; Tax Rebate Calculator - PowerPoint
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Tax Rebate Calculator - PowerPoint

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 38

Tax Rebate Calculator document sample

More Info
  • pg 1
									Jacob Weaver, Spencer Gill, Alexander Webber, Trevor Hannon
 NaturalGas has the highest
  energy/carbon ratio of fossil fuels: 1m^3
  combusted yields 38MJ (10.8 kWh)
 Propane combustion produces 50MJ/kg
 Run cleaner through equipment reducing
  maintenance
 Octane rating of approx 110
 Many  natural gas vehicles are duel-fuel
 CNG/LPG is stored in large cylinders-
  usually placed in the trunk of the car
  • CNG is pressurized to 200-248 bar (2900-3600
    psi)
  • LPG is pressurized to about 22 bar (2.2 MPa)
 1860s- first natural gas vehicles
 1930s- lost popularity to oil
 1960s-70s- oil crisis renewed interest in
  natural gas vehicles
 13   million LPG vehicles worldwide
  • Australia, Croatia, EU, Hong Kong, India,
     Philippines…
9   million CNG vehicles worldwide
  • Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil, India, Italy, China…
    is the 3rd most popular fuel in
 LPG
 America
  • Most infrastructure of alternative fuels
  • Barbeque bottle refill
 Natural gas that has (obviously) been
  compressed to less than 1% of its original
  volume at atmospheric pressure – 42% energy
  density of diesel fuel
 Stored at 3000-4000 lb/in^2 and ambient
  temperature
 In cars, usually stored in lightweight composite
  cylinders in the trunk
 For a typical Otto-cycle, CNG needs a pressure
  regulator (to convert from storage pressure to
  metering pressure), and a gas mixer or gas
  injector. This is very similar to a petrol injector in
  gasoline cars today.
 Most  are bi-fuel or dual-fuel so you can
  switch from gasoline to NG with the flip of a
  switch
 About 98% of the natural gas we us comes
  from the North America
 The new Fiat Siena 1.4 Tetrafuel has a sensor
  to automatically switch to gasoline if you
  need more power
 Fleets already in place include: AT&T,
  Disneyland Resort, Houston Airport Shuttle,
  UPS, and YellowCab.
 Payback   Calculator:
  • http://www.transecoenergy.com/pages/calculat
   or.htm



 Video:
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gND4nOPnm
   ZI
 1/600th  the volume of gaseous natural gas-
  60% energy density of diesel fuel
 Less desirable for vehicles
 In order to keep it a liquid, the LNG must be
  kept under -126C (-260F)
 This is typically done by cryogenic
  transportation of some kind (road tankers or
  carriers) making it difficult for private use.
 Natural gas is typically liquefied for easier
  transport.
                   Nationwide       Nationwide        Change in         Units of
                  Average Price    Average Price      Price this      measurement
                     for Fuel       for fuel last   report vs. last
                                       report          report

Gasoline              $2.64             $2.44            $0.20            Per gallon
(regular)
Diesel                $2.79             $2.54            $0.26            Per gallon
CNG                   $1.86             $1.73            $0.13            Per GGE
Ethanol (E85)         $2.27             $2.13            $0.14            Per gallon
Propane               $2.69             $2.48            $0.21            Per gallon
Biodiesel (B20)       $2.88             $2.69            $0.19            Per gallon

Biodiesel (B99-       $3.19             $3.08            $0.11            Per gallon
B100)

      -Overall average fuel prices (October 2009 compared to July 2009)
                           Nationwide            Nationwide             Nationwide
                         Average Price in      Average Price in       Average Price in
                              GGE                   DGE                 Dollars per
                                                                        Million BTU
Gasoline (regular)             $2.64                 $2.95                 $22.90


Diesel                         $2.50                 $2.79                 $21.69

CNG                            $1.86                 $2.98                 $16.14

Ethanol (E85)                  $3.21                 $3.58                 $27.80

Propane                        $3.72                 $4.15                 $32.22

Biodiesel (B20)                $2.63                 $2.93                 $22.77

Biodiesel (B99-                $3.14                 $3.50                 $27.21
B100)

         -Overall average fuel prices on an Energy-Equivalent Basis
 Buy  - a brand-new natural-gas vehicle costs
  $4,000 to $8,000 more than a comparable
  gasoline vehicle
 Build – a conventional gasoline vehicle
  modified to run on natural gas can cost $3,000
  to $5,000

                                  -A natural gas home
                                  refueling appliance,
                                  Phill, by FuelMaker is
                                  connected to a Honda
                                  Civic NGV natural gas
                                  vehicle
   CNG Dedicated vehicles
     •   Require Natural Gas at all times
     •   Only one new vehicle: 2010 Civic GX CNG Natural Gas vehicle (113 hp, 24 City 36 Hwy)
     •   Costs $3,000 more than Civic GX, but qualifies for $4,000 tax rebate

   Dual-Fuel or Bi-Fuel vehicles
     •   Capable of using gasoline or diesel fuel, as well as compressed natural gas, where available

•   Advantages for vehicle owners
     •   60-90% less smog-producing pollutants
     •   30-40% less greenhouse gas emissions
     •   Less expensive than gasoline ($1.03/gallon equivalent)
     •   Users can fill up from home: FuelMaker developed Phill, the world's first home-based fueling
         appliance, which can be mounted to a garage wall, indoors or outdoors, to allow natural
         gas-powered vehicles to be refueled overnight directly from a homeowner's existing
         natural gas supply line.

•   Disadvantages for vehicle owners
     •   Less readily available than gasoline & diesel
     •   Fewer miles on a tank of fuel
                  and school buses, airport
 Taxicabs, transit
 shuttles, construction vehicles, garbage trucks,
 delivery trucks, and public works vehicles
 Advantages:
  • Natural Gas Vehicles are safer
  • Natural Gas costs are lower than gasoline
  • Convenient and Abundant
  • Significant price stability compared to oil prices
  • Natural Gas Vehicles have lower maintenance
   costs
 Disadvantages:
  • Not as much room as gasoline cars due to fuel
    storage cylinders
  • Limited driving range of Natural Gas Vehicles




                            -Rear undercarriage showing
                            fuel cylinders
                            (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics
                            Laboratory)
      Duty Vehicle Emissions: CNG vs.
 Light
 Gasoline
  • Reduces carbon monoxide emissions     90%-97%
  • Reduces carbon dioxide emissions          25%
  • Reduces nitrogen oxide emissions      35%-60%
  • Potentially reduces non-methane
    hydrocarbon emissions                     50%-70%
  • Emits fewer toxic and carcinogenic pollutants
  • Emits little or no particulate matter
  • Eliminates evaporative emissions
 Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions: CNG & LNG
 vs. Diesel
  • Produce half the particulate matter of average diesel
      vehicles
  •   Significantly reduce carbon monoxide emissions
  •   Reduce nitrogen oxide and volatile organic
      hydrocarbon emissions by 50% or more
  •   Potentially reduce carbon dioxide emissions 25%
      depending on the source of the natural gas
  •   Drastically reduce toxic and carcinogenic pollutants
  •   Increase methane emissions (not a benefit)
 Use of HOV Lanes in California by CNG
  vehicles
 Federal NGV Tax Incentives
  • Income Tax Credits for Alternative Fuel Vehicles
    (PL 109-58)
  • Income Tax Credits of Alternative Fuel
    Infrastructure (PL 109-58)
  • Excise Tax Credit to the seller of CNG or LNG
    (PL 109-59)
   State NGV Incentives
    •   Tax deductions/credits
    •   Reduced license fees
    •   Reduced vehicle sale taxes
    •   Lower registration fees
   2009 Stimulus Funding
    • Department of Energy Pilot Program for alternative fuel,
        infrastructure and advanced technology vehicles - $300 million
    •    U.S. EPA Diesel Emission Reduction Program - $300 million
    •   Federal Transit Administration capital expenditures- $8.4
        billion;
    •   Department of Energy Block Grants for Energy Efficiency and
        Conservation - $3.2 billion
    •   General Services Administration Federal Fleet acquisition of
        fuel efficient vehicles - $300 million.
   Advantages:
    • EPA estimated propane engines produce 30%-90% less
        carbon monoxide than gasoline engines
    •   Propane emits about 50% fewer toxins and other smog
        producing emissions than gasoline
    •   Propane is an approved alternative fuel
    •   Propane tanks may be safer in an accident
    •   More than 5000 public and 2000 private propane
        refueling stations
    •   Cars can be converted to run on propane and gasoline
    •   Propane is 25%-30% cheaper than gasoline
    •   Engines using propane can last 2 to 3 times longer than
        gasoline engines
 Disadvantages:
  • Propane may result in a power loss of up to 7%
  • Costs involved in converting car to propane
  • Fuel tanks can only be filled to about 80%
   because of the expansion capacity of propane
   liquid
            Gasolin    Diesel    Biodiese   CNG         Ethanol     LNG         Propane
            e                    l
Octane      86 to 94   8 to 15   ~25        120+        100         120+        104
Energy   109,000-      128,000- 117,000-    33,000-     ~80,000     ~73,500     ~84,000
Content/ 125,000       130,000 120,000      38,000      Btu         Btu         Btu
gal      Btu           Btu      Btu         Btu @
                                            3000 psi
Energy                           1.1 to 1   3.94 to 1   1.42 to 1   1.55 to 1   1.36 to 1
Ratio vs.
Gasoline
 Conversions:
                 Pollutant                       Percent Reduced
     Volatile Organic Compounds                        0%
     Carbon Monoxide                                20%-40%
     Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)                          0%
     Particulate Matter                               80%
     Methane                                      10% increase

 Manufactured               Propane Vehicles
     Pollutant               Percent Reduction      Percent Reduction
                             (LDV)                  (HDV)
     Total Hydrocarbons      >40%                   >80%

     Carbon Monoxide         >20%                   >90%

     Oxides of Nitrogen      >30%                   ~60%

     Particulate Matter      ~100%                  ~100%
 Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit
  (Reference Public Law 111-5, Section
  1123, and 26 U.S. Code 30C)
 Qualified Alternative Fuel Motor Vehicle
  Tax Credit (Reference 26 U.S. Code 30B)
 Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Credit
  (Reference Public Law 110-343, Section
  204, and 26 U.S. Code 6427)
 Alternative Fuel Tax Exemption (see IRS
  Publication 510)
 http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/
  natural_gas_emissions.html
 http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-
  efficiency/alternative-fuels/ngv.htm
 http://www.ngvc.org/incentives/federalTax
  .html
 http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/afv_i
  nfo.pdf
 http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/bifueltech
  .shtml
 http://autos.yahoo.com/green_center-
  article_114/
 Samebasic principles as gasoline powered
 engines
    Property      Natural Gas   Gasoline   Diesel

 Flammability        5-15        1.4-7.6   0.6-5.5
 Limits (volume
 % in air)
 Auto-Ignition       842          572       446
 Temperature
 (F)
 Peak Flame          3423         3591      3729
 Temperature
 (F)

 Changes needed are in the fuel storage tank,
 the engine, and the chassis
 Compress  natural gas to 3000-3600 psi
  and pump into cylinders in the vehicle
 Newer Integrated Storage Systems
 Natural gas from storage cylinders to fuel
 line, then enters a regulator to reduce the
 pressure, then feeds through a multipoint
 gaseous fuel injection system, introducing
 the fuel into the cylinders
 Create    space for the
  fuel storage cylinders
 Remove the spare tire
  and jack allowing for
  a flat floor plan
 Run flat tires to
  compensate for the
  removed spare tire
  and jack
Example dual-fuel
conversion system




      Donut tank (left) and torpedo tank
                                           Dashboard fuel switch/gauge
 Natural  Gas (Methane)
      CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) +
      heat
 Propane
      C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + heat
            (complete combustion)
      2 C3H8 + 7 O2 → 2 CO2 + 2 CO + 2 C + 8
      H2O + heat
            (incomplete)
 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (gasoline)
Pollutant           Natural Gas                     Oil               Coal


Carbon Dioxide         117,000                    164,000            208,000


Carbon Monoxide          40                         33                208


Nitrogen Oxides          92                         448               457


Sulfur Dioxide            1                        1,122              2,591


Particulates              7                         84                2,744


Mercury                 0.000                      0.007              0.016


                  Source: EIA - Natural Gas Issues and Trends 1998
         Fuel          kJ/g         kcal/g      BTU/lb
Hydrogen            141.9     33.9           61,000
Gasoline            47.0      11.3           20,000
Diesel              45.0      10.7           19,300
Ethanol             29.8      7.1            12,000
Propane             49.9      11.9           21,000
Butane              49.2      11.8           21,200
Wood                15.0      3.6            6,000
Coal (Lignite)      15.0      4.4            8,000
Coal (Anthracite)   27.0      7.8            14,000
Natural Gas         54.0      13.0           23,000
Ideal Otto Cycle for 4 –stroke engine




In reality, losses exist in the form of heat loss
during power strokes, friction losses and
burning occurring at non-constant volume
 Use  of micro-porous materials to solve
  CNG tank storage issues
 Lower pressures mean higher overall
  efficiencies

								
To top