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									Surveys
What is a Survey?
Why Survey?

   Get lots of structured information from lots
    of people.
   Simplify and standardize data collection.
   Use statistics to make predictions.
   Find out about things that can not be
    observed. Such as Thoughts, Emotions,
    Intentions, Attitudes
The   Need to Know Why
    There generally is a critical need to have some
    idea about why people do or do not do something.
    • Likes, dislikes, attitudes, behaviors, influences
   The Need to Know How
    • Also it is often necessary to understand the
      process consumers go through before taking
      some action.
   The Need to Know Who
    • Information on age, income, occupation, marital
      status, stage in the family life cycle, education,
      and other lifestyle factors is necessary to the
      identification and definition of market segments.
                  Survey Methods
Personal   Interview
  Door-to-Door (in-home), Mall-Intercept, Purchase-Intercept,
  Executive (office)
Telephone-Interview
  •People Computer assisted (CATI)
Self-Administered
  •Mail Survey
  •Fax
  •One-time vs. Panels
Computer
   Direct Computer Interviewing
   Interactive voice response technology-Automated Telephone
   Surveys
Internet
       A Classification of Survey Methods
                                       SURVEY
                                      METHODS




   TELEPHONE             FACE TO FACE             MAIL            COMPUTER




TRADITIONAL       CATI                   POSTAL      POSTAL
 TELEPHONE                               SURVEY      PANEL




                                                         FAX    E-MAIL   INTERNET
              IN HOME        MALL        CAPI
                          INTERCEPT


                                                               DIRECT COMPUTER
                                                                  INTERVIEW
Personal Interviews
                  Personal Interviews
Advantages
   Can arouse and keep interest
   Can build rapport and enlist cooperation
   Ask complex questions
   Can use visual and other aids
   Clarify misunderstandings
   High degree of flexibility
   Probe for more complete answers
   Do not need an explicit or current list of households or
    individuals
                 Personal Interviews
Disadvantages:
   Bias of Interviewer
   Response Bias
    • Embarrassing/personal questions
   Time Requirements
   Cost Per Completed Interview Is High.
 A trained staff of interviewers that is geographically
  near the sample is needed.
 The total data collection period is likely to be longer
  than for most procedures.
             Telephone Interviewing
    What are the Important Aspects of Telephone
                   Interviewing?
   Selecting telephone numbers
       • Pre specified list
       • A directory
       • Random dialing procedure
              • Random digit dialing
              • Systematic random digit dialing (SRDD)
 The introduction
 When to call
 Call reports
            Telephone Interviewing
Advantages:
   Central location, under supervision, at own hours
   More interviews can be conducted in a given time
  • Travelling time is saved
 More hours of the day are productive
   Repeated call backs at lower cost
   Lower administrative      costs/    Lower   cost    per
    completed interview
   Less sample bias
 Better access to certain populations
 Shorter data collection periods.
                 Telephone Interviewing
Limitations and Disadvantages:
   Inability to employ visual aids or complex tasks
   Can't be longer than 5-10 min. or they get boring
   Amount of data that can be collected is relatively less
   A capable interviewer essential
   Sample bias -- Not all people have phones, or are not
    listed
 Nonresponse associated with RDD sampling is higher
  than with interviews
 Possibly less appropriate for personal or sensitive
  questions if no prior contact
      Increasing Phone Survey Response

   Call at a convenient time (Weekdays 7-9
    PM, Sunday afternoon)
   Have a nice Pleasant introduction
   Emphasize you are not selling anything.
   State how long it will take.
   Keep the survey short
Self-Administered Types of Survey Research

                           Direct Mail Survey
                   Questionnaire is distributed to and
                   returned from respondents via the
                             postal service.
  Respondent
     Reads
     Survey                Mail Panel Survey
   Questions      Selected group of individuals that have
                      made an advance agreement to
  and Records      participate in a series of direct mail
    Answers                      surveys.
    Without
   Assistance
                            Drop Off Survey
                 Questionnaires are left with respondent
                   to be completed at a later time and
                       returned to the researcher.
                    Mail Surveys
   Requires a broad identification of the individuals
    to be sampled before data collection begins
    • Ad Hoc Mail Surveys (cold):
       • Questionnaires for a particular project sent to
         selected names and addresses with no prior contact
         by the researcher.
    • Mail Panels (warm):
       • Pre-contacted and screened participants who are
         periodically sent questionnaires.
       • A mail panel is a type of longitudinal study. A
         longitudinal study in one in which the same
         respondents are re-sampled over time.
                Mail Surveys
Some Decisions That Need to Be Taken
   Type of Return Envelope
   Postage
   Method of Addressing
   Cover Letter
   The Questionnaire Length, Layout, Color,
    Format Etc
   Method of Notification
   Incentive to Be Given
                     Mail Surveys
Advantages
   Relatively low cost
   Reliable answers as no inhibiting intermediary
   Survey answered at respondents discretion
   Can be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities.
   Provides access to widely dispersed samples.
   Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers,
    look up records, or consult others.
                     Mail Surveys
    Disadvantages
   No control over whom the respondent consults before
    answering the questions
   The identity of the respondent is inadequately controlled
   The speed of the response can't be monitored
   No control on the order in which the questions are exposed
    or answered
   Especially careful questionnaire design is needed.
   Open questions usually are not useful.
   Good reading and writing skills are needed by respondents.
   The interviewer is not present to exercise quality control
    with respect to answering all questions, meeting questions
    objectives, or the quality of answers provided.
                  Mail Surveys
 Disadvantages (Contd.):
   The respondent may not clearly understand the
    question and no opportunity to clarify
   No long questionnaires
   Need for good up-to date mailing list
   Response rate is generally poor
 Number of problems such as obsolescence,
  omissions, duplications, etc
 Ineffective as a way of enlisting cooperation.
    Factors Affecting the Response Rate
   Perceived amount of work required, and the
    length of the questionnaire
   Intrinsic interest in the topic
   Characteristics of the sample
   Credibility of the sponsoring organization
   Level of induced motivation
     Tactics Employed to Increase Mail
           Survey Response Rate
• Advance postcard or telephone call alerting respondent of
survey.
• Follow-up postcard or phone call.
• Monetary incentives (how much?).
• Premiums (pencil, pen, keychain, coupons, etc.).
• Postage stamps rather than metered envelopes.
• Self-addressed, stamped return envelope.
• Personalized address and well-written cover letter.
• Personally signed cover letter.
    Tactics Employed to Increase Mail
          Survey Response Rate
• Entry into drawing for prize.
• Emotional appeals.
• Affiliation with institutions or reputed organizations.
• Multiple mailings of the questionnaire.
• Bids for sympathy.
• Offer to share information from the survey.
• Reminder that respondent participated in previous
study.
• Promise of contributions to favorite charity.
Drop-off questionnaires
The  interviewer can explain the study, answer
questions, and designate a respondent.
Response rates  tend to be like those of personal
interview studies.
There is more opportunity to give thoughtful answers
and consult records.
Costs   about as much as personal interviews.
A field   staff is required.
                 Fax Surveys
    Advantages
   Relatively low cost
   Can be accomplished with minimal staff and
    facilities
   Provides access to widely dispersed samples.
   Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers.
   Local faxes are free.
   Administrative costs are fixed.
   It is fast.
   List management is easy.
   Can send and receive by computer.
                  Fax Surveys
    Disadvantages
 Higher fixed costs for computer/fax equipment,
  multiple phone lines.
 Cost varies by time on line, time of day, distance, and
  telephone carrier.
 Generally limited to organizational populations.
 Loss of anonymity.
            Internet Surveys
                                          To realize the importance
                                          of the marketing research
Internet Samples                          interviewer.
•Unrestricted
     • Open to any Internet user.
•Screened
     • adjust for unrepresentitiveness of the self-selected
     respondents by imposing quotas based on some desired
     sample characteristics
Recruited
     • to target populations in surveys that require more
     control of the sample
             Internet Surveys
Advantages:
Theadvantages of interviewer administration (In
contrast to mail surveys).
smaller staff   needed,
High-speed,
Instantaneous       data access
Cost   efficient,
Automatic    data entry
Multimedia     stimuli
Easy   to update
Ability   to reach a lot of people
               Internet Surveys
Advantages:
   Potential for longitudinal studies
 Surveys can be unobtrusively included with a general
site
   pre-screening of respondents possible
   tracking
   No geographic boundaries
   supervision and quality control potentially better.
   better response rate from a list sample than from mail
   use a branching or skip pattern
         Internet Surveys
Disadvantages:
•Internet users are not representative of the
population as a whole (strong sample bias)
•Strong selection bias for respondents who are not
pre-screened
•security/privacy issues
• unrestricted: anyone can complete the questionnaire
• fully self-selecting
E-mail Questionnaires
• Thequestionnaire is prepared like a simple
E-mail message, and is sent to a list of known
E-mail addresses. The respondent fills in the
answers, and E-mails the form plus replies
back to the research organization
Increasing Response: Internet/E-mail Survey
 Almost all the actions listed for mail survey
   should hold for E-Mail/Internet survey with
   some modifications.
  The questionnaire should be fairly short.
  No need for advance notification
  Have short, pleasant introduction
  Monetary incentives not given. But sharing
   information would be nice.
  Reminder e-mail would be useful.
    Criteria for Determining Choice Of Particular Survey Methods
Sample Criteria: Ability to reach and get responses
  from the desired sample (sample control)
   right type of people
   “adequate” sample size.
Information Criteria: Ability to get the desired
  information from respondents.
   Need to Expose Respondents to Various Stimuli or Perform Certain
    Specialized Tasks e.g. Taste tests, product concept and prototype tests, etc.
   Length of Questionnaire
   Degree of Structure of the Questionnaire
   Control social desirability
Administrative Criteria:
   time for data collection and analysis
   Interviewer control
   Error control
   Budget
Factors Determining the Choice of
Survey Method.
Personal:
Use for long, complex questionnaires where respondent is
important and budgets are high.
Mail:
Use when you have a mailing list, somewhat long / complex
questionnaire, and budgets are low.
Phone:
Use to reach a large number of people quickly and you have a
short questionnaire that can be easily understood.
E-Mail/Internet:.
Use when target audience is educated, topic interesting, short
questionnaire, have e-mail list, representativeness not a major
issue
    Comparative Evaluation
                                   Personal Phone Mail
 Sample control                              
 Use of physical stimuli                     
 Diversity of questions                      
 Length                                      
 Perceived anonymity                         
 Potential for interviewer bias              
 Field force control                        
 Speed                                      
 Cost                                       
Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods
                 Personal            Mail/Self Report Telephone
Speed of data    Moderate to fast    No control over   Very fast
collection                           return of
                                     questionnaire
Geographic       Limited to          High              Good
flexibility      moderate
Respondent       Excellent except    Moderate –poorly Good
cooperation      in shopping malls   designed
                                     questionnaires
                                     have poor
                                     response rates
Versatility of   Very versatile      Highly            Moderate
questioning                          standardized
                                     format
Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods

                   Personal          Mail/Self Report   Telephone
Questionnaire      Long              Varies depending   Moderate/Short
length                               on incentive
Respondent         Lowest            Highest            Moderate
misunderstanding
Interviewer        High              None               Moderate
influence
Supervision of     Moderate          Not applicable     High
interviewers

Anonymity of       Low in face-to-   High               Moderate
respondent         face situations
Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods


                      Personal              Mail/Self Report      Telephone
Ease of callback or Difficult               Easy, but takes       Easy
follow-up                                   time
Cost                  Highest               Lowest                Low to moderate

Special features      Visual materials      Respondents may       Field and
                      may be shown or       answer questions      supervision of
                      demonstrated;         at own                data collection are
                      extended probing      convenience; has      simplified; quite
                      possible              time to reflect on    adaptable to
                                            answers               computer
                                                                  technology

Note: These reflect typical situations. For example, an elaborate mail survey may be
far more expensive than a short interview, but this is generally not the case.
    Potential Problems with Surveys
          How accurate are the results?
 Did you ask the right questions in the right way?
 Did you ask the right people?
 Did they tell you the truth, the whole truth, and
  nothing but the truth?
    • Will they?
    • Can they? Do they have the knowledge, opinions, attitudes, or facts
      required. Do they understand the questions?
 Structure causes a loss of data richness.
 Have the Respondents/Interviewers understood and
  correctly recorded the responses
   Lack of control causes time and response problems.
         Overview of the Types of Errors in
            Survey Research Methods
Survey research errors can be classified as either:

   Random                      Nonsampling Error
    Sampling Error               (Systematic Error)
   statistically measured      results from mistakes or
                                 problems in the research design
    difference between
                                 or from flaws in the execution of
    the actual sampled           the sample design
    results and the
                                Causes your data to be
    estimated true               misleading or incomplete in
    population results.          some systematic way
   error because of            If you are aware of the problem
    chance variation             you may be able to deal with it.
 Systematic Sample Design Error
 Frame Error: The list from which you draw your
  sample is not what you think it is—some on it don’t
  belong and/or some who belong are not on it.
 Population Specification Error: incorrect definition
  of the universe or population from which the sample
  is to be selected.You left people out of the study.
 Selection Error: You include or exclude people in
  the sample so that it is not random. Use of
  incomplete or improper sampling procedures or
  when appropriate selection procedures are not
  properly followed.
    Systematic Measurement Error
   Surrogate Information Error
    • Acquisition of the wrong data because wrong question was
      asked.
   Interviewer Error
    • interviewer may, consciously or unconsciously, influence
      respondents to give untrue or inaccurate answers.
   Instrument Bias
    misunderstood or leading ?s.
   Processing Error
    • sloppy data input
   Non-response Bias
    • differences between the “did” vs. “did not” answer question
   Response Bias
      a failure to tell the truth., consciously or unconsciously
Your company has just launched a
new brand of pancake syrup. In
order to improve sales the marketing
department would like to know why
consumers buy the brands and sizes
they do. How would you go about
collecting this information?
Calgary Transit would like to
conduct a ridership survey. Funds
are limited but they need a
relatively large sample. How
would you suggest they gather the
information?
Your company makes the new flip and fold device.
You want to find out what consumers think about it
and how much they are willing to pay. What sort of
survey technique do you use and why. Who do you
target in your survey
OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH

Watching what people do
•   The information must be observable
Helpful conditions:
    – the behavior is repetitive and of short duration
Approaches to observational research
    • Natural Versus Contrived Situations
    • Open Versus Disguised Observation
    • Structured Versus Unstructured
    • Human Versus Machine Observers
What does gathering data through
Observation entail


What are the advantages of observational
data collection as opposed to surveys?


What are the relative disadvantages of
observational data collection as opposed to
surveys?
Main Observational Research Methods
     Direct Observation
      – Shopper Patterns and Behavior

     Contrived Observation
      • Mystery Shopper
     Content Analysis
      • Analyzing written material into meaningful units, using carefully
        applied rules
     Physical Trace Measures
      • “Garbology”
     Ethnographic Research
     The researcher becomes Immersed in or part of the group
     Behavior (Emotion) Recording Devices
   Toothpaste manufactures have found consistently that if
    they ask for detailed information on the frequency with
    which people brush their teeth, and then make minimal
    assumptions as to the quantity of toothpaste used on each
    occasion, as well as spillage and failure to squeeze the tube
    empty, the result is a serious overstatement of toothpaste
    consumption.
    • How would you explain this phenomenon?
    • Would it be possible to design a study to overcome these
      problems and obtain more accurate estimates of
      consumption?
Advantages:

 –We see what people actually do
 –May avoid interviewer bias

Disadvantages:
 • No information on motives attitudes or
   intentions
 • Time-consuming and expensive
Machine observation
Traffic Counters
   • Time and flow in retail stores
Behavior Measurement
   • People Reader: reading habits
Physiological Measurement
   • EEG: electroencephalogram
   • GSR: galvanic skin response
   • Pupilometer: pupil dilation
Scanner Based
   • Store scanners read the UPC codes on products
     and produce instantaneous information on sales

								
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