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Beef

Beef
meaty tail (oxtail), tongue, tripe from the reticulum or sometimes the rumen, glands—particularly the pancreas and thymus—referred to as sweetbreads, the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the liver, the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the US as "calf fries", "prairie oysters", or "Rocky Mountain oysters"). Some intestines are eaten as-is, but are used more often as natural sausage casings. The lungs and the udder are considered unfit for human consumption in the US. Beef bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers are equivalent, except for steers having slightly less fat and more muscle, all treatments being equal. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. The meat from older cows and bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (UK)/ground beef (US). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend. The United States, Brazil, Japan and the People’s Republic of China are the world’s four largest consumers of beef.[1] The world’s largest exporters of beef are Australia, Brazil, Argentina and Canada.[2] Beef production is also important to the economies of Uruguay, Nicaragua, Russia and Mexico.

An uncooked rib roast.

Beef is the meat of cattle, such as this Glan Cattle cow. Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle (cows). Beef is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of Australia, Europe and the Americas, and is also important in Africa, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. Beef is a taboo food in some cultures. Its consumption is forbidden by Hinduism, as bovines are revered. It is also discouraged among some Buddhists. Beef muscle meat can be cut into steaks, roasts or specialty cuts, such as short ribs. Some cuts are processed (corned beef brisket or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground/minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts which are eaten include the

History
The flesh of bovines has been eaten by hunters from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings such as those of Lascaux show aurochs in hunting scenes. Domestication of cattle occurred around 8000 BC,providing ready access to beef, milk and leather.[3] Most cattle originated in the Old World with the exception of bison hybrids. Examples include the Wagyu from

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Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent.[4] Cattle were widely used across the Old World for draft animals (oxen), milk production, or specifically for meat production, depending on local needs and resources. With mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, like Chianina and Charolais or improve texture like the Murray Grey, Angus or Wagyu. Some breeds (dual-purpose) have been selected for meat and milk production, like Brown Swiss (Braunvieh).

Beef

American cuts of beef.

Etymology
The word "beef" is from Old French, in contrast to "cow", which is Germanic. After the Norman Conquest, the nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served, while the Germanic words were retained to refer to the live animals. Thus the animal was called cu (cow) by the Anglo-Saxon peasants but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French boeuf) by the French nobles—who did not often deal with the live animal—when it was served to them for dinner. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs swine/pork, sheep/mutton, and chicken/poultry.[5]

Upper half
• Chuck — one of the most common sources for roasts and hamburgers • Rib — short ribs, rib eye steak and prime rib • Loin - subprimals are: Short loin — from which strip steaks are cut, Sirloin — less tender than short loin, but more flavorful, further divided into Top sirloin and Bottom sirloin, and Tenderloin — the most tender, from which filet mignon is served, can be removed separately, or left in for Tbone and Porterhouse steaks • Round — lean cut, moderately tough, lower fat marbling, requires moist cooking or lesser degrees of doneness

Lower half
• Brisket — often associated with barbecue beef brisket. • Shank — used primarily for stews and soups; it is not usually served any other way due to it being the toughest of the cuts. • Plate — produces short ribs for pot roasting and types of steak such as the outside skirt steak for, say, fajitas and hanger steak. It is typically a cheap, tough, and fatty meat. • Flank — used mostly for grinding, except for the long and flat flank steak, best known for use in London broil. Once one of the most affordable steaks on the market, it is substantially tougher than the loin and rib steaks, therefore many flank recipes use marinades or moist cooking methods such as braising. Popularity and leanness have resulted in increased price.

Cuts of beef
Beef is first divided into primal cuts. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut. Since the animal’s legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from "hoof and horn" increases. Different countries have different cuts and names. See the external links section below for links to more beef cut charts and diagrams.

American primal cuts
The following is a list of the American primal cuts, ordered front to back, then top to bottom. The short loin and the sirloin are sometimes considered as one section (loin).

British primal cuts
• Neck & clod • Chuck & blade

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Beef
loosely and commonly misused and/or confused with CAB; this is especially common in the foodservice industry. The brand or name Certified Angus Beef can’t be legally used by an establishment that is not licensed to do so. However Black Simmental beef may also be included in the certified angus beef program. Certified Hereford Beef is beef certified to have come from Hereford cattle. Grass fed beef has been raised primarily on forage rather than in a feedlot. Kobe beef : Cattle of the Wagyu breed raised and fattened in the hills above Kobe, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. During the fattening period, the cattle are hand-fed (using high-energy feed, including beer and beer mash) and hand-massaged for tenderness and high fat content. Halal beef (and other food) has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Muslim dietary laws. Kosher beef (and other food) has been certified to have been processed in a prescribed manner in accordance with Jewish dietary laws. Organic beef is produced without added hormones, pesticides, or other chemicals, though requirements for labeling something "organic" vary widely.

• • British cuts of beef. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rib Silver loin Rump Silverside Topside Thick rib Thin rib Brisket Shin Flank Thick flank Leg

•

•

Special beef designations

•

• The European Union recognises the following Protected Designation of Origin beef brands[6] Spain - Carne de Ávila, Carne de Cantabria, Carne de la Sierra de Guadarrama, Carne de Morucha de Salamanca, Carne de Vacuno del País o Euskal Okela France - Taureau de Camargue, Boeuf charolais du Bourbonnais, Boeuf de Chalosse, Boeuf du Maine Portugal - Carne Alentejana, Carne Arouquesa, Carne Barrosã, Carne Cachena da Peneda, Carne da Charneca, Carne de Bovino Cruzado dos Lameiros do Barroso, Carne dos Açores, Carne Marinhoa, Carne Maronesa, Carne Mertolenga, Carne Mirandesa United Kingdom - Orkney Beef, Scotch Beef, Welsh Beef

Beef rump steak on grill pan, cooked to medium rare • Certified Angus Beef Certified Angus Beef (CAB) is a specification-based, brandedbeef program which was founded in 1978 by Angus cattle producers to increase demand for their breed of cattle, by promoting the impression that Angus cattle have consistent, high-quality beef with superior taste. The brand is owned by the American Angus Association and its 35,000 rancher members. The terms "Angus Beef" or "Black Angus Beef" are

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Beef
• U.S. Standard - Lower quality yet economical, lacking marbling. • U.S. Commercial - Low quality, lacking tenderness, produced from older animals. • U.S. Utility • U.S. Cutter • U.S. Canner Utility, Cutter, and Canner grade are rarely used in foodservice operations and primarily used by processors and canners. There are five beef yield grades - 1 to 5, which estimate the yield of saleable product, with YG 1 having the highest and YG 5 the lowest. Although consumers rarely see or aware of it, yield grade was an important marketing tool for packers and retailers. The conversion from carcass and bone-in primals to boneless, trimmed cuts has reduced the importance. Traditionally, beef sold in steakhouses and supermarkets has been advertised by its USDA grade; however, many restaurants and retailers have recently begun advertising beef on the strength of brand names and the reputation of a specific breed of cattle, such as black Angus.[7][8]

USDA beef grades

Inspected carcasses tagged by the USDA In the United States, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) operates a voluntary beef grading program. The meat processor pays for a trained AMS meat grader to grade whole carcasses at the abattoir. Users are required to comply with Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) grade labeling procedures. The official USDA grade designation can appear in one or any combination of the following ways: container markings, individual bags, legible roller brand appearing on the meat itself, or by a USDA shield stamp that incorporates the quality and/or yield grade. There are eight beef quality grades. The grades are based on two main criteria: the degree of marbling (intramuscular fat) in the beef, and the maturity (estimated age of the animal at slaughter). Some meat scientists object to the current scheme of USDA grading since it is not based on direct measurement of tenderness, although marbling and maturity are indicators of tenderness. Most other countries’ beef grading systems mirror the US model. Most beef offered for sale in supermarkets is graded US Choice or Select. US Prime beef is sold to hotels and upscale restaurants. Beef that would rate as US Standard or less is almost never offered for grading. • U.S. Prime - Highest in quality and intramuscular fat, limited supply. Currently, only two percent of carcasses grade as Prime. • U.S. Choice - High quality, widely available in foodservice industry and retail markets. • U.S. Select (formerly "Good") - lowest grade commonly sold at retail, acceptable quality but less juicy and tender due to leanness.

Aging and Tenderization
To improve tenderness of beef, it often is "aged" - stored refrigerated - to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss. Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days, although two to three days allow significant effects. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins. Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to

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Cooked: Very rare Rare Medium rare Medium Medium well Well done Temperature 115 – 125°F (46 – 52°C) 125 – 130°F (52 – 54°C) 130 – 140°F (54 – 60°C) 140 – 150°F (60 – 66°C) 150 – 160°F (66 – 71°C) >160°F (>71°C) Description Blood-red meat, soft, very juicy Red center, gray surface, soft, juicy

Beef

Pink throughout, gray-brown surface, often remains juicy Pink center, becomes gray-brown towards surface Thin line of pink, firm texture. Gray-brown throughout, tough texture. 650 °F (343 °C). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorful crust. In the U.S.A., Australia, Canada, and the UK grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as "barbecuing", often shortened to "BBQ." • is similar to grilling, but specifically with the heat source above the meat. In the UK, this is known as ’grilling’. • is a particularly British way of cooking meat in a hot oven, producing roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat. • is a Chinese and Asian way of cooking. Cooking oil with flavourings such as garlic, ginger and onions are put in a very hot wok. Then slices of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook quicker: mixed vegetables, etc. The dish is ready when the ingredients are ’just cooked’.

augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor.

Cooking and preparing beef
The method of cooking beef is largely determined by the cut of beef to be cooked. For example, tender (and generally more expensive) cuts of meat benefit from fast, high-heat cooking while tough cuts benefit from a slower and longer cooking method.

Cooking with dry heat

Internal temperature
Grilled or roast beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Roast beef cooked under high heat Tender cuts of beef from the loin and rib are best cooked via dry cooking methods, such as charcoal grilling, broiling, roasting, and sautéing • is cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of

Cooking with moist heat
Tougher cuts of beef from the round, brisket, flank, plate, shank, shin, leg, and chuck are best cooked by moist heat cooking methods, such as braising, pot roasting, and stewing. Some of the tougher cuts may be prepared with dry heat if they are first tenderized with

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
a marinade, or cooked for a long time at a low temperature. • is simmering meat, whole or cut into bitesize pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavourings. • is cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid. Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering; higher temperatures make meat tougher. Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 65 °C (149 °F) to 90 °C (194 °F), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to dissolve connective tissue and kill bacteria, with minimal toughening.

Beef
raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The yolk of a raw egg is mostly topped on the beef.

Cured or smoked beef
Bresaola is an air-dried salted beef that has been aged about 2-3 months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy’s Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices and smoked. Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The "corn" in "corned beef" refers to the "corn" or grains of coarse salts used to cure it. The term "corned beef" can denote different styles of brinecured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States. Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa. Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after.[9]

Raw beef

Sliced beef. Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground raw meat (often beef). It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings like fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg. The Belgian dish filet américan is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich. Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar MiddleEastern dish. And, in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or Kitfo is eaten. Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from

Religious prohibitions
As a general rule, followers of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism do not eat beef. Bovines have been highly revered as "sacred" to mankind in Indus Valley Civilizations since early historical times. Their role as a source of milk, dairy products and animal power is also appreciated. Thus, the cow is revered amongst Hindus. See also Cattle in religion, Nandi (Bull), and Kamadhenu.

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Beef
American border was closed to live Canadian cattle in May 2003 and reopened in early 2005.[14] • Many countries stopped importing United States beef and beef products. On July 27, 2006 Japan allowed imports again.

Nutrition and health
Beef is rich in zinc, selenium, phosphorus, iron, and B vitamins.[10] Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, as any other meat or fish, is a source of creatine.

Health concerns
A study released in 2007 by the World Cancer Research Fund reported “strong evidence that red meat and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer” and recommends that people eat less than 500 grams (18 oz) of cooked red meat weekly, and as little processed meat as possible. The report also recommends that average consumption in populations should not exceed 300 grams (11 oz) per week, stating that this goal "corresponds to the level of consumption of red meat at which the risk of colorectal cancer can clearly be seen to rise."[11] Lean beef, with its high selenium and B12 content, may actually lower the risk of colon cancer.[10] The Harvard School of Public Health recommends that consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat.[12] Like some other animal products (such as whole milk), red meat provides a rich source of the heart-healthy fat conjugated linoleic acid along with the saturated fat. Beef’s high content of B6 and B12 may help lower homocysteine.[10]

See also
• • • • • Beef hormone controversy 2006 Argentine restriction of beef exports Argentine beef Beef Jerky Entrecôte

References

Mad cow disease
In 1984 the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world’s first outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom.[13] Eating beef from cattle with BSE is thought to have caused a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in about 131 cases (2003 June data) in the United Kingdom and a few in France. BSE is an illness that cattle can contract when they are fed infected animals (especially the brains and spinal cords). The perception of beef as potentially-lethal damaged the UK beef industry. Attempts to wipe out BSE in the UK by a slaughter-and-burn campaign further damaged the beef industry. Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE: • In May 2003, after a cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta, Canada, the

[1] "Major Countries Beef Production and Consumption" (PDF). http://www.fas.usda.gov/dlp/circular/ 2005/05-11LP/production.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. USDA PDF [2] "World Beef Overview". http://www.fas.usda.gov/info/circular/ 2004/04-03LP/beefoverview.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-03. USDA [3] "Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa". http://www.comparchaeology.org/WendorfSAA98.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. [4] "History of Cattle Breeds". http://www.bovinebazaar.com/ history.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-17. [5] The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000: beef. [6] "Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) / Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)". http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/ qual/en/1bbab_en.htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. [7] "Branded Beef Booming". Denver Post. 2003-06-17. http://www.cattlefacts.com.au/ ArticleEditor_Preview.asp?AID=610. Retrieved on 2007-04-17. [8] Michael Chu. "USDA Beef Quality Grades". Cooking for Engineers. http://www.cookingforengineers.com/ article.php?id=30&title=USDA+Beef+Quality+Grad Retrieved on 2007-08-10. [9] Recipe for traditional dry spiced beef An Bord Bia [10] ^ http://whfoods.org/ genpage.php?pfriendly=1&tname=foodspice&dbid=

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[11] 2007 report by the World Cancer Research Fund [12] Harvard School of Public Health – Healthy Eating Pyramid [13] "Timeline: BSE and vCJD". NewScientist.com news service. 13 December 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/channel/ health/dn9926-timeline-bse-andvcjd.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-10. [14] Canadian beef industry loses patience over border dispute

Beef

External links
• USDA beef grading standards (PDF) • Nutrition Facts for Various Cuts of Beef • Many different meat cut charts • Your Premier Beef Discussion Forum (Internet Archive version) • The Story of Beef in Nebraska, the Beef State with videos, history, life cycle, issues, and culture • A great, budget-friendly, recipe for cooking ground beef into muffin-sized meatloaf.

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