Evolution of tobacco Office of Tobacco Prevention and Control Texas Department of Health Tobacco in History Spiritual Political Medicinal Cultural Spiritual Mayans and Aztecs (300 B.C. – 1500 A.D.) Tobacco flourished in this sub-tropical climate Fire worship People inhaled smoke and discovered narcotic properties Priests persuade followers that this intoxication was a divine possession Spiritual Smoked in hollow reeds or leaves Snorted it through a Y-shaped pipe Also smoked though Y pipe with bowl underneath Spiritual Native Americans Considered a Holy Plant Long, thin pipes fashioned out of wood Sacred tool European discovery Christopher Columbus (1492) Arawak Indians offered dried tobacco leaves Leaves discarded as worthless Later witnessed natives using it and his crewmen are the first reported Europeans to use tobacco European discovery Origin of “Tobacco” The Arawak Indians smoked tobacco through a pipe they called a “tobago” The European explorers thought they were referring to the leaves they were smoking and adapted the name. new world to old world Many accounts of how tobacco made the journey to Europe Portugal grew the first plants ~ 1512 Portuguese were key to the spread of the tobacco plant among the known world. In 1559, Jean Nicot introduced the tobacco plant to France. new world to old world English probably brought back tobacco themselves Sir Walter Raleigh made pipe smoking popular Medicinal Tobacco was used to treat a variety of ailments: • Asthma • Headaches • Open sores • Cancer • Intestinal worms • Toothaches Medicinal Native Americans Use before treatment given Used to treat: • Pain – crushed leaves applied • Infection • Rash • Toothache – ground, mixed with water and chewed • Snakebites – chewed leaves placed on bite medicinal Popularity throughout Europe as a healing agent Clyster – treatment for indigestion, kidney stones and other digestive problems medicinal Nicot was educated in Portugal about its use in medicine. Gave snuff to French Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici for her migraines medicinal Thought to help fight the plague that ravaged Europe Smoke thought to have disinfectant properties Damming nasal passages with snuff Helped to calm fears Steeped with wine and served with lemon to soothe the plague stricken medicinal Use did not cease when need for tobacco to fight or treat illnesses ended People became addicted to the pleasurable feelings that tobacco use gave them political Used to forge friendly relations Used to finance government Used to reinforce barriers Used to control and retain power political Many rulers despised the use of tobacco Acts based on novelty should not be trusted • Sir Walter Raleigh • Rodrigo de Jerez Whatever is enjoyed by others and not oneself is wrong • James I political Punishments for tobacco use: Russia – noses cut off; lips split; flogging; exiled Turkey – pipes were thrust through noses and offender led down street on mule; executed Persia – molten lead poured down throat China – sellers were decapitated France – decapitation for snuff use political Many countries had anti-tobacco policies, but as rulers discovered how profitable duties and taxes on tobacco could be, policies were abolished. political Jamestown Colony – John Rolfe Decided tobacco could be their staple crop and would turn the failing colony around Planted Nicotiana Tabacum which is more palatable than the Rustica commonly grown at the time political Jamestown Colony – John Rolfe English tobacco buyers loved crop and soon more was imported from Virginia than from Spain Jamestown colonist cleared their corn and wheat fields in order to grow higher-paid tobacco crops Provided James I with an immense revenue political More colonies established Fertile land needed More room to grow tobacco Tobacco financed Revolutionary War Worldwide use became commonplace Cultural Tobacco use and its different forms faded in and out of popularity Initially influenced by ruling class Tied to social change and revolution Later influenced by industry advertising and marketing strategies cultural Queen Mother of France made snuff use for headaches stylish Led to elaborately decorated snuff boxes carried by European aristocrats cultural Napoleon Avid snuff user Identified that tobacco could bear taxation like no other product Died from excessive snuff use cultural While most of Europe was consumed with snuff, pipe smoking was most popular in England Cigars took precedence in the 1800s Early cigarettes were a byproduct of cigar making cultural Crimean War (1854 – 1856) British soldiers encountered Turkish cigarettes smoked by Russians Philip Morris (1850s) London tobacco merchant Began manufacturing cigarettes Cigarette spread to America cultural America always seemed a step behind the times… 1700s – pipes and snuff 1800s – chew and the spitoon Late 1800s – Ulysses S. Grant was poster boy for cigar 1900s -- cigarettes Industry builds in America 1849 – J.E. Liggett and Brother 1875 – R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 1890 – American Tobacco Co. 1902 – Philip Morris Industry builds in America James Buchanan Duke (1881) Used milder tobacco and flue-cured leaf Secured exclusive rights to Bonsack cigarette rolling machine Inserted pictures into packs to stiffen Introduced Cameo for women (1886) Industry builds in America American Tobacco Company (1890) Duke convinced 4 rival companies to join together Duke was appointed president Acquired other industries crucial to making cigarettes Sherman Anti-Trust Act broke up company in 1911 Cultural Between 1890 – 1930, fifteen states enacted laws to ban cigarette sale, manufacture, possession or use and twenty-two others considered such legislation Cultural Camel 1913 introduction of flue-cured Bright with Turkish seasoning and sweetened with Burley which made it distinctive Packaging used likeness of “Old Joe” a Barnum and Bailey Circus attraction Cultural Camel Spent 1.5 million on ads and promotion for its introduction Bought out Red Kamel to have exclusive use of camel image Huge success RJR held 40% of cigarette market at the time of WWI Cultural World War I (1914 – 1918) Imports from Turkey were halted and Americans turned to domestic cigarettes – RJR profited Government contracts awarded on basis of domestic sales – RJR profited by receiving contract Cultural World War I (1914 – 1918) World War II (1939 – 1945) Decided that cigarettes were essential for the soldiers fighting overseas • Helped ward off boredom, hunger and cold • Helped soldiers resist “worse” temptations • Cigarettes included in rations • American government became single largest purchaser of cigarettes • Community groups (YMCA, Red Cross) went from warning of the dangers to distributing them to the soldiers Cultural World War I and World War II Having emphasis on soldiers smoking connected tobacco with virtues of freedom, democracy and modernity Cultural World War I and World War II “Smokes for Soldiers” funds “Lucky Strike Green Has Gone to War” After end of WWII, American cigarettes became the most stable currency in occupied Europe Cultural The combination of a more positive perception of cigarettes and the steady stream of customers once the soldiers returned home, insured success for the tobacco industry in America Cultural The industry has a secured market on young male smokers and seeks to lure more young females 1927 – Ads targeting women 1929 - Easter Parade in New York Cultural Lucky Strike “Its Toasted!” “Reach for a Lucky Instead of a Sweet” “Lucky Strike Green Has Gone to War” L.S. / M.F.T. Cultural Brand preference determined according to marketing strategies Lucky Strikes battled for first place with Camel for brand preference between 1930 – 1950 Marlboro took over in the late 1950s after the introduction of the Marlboro Man Cultural Dominance of the Filter Health effects starting to surface Russians used years ago and some brands had them, but more expensive B&W focused on Viceroy • Changed filter from cotton to cellulose acetate – still used • Made it affordable • Made it neater Cultural Dominance of the Filter Other companies quickly adopted Filters cost less than the tobacco they replaced Cigarette sales soared once again Advertising modified to promote these “more healthy” cigarettes In force today? How do you see the points evolution integrated in our society? Spiritual Medicinal Political Cultural In force today? When asked about his cigarette holder, Franklin Roosevelt replied that he used it because his doctor told him to stay as far away from cigarettes as he could.
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