"Why Do Stores Offer No Purchase Necessary Coupons"
Surveys What is a Survey? Why Survey? Get lots of structured information from lots of people. Simplify and standardize data collection. Use statistics to make predictions. Find out about things that can not be observed. Such as Thoughts, Emotions, Intentions, Attitudes The Need to Know Why There generally is a critical need to have some idea about why people do or do not do something. • Likes, dislikes, attitudes, behaviors, influences The Need to Know How • Also it is often necessary to understand the process consumers go through before taking some action. The Need to Know Who • Information on age, income, occupation, marital status, stage in the family life cycle, education, and other lifestyle factors is necessary to the identification and definition of market segments. Survey Methods Personal Interview Door-to-Door (in-home), Mall-Intercept, Purchase-Intercept, Executive (office) Telephone-Interview •People Computer assisted (CATI) Self-Administered •Mail Survey •Fax •One-time vs. Panels Computer Direct Computer Interviewing Interactive voice response technology-Automated Telephone Surveys Internet A Classification of Survey Methods SURVEY METHODS TELEPHONE FACE TO FACE MAIL COMPUTER TRADITIONAL CATI POSTAL POSTAL TELEPHONE SURVEY PANEL FAX E-MAIL INTERNET IN HOME MALL CAPI INTERCEPT DIRECT COMPUTER INTERVIEW Personal Interviews Personal Interviews Advantages Can arouse and keep interest Can build rapport and enlist cooperation Ask complex questions Can use visual and other aids Clarify misunderstandings High degree of flexibility Probe for more complete answers Do not need an explicit or current list of households or individuals Personal Interviews Disadvantages: Bias of Interviewer Response Bias • Embarrassing/personal questions Time Requirements Cost Per Completed Interview Is High. A trained staff of interviewers that is geographically near the sample is needed. The total data collection period is likely to be longer than for most procedures. Telephone Interviewing What are the Important Aspects of Telephone Interviewing? Selecting telephone numbers • Pre specified list • A directory • Random dialing procedure • Random digit dialing • Systematic random digit dialing (SRDD) The introduction When to call Call reports Telephone Interviewing Advantages: Central location, under supervision, at own hours More interviews can be conducted in a given time • Travelling time is saved More hours of the day are productive Repeated call backs at lower cost Lower administrative costs/ Lower cost per completed interview Less sample bias Better access to certain populations Shorter data collection periods. Telephone Interviewing Limitations and Disadvantages: Inability to employ visual aids or complex tasks Can't be longer than 5-10 min. or they get boring Amount of data that can be collected is relatively less A capable interviewer essential Sample bias -- Not all people have phones, or are not listed Nonresponse associated with RDD sampling is higher than with interviews Possibly less appropriate for personal or sensitive questions if no prior contact Increasing Phone Survey Response Call at a convenient time (Weekdays 7-9 PM, Sunday afternoon) Have a nice Pleasant introduction Emphasize you are not selling anything. State how long it will take. Keep the survey short Self-Administered Types of Survey Research Direct Mail Survey Questionnaire is distributed to and returned from respondents via the postal service. Respondent Reads Survey Mail Panel Survey Questions Selected group of individuals that have made an advance agreement to and Records participate in a series of direct mail Answers surveys. Without Assistance Drop Off Survey Questionnaires are left with respondent to be completed at a later time and returned to the researcher. Mail Surveys Requires a broad identification of the individuals to be sampled before data collection begins • Ad Hoc Mail Surveys (cold): • Questionnaires for a particular project sent to selected names and addresses with no prior contact by the researcher. • Mail Panels (warm): • Pre-contacted and screened participants who are periodically sent questionnaires. • A mail panel is a type of longitudinal study. A longitudinal study in one in which the same respondents are re-sampled over time. Mail Surveys Some Decisions That Need to Be Taken Type of Return Envelope Postage Method of Addressing Cover Letter The Questionnaire Length, Layout, Color, Format Etc Method of Notification Incentive to Be Given Mail Surveys Advantages Relatively low cost Reliable answers as no inhibiting intermediary Survey answered at respondents discretion Can be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities. Provides access to widely dispersed samples. Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers, look up records, or consult others. Mail Surveys Disadvantages No control over whom the respondent consults before answering the questions The identity of the respondent is inadequately controlled The speed of the response can't be monitored No control on the order in which the questions are exposed or answered Especially careful questionnaire design is needed. Open questions usually are not useful. Good reading and writing skills are needed by respondents. The interviewer is not present to exercise quality control with respect to answering all questions, meeting questions objectives, or the quality of answers provided. Mail Surveys Disadvantages (Contd.): The respondent may not clearly understand the question and no opportunity to clarify No long questionnaires Need for good up-to date mailing list Response rate is generally poor Number of problems such as obsolescence, omissions, duplications, etc Ineffective as a way of enlisting cooperation. Factors Affecting the Response Rate Perceived amount of work required, and the length of the questionnaire Intrinsic interest in the topic Characteristics of the sample Credibility of the sponsoring organization Level of induced motivation Tactics Employed to Increase Mail Survey Response Rate • Advance postcard or telephone call alerting respondent of survey. • Follow-up postcard or phone call. • Monetary incentives (how much?). • Premiums (pencil, pen, keychain, coupons, etc.). • Postage stamps rather than metered envelopes. • Self-addressed, stamped return envelope. • Personalized address and well-written cover letter. • Personally signed cover letter. Tactics Employed to Increase Mail Survey Response Rate • Entry into drawing for prize. • Emotional appeals. • Affiliation with institutions or reputed organizations. • Multiple mailings of the questionnaire. • Bids for sympathy. • Offer to share information from the survey. • Reminder that respondent participated in previous study. • Promise of contributions to favorite charity. Drop-off questionnaires The interviewer can explain the study, answer questions, and designate a respondent. Response rates tend to be like those of personal interview studies. There is more opportunity to give thoughtful answers and consult records. Costs about as much as personal interviews. A field staff is required. Fax Surveys Advantages Relatively low cost Can be accomplished with minimal staff and facilities Provides access to widely dispersed samples. Respondents have time to give thoughtful answers. Local faxes are free. Administrative costs are fixed. It is fast. List management is easy. Can send and receive by computer. Fax Surveys Disadvantages Higher fixed costs for computer/fax equipment, multiple phone lines. Cost varies by time on line, time of day, distance, and telephone carrier. Generally limited to organizational populations. Loss of anonymity. Internet Surveys To realize the importance of the marketing research Internet Samples interviewer. •Unrestricted • Open to any Internet user. •Screened • adjust for unrepresentitiveness of the self-selected respondents by imposing quotas based on some desired sample characteristics Recruited • to target populations in surveys that require more control of the sample Internet Surveys Advantages: Theadvantages of interviewer administration (In contrast to mail surveys). smaller staff needed, High-speed, Instantaneous data access Cost efficient, Automatic data entry Multimedia stimuli Easy to update Ability to reach a lot of people Internet Surveys Advantages: Potential for longitudinal studies Surveys can be unobtrusively included with a general site pre-screening of respondents possible tracking No geographic boundaries supervision and quality control potentially better. better response rate from a list sample than from mail use a branching or skip pattern Internet Surveys Disadvantages: •Internet users are not representative of the population as a whole (strong sample bias) •Strong selection bias for respondents who are not pre-screened •security/privacy issues • unrestricted: anyone can complete the questionnaire • fully self-selecting E-mail Questionnaires • Thequestionnaire is prepared like a simple E-mail message, and is sent to a list of known E-mail addresses. The respondent fills in the answers, and E-mails the form plus replies back to the research organization Increasing Response: Internet/E-mail Survey Almost all the actions listed for mail survey should hold for E-Mail/Internet survey with some modifications. The questionnaire should be fairly short. No need for advance notification Have short, pleasant introduction Monetary incentives not given. But sharing information would be nice. Reminder e-mail would be useful. Criteria for Determining Choice Of Particular Survey Methods Sample Criteria: Ability to reach and get responses from the desired sample (sample control) right type of people “adequate” sample size. Information Criteria: Ability to get the desired information from respondents. Need to Expose Respondents to Various Stimuli or Perform Certain Specialized Tasks e.g. Taste tests, product concept and prototype tests, etc. Length of Questionnaire Degree of Structure of the Questionnaire Control social desirability Administrative Criteria: time for data collection and analysis Interviewer control Error control Budget Factors Determining the Choice of Survey Method. Personal: Use for long, complex questionnaires where respondent is important and budgets are high. Mail: Use when you have a mailing list, somewhat long / complex questionnaire, and budgets are low. Phone: Use to reach a large number of people quickly and you have a short questionnaire that can be easily understood. E-Mail/Internet:. Use when target audience is educated, topic interesting, short questionnaire, have e-mail list, representativeness not a major issue Comparative Evaluation Personal Phone Mail Sample control Use of physical stimuli Diversity of questions Length Perceived anonymity Potential for interviewer bias Field force control Speed Cost Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods Personal Mail/Self Report Telephone Speed of data Moderate to fast No control over Very fast collection return of questionnaire Geographic Limited to High Good flexibility moderate Respondent Excellent except Moderate –poorly Good cooperation in shopping malls designed questionnaires have poor response rates Versatility of Very versatile Highly Moderate questioning standardized format Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods Personal Mail/Self Report Telephone Questionnaire Long Varies depending Moderate/Short length on incentive Respondent Lowest Highest Moderate misunderstanding Interviewer High None Moderate influence Supervision of Moderate Not applicable High interviewers Anonymity of Low in face-to- High Moderate respondent face situations Advantages & Disadvantages of Survey Methods Personal Mail/Self Report Telephone Ease of callback or Difficult Easy, but takes Easy follow-up time Cost Highest Lowest Low to moderate Special features Visual materials Respondents may Field and may be shown or answer questions supervision of demonstrated; at own data collection are extended probing convenience; has simplified; quite possible time to reflect on adaptable to answers computer technology Note: These reflect typical situations. For example, an elaborate mail survey may be far more expensive than a short interview, but this is generally not the case. Potential Problems with Surveys How accurate are the results? Did you ask the right questions in the right way? Did you ask the right people? Did they tell you the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? • Will they? • Can they? Do they have the knowledge, opinions, attitudes, or facts required. Do they understand the questions? Structure causes a loss of data richness. Have the Respondents/Interviewers understood and correctly recorded the responses Lack of control causes time and response problems. Overview of the Types of Errors in Survey Research Methods Survey research errors can be classified as either: Random Nonsampling Error Sampling Error (Systematic Error) statistically measured results from mistakes or problems in the research design difference between or from flaws in the execution of the actual sampled the sample design results and the Causes your data to be estimated true misleading or incomplete in population results. some systematic way error because of If you are aware of the problem chance variation you may be able to deal with it. Systematic Sample Design Error Frame Error: The list from which you draw your sample is not what you think it is—some on it don’t belong and/or some who belong are not on it. Population Specification Error: incorrect definition of the universe or population from which the sample is to be selected.You left people out of the study. Selection Error: You include or exclude people in the sample so that it is not random. Use of incomplete or improper sampling procedures or when appropriate selection procedures are not properly followed. Systematic Measurement Error Surrogate Information Error • Acquisition of the wrong data because wrong question was asked. Interviewer Error • interviewer may, consciously or unconsciously, influence respondents to give untrue or inaccurate answers. Instrument Bias misunderstood or leading ?s. Processing Error • sloppy data input Non-response Bias • differences between the “did” vs. “did not” answer question Response Bias a failure to tell the truth., consciously or unconsciously Your company has just launched a new brand of pancake syrup. In order to improve sales the marketing department would like to know why consumers buy the brands and sizes they do. How would you go about collecting this information? Calgary Transit would like to conduct a ridership survey. Funds are limited but they need a relatively large sample. How would you suggest they gather the information? Your company makes the new flip and fold device. You want to find out what consumers think about it and how much they are willing to pay. What sort of survey technique do you use and why. Who do you target in your survey OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH Watching what people do • The information must be observable Helpful conditions: – the behavior is repetitive and of short duration Approaches to observational research • Natural Versus Contrived Situations • Open Versus Disguised Observation • Structured Versus Unstructured • Human Versus Machine Observers What does gathering data through Observation entail What are the advantages of observational data collection as opposed to surveys? What are the relative disadvantages of observational data collection as opposed to surveys? Main Observational Research Methods Direct Observation – Shopper Patterns and Behavior Contrived Observation • Mystery Shopper Content Analysis • Analyzing written material into meaningful units, using carefully applied rules Physical Trace Measures • “Garbology” Ethnographic Research The researcher becomes Immersed in or part of the group Behavior (Emotion) Recording Devices Toothpaste manufactures have found consistently that if they ask for detailed information on the frequency with which people brush their teeth, and then make minimal assumptions as to the quantity of toothpaste used on each occasion, as well as spillage and failure to squeeze the tube empty, the result is a serious overstatement of toothpaste consumption. • How would you explain this phenomenon? • Would it be possible to design a study to overcome these problems and obtain more accurate estimates of consumption? Advantages: –We see what people actually do –May avoid interviewer bias Disadvantages: • No information on motives attitudes or intentions • Time-consuming and expensive Machine observation Traffic Counters • Time and flow in retail stores Behavior Measurement • People Reader: reading habits Physiological Measurement • EEG: electroencephalogram • GSR: galvanic skin response • Pupilometer: pupil dilation Scanner Based • Store scanners read the UPC codes on products and produce instantaneous information on sales