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   Internet2 and Global Development:
           Institutional Impact

                 Michael McRobbie
Vice President for Information Technology and CIO
                 Indiana University

 05/18/2000             1
 1. The Need for Global High Performance
• The tools of research and education are increasingly
  based on applications of advanced information
  technology which require access to distributed deep
  computing and data resources.
• The outputs of advanced research and education
  tools increasingly rely on advanced visualization.
• Advanced, unique scientific instruments must be
  available to global research communities.
• The emergence of the global research community
  requires advanced methods for supporting the
  collaboration of geographically distributed
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1.a Distributed Deep Computing and Data Resources
                 The GIOD Project

                            A Caltech, CERN and HP joint
                            project addressing data storage and
                            access problems posed by nextgen
                            particle collider experiments which
                            will start at CERN in 2005.
                            Data rates from online systems will
                            be of order 100 MBytes/sec; yearly
                            accumulation of several PetaBytes.
                            Raw data will be reconstructed for
                            particle tracks, energy clusters, etc.
                            in near-real time by large processor
                            farms (~107 MIPS) based on
                            commodity hardware.

  05/18/2000            3
Distributed Deep Computing and Data Resources
    Maximum Likelihood Analysis Of Phylogenetic Data

                                  DNA data has accumulated more rapidly
                                  than compute power so researchers
                                  must often exclude potentially infor-
                                  mative data to make statistical analysis
                                  practical. Utilizing the computationally
                                  intensive maximum-likelihood method
                                  of phylogenetic inference in a globally
                                  distributed collection of computational
                                  nodes, Indiana University, National
                                  University of Singapore and ACSys CRC
                                  in Australia have analyzed the DNA of
                                  cytoplasmic coat proteins, micro-
                                  sporidia, and cyanobacteria.

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                 1.b Advanced Visualization
                        Virtual Pelvic Floor

                                       Supported in part by the National
                                       Library of Medicine and developed by
                                       researchers at University of Illinois
                                       Chicago and Cook County Hospital, the
                                       Virtual Pelvic Floor is a new method of
                                       teaching the complex anatomy of the
                                       pelvic region utilizing virtual reality and
                                       advanced networking technology. The
                                       stereoscopic collaborative environment
                                       is used to teach residents and students
                                       the highly complex anatomy and
                                       physiology of the pelvic floor.


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               Advanced Visualization
High Brilliance X-ray Crystallography for Macromolecular
                 Structure Determination

ImmersaDesk2                                      Virtual


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                    1.c Scientific Instruments
                     Trans-Pacific Telemicroscopy

                           Scientists at the Osaka University Research
                           Center for Ultra High Voltage Electron Microscopy
                           (UHVEM) and University of California San Diego
                           National Center for Microscopy and Imaging
                           Research (NCMIR) successfully use international
                           advanced research networks to couple the
                           world's largest and most powerful (3 million volt)
                           transmission electron microscope at UHVEM to a
                           remote-use computer pavilion set up at NCMIR.

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                     Scientific Instruments
                     Advanced Photon Source
  Advanced Photon Source


                                                    desktop & VR clients
  real-time                             archival    with shared controls
  collection                            storage


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             1.d Advanced Collaboration
  Space Physics and Aeronomy Research Collaboratory

                                              The Space Physics and
                                              Aeronomy Research
                                              Collaboratory (SPARC)
                                              is an NSF-sponsored
                                              community resource for
                                              the upper atmospheric
                                              and space sciences;
                                              operating 24 hours a
                                              day for scientific
                                              collaboration and
                                              access to real-time and
                                              archival data.


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                Advanced Collaboration
             National Tele-immersion Initiative

                                              A telecubicle has a
                                              stereo-immersive desk
                                              surface as well as at
                                              least two stereo-
                                              immersive walls. These
                                              three display surfaces
                                              meet in the formation
                                              of a desk against a
                                              corner. When linked to
                                              others on the net, the
                                              telecubicle forms a
                                              virtual collaborative


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               Advanced Collaboration
                         Access Grid

                                 The US Dept of Energy-sponsored
                                 Access Grid supports human interaction
                                 across the Grid. It consists of
                                 multimedia displays, presentation and
                                 interaction environments, interfaces to
                                 Grid middleware and interfaces to
                                 visualization environments. The Access
                                 Grid supports large-scale distributed
                                 meetings, collaborative work sessions,
                                 seminars, lectures, tutorials and
                                 training. The Access Grid design point
                                 is group to group communication,
                                 complementing the Computational

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         2. Advanced Applications Require:

• High bandwidth, e.g. Trans-Pacific Telemicroscopy
  requires > 35Mbps continuous for visual display.
• Low or predictable latency, e.g. remote operation of
  scientific instrumentation requires bounded signaling
• Bandwidth and latency contracts provided to
  applications by network QoS (quality of service)
• Advanced network services, e.g. multicast-enabled
  multipoint collaboration.
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       Advanced Applications also Require

• Application middleware services, e.g. Globus, which
  provide a basic software infrastructure that integrates
  geographically distributed computational and
  information resources.

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    3. US High Performance Research and
             Education Networks

• Government agency:
     – ESNet - Department of Energy (1980s)
     – NREN - NASA (1997)
     – iDREN - Department of Defense (1996)
• Research and Education
     – vBNS - NSF (1995)
     – Abilene - Internet2 Project/UCAID (1998)

05/18/2000                  14
                  4. The vBNS

• A high-performance research and education network
  developed through cooperative agreement between
  the National Science Foundation (NSF) and MCI.
• Five year program inaugurated in 1995.
• ~100 connections made as of January 2000.
• The NSF and MCIW have entered into a three-year
  no-cost extension of the cooperative agreement
  beginning April 1, 2000.
• Now offers commercial connections as vBNS+.

05/18/2000               15
             5. Internet2 and Abilene

• Internet2 is a consortium of over 170 universities,
  founded in 1996, working in partnership with industry
  and government to develop and deploy advanced
  network applications and technologies, accelerating
  the creation of tomorrow's Internet.
• Abilene is a high-performance network for higher
  education and industry collaborators within the U.S.
• Abilene and Internet2 are projects of the University
  Corporation for Advanced Internet Development

05/18/2000                 16

• Abilene announced in April 1998 by VP Gore at the
  White House.
• Indiana University announced in July 1998 as the
  Network Operations Center (NOC) for Abilene.
• Abilene became operational February 1999.
• Abilene is the world’s most advanced production
  high-speed network.

05/18/2000                17
                 The Abilene Project

• Abilene is a high-speed network to:
     – support Internet2 applications development
     – provide an advanced network testbed
     – demonstrate next generation operational and QoS
     – create facilities for network research

05/18/2000                   18
  Abilene Network Engineering Objectives

• Deploy a production network to support Internet2
  applications R&D
• Establish network quality of service (QoS)
• Support native multicast
• Utilize GigaPoPs as effective service points

05/18/2000                   19
                 Abilene Partners

• University Corporation for Advanced Internet
  Development (Management)
• Qwest Inc. (Fiber)
• Cisco Inc. (Routers)
• Nortel Inc. (SONET Transmission Equipment)
• Indiana University (Network Operations Center)

05/18/2000                20
05/18/2000   21
             Abilene Characteristics

• 10,000 miles of national backbone operating at 2.4
  Gbps (OC48) among GigaPoPs
• Connections to Abilene at 155 Mbps (OC3), 622 Mbps
  (OC12), and 2.4 Gbps (OC48)
• Packet/IP over Sonet technology (PoS)

05/18/2000                22
             Access to Abilene Backbone

• Access Nodes are very close to almost all of the
  university GigaPoPs
• Access Nodes are located at Qwest PoPs
• Currently there are 131 Access Nodes
   – will grow as Qwest SONET plant grows

05/18/2000                 23
                           Abilene Access Nodes


              Sacramento                  Denver                                                New York

                                                   Kansas City

                   Los Angeles


                    Abilene Core Node
                    Abilene Access Node

                    Operational January 1999

05/18/2000                                         24
                Abilene Services

• Current
   – High Performance (best effort) IPv4
   – Performance Measurement
   – Multicast
   – IPv6
• Future
   – QoS via DiffServ (QBone)
   – Voice over IP (VoIP)

05/18/2000                25
             Networks Peering with Abilene

• National Research Networks
   vBNS            ESNET            NREN
• International Research Networks
   CA*net           APAN/TransPAC   NORDUnet
   SURFnet          DANTE           JANET
   RENATER          NII (SINET)     SingAREN
   Tanet            IUCC

05/18/2000                26
    The Abilene Network Operations Center

• Operated by Indiana University
• Housed at IUPUI (Indianapolis)
• Core engineering team from IU Bloomington & IUPUI
• Co-located with the IU, TransPAC, STAR TAP and
  Euro-Link NOCs
• 7 x 24 Operation
   – Dedicated front-line operators
   – Engineers on duty
• To be located in the new Communications
  Technology Complex at IUPUI
05/18/2000              27
              The Abilene NOC Weather Map

05/18/2000                            28
                6. STAR TAP & HPIIS
     Global High-Performance Research & Education Networking

• The growth of international scientific collaborations
  leads to requirement for global data communications
  infrastructure on par with what is available
• The Science, Technology, And Research Transit
  Access Point (STAR TAP) is persistent infrastructure
  funded by the NSF to facilitate the interconnection
  and interoperability of advanced international
  networking and applications. STAR TAP anchors the
  NSF international connections program (HPIIS)

05/18/2000                     29
                  STAR TAP & HPIIS
     Global High-Performance Research & Education Networking

• The NSF HPIIS (High Performance International
  Internet Services) program solicited international
  connections to provide the basis for advanced
  network support of international collaboration in
  research and education.

• STAR TAP provides a common interconnection point,
  HPIIS provides the links to global high performance
  research and education networks

05/18/2000                     30
 International Network Operations Center
           at Indiana University


05/18/2000             31
 International Network Operations Center
           at Indiana University

• IU manages the TransPAC HPIIS project
• and provides centralized NOC and engineering for
  STAR TAP and the Euro-Link and MIRnet HPIIS
• The International Networks NOC is fully integrated
  with the Abilene NOC

05/18/2000                32
 International Network Operations Center
           at Indiana University

• International and Abilene NOC services include:
   – Problem management
   – Network monitoring
   – Change management
   – Documentation
   – Reports
   – Security management
   – Engineering
   – Testing & evaluation

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             STAR TAP Logical Map

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             STAR TAP Physical Architecture

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             HPIIS Networks – TransPAC
  linking APAN (Asia Pacific Advanced Network)

05/18/2000              36
             HPIIS Networks – MIRnet
                   linking Russia

05/18/2000               37
             HPIIS Networks – Euro-Link
  linking European National Research Networks

     – European Laboratory for Particle Physics
     – Israel Inter-University Computation Center
• NORDUnet
     – Nordic Countries' National Networks for Research and
     – France Research and Education Network
• SURFnet
     – The Netherlands Research and Education Network

05/18/2000                      38
              HPIIS Meets Internet2 –
             The Distributed STAR TAP

• The original STAR TAP architecture of a single
  interconnection point in Chicago is expected to
  evolve to a distributed model supporting multiple
  international connecting points.
• Internet2/Abilene is expected to offer transit of
  international traffic to provide the underpinning of
  the distributed STAR TAP.

05/18/2000                 39
             HPIIS Meets Internet2 –
                 The Old Model

05/18/2000             40
                    HPIIS Meets Internet2 –
                   The Distributed STAR TAP
                        STAR TAP / NGIX-NORTH
                        Abilene, CA*net3, TransPAC, vBNS,
NGIX-WEST               CERN, SURFnet, ESnet, MIRnet, SINET,
Abilene                 DREN, RENATER, SingAREN, NREN,
SingAREN                TAnet, NORDUnet, IUCC and GEMnet
TransPAC 2001(?)

                                                               Abilene, vBNS, DFN,
                                                               JAnet, ESnet, SURFnet,
                                                               INFN, NORDUnet,
                                                               DANTE, CA*net3

    05/18/2000                      41
                7. Institutional Impact:
             Exploiting Internet2 and HPIIS

• The development of information technology at IU is
  guided by a comprehensive University-wide strategic
• The five-year plan commits expenditures of over
• The plan stresses the importance of local, regional,
  national and international networking.

05/18/2000                 42
                  Institutional Impact:
             Exploiting Internet2 and HPIIS
• Switched 10/100Mbps Ethernet to every desktop
• Gigabit campus backbone
• Upgraded regional campus connections to 45Mbps
• Robust optical fiber infrastructure within Indiana
• Dark fiber connections between major campuses
• Establishment of the State GigaPoP in Indianapolis
• Regional Cyberbelt initiative to interconnect IU,
  Purdue, the Indiana GigaPoP and potentially NCSA
  via dark fiber
• Offered High Performance Network Application
  Program grants
05/18/2000                 43
05/18/2000   44
             Indiana GigaPoP

05/18/2000         45
             The CyberBelt Initiative

05/18/2000              46
• IU and EVL at UIC in collaboration with University of
  Tokyo and Keio University are organizing iGrid2000 -
  a major research demonstration at the INET2000
  conference, July 18-21, in Yokohama, Japan to
  showcase the ongoing development of an
  International Grid (iGrid) for global community

05/18/2000                 47
• Over two dozen applications featuring technological
  innovations and application advancements requiring
  high-speed networks, with emphasis on distributed
  supercomputing, tele-immersion, remote
  instrumentation, large datasets, collaboration, digital
  video, streaming media and high-definition television
  will be demonstrated.

05/18/2000                  48
                   8. Conclusion
• IU’s exceptional commitment to engagement in local,
  regional, national and international networking makes
  a major contribution at IU to:
   – the development and utilization of advanced tools
     for research and education
   – the facilitation of global scientific collaborations
   – network technology research and development
• Hence this involvement is important strategically to
  the research and education missions of the University
  and to the development of rich connections and
  relationships in global research communities.

05/18/2000                 49

• Indiana University Office of the Vice President for
  Information Technology
• Information Technology @ Indiana University

05/18/2000                 50

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