Lucky Strike Marketing Strategies by xpf59682

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									    Evolution of
      tobacco
Office of Tobacco Prevention
         and Control
Texas Department of Health
Tobacco in History


 Spiritual   Political

 Medicinal   Cultural
Spiritual
 Mayans and Aztecs        (300 B.C. – 1500 A.D.)

  Tobacco flourished in this sub-tropical
  climate
  Fire worship
  People inhaled smoke and discovered
  narcotic properties
  Priests persuade followers that this
  intoxication was a divine possession
Spiritual
 Smoked in hollow
 reeds or leaves
 Snorted it through
 a Y-shaped pipe
 Also smoked
 though Y pipe
 with bowl
 underneath
Spiritual
            Native Americans
              Considered a Holy
              Plant
              Long, thin pipes
              fashioned out of
              wood
            Sacred tool
European discovery
 Christopher Columbus    (1492)
  Arawak Indians offered dried tobacco
  leaves
  Leaves discarded as worthless
  Later witnessed natives using it and
  his crewmen are the first reported
  Europeans to use tobacco
European discovery
 Origin of “Tobacco”
   The Arawak Indians smoked tobacco
   through a pipe they called a “tobago”

   The European explorers thought they
   were referring to the leaves they were
   smoking and adapted the name.
 new world to old world
Many accounts of how tobacco
made the journey to Europe
 Portugal grew the first plants ~ 1512
 Portuguese were key to the spread of
 the tobacco plant among the known
 world.
 In 1559, Jean Nicot introduced the
 tobacco plant to France.
new world to old world
            English probably
            brought back tobacco
            themselves

            Sir Walter Raleigh
            made pipe smoking
            popular
Medicinal
 Tobacco was used to treat a variety
 of ailments:
   • Asthma
   • Headaches
   • Open sores
   • Cancer
   • Intestinal worms
   • Toothaches
Medicinal
 Native Americans
  Use before treatment given
  Used to treat:
   • Pain – crushed leaves applied
   • Infection
   • Rash
   • Toothache – ground, mixed with water and
     chewed
   • Snakebites – chewed leaves placed on bite
medicinal
 Popularity
 throughout
 Europe as a
 healing agent
   Clyster – treatment
   for indigestion,
   kidney stones and
   other digestive
   problems
medicinal
 Nicot was educated in Portugal
 about its use in medicine.
 Gave snuff to French Queen
 Mother, Catherine de Medici for her
 migraines
medicinal
 Thought to help fight the plague
 that ravaged Europe
   Smoke thought to have disinfectant properties
   Damming nasal passages with snuff
   Helped to calm fears
   Steeped with wine and served with lemon to
   soothe the plague stricken
medicinal
 Use did not cease when need for
 tobacco to fight or treat illnesses
 ended

 People became addicted to the
 pleasurable feelings that tobacco
 use gave them
political
 Used to forge friendly relations

 Used to finance government

 Used to reinforce barriers

 Used to control and retain power
political
 Many rulers despised the use of tobacco
   Acts based on novelty should not be trusted
    • Sir Walter Raleigh
    • Rodrigo de Jerez
   Whatever is enjoyed by others and not oneself
   is wrong
    • James I
political
 Punishments for tobacco use:
   Russia – noses cut off; lips split; flogging; exiled
   Turkey – pipes were thrust through noses and
   offender led down street on mule; executed
   Persia – molten lead poured down throat
   China – sellers were decapitated
   France – decapitation for snuff use
political


 Many countries had anti-tobacco policies,
 but as rulers discovered how profitable
 duties and taxes on tobacco could be,
 policies were abolished.
political
 Jamestown Colony – John Rolfe
   Decided tobacco could be their staple crop and
   would turn the failing colony around

   Planted Nicotiana Tabacum which is more
   palatable than the Rustica commonly grown at
   the time
political
 Jamestown Colony – John Rolfe
   English tobacco buyers loved crop and soon
   more was imported from Virginia than from
   Spain
   Jamestown colonist cleared their corn and
   wheat fields in order to grow higher-paid
   tobacco crops
   Provided James I with an immense revenue
political
 More colonies established
   Fertile land needed
   More room to grow tobacco
 Tobacco financed Revolutionary War
 Worldwide use became commonplace
Cultural

Tobacco use and its different forms
faded in and out of popularity
  Initially influenced by ruling class
  Tied to social change and revolution
  Later influenced by industry
  advertising and marketing strategies
cultural
Queen Mother of
France made snuff
use for headaches
stylish
Led to elaborately
decorated snuff
boxes carried by
European
aristocrats
cultural
Napoleon
  Avid snuff user

  Identified that tobacco
  could bear taxation like no
  other product

  Died from excessive snuff
  use
cultural
While most of Europe was
consumed with snuff, pipe smoking
was most popular in England
Cigars took precedence in the
1800s
Early cigarettes were a byproduct of
cigar making
cultural
Crimean War (1854 – 1856)
  British soldiers encountered Turkish
  cigarettes smoked by Russians


Philip Morris (1850s)
  London tobacco merchant
  Began manufacturing cigarettes
  Cigarette spread to America
cultural
America always seemed a step
behind the times…
  1700s – pipes and snuff
  1800s – chew and the spitoon
  Late 1800s – Ulysses S. Grant was
  poster boy for cigar
  1900s -- cigarettes
Industry builds in
     America
          1849 – J.E. Liggett
          and Brother
          1875 – R.J.
          Reynolds Tobacco
          Co.
          1890 – American
          Tobacco Co.
          1902 – Philip
          Morris
    Industry builds in
         America
James Buchanan Duke
(1881)
 Used milder tobacco and
 flue-cured leaf
 Secured exclusive rights to
 Bonsack cigarette rolling
 machine
 Inserted pictures into packs
 to stiffen
 Introduced Cameo for
 women (1886)
   Industry builds in
        America
American Tobacco Company (1890)
 Duke convinced 4 rival companies to
 join together
 Duke was appointed president
 Acquired other industries crucial to
 making cigarettes
 Sherman Anti-Trust Act broke up
 company in 1911
Cultural

Between 1890 – 1930, fifteen states
enacted laws to ban cigarette sale,
manufacture, possession or use and
twenty-two others considered such
legislation
Cultural
 Camel
  1913 introduction of
  flue-cured Bright with
  Turkish seasoning and
  sweetened with Burley
  which made it
  distinctive
  Packaging used
  likeness of “Old Joe” a
  Barnum and Bailey
  Circus attraction
Cultural
 Camel
  Spent 1.5 million on ads and
  promotion for its introduction
  Bought out Red Kamel to have
  exclusive use of camel image
  Huge success
  RJR held 40% of cigarette market at
  the time of WWI
Cultural
 World War I (1914 – 1918)
  Imports from Turkey were halted and
  Americans turned to domestic
  cigarettes – RJR profited
  Government contracts awarded on
  basis of domestic sales – RJR profited
  by receiving contract
Cultural
 World War I (1914 – 1918)
 World War II (1939 – 1945)
  Decided that cigarettes were essential
  for the soldiers fighting overseas
   • Helped ward off boredom, hunger and cold
   • Helped soldiers resist “worse” temptations
   • Cigarettes included in rations
   • American government became single
     largest purchaser of cigarettes
   • Community groups (YMCA, Red Cross)
     went from warning of the dangers to
     distributing them to the soldiers
Cultural
 World War I and World War II
  Having emphasis on soldiers smoking
  connected tobacco with virtues of
  freedom, democracy and modernity
Cultural
 World War I and World War II
  “Smokes for Soldiers” funds
  “Lucky Strike Green Has Gone to War”
  After end of WWII, American cigarettes
  became the most stable currency in
  occupied Europe
Cultural
  The combination of a more positive
 perception of cigarettes and the
 steady stream of customers once
 the soldiers returned home, insured
 success for the tobacco industry in
 America
Cultural
  The industry has a secured market
 on young male smokers and seeks
 to lure more young females
  1927 – Ads targeting women
  1929 - Easter Parade in New York
Cultural
 Lucky Strike
  “Its Toasted!”
  “Reach for a Lucky Instead of a Sweet”
  “Lucky Strike Green Has Gone to War”
  L.S. / M.F.T.
Cultural
Brand preference
determined according to
marketing strategies
Lucky Strikes battled for
first place with Camel
for brand preference
between 1930 – 1950
Marlboro took over in
the late 1950s after the
introduction of the
Marlboro Man
Cultural
 Dominance of the Filter
  Health effects starting to surface
  Russians used years ago and some
  brands had them, but more expensive
  B&W focused on Viceroy
   • Changed filter from cotton to cellulose
     acetate – still used
   • Made it affordable
   • Made it neater
Cultural
 Dominance of the Filter
  Other companies quickly adopted
  Filters cost less than the tobacco they
  replaced
  Cigarette sales soared once again
  Advertising modified to promote these
  “more healthy” cigarettes
In force today?
  How do you see the points
 evolution integrated in our society?
   Spiritual
   Medicinal
   Political
   Cultural
In force today?
  When asked about his cigarette
 holder, Franklin Roosevelt replied
 that he used it because his doctor
 told him to stay as far away from
 cigarettes as he could.

								
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