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Bali

Bali
Bali

including dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking and music.

Motto: Bali Dwipa Jaya ("Glorious Bali Island")

History

Capital Governor Area Population Density Ethnic groups Religion Languages Time zone Web site

Denpasar Made Mangku Pastika 5,632.86 km2 (2,175 sq mi) 3,150,000 (2000) 559.2 /km2 (1,448 /sq mi) Balinese (89%), Javanese (7%), Baliaga (1%), Madurese (1%)[1] Hindu (93.18%), Muslim (4.79%), Christian (1.38%), Buddhist (0.64%) Indonesian (official), Balinese UTC+8 www.baliprov.go.id

Bali is an Indonesian island located at 8°25′23″S 115°14′55″E / 8.42306°S 115.24861°E / -8.42306; 115.24861Coordinates: 8°25′23″S 115°14′55″E / 8.42306°S 115.24861°E / -8.42306; 115.24861, the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. It is one of the country’s 33 provinces with the provincial capital at Denpasar towards the south of the island. With a population recorded as 3,151,000 in 2005, the island is home to the vast majority of Indonesia’s small Hindu minority. 93.18% of Bali’s population adheres to Balinese Hinduism, while most of the remainder follow Islam. It is also the largest tourist destination in the country and is renowned for its highly developed arts,

Temple offering in predominantly Hindu Bali island. Bali was inhabited by Austronesian peoples by about 2000 BC who migrated originally from Taiwan through Maritime Southeast Asia.[2] Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are thus closely related to the peoples of the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines, and Oceania.[3] Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island’s west.[4] Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian and Chinese, and particularly Hindu culture, in a process beginning around the 1st century AD. The name Bali dwipa ("Bali island") has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong

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charter issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 913 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice. Some religious and cultural traditions still in existence today can be traced back to this period. The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343. When the empire declined, there was an exodus of intellectuals, artists, priests and musicians from Java to Bali in the 15th century. The first European contact with Bali is thought to have been made by Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman who arrived in 1597, though a Portuguese ship had foundered off the Bukit Peninsula as early as 1585. Dutch colonial control was expanded across the Indonesian archipelago in the nineteenth century (see Dutch East Indies). Their political and economic control over Bali began in the 1840s on the island’s north coast by playing various distrustful Balinese realms against each other.[5] In the late 1890s, struggles between Balinese kingdoms in the island’s south were exploited by the Dutch to increase their control. The Dutch mounted large naval and ground assaults at the Sanur region in 1906 and were met by the thousands of members of the royal family and their followers who marched to certain death against superior Dutch force in a suicidal puputan defensive assault rather than face the humiliation of surrender.[5] Despite Dutch demands for surrender, an estimated 4,000 Balinese marched to their death against the invaders. In 1908, a similar massacre occurred in the face of a Dutch assault in Klungkung. Afterwards the Dutch governors were able to exercise little influence over the island, and local control over religion and culture generally remained intact. Dutch rule over Bali had come later and was never as well established as in other parts of Indonesia such as Java and Maluku. Imperial Japan occupied Bali during World War II during which time a Balinese military officer, Gusti Ngurah Rai, formed a Balinese ’freedom army’. In the 1930s, anthropologists Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, and artists Miguel Covarrubias and Walter Spies, and musicologist Colin McPhee created a western image of Bali as "an enchanted land of aesthetes at peace with themselves and nature", and western tourism first developed on the island.[6] Following Japan’s Pacific

Bali
surrender in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia, including Bali, immediately to reinstate their pre-war colonial administration. This was resisted by the Balinese rebels now using Japanese weapons. On 20 November 1946, the Battle of Marga was fought in Tabanan in central Bali. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, 29 years old, finally rallied his forces in east Bali at Marga Rana, where they made a suicide attack on the heavily armed Dutch. The Balinese battalion was entirely wiped out, breaking the last thread of Balinese military resistance. In 1946 the Dutch constituted Bali as one of the 13 administrative districts of the newly-proclaimed Republic of East Indonesia, a rival state to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was included in the "Republic of the United States of Indonesia" when the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence on 29 December 1949. The 1963 eruption of Mount Agung killed thousands, created economic havoc and forced many displaced Balinese to be transmigrated to other parts of Indonesia. Mirroring the widening of social divisions across Indonesia in the 1950s and early 1960s, Bali saw conflict between supporters of the traditional caste system, and those rejecting these traditional values. Politically, this was represented by opposing supporters of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) and the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), with tensions and ill-feeling further increased by the PKI’s land reform programs.[5] An attempted coup in Jakarta was put down by forces led by General Suharto. The army became the dominant power as it instigated a violent anti-communist purge, in which the army blamed the PKI for the coup. Most estimates suggest that at least 500,000 people were killed across Indonesia, with an estimated 80,000 killed in Bali, equivalent to 5 per cent of the island’s population.[7] With no Islamic forces involved as in Java and Sumatra, upper-caste PNI landlords led the extermination of PKI members.[8] As a result of the 1965/66 upheavals, Suharto was able to maneuver Sukarno out of the presidency, and his "New Order" government reestablished relations with western countries. The pre-War Bali as "paradise" was revised in a modern form, and the resulting large growth in tourism has led to a dramatic increase in Balinese standards of living

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Bali
the equator. East to west, the island is approximately 153 km (95 mi) wide and is approximately 112 km (69 mi) north to south; it’s land area is 5,632 km². The highest point is Mount Agung at 3,142 m (10,308 feet) high, an active volcano that last erupted in March 1963. Mountains cover centre to the eastern side, with Mount Agung the easternmost peak. Mount Batur (1,717 m) is also still active; an eruption 30,000 years ago was one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. In the south the land descends to form an alluvial plain, watered by shallow, northsouth flowing rivers, drier in the dry season and overflowing during periods of heavy rain. The longest of these rivers, Sungai Ayung, is also the longest on the island (approx. 75 km). The principal city is the present provincial capital and largest city, Denpasar, near the southern coast. Its population is around 300,000. Bali’s second-largest city is the old colonial capital, Singaraja, which is located on the north coast and is home to around 100,000 people. Other important cities include the beach resort, Kuta, which is practically part of Denpasar’s urban area; and Ubud, which is north of Denpasar, and known as the island’s cultural centre.

Bali blast monument. and significant foreign exchange earned for the country.[5] A bombing in 2002 by militant Islamists in the tourist area of Kuta killed 202 people, mostly foreigners. This attack, and another in 2005, severely affected tourism, bringing much economic hardship to the island.

Geography
See also List of bodies of water in Bali and List of mountains in Bali.

Southern Bali in the foreground and Mount Agung behind There is a coastal road surround the island, as well as three major two-lane arteries that cross the central mountains at passes reaching to 1,750m in height (at Penelokan). Minor roads branch off of these major highways. The Ngurah Rai Bypass is a four-lane expressway that partly encircles Denpasar and enables cars to travel quickly in the

Topography of the island The island of Bali lies 3.2 km (2 mi) east of Java, and is approximately 8 degrees south of

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heavily populated south. Bali has no railway lines. The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west have black sand. The beach town of Padangbai in the south east has both. Bali has no major waterways, although the Ho River is navigable by small sampan boats. Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh are being developed for tourism, but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot, they are not yet used for significant tourism. To the east, the Lombok Strait separates Bali from Lombok and marks the biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia. The transition is known as the Wallace Line, named after Alfred Russel Wallace, who first proposed a transition zone between these two major biomes. When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age, Bali was connected to Java and Sumatra and to the mainland of Asia and shared the Asian fauna, but the deep water of the Lombok Strait continued to keep Lombok and the Lesser Sunda archipelago isolated.

Bali
Bali has around 280 species of birds, including the critically endangered Bali Starling. The only endemic high-level predator of the island, the Bali tiger, became extinct in the 1930s. The Bali Barat National Park, located on the north western side of the island, is a refuge for wildlife such as the Sunda Pangolin, Indian Muntjac, Mouse-deer, Leopard Cat, Black Giant Squirrel, and several species of macaque and leaf monkey.

Administrative divisions

Provincial Balinese flag The province is divided into 8 regencies (kabupaten) and 1 city (kota). Unless otherwise stated, the regency’s capital • Badung, capital Mengwi • Bangli • Buleleng, capital Singaraja • Denpasar (city) • Gianyar • Jembrana, capital Negara • Karangasem, capital Amlapura • Klungkung • Tabanan

Ecology

Economy
Three decades ago, the Balinese economy was largely agriculture-based in terms of both output and employment. Tourism is now the largest single industry; and as a result, Bali is one of Indonesia’s wealthiest regions. The economy, however, has suffered significantly as a result of the terrorist bombings of 2002 and 2005. Although in terms of output, tourism is the economy’s largest industry, agriculture is still the island’s biggest employer, most notably rice cultivation. Crops grown in smaller amounts include fruit, vegetables, Coffea

The Bali Starling lives only on Bali. As few as six may exist in the wild as of 2001

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Bali
part of the island. Another increasingly important source of income for Bali is what is called "Congress Tourism" from the frequent international conferences held on the island, especially after the terrorist bombings of 2002; ostensibly to resurrect Bali’s damaged tourism industry as well as its tarnished image. Bali’s tourism economy has now recovered from the horrible terrorism incidents. Arrivals in 2008 saw a record number of foreign visitors, just under 2 million. The American government lifted its travel warnings during that same year, though as of 2009 the Australian government still rates it a 4 danger level (the same as several countries in central Africa) on a scale of 5. An offshoot of the tourism business is the growing real estate industry in Bali. Bali real estate has been rapidly developing in the main tourist districts of Kuta, Legian, Seminyak and Oberoi. Most recently, high end 5 star developments are taking place on the Bukit peninsula on the south side of the island. Villas in the million dollar category are springing up along the cliff sides of south Bali, commanding panoramic ocean views. Foreign and domestic (many Jakarta individuals and companies are fairly active)investment into other areas of the island also continues to grow. Land prices, despite the worldwide economic crisis have remained stable. In the last half of 2008, Indonesia’s currency had dropped approximately 30% against the US dollar, providing many overseas visitors value for their currencies. Visitor arrivals for 2009 are forecast to drop 8% (which would be higher than 2007 levels). Bali’s tourism brand is Bali Shanti Shanti Shanti.[11] Where Shanti derived from Sanskrit "Shanti" (????‍??) meaning peace.

Rice terraces near Ubud; until the late-twentieth century tourist boom, agriculture dominated Bali’s economy arabica and other cash and subsistence crops. A significant number of Balinese are also fishermen. Bali is also famous for its artisans who produce batik and ikat cloth and clothing, wooden carvings, stone carvings and silverware. The Arabica coffee production region is the highland region of Kintamani near Mount Batur. Generally, Balinese coffee is processed using the wet method. This results in a sweet, soft coffee with good consistency. Typical flavors include lemon and other citrus notes.[9] Many coffee farmers in Kintamani are members of a traditional farming system called Subak Abian, which is based on the Hindu philosophy of "Tri Hita Karana”. According to this philosophy, the three causes of happiness are good relations with God, other people and the environment. The Subak Abian system is ideally suited to the production of fair trade and organic coffee production. Arabica coffee from Kintamani is the first product in Indonesia to request a Geographical Indication. [10] Although significant tourism exists in the north, centre and east of the island, the tourist industry is overwhelmingly focused in the south. The main tourist locations are the town of Kuta (with its beach), and its outer suburbs (which were once independent townships) of Legian and Seminyak, the on the east coast the town of Sanur(once the only tourist hub), then to the south of the airport is Jimbaran, in the center of the island Ubud, and the newer development of Nusa Dua. The Ngurah Rai International Airport is located near Jimbaran, on the isthmus joining the southernmost part of the island to the main

Demographics
The population of Bali is 3,151,000 (as of 2005).

Religion
Unlike most of Muslim-majority Indonesia, about 93.18% of Bali’s population adheres to Balinese Hinduism, formed as a combination of existing local beliefs and Hindu influences from mainland Southeast Asia and South Asia. Minority religions include Islam

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Bali
tree, dagger, or woven cloth is a potential home for spirits whose energy can be directed for good or evil. Balinese Hinduism is deeply interwoven with art and ritual, and is less closely preoccupied with scripture, law, and belief than Islam in Indonesia. Ritualizing states of self-control are a notable feature of religious expression among the people, who for this reason have become famous for their graceful and decorous behavior.[12]

Language
The Mother Temple of Besakih one of Bali’s most significant Hindu temples. Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely spoken languages in Bali, and most Indonesians, the vast majority of Balinese people are bilingual or trilingual. There are several indigenous Balinese languages, but most Balinese can also use the most widely spoken option: modern common Balinese. The usage of different Balinese languages was traditionally determined by the Balinese caste system and by clan membership, but this tradition is diminishing. English is a common third language (and the primary foreign language) of many Balinese, owing to the requirements of the tourism industry.

Culture
Cremation procession (4.79%), Christianity (1.38%), and Buddhism (0.64%). These figures do not include immigrants from other parts of Indonesia. Balinese Hinduism is a heterogeneous amalgam in which gods and demigods are worshipped together with Buddhist heroes, the spirits of ancestors, indigenous agricultural deities and also with places considered sacred. Religion as it is practiced in Bali is a composite belief system that embraces not only theology, philosophy, and mythology, but ancestor worship, animism and magic. It pervades nearly every aspect of traditional life. Balinese Hinduism has roots in Indian Hinduism and in Buddhism, and adopted the animistic traditions of the indigenous people, who inhabited the island around the first millennium BCE. This influence strengthened the belief that the gods and goddesses are present in all things. Every element of nature, therefore, possesses its own power, which reflects the power of the gods. A rock,

Ogoh-ogoh monster in Ubud Bali is renowned for its diverse and sophisticated art forms, such as painting, sculpture, woodcarving, handcrafts, and performing arts. Balinese percussion orchestra music, known as gamelan, is highly developed and varied. Balinese performing arts often portray stories from Hindu epics such as the Ramayana but with heavy Balinese influence. Famous Balinese dances include pendet, legong, baris, topeng, barong, gong keybar,

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and kecak (the monkey dance). Bali boasts one of the most diverse and innovative performing arts cultures in the world, with paid performances at thousands of temple festivals, private ceremonies, or public shows.[13] The Hindu New Year, Nyepi, is celebrated in the spring by a day of silence. On this day everyone stays at home and tourists are encouraged to remain in their hotels. But the day before that large, colourful sculptures of ogoh-ogoh monsters are paraded and finally burned in the evening to drive away evil spirits. Other festivals throughout the year are specified by the Balinese pawukon calendrical system. Celebrations are held for many occasions such as a tooth-filing (coming-of-age ritual), cremation or odalan (temple festival). One of the most important concepts that Balinese ceremonies have in common is that of désa kala patra, which refers to how ritual performances must be appropriate in both the specific and general social context.[14] Many of the ceremonial art forms such as wayang kulit and topeng are highly improvisatory, providing flexibility for the performer to adapt the performance to the current situation.[15] Many celebrations call for a loud, boisterous atmosphere with lots of activity and the resulting aesthetic, ramé, is distinctively Balinese. Oftentimes two or more gamelan ensembles will be performing well within earshot, and sometimes compete with each other in order to be heard. Likewise, the audience members talk amongst themselves, get up and walk around, or even cheer on the performance, which adds to the many layers of activity and the liveliness typical of ramé.[16] Kaja and kelod are the Balinese equivalents of North and South, which refer to ones orientation between the island’s largest mountain Gunung Agung (kaja), and the sea (kelod). In addition to spatial orientation, kaja and kelod have the connotation of good and evil; gods and ancestors are believed to live on the mountain whereas demons live in the sea. Buildings such as temples and residential homes are spatially oriented by having the most sacred spaces closest to the mountain and the unclean places nearest to the sea.[17] Most temples have an inner courtyard and an outer courtyard which are arranged with the inner courtyard furthest kaja. These spaces serve as performance venues since

Bali
most Balinese rituals are accompanied by any combination of music, dance and drama. The performances that take place in the inner courtyard are classified as wali, the most sacred rituals which are offerings exclusively for the gods, while the outer courtyard is where bebali ceremonies are held, which are intended for gods and people. Lastly, performances meant solely for the entertainment of humans take place outside the walls of the temple and are called bali-balihan. This three-tiered system of classification was standardized in 1971 by a committee of Balinese officials and artists in order to better protect the sanctity of the oldest and most sacred Balinese rituals from being performed for a paying audience.[18] Tourism, Bali’s chief industry, has provided the island with a foreign audience that is eager to pay for entertainment, thus creating new performance opportunities and more demand for performers. The impact of tourism is controversial since before it became integrated into the economy, the Balinese performing arts did not exist as a capitalist venture, and were not performed for entertainment outside of their respective ritual context. Since the 1930’s sacred rituals such as the barong dance have been performed both in their original contexts, as well as exclusively for paying tourists. This has led to new versions of many of these performances which have developed according to the preferences of foreign audiences; some villages have a barong mask specifically for non-ritual performances as well as an older mask which is only used for sacred performances.[19] The Balinese eat with their right hand, as the left is impure, a common belief throughout Indonesia. The Balinese do not hand or receive things with their left hand and would not wave at anyone with their left hand.

See also
• • • • • Balinese people Balinese art Tourism in Indonesia 2005 Java-Bali Blackout 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference • List of hospitals in Bali

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Bali
• Gold, Lisa (2005). Music in Bali: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514149-0. • Greenway, Paul; Lyon, James. Wheeler, Tony (1999). Bali and Lombok. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. ISBN 0-86442-606-2. • Herbst, Edward (1997). Voices in Bali: Energes and Perceptions in Vocal Muisc and Dance Theater. Hanover: University Press of New England. ISBN 0-8195-6316-1. • Hinzler, Heidi (1995) Artifacts and Early Foreign Influences. From Oey, Eric (Editor) (1995). Bali. Singapore: Periplus Editions. pp. 24–25. ISBN 962-593-028-0. • Ricklefs, M. C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, Second Edition. MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-57689-X. • Sanger, Annette (1988), "Blessing or Blight? The Effects of Touristic DanceDrama on village Life in Singapadu, Bali", Come Mek Me Hol’ Yu Han’: The Impact of Tourism on Traditional Music (Berlin: Jamaica Memory Bank): 89-104. • Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. • Vickers, Adrian (1995), From Oey, Eric (Editor) (1995). Bali. Singapore: Periplus Editions. pp. 26–35. ISBN 962-593-028-0. • Pringle, Robert (2004). Bali: Indonesia’s Hindu Realm; A short history of. Short History of Asia Series. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-863-3.

Notes
[1] Indonesia’s Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2004. [2] Taylor (2003), pp. 5, 7; Hinzler (1995) [3] Hinzler (1995) [4] Taylor (2003), p. 12; Lonely Planet (1999), p. 15. [5] ^ Vickers (1995) [6] Friend (2003), p. 111. [7] Friend (2003), p. 111; Ricklefs (1991), p. 289; Vickers (1995) [8] Ricklefs, p. 289. [9] "Diverse coffees of Indonesia". Specialty Coffee Association of Indonesia. http://www.sca-indo.org/diverse-coffeesindonesia/. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. [10] "Book of Requirements for Kopi Kintamani Bali", page 12, July 2007 [11] Kompas (Indonesian) http://www.kompas.com/ver1/Nusantara/ 0711/29/210534.htm [12] Slattum, J. (2003) Balinese Masks: Spirits of an Ancient Drama. Indonesia, Asia Pacific, Japan, North America, Latin America and Europe Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd [13] Emigh, John (1996). Masked Performance: The Play of Self and Other in Ritual and Theatre. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 081221336X. The author is a Western theater professor who has become a performer in Balinese topeng theater himself. [14] Herbst 1997, p. 1-2. [15] Foley and Sedana 2005, p. 208. [16] Gold 2005, p. 8. [17] Herbst 1997, p. 1-2.; Gold 2005, p. 19. [18] Gold 2005, p. 18-26. [19] Sanger 1988, p. 90-93.

Further reading
• Grant, Gaia (2002). A Patch of Paradise: A Women’s Search for a Real Life on Bali. Sydney: Bantam Books. ISBN 1-86325-360-2. • Helmi, Rio; Walker, Barbara (1995). Bali Style. London: Times Editions Pte Ltd. ISBN 0-500-23714-X. • Lansing, J. Stephen (1983). Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali (Princeton Studies in Complexity). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691027277. • Lansing, J. Stephen (1983). The Three Worlds of Bali. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 003063816X. • McPhee, Colin (2003). A House in Bali. Periplus Editions, Singapore, 2000 (first

References
• Miguel Covarrubias, Island of Bali, 1946. ISBN 962-593-060-4 • Foley, Kathy; Sedana, I Nyoman (Autumn 2005), "Mask Dance from the Perspective of a Master Artist: I Ketut Kodi on "Topeng"", Asian Theatre Journal (University of Hawai’i Press) 22 (2): 199-213. • Friend, T. (2003). Indonesian Destinies. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01137-6.

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Bali

published in 1947 by Victor Gollancz Ltd., • Wiener, M. (1995). Visible and Invisible London). ISBN 0-7864-1572-X. Realms: History, Magic and Colonial • Shavit, David (2003). Bali and the tourist Conquest in Bali. University of Chicago industry: a history, 1906-1942. Jefferson, Press. N.C.: McFarland & Co. ISBN • Wijaya, M. (2002). Architecture of Bali: A 962-593-629-7. source book of traditional and modern • Vaasmmiuyttredhft[114586632000254545]ickers, forms. Archipelago Press, Singapore. Adrian (1994). Travelling to Bali: Four ISBN 981-4068-25-X. Hundred Years of Journeys. Oxford University Press. ISBN 967-65-3081-6. • Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya • Official website A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. • Bali travel guide from Wikitravel Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. • Bali at the Open Directory Project

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bali" Categories: Provinces of Indonesia, Bali, Islands of Indonesia This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 23:03 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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