for false arrest and illegal searches can be limitations to better understand their own responses. Offi-
costly in terms of legal fees and damages if the case is lost. cers are also directed to research local laws as they relate to
It is the duty of every protection officer to keep current and use of force and self-defense. Stroberger’s Rule of Seven is
understand the administration of justice as it relates to secu- discussed as they relate to firearm exchanges, use of OC
rity in the particular jurisdiction concerned. sprays, and minimum safe reaction gaps. The use of force is
explored with an explanation of the continuum and the lev-
els of force in sequential order. Officers are directed to de-
escalate levels of aggression and to maintain a level of force
that is reasonable based on the perceived level of threat.
Use of Force Training concepts are explored as they relate to realism,
In this chapter, the use of force is thoroughly discussed environment, and probable attacker types. The idea of for-
particularly with respect to its legal implications for the mal martial arts training is discussed and the limits and ad-
security officer. Ultimately, the use of force should be con- vantages explored. The application of weapons is also
sidered as an absolute last resort. Rather, the security offi- discussed with a focus on training, proper application, and
cer is encouraged to develop his/her abilities in the use of legal implications. The expectation of injury is explained to
verbal deescalation techniques, such as slowing down the prepare the officer to more effectively manage the physical
action of, and actively listening to, the perpetrator and ask- and psychological effects. Basic tips are given.
Chapter Summary Review 17
Apprehension and Detention Procedures sional must become skilled at managing situations so that
There is probably no topic in the security profession that good public and media relations are maintained at all times.
generates as much discussion, and misunderstanding, as
apprehension and detention. It is not only the source of Police and Security Liaison
many complaints by the clients we serve, it can also be the This chapter takes an in-depth look at some of the past
beginning of a very lengthy and costly legal action. For and present problems that have hampered the relationship
these two reasons alone, it is worth a long look by people in between law enforcement and private security personnel. It
the business. But, that is not where it ends. We also have to also discusses some of the findings of various studies that
look at the possibility of injury, and even death, that could have been conducted on the relationship between the two
result in a misunderstanding of just how much authority a professions (Hallcrest I and II).
security officer really has to control the movements of an- Later sections of the chapter discuss the differences be-
other person. tween the two professions and the common ground that the
Arrest procedures are covered in this chapter as is the two professions share (personal protection, crime preven-
different powers of arrest, what constitutes an arrest, and tion, and order maintenance). Growth trends of industry and
the different authorities bestowed to certain individuals. In privatization are also discussed.
addition to this, the author looks at what gets a security The chapter closes by giving some general recommenda-
officer in trouble and keys to avoiding criminal and civil tions for improving relationships between police and secu-
liability. Topics that are included in this include, assault, rity personnel. The following recommendations are
battery, false arrest, false imprisonment, malicious prosecu- discussed:
tion, and invasion of privacy.
Additionally, there is a very concise section on detention • Establishing credibility with local law enforcement
and apprehension methodology and use of force. • Establishing and/or following a code of ethics
• Maintaining the highest levels of professionalism
• Increasing police knowledge of private security
UNIT TWELVE • Establishing mutual agreements between security and
law enforcement personnel
Public Relations • Developing cooperative programs
The security officer is often the first person that a mem- • Nurturing professional growth and development
ber of the public will encounter when approaching a par-
ticular private company or institution. As such, the security
professional must be well versed in the “art” of maintaining Ethics and Professionalism
good public relations. This is because the security officer is Private security is rapidly becoming a profession in its
the direct, out-front representative of his/her company, and own right. As such, it is necessary for security officers to
by maintaining favorable relationships with the public and abide by a code of ethics and present themselves in profes-
the community as a whole, the criminal element may be sional ways. Ten items are presented and discussed as the
subdued. Good public relations are, in effect, good loss International Foundation for Protection Officers, Code of
control tactics. Ethics. These include exhibiting exemplary conduct, en-
Security professionals should consider themselves to be couraging liaison with public officers, and maintaining a
“salespeople.” They should always present a professional safe and secure workplace.
image to the public by dress code, posture, demeanor, and Continued education and training are key issues to ob-
by their eagerness to genuinely volunteer assistance to any- taining and maintaining professional status. Several acro-
one who approaches them. nyms are presented in order to more clearly illustrate the
Special emphasis is given to the methods by which good important points about portraying a professional image,
public relations may be maintained with respect to the me- such as P for precise, exact, detailed, and F for factual in all
dia. Again, the emphasis is always on the attending security reporting processes, honest, for example. The personal de-
officer being as helpful and courteous as possible with- portment of individual officers is also discussed with the
out volunteering specific information. That job is always use of the acronym, placing particular emphasis on a dress
handled by the public information officer (PIO). The skill code, professionalism, and high self-esteem.
with which a security professional can guide the interests of Understanding why unethical behavior occurs is pre-
the media to the PIO is an invaluable asset to his/her com- sented as an important skill for the security officer to obtain
pany. as it relates to controlling losses for the organization with
Finally, specific tactics regarding public relations and the which he/she is employed. Only when ethical behavior is
occurrence of an emergency within the parent organization truly understood and adopted as the required norm for secu-
are discussed. Two strategies, creating a plant emergency rity professionals, can unethical behavior be clearly recog-
organization and contacting an external security contingent, nized for its potential dangers to the companies and
are outlined. The “bottom line” is that the security profes- institutions that will be hiring professional protection officers.