Number Project No Project name Organisation 1 041016NW3 MIDAS Bolton Institute 2 041049NW3 WiCE BOLTON INSTITUTE 3 041091NW3 Breakthrough Bury College 4 031086NW3 The Needs and Wants of a Woman Business Link C & W 5 031085NW3 Job Outcomes for Lone Parents CG Resources 6 041108NW3 Female Economic Inactivity CG Resources 7 051006NW3 Signposts CHAPTER (WEST Cheshire) Ltd 8 031082NW3 Work and Women (WOW) Cheadle & Marple Sixth Form Col 9 041105NW3 Ethnic Women and Work Cheadle & Marple Sixth Form Col 10 031071NW3 Climbing the Corporate Ladder Connexions (Business Services 11 041053NW3 Beyond the Glass Ceiling Connexions (Business Services 12 041019NW3 Reducing Age Discrimination Lancaster City Council 13 021198NW3 Diversity to Secure Advantage Manchester Met University 14 041021NW3 STREAM Manchester Met University 15 041035NW3 Benchmarking Social Enterprise Manchester Met University 16 051049NW3 Getting Ready for Work! Manchester Met University 17 041094NW3 Fempowerment Manchester Met University 18 011054NW3 Emerging Sectors Opportunities Manchester Metropolitan Uni 19 041054NW3 Female BME Entrepreneurs Manchester School of Management 20 011163NW3 Working Women's Research Bid Plan-It Training & Consult Ltd 21 041111NW3 Employability of BME Groups Pro-active Commercial & Communi 22 031087NW3 Researching women into IT SITEC TRAINING COLLEGE LTD 23 041055NW3 Regional Equality in Music Spirit SSR Limited 24 011394NW3 Tackling Racial Discrimination Tameside College 25 021007NW3 Learning 'About' Disability Tameside College 26 031070NW3 Management Skill for Care Homes Taurus 2000 Limited 27 011424NW3 Care Sector Research The Adult College 28 031080NW3 Gender Discrimination At Work The University of Manchester 29 051005NW3 Older Workers in the North West The University of Salford 30 031079NW3 WINWIT Women in NW IT The University of Salford 31 041109NW3 Cultural Barriers To Women The University of Salford 32 011398NW3 Stepping Stones Trafford MBC 33 031088NW3 Research- Gender Inequality NW Tribal Regeneration 34 031081NW3 Faith & Enterprise for Women UK Islamic Mission 35 001290NW3 Equality in Social Housing Sect UMIST 36 041112NW3 'Click into Place' Univ. of Central Lancs 37 041020NW3 BME Communities and the Media University of Salford 38 031078NW3 Gender in Cultural Industries University of Salford 39 041068NW3 Women into SET Businesses University of Salford 40 041095NW3 Developing Female Engineers University of Salford 41 011400NW3 Disability and the Employer Warrington Disability Services 42 021199NW3 Warrington Multicultural Forum Warrington Multicultural Forum 43 Womens Opportunity Toolkit CETAD Lancaster University Project Name and Number MIDAS; Number 1 (041016NW3) Organisation Bolton Institute ESF Funding £143,395 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 9/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Disability Involving both disabled and non-disabled students in the research, design Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned and testing of inclusive learning products 1 - To Develop a model for improving the employability of disabled people which can be used throughout the region; 2 - Using the creativity of Aims disabled employees to produce the inclusive design products of the future; 3 - To assist people with disabilities to move from supported employment to mainstream employment Higher than average rates of disability in the region; fully exploiting the Why it was needed region's knowledge base; Overcoming the effects of discrimination; helping to reduce the gap in employment rates. 70 Learning Concepts, 20 models and 10 near final stage product designs. Exhibitions and presentations of final models. Staff and Research Output student training and development A new research group formed to further develop themese from this research exercise. Recruitment of a PhD student. Remploy are more aware of the need to work with HE; disabled employees of Remploy encouraged to patrticipate in HE; students gaining a greater Follow up Outcomes and Benefits understanding of the product design process; university staff increasing knowledge and understanding of inclusive design and needs of disabled pupils. Project Name and Number WiCE; Number 2 (041049NW3) Organisation BOLTON INSTITUTE ESF Funding £79,358 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Research of 300 young people and 20 SMEs. Research design, selection of Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned project test group, pre-prog tests and measures, running the programme, dissemination and eveluation. 1 - To investigate the barriers inhibiting females' employment involving enterprise, innovation and creativity; 2 - To investigate the factors that lead to greater male involvement; 3 - To research Gender issues associated with attitude, employer and employee perceptions and participant expectations, Aims with an existing sample of 300 young people, and some 20 SMEs; 4 - To develop and test model materials for use with females to stimulate interest in this area and encourage them to pursue careers in science, engineering and technlogy; 5 - To effectively disseminate the programme. The under representation of women in Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) employment both in terms of numbers and more junior Why it was needed posts as well as in SET training. Evidence of discrimination in this particular sector. Research reports and publications; website with up-to-date records of the Research Output activity; pilot learning and study materials. Greater female participation in employment in industries associated with innovation and creativity, particularly in the fields of science, engineering and technology and greater awareness by females of careers in enterprise Follow up Outcomes and Benefits and innovation. Young females willing to act as role models and advocates of Innovation, Creativity and Enterprise activities. These have not been quantified however and may be longer term outcomes only. Project Name and Number Breakthrough; Number 3 (041091NW3) Organisation Bury College ESF Funding £44,385 Project Start Date 4/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Local - Bury Type of Discrimination Gender 100 female employees of SMEs completed Questionnaires, Focus Group Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned Discussions involving 22 respondents, Review of current Literature, Reporting. 1 - To research factors that hinder the progression of women into Aims management and supervisory positions within SMEs in Bury; 2 - Raising awareness of barriers to women; 3 - Providing recommendations that will improve female career opportunities. Research has shown that although female recruitment and achievement onto higher level management courses is higher than males, it is not Why it was needed resulting in higher numbers of female managers in the workforce. Research also suggests that barriers exist to females progressing into managerial roles. This research is needed to highlight these issues and investigate discrimination issues at the local level. A research report which reported the findings of the questionnaire survey Research Output and workshops. Also recommendations were made to produce an information leaflet and to disseminate this to SMEs in Bury and Bury College to offer a Breakthrough Training Programme. 1 - Discrimination, both direct and indirect, remains prevalent in the workplace; 2 - Female progression is hindered through lack of confidence as they are not as good as self promotion by selling themselves or putting Key Findings themselves forward for promotion; 3 - Cultural issues and stereotyping which ensures that men are favoured for promotion; lack of flexible working opportunities; 4 - Better training and qualifications would enhance the success of females in Bury obtaining a management or supervisory role, for example in soft management skills. An information leaflet highlighting the findings of the research was Follow up Outcomes and Benefits disseminated to SMEs in Bury to raise awareness and a 12 hour Breakthrough training programme was run by Bury college to cover the training needs identified. This lead to a second course which was developed called Follow Through. Project Name and Number The Needs and Wants of a Woman; Number 4 (031086NW3) Organisation Business Link Cheshire and Warrington ESF Funding £133,890 Project Start Date 11/1/2003 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Sub-regional - Cheshire and Warrington Type of Discrimination Gender Focus Group revies with Companies, Qualitative interviews with female employees, employee reviews (from the application form). A steering group Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned ensured that the questions and methods used were appropriate to each sector. 1 - To investigate barriers to carreer progression, both real and perceived, for women within the tourism, manufacturing, creative and financial sectors; Aims 2 - To consider the attitiudes of the female employees and employers, career opportunities and specific training needs afforded to women at all levels. Sectoral evidence shows that discrimination and barriers exist to female Why it was needed employees within the sectors, though there is a lack of localised evidence. Reports were compiled for each company from the results of the interviews and sector reports have also been compiled which has allowed for benchmarking of each of the companies and to identify where there may be discriminiation issues and skills needs. At the end Research Output of each set of sector interviews an event has been held for the companies involved to discuss the outcomes of the research and the way forward. The results have been disseminated to all interested parties. 1 - The project identified that there were barriers to progression, but that these were not always due to the employers, but more perceived by the women themselves. 2 - Some specific barriers were sector related, particularly within the manufacturing and financial sectors, where as there Key Findings was more flexibility for women to progress and develop personally within the creative and tourism sectors. 3 - Part time workers felt that they were less likely to move up the career ladder, however, it was determined that again this was more perceived than real. Dissemination of Results Each company was provided with a sector report which showed them what other similar companies were doing in their sector. The business advisor presented this report to the companies and where appropriate referred them onto Business Link’s workforce development Follow up Outcomes and Benefits advisor who provided information on courses and potential grants which were available to address such issues and also highlight areas of improvement, for example when an equal opps policy was missing. Project Name and Number Job Outcomes for Lone Parents; Number 5 (031085NW3) Organisation CG Resources Project Start Date 11/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Sub-Regional - Greater Manchester - wards in worst 20%IMD targeted Type of Discrimination Gender Face to Face interviews of 32 lone parent advisors; Questionnaire survey of Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned 94 unemployed lone parents; Postal/Telephone/Online survey of 30 ICT employers; Email/Telephone ineterviews of 6 women in ICT careers; and Telephone interviews with training companies 1 - To undertake research activity to identify key barriers which prevent the Aims client group from undertaking a career within the IT and related industries. 2 - To identify and implement strategies designed to facilitate entry and progression within these industries. Government's onjective of having 70% of lone parents in work by 2010 is still a far way off. Proportion of lone parents in work nationally is 54.3%, a Why it was needed 9% increase since 1997, but is still behind other European countries such as France with 82% employed and Sweden with 70% employed. The desire to improve Britain's position is based on evidence that the majority of lone parents want to work and that their employment will reduce child poverty. Research Output Report Document with accompanied CD containing various appendices. A diagnostic tool developed for JCP advisors. 1 - JCP is well thought of though advisors would appreciate a better knowledge of local job opportunities. 2 - lone parents are informed about training opportunities but barriers to them were transport and childcare. 3 - although lack of confidence was not commonly named as a barrier, self confidence was named as a benefit of working. 4 - finances were seen to be a problem with worries that they would not receive enough pay to make working worth while, or concerns at being paid monthly - nearly half of the parents would welcome training in money management; problems of Key Findings childcare including cost, availability, quality and the preference of many to look after their own children. 5 - some lone parents have a fear of IT and advisors may not have the knowledge of local employers' needs for IT staff. 6 - the survey highlighted the need to give attention to initiatives such as Discovery Weeks as they increase confidence but also allow parents to learn about potential employers and to take part in a work trial. 7 - Three quarters of parents thought jobs had rigid hours, something that the evidence from employers contridicted, as it did the view of lone parents that The report and appendices are available on the company's website and Dissemination of Results were also disseminated to Jobcentre Plus and certain advisors. A diagnostic tool was developed for Jobcentre Plus advisors which enableds Follow up Outcomes and Benefits them to determine the suitability fo a client for an ICT related career. This enables quicker questioning and a more accurate indication of suitability. Project Name and Number Female Economic Inactivity; Number 6 (041108NW3) Organisation CG Resources ESF Funding £35,141 Project Start Date 10/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Local - Manchester Type of Discrimination Gender Desk research, one-to-one interviews, telephone surveys, paper Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned questionnaires, online questionnaires and discussion groups. Responses were received from 113 claimants, 31 employers and 11 Advisers 1 - To carry out research to identify key barriers and discrimination that prevent economically inactive women, on non work-related benefits such as Aims Incapacity Benefit and Income Support, from returning to the job market or participating in New Deal programmes. The prominence of certain Manchester Wards near the top of the IMD; Record employment and growing unemployment means that alternative sources of labour should be considered; Inactivity is particularly high Why it was needed amongst women and the disabled; Helping the local JCP in developing a strategy to combat inactivity; The need to identify specific local barriers and increase JCP's understanding of these. Report in a range of formats - Web, CD Rom and Paper Based (Not Research Output seen, from application). 1 - JCP advisors would like to spend more time with clients and would wlecome closer links with employers. 2 - Claimants have training and skills gaps which need to be addressed. 3 - Employers have a more positive attitude to the claimants than JCP advisors and claimants believe they have. 4 - employers would welcome closer links with JCP particularly in terms of providing support to claimants. 5 - Caring or Administrative Occupations are Key Findings seen as the most appropriate occupations for claimants. 6 - Lack of Confidence is seen as a barrier. 7 - Health is obviously a barrier, but employers are actually supportive of providing support for people with ill health on the whole. 8 - Recommendations include targeting those lone parents that definately want to work, not presenting lone parents to employers as a cohort but as individuals, and employers should be encouraged to provide training at the workplace. Dissemination of Results Disseminated to JCP staff and employers (only stated in application) Recommendations provided include: Claimants need to know more about the financial incentives and about not losing their benefits if employment does not succeed for them; Jobcentre Plus should work more closely with employers with Advisers having greater contact; Support needs to be available for both the employer and the claimant during the first six months of any new employment to mentor both parties; Short taster training sessions Follow up Outcomes and Benefits should be utilised, leading to longer training programmes so that clients can adjust to the learning environment; Successful training programmes should be repeated in the same area so that ‘word-of-mouth’ referrals are generated and this would create a lesser demand for other marketing activities; and Engagement with the client group to be achieved through outreach services and trusted intermediaries. Project Name and Number Signposts; Number 7 (051006NW3) Organisation CHAPTER (WEST Cheshire) Ltd ESF Funding £36,391 Project Start Date 7/1/2005 Project End Date 12/31/2006 Geographical Scope Local - West Cheshire (Non Obj 2 area of Chester and Obj 2 Transitional areas of Ellesmere Port and Neston). Type of Discrimination Disability Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned Questionnaire Interviews and Focus Groups with 20 employers; Developing and trialing a pre-entry training programme for people with mental health illnesses; Developing awareness raising of mental health issues. 1 - To undertake research with employers to identify key areas of Aims institutional discrimination affecting economically inactive people of working age disadvantaged in the labour market due to mental health problems. 2 - To identify follow on training actions to combat the discrimination; People with mental health difficulties face particular barriers to the Why it was needed workplace and social exclusion and a significant contributor to this is stigma and discrimination in the labour market. Research Output A published report and handbook of good practice (from application). Key Findings Research Ongoing Dissemination of Results Results of the report placed on the internet and circulated around key partners (from application). Follow up Outcomes and Benefits Results used to undertake further development of the training programme (from application). Project Name and Number Work and Women (WOW); Number 8 (031082NW3) Organisation Cheadle & Marple Sixth Form College Project Start Date 9/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Local - Reddish Type of Discrimination Gender A survey of 100 employed women and 30 SMEs and providing ICT training to women beneficaris in order to improve their employability skills. The Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned response to the survey from local companies was poor, as was the take up of the free follow on training. This was primarily de to the difficulty of organising fixed training sessions, time and workload constraints. 1 - To conduct a piece of primary research in oprder to look at attitudes at work and an understanding of the barriers which women face in obtaining accessible employment, career advancement, equality of earnings and Aims maintaining a healthy work-life balance. 2 - To provide innovative, high quality ICT training to women beneficaries in order to improve their employability skills and, where appropriate, responding by providing solutions to enable those disadvantaged to engage in flexible learning. Women in the local area are predominantly employed in an admininstrative capacity within SMEs and employers see them as easily replaceable and therefore not worth investing time and money in further training. In Stockport women earn 75% of men's weekly earnings. In order to be able to address Why it was needed this cycle of disadvantage, a much clearer picture is required. Research is required at an individual level to be able to produce a study to look at attitudes to work and an understanding of the barriers which face women in employment. Research Output Final report and CD Rom Other ESF Outputs 14 women completed training and achieved a full qualification and 11 achieved units towards a qualification 1 - Women working for medium sized companies are generally employed in a clerical capacity. 2 - Workspace nursery provision was very low though a large proportion of employers allowed special leave. 3 - Employees were Key Findings often unaware of the working arrangements which were available to them. 4 - Most companies had a formal equal opps policy. 5 - Successful training is that which is flexible, customised to meet individual needs, high quality, takes place in a pleasant and welcoming environment and there is an ability to progress quickly onto higher level courses. Final evaluations completed by beneficiaries showed that: 100% felt they Follow up Outcomes and Benefits had improved their basic/key/ICT skills; 86% felt that their general knowledge of ICT and computers had improved; 79% felt that their practical skills had improved; 71% had gained more confidence; and more than 50% commented that their self -esteem and motivation had improved. Project Name and Number Ethnic Women and Work; Number 9 (041105NW3) Organisation Cheadle & Marple Sixth Form College ESF Funding £38,605 Project Start Date 9/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Local - Stockport, Manchester and Trafford Type of Discrimination Ethnicity and Gender Largely quantitative, face to face survey of 62 South Asian Women at the Pakistani Resource Centre. Potential sensitivities were overcome through Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned the research being undertaken by people from the same ethnic background in a familiar environment. 1 - To investigate the views and experiences of South Asian women in respect of employment and training opportunities available to them. 2 - To ultimately reduce the level of disadvantages faced by women in the labour Aims market and training with particular reference to South Asian women. 3 - To use the findings to encourage training, particularly in ICT, and influence the way in which the training is delivered In order to address the cycle of disadvantage that was perceived to exist around South Asian women - namely the lack of educational opportunities Why it was needed afforded to them because of gender, religion, customs and culture - it was felt that a clearer picture at the individual level around the needs, attitudes and barriers faced by South Asian women was needed. A research report which presents the findings of the survey in quantitative Research Output (and some degree of qualitative) form and provides commentary and conclusions and recommendations. 1 - Religions, custom and Culture are still a factor for South Asian women. These factors however are individual to the woman, depnding on factors such as country of origin, education, rural/urban background, family environment, time in the UK, responsibilities and household commitments. 2 - There has been an increase in the employment and training opportunities Key Findings provided to South Asian women although some still have household commitments which hinder their ability to gain employment and training opportunities. 3 - Barriers can be overcome by interventions such as appropriate childcare, free training, offering and encouraging short courses, offering careers infor and advice, offering support when accessing courses and training facilities in the heart of communities. As part of the research, where appropriate it appears that 12 of the female participants in the survey were referred onto relevant ICT training courses Follow up Outcomes and Benefits and others were given careers and training advice and information by project workers. Project Name and Number Climbing the Corporate Ladder; Number 10 (031071NW3) Organisation Connexions (Business Services) ESF Funding £51,726 Project Start Date 3/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2003 Geographical Scope Sub-Regional - Lancashire and Cheshire Type of Discrimination Gender In depth structured psychometric tests and assessments of 80 female Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned managers. 1 - The purpose of this project was to undertake research and follow up actions to identify key characteristics, skills and attributes common to women managers to identify barriers to success. 2 - To discover the secrets Aims of successful women to inform, encourage and support the next generation of female managers. 3 - To use the identified key characteristics to help design and innovative coaching programme. Female employment rates are high but promotion opportunities are more limited and there is a significant gender pay gap. The proportion of female managers still trails male managers significantly. There is a need to Why it was needed recognise, value and reward the contribution of all people in order to have a modern and competitive economy. Lack of regional / local level research on female managers. Research Output Final report produced and disseminated. 1 - For the participants the "glass ceiling" does exist, although the men in our study were less aware of the concept than the women. 2 - there are common characteristics that people associate with being a successful manager. These tend to be universal, rather than gender specific. 3 - there are key differences between those who make it to the top and lower management levels, also between male and female managers. Interestingly, Key Findings the differences between men and women are fewer right at the top of the organisation. 4 - Recommendations for changes that need to take place to allow more women to break through the "glass ceiling" include a reviewal of the traditional model of management, ensuring interview panels are more balanced in terms of gender, reviewal and updare of recruitment and selection procedures, and measures for individual women including building self esteem, having effective coping mechanisms, self regulation and building networks Research findings are being submitted to academic journals and the ‘Professional Manager’ - the publication of the Chartered Institute for Dissemination of Results Managers. Evaluations of the programme were collected from the participants and a report produced; feedback confirmed the positive impact of the programme A Career Development Programme was designed as a result of the findings Follow up Outcomes and Benefits from this research and a pilot implemented with 38 junior/middle women managers, which enabled them to progress towards senior levels. Project Name and Number Beyond the Glass Ceiling; Number 11 (041053NW3) Organisation Connexions (Business Services) ESF Funding £43,383 Project Start Date 4/2/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Sub-Regional - Lancashire and Cheshire Type of Discrimination Gender Culture assessments of 17 medium sized companies; Psycological Profiling Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned with managing directors of 17 companies; Psycological Profiling of 17 Senior Women Managers; 1 - The project aims to research the impact of organistaional culture on the Aims progression of women into senior management roles; Female employment rates are high but promotion opportunities are more limited and there is a significant gender pay gap. The proportion of female managers still trails male managers significantly. There is a need to Why it was needed recognise, value and reward the contribution of all people in order to have a modern and competitive economy. Lack of regional / local level research on female managers. An in-depth research report has been produced, including literative review, methodolgy, results, discussion and conclusions. The participants in the Research Output research received one-to-one feedback on their assessments and one-to- one guidance, including support with career progression. 1 - The study suggests that gender has some, although limited, impact on organisational culture and opportunities for women. 2 - Similarities in Key Findings profiles between MDs and other senior females suggest that personal characteristics play an important part in allowing women to get to the top. A dissemination event to share the research findings with participants and Dissemination of Results companies. A benchmarking tool was developed as part of the project as described in Follow up Outcomes and Benefits the original proposal, to help combat discrimination. Project Name and Number Reducing Age Discrimination; Number 12 (041019NW3) Organisation Lancaster City Council ESF Funding £42,939 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Age Desk Research; Interviews with individuals, employers and recruitment Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned departments; focus groups. 1 - To undertake research into the employment disrimination faced by people aged over 50; 2 - to identify ways in which these attitudes and Aims obstacles may be overcome; 3 - To explore the effect of the raise in pension age on employers and employees. High inactivity rates amongst older workers. Less training received by older Why it was needed workers. An ageing population. Evidence of discrimination both locally and nationally. Research Output Final report and CD Rom 1 - As people become older they gain experience and knowledge but only if they are allowed or helped to do so. Those in work may receive training and have skills updates, but those out of work who do not fall within a government programme do not have access to funding ro retrain or develop their skills base. For these people a retraining grant is recommended. 2 - The report sites many benefits to increasing participation in education by Key Findings older people. 3 - A positive attitude towards older people by employers was found in the North West and it was recommended that changing attitudes and informing the population as a whole are starting points to eradicate age discrimination in the work place. 4 - The report makes recommendations to assist reducing age discrimination including legislation to back up the "code of conduct", a reassessment of the way people retire and when they retire and eliminating dates of birth from application forms. Presentation at a conference attended by participants in the research Dissemination of Results together with other key individuals which also involved promoting further work on the subject. Via website. Project Name and Number Diversity to Secure Advantage; Number 13 (021198NW3) Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University ESF Funding £157,237 Project Start Date 8/1/2002 Project End Date 12/31/2003 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Ethnicity 1. To undertake research to establish some of the underlying causes for the lack of workforce diversity and an under representation of ethnic minorities in small businesses within the North West's multimedia and creative e- business sectors. 2. To complete an examination of deficiencies in the Aims supply of skilled black and ethnic minority workers to assess whether their current under representation in emerging sectors is a result of low levels of skills and educational attainments, disproportionately present amongst these groups, and which threaten to put them at risk of permanent exclusion from new opportunities. The NWDA has identified both internet based services and creative industries as emerging sectors and ones which offer employment and growth potential. It is perceived that the growth and competitiivenes of these industries hinges upon the skills of the workforce. In the NW low skills remain concentrated amongst certain groups and the NW lags behind the national average for higher level qualifications. Partly skilled groups can be Why it was needed four times more likely to suffer unemployment than professionals. BMEs are twice as likely to be unemployed as non ethnic minorities and in the NW the probability of entering employment following training is also less for BMEs than non ethnic groups. Managers in companies asked to explain the lack of diversity in their companies explained a lack of applications from BMEs. There has been little research into why BMEs may be reluctant to participate in the sector. 1 - Acknowledgement that whilst low levels of skills and educational attainments can exclide black and ethnic minorities from new employment opportunities in emerging creative, knowledge based industries, having higher level skills and qualifications do not directly translate into greater employment opportunities and success in the labour market. 2 - Key Findings Identification of an overall lack of awareness and understanding amongst new graduates and HE institutions of the changing demands and preferences of employers for graduates to demonstrate skills such as problem solving, team working and time management as opposed to educational qualifications and subject specific knowledge. Project Name and Number STREAM; Number 14 (041021NW3) Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University ESF Funding £132,890 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Sub-Regional - Greater Manchester Type of Discrimination Disability Extensive literature review and in depth interviews with a range of human resources and occupational health professionals. A web based questionnaire aimed at HR professionals and managers with personnel Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned responsibilities was also used. Original plan to interview individuals who had returned from long periods of stress related absense presented confidentiality issues for employers and was therefore not feasible. 1 - To research stress and the associated prejudices shown towards individuals who have recovered from mental illness; 2 - to carry out the Aims research with organisations to highlight good practice approaches to stress management; Increasing levels of stress amongst British workers leading to large absences from work. Evidence highlights the need for research to identify Why it was needed ways to enable professions, institutions, managers and employers to assist recovery and reintigrate workers rather than passively allow wastage of skills expertise and and experience. Research Output final Research Report and good Practice Guide. 1 - A common approach to stress and rehabilitation was to seeek to offer flexible and relatively informal interventions at an early stage. One of the key factors in this approach was the role of the line managers, which was generally found to be weak in this area. 2 - An issue highlighted was the welfare - discipline dilemma faced by companies. They preferred to concentrate on the welfare aspect and suggested that training for line managers would reduce the dilemma. 3 - HR practitionners preferred a less Key Findings formal and more flexible approach to stress and rehabilitation than that offered by the Health and Safety Executive. It was recommended that a stronger legal framework will be required for all organisations to embrace good practice. 4 - The report stresses the importance of well being at work or 'work-life balance' and recommends a commitment from organisations through a policy document to promote well being, reduce the stigma associated with mental health issues and provide assistance to employees suffering with mental health issues. Dissemination event for participants and other key individuals. Report Dissemination of Results plpaced on the internet. Project Name and Number Benchmarking Social Enterprise; Number 15(041035NW3) Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University ESF Funding £119,842 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Sub-Regional - Greater Manchester and Lancashire Type of Discrimination General Deprivation Literature Review; Interviews of 30 Social Enterprises; creation and pilot of a Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned business performance analysis tool 1 - To undertake skills analyses of CMEs in the social enterprise sector to identify higher level management and organisational development / skill needs in order to support strategies for lifelong learning that address the needs and take into consideration the nuances; 2 - To develop an interactive benchmarking tool to assist SMEs in identifying shortfalls in Aims management/organisational skills; 3 - To evaluate social enterprise networks in terms of their support and opportunities for learning and their contribution t teh skills uplift; 4 - To facilitate learning and knowledge sharing through social inclusion networks; 5 - To identify mechanisms to support skills uplift; 6 - to identify development needs and inform the appropriate bodies and initiatives; 7 - To inform the development of lifelong learning policy. Large skills gaps, particularly at a management level within social enterprises. The need for networking and partnership development within Why it was needed social enterprises. The need to address barriers faced by social enterprises that contribute to their growth and development. Research Output A full report and interactive business analysis tool was developed. An event was held on to disseminate the results of the project. It was attended by participating social enterprises, project partners, key sector Dissemination of Results organisations and other HEIs with interest in the research. The project research report has been sent to all those who have expressed interest in the project, sector support organisations and other stakeholders. Project Name and Number Getting Ready for Work!; Number 16 (051049NW3) Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University ESF Funding £134,470 Project Start Date 7/1/2005 Project End Date 12/31/2006 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Economic Deprivation/Disability/Ethnic A multi-disciplinary, experience team of academics, researchers, student Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned support workers and careers advisors to undertake skills needs analyses and follow on development work. 1 - To undertake a skills needs and labour market analysis of sectors dientified as significant to the region's employment and economic growth; 2 - Aims To identify the higher level employability skills required and the barriers experienced by some groups of HE students to acquire these and secure employment on graduation; Employers demands are not currently being met through recruiting graduates, Employer complaints about a lack of core employability skills amongst young epople, and a lack of awareness of the need to develop skills complementary to academic skills amongst students. Increasing Why it was needed employability needs is particularly high amongst graduates from non traditional backgrounds. inability of higher level skills supply agencies to respond to changing employer needs, the failure of employers within key growth sectors to identify and acurately predict their employment and skills needs. Reports and briefings will be produced and disseminated detailing Research Output findings of labour market research and graduate research. (from application form) A series of workshops and seminars will launch the work on content and associated support provision, information packs will be produced and Dissemination of Results disseminated to all project participants, internal departments and relevant external agencies. Articles and project updates of the findings will be updated in leaflets and newsletters. (From application) The findings of this research will be used to inform the development of learning provision which supports the development of core generic employability skills and targeted careers advice and guidance. Developing Follow up Outcomes and Benefits provision which meets the skills needs of local and regional employers, enhancing the employability of young people and greater equality of opportunity for those currently disadvantaged in the labour market. (From Application). Project Name and Number Fempowerment; Number 17 (041094NW3) Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University ESF Funding £89,551 Project Start Date 5/1/2004 Project End Date 7/31/2005 Geographical Scope Sub-Regional - Greater Manchester and Cheshire Type of Discrimination Gender Online mentoring to female graduates and undergraduates, research into Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned diversity and disadvantage faced by women and an employer survey. 1 - To provide research to improve the employability and remove barriers to recruitment and progression for groups of women most disadvantaged in the labour market by providing students with mentors. 2 - To develop local Aims responses arising out of the research recommendations to assist women with multiple disadvantages in the labour market who face the risk of social exclusion. Evidence that women from ethnic minority groups and those with multiple disadvantages in the area face particular difficulties in accessing employment. The need for extensive support to be provided to improve Why it was needed future employment prospects. Barriers exist for these women to spmete effectively in employmnt and training. A lack of management / supervisory roles filled by people from the target backgrounds. Online mentoring initaive, training programme and final research Research Output report. Beneficaries spending an average of 3 hours per week for 24 weeks on the Other ESF Outputs project . A total of 15 women into education / training. Project was really not a research one, but rather provided a mentoring scheme. The results of this were: 1 - There is a need to clarify commitment and expectations for potential mentors and mentees before registration. 2 - Glitches in communication need to be identified and rectified at an early Key Findings stage. 3 - Mentors would benefit from guidance on completion of their biographies. 4 - Mentees would benefit from guidance to choose a mentor. 5 - The support material needs to be more heavily promoted. 6 - A joint mentor/mentee event would be interesting to try, and probably well received. All the partners involved in the project delievered their results to interested Dissemination of Results parties from within the univeristy and externally. As a result of the training course in mentoring delivered by the Students union, a number of those who completed their portfolios gained employment in Mentoring as a direct result of this course. This includes mentoring in schools and also metoring in university. Some gained work- based experience and jobs, recieved help with applications and CV's and building Follow up Outcomes and Benefits of confidence and self-esteem, and gained employment as a result of the support they recieved from their mentors. Those involved in the project who were interviewed stated a number of soft skills that they gained as a result of Fempowerment, this includes organisational skills, listening, time management, help with course work, commincation, building confidence and self esteem and enhacing employment opportunities. Project Name and Number Emerging Sectors Opportunities; Number 18 (011054NW3) Organisation Manchester Metropolitan University ESF Funding £62,628 Project Start Date 7/1/2001 Project End Date 7/31/2002 Geographical Scope Local - Manchester Type of Discrimination Social Baseline data research, semi-structured consultations with employers, Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned voluntary and community sector agencies; and individuals from target groups. 1 - To undertake research into how certain groups are discriminated aginst within new media or e-commerce businesses; 2 - To consult with voluntary and community sector agencies and organisations to identify barriers to employment opportunities and acquisition of entry level skills as perceived by these organisations and the communities that they represent; 3 - formulate Aims actions and innovative measures to break down perceived and real barriers; 4 - to produce a series of recommendations and follow on actions which could facilitate greater equality of opportunity and access to skills training necessary to increase an individual's employability, job satisfaction and satisfaction within these emerging sectors. Recent structural employment changes; Occupational Segregation present Why it was needed in certain sectors; come evidence of employer discrimination; The need to create an inclusive society and a competitive economy. Research Output Final research report and implementation plans for organisations. 1 - Identified and assessed the extent to which employment practices and attitudes of SME Employers within New Media sector directly or indirectly discriminate against certain socio-economic groups. 2 - Identification of skills training and learning which not only widens participation of disadvantaged groups in higher and further education but provides individuals with skills and Key Findings knowledge needed to exploit new employment opportunities in emerging sectors. 3 - Raised awareness amongst SMEs and supporting agencies of how the organization of work and inflexible working practices can directly discriminate against certain groups. 4 - Raised awareness amongst SMEs and associated agencies of how greater workforce diversity could be an advantage in securing competitive advantage. Piloting and trial of a diversity workshop to increase understanding of diversity and its benefits for organizations in general but specifically for Institutes and Centers concerned with skills training, education and learning; Dissemination of Results Formulation of an implementation plan detailing series of activities to encourage greater diversity within applicant organisation to increase organisational capacity and ensure the differing talents and experiences of a diverse student body are developed for individual’s and society’s benefit. Future commitments to work collaboratively with those agencies and bodies providing business support to SMEs in new and digital media sector and wider sector of Creative Industries, to run a series of ‘Work-Life Balance’ and ‘Diversity’ workshops and seminars, develop models of good practice and Follow up Outcomes and Benefits pilot a series of management tools to support greater equality of opportunity; Established research collaborations with various other regional and national research groupings a commitment has been made to undertake on-going research into widening access to higher level skills and convert H.E opportunity into labour market success for socially disadvantaged groups. Project Name and Number Female BME Entrepreneurs; Number 19 (041054NW3) Organisation Manchester School of Management ESF Funding £92,200 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 12/31/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Ethnicity and Gender 1. To investigate and explore the problems experienced and barriers faced by a cross section of BME female entrepreneurs in the North West and compare it to BME male SME owners. 2. To indicate the extent of the Aims barriers encountered by BME women in the establishment and operation of small businesses. 3. To highlight similarities and differences between a variety of minority ethnic groups. 4. To develop recommendations for policy change at a local and national levels. Limited information currently held about the problems and experiences of the female BME population in the North West; Previous research on entrepreneurs tends to concentrate on white business owners; The extent and experiences of female BME entrepreneurs is unclear. The potential for Why it was needed women from various BME backgrounds to engage in small business ownership in the North West and nationally appears to be great. Nevertheless, to date, the evidence we have suggests the provision of support and advice for these women is limited. Research Output Final report The findings and recommendations arising from the project will be fed directly into central government via the Diversity Strategy and Equal Opportunities Department within the Cabinet, the EOC and CRE. In addition, Dissemination of Results the findings will be disseminated locally via the Northwest Business Womens Network. Furthermore, the findings and recommendations will be disseminated to groups across the EU, e.g. CERFE (Rome). Project Name and Number Working Women's Research Bid; Number 20 (011163NW3) Organisation Plan-It Training & Consult Ltd ESF Funding £24,173 Project Start Date 7/1/2001 Project End Date 7/31/2002 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Attempted questionnaire interviews with minimum 300 successful women and 300 disadvantaged women. 600 interviews were completed but Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned disadvantaged women were reluctant to take part despite being assured their annonymity 1. To make contact with hundreds of women, 50% who are lifelong learners and employable, 50% unemployed and disadvantaged, and use the information gathered to create a model that can be transferred to women Aims who need those skills and behaviours to improve their own and their families quality of life. 2. to provide information on women that has never been collected before and so will be useful to others working with women. To provide identification of the skills and behaviours required to maintain employment and balance personal life issues, which in turn will allow for the development of training instruments and programmes to seed and transfer Why it was needed incremental micro life long learning skills and behaviours that maintain employment and the balance of personal like issues, particularly the issues of caaring which tend to be those of the female gender. Research Output Final report and data Project Name and Number Employability of BME Groups; Number 21 (041111NW3) Organisation Pro-Active Commercial & Community ESF Funding £84,928 Project Start Date 9/1/2004 Project End Date 9/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Ethnicity and Gender 63 questionnaires were completed by BME females. Because of delays in getting funding Proactive had to discontinue some temporary contracts of some staff members. This led to some research questionnaires being Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned removed / destroyed. Some women were unhappy to answer some questions despite assurances of confidentiality as they were worried that as the project was government funded the researchers may be forced to give their contact details. 1. To understand progression routes for women from BME groups. 2. To identify any cultural or skill barriers to progression, identifying points of Aims concern, for BME women to compete equally with both BME men and white employers. 3. To take this work forward into a future training bid. There is considerable variation with regard to the employment and advancement of women for BME groups, for example, 95% of women in managerial positions are white. BME groups also suffer the highest levels of unemployment, and these figures are exacerbated by concentration of Why it was needed the target group in areas of high deprivation such as Mossside and Hulme. Women's position in the labour market has a direct impact on their access to training, with those most at a disadvantage having the least access to job related training. The average woman is likely to receive less training than a man in similar circumstances. Research Output Final best guidance report. Helped the local Chamberlink promote an ethnic minority business seminar to BME communities. Able to organise some personnel development Other ESF Outputs training for some beneficiaries including how to set up your own business; personel and household budgeting; and understanding job descriptions. 1 - An increasing number of BME females are prepared to become self employed to achieve their ambitions whilst generating an income. 2 - The women who were employed were pursuing the education and training route as their priority. 3 - BME females require more help in gaining employment due to greater need. 4 - the majority of the women were in low grade employment and this was compounded by the small number of women with Key Findings partners. 5 - BME women felt that they did not get the same opportunities as white females but held aspirations towards getting a higher level or professional qualification in order to improve career opportunities, earnings etc. 6 - the women who stated they were unemployed tended to express hopelessness and a lack of self worth. 7 - the women who were self employed tended to exhibit optimism in their outlook Dissemination of Results Workshops held and materials made available on website Project Name and Number Researching Women into IT; Number 22 (031087NW3) Organisation SITEC TRAINING COLLEGE LTD ESF Funding £29,740 Project Start Date 9/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Local - Manchester Type of Discrimination Ethnicity Questionnaires and interviews will be carried out with ultimate beneficiaries. Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned Follow up questionnaires to be completed and results compared. Statistical analysis of the data obtained. 1. To research the attitudes and issues relating to women entering IT as a career. 2. To look specifically at careers in the technical aspect of IT Aims including computer / software installation, maintenance and computer networking. 3. To identify methods that can help to overcome barriers to women entering IT as a career. There is no local evidence relating to gender barriers in ICT. There are concerns that ICT has skill shortages in the region and females are Why it was needed underrepresented on technical subject modern apprenticeships and on adult FE coursed in technical IT subjects at Sitec. Special efforts to recruit more women have been successful. Hard copy and internet version of a final report together with presentations Research Output to some of the key providers of information in the area. As part of the project we organised taster sessions for people who Other ESF Outputs particip\ted in the research. The attitude of people to IT was positive which led to them joining the "Certificate for IT Practitioners" courses. Project Name and Number Regional Equality in Music; Number 23 (041055NW3) Organisation Spirit SSR Limited ESF Funding £197,077 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Desk research , stakeholder consultation and data collection, video Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned interviews, case study activity days 1. Overall, to research discrimination within employment for women in the Aims North West popular music industry. 2. To address barriers to women working in the music industry. There is no current research or evidence that discrimination aimed at women within the music and entertainment industry exists within the North. But there is strong evidence drawn from current national intiatives that gender discrimination in employment involving women within the music Why it was needed industry does exist and can be confirmed by firm empirical evidence. Research has shown that "terms used by sex equality organisations such as gender equality, pay gap and work-life balance are widely misunderstood" within the industry Research Output Research paper and Women in Music Conference Other ESF Outputs Women only workshops in DJ skills and sound engineering were run 1 - Occupational segregation remains widespread; the extent of such segregation cannot be measured due to the lack of an adequate evidence base. 2 - DJ'ing and Sound Engineering are culturally important occupations within the music sector that remain male dominated. 3 - barriers are mutually reinforcing, barriers included stereotyping of women as groupies or girlfriends, difficulty in establishing credibility, resistance to women DJs in specific music scenes, sexist imagery surrounding women DJs in the music press, and negotiating performance image and Key Findings appearance. 4 - the New Deal for Musicians is an important access point to careers in the music industry. 5 - women and girls often lack knowledge about the range of occupations within the sector. 6 - schools are a setting where gender stereotyping about music are learned. 7 - in mixed schools boys tend to monopolise technologies and instruments. 8 - women only courses and workshops allow women access to female role models, opportunities to collaborate with other women and an environment where there is less scrutiny. Dissemination of Results Conference Project Name and Number Tackling Racial Discrimination; Number 24 (011394NW3) Organisation Tameside College ESF Funding £13,586 Project Start Date 9/1/2001 Project End Date 7/31/2002 Geographical Scope Local - Tameside Type of Discrimination Ethnicity The project used action research methods. A project worker interviewed a small group of people interested in gaining work in the social care field. Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned Additionally potential employers and agencies were interviewed to discuss their views about the barriers to employment. A course was provided for people who wanted to develop their skills and knowledge in the field and opportunities were to be provided for trainees to get work experience in social care. Evaluation of the project was completed by the Project Worker 1. To test the hypothesis that a relative lack of work experience, lack of relevant qualifications and lack of confidence are contributory factors in providing employers with reasons/excuses for not employing ethnic Aims minorities. 2. The project would run a trial programme in which 12 people from the ethnic minority community would be provided with voluntary experience, training and support and be encouraged to have a positive approach to applying for permanent employment. Previous research demonstrated that local discrimination in employment was Why it was needed present. There was no suggestion that the discrimination was deliberate but it remained clear that the local ethnic population suffered more than the local white population. Research Output A final report, 12 trainees completed the course and 2 had secured permanent work and a further 2 had gained places on further courses. Project Name and Number Learning 'About' Disability; Number 25 (021007NW3) Organisation Tameside College ESF Funding £8,260 Project Start Date 1/1/2002 Project End Date 7/31/2002 Geographical Scope Local - Tameside Type of Discrimination Disability Controlled test method used. Project worker recruited as well as test group of 10 subjects for trial activities. Test group is evaluated on past experiences Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned and then given training/work placements and assisted into permanent employment. Report will be made from results of monitoring. 1. To test the hypothesis that a relative lack of work experience, lack of relevant qualifications and lack of confidence are contributory factors in providing employers with reasons/excuses for not employing those with Aims learning disabilities. The presumption behind this is that a form of discrimination is taking place even though it may not be a deliberate or conscious act by employers. Ongoing analysis shows that over 5 years, two thirds of full time students diagnosed with learning difficulties return the following year and one third have been attending for up to 5 years. A key factor is the inability to find employers willing to employ them. In returning to college these individuals hope that further study willl eventually help them in their employment Why it was needed aspirations. In general, students on mainstream courses rarely return in this way other than for the occasional resit or to undertake more advanced programmes. Evidence on a regional level shows that much work is required to improve the employment rates amongst those with learning difficulties. This research should contribute to finding one strategy that can help. Research Output A final report Project Name and Number Management Skill for Care Homes; Number 26 (031070NW3) Organisation Taurus 2000 Limited ESF Funding £17,192 Project Start Date 1/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2003 Geographical Scope Local - Chorley, South Ribble and West Lancashire Type of Discrimination Gender Researchers undertook a series of telephone and face to face interviews Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned with identified learners and conducted a formal questionnaire process. 1. To support women who are employed in the Health and Social Care sector improve their qualifications and move into supervisory or management level positions. 2. To investigate the availability of training and development of women in the sector, identify the need to provide additional Aims basic and key skills support, examine career development advice and counselling and identify skills gaps which women in the Health and Care industries commonly encounter. 3. To examine the suitability of flexible learning and the availability of such initiatives to those in employment. In the study area the majority of employment within the Health and Social Care sector is female but few work as senior managers or company Why it was needed directors due to barriers faced in accessing and maintaining mainstream training and development. A research report deailing the barriers faced by potential women managers and supervisors in the Health and Care industry. Increased application of ICT in the workplace, increased levels of employment as women access training to work in a managerial or supervisory capacity, encouragement of individuals and cooperatives to establish Research Output new networks between SMEs and employers in the social care sector, the adaption of mainstream training and development to accurately meet the needs of employers, employees and further develop the economy and protection of jobs and healthcase facilities by meeting national minimum standards and legislative requirements. Measurement of soft outcomes achieved by beneficiaries including assessment of the participants' reading skills, grammar skills, computing Other ESF Outputs skills, confidence in their ability to learn, skills for succeeding in completing the course and leadership skills. Project Name and Number Care Sector Research; Number 27 (011424NW3) Organisation The Adult College ESF Funding £31,484 Project Start Date 11/1/2001 Project End Date 6/30/2002 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender 219 interviews, both telephone and face to face of female workers in the care Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned sector and their employers, 200 postal questionnaires will be distributed and the data analysed using bith quantitative and qualitative research packages 1. To study the perceptions of women predominantly from the deprived areas of the North West who are working in the Care Sector about their learning needs. 2. To produce sector specific research findings and policy Aims recommendations to enable the North West's LSCs, the RDA, FE colleges and other training providers to develop targeted provision for the largest employment sector in the region The care sector employs 3% of the population in the region but previous research had found that 92% of workers had undertaken no training in the previous year and 98% or care homes had not provided any in the same period. There is therefore a low baseline of qualifications in the care sector and this matches a culture of low educational expectation from both employer Why it was needed and employee. Many barriers are faced by women undergoing learning programmes in the Care Sector including inability to access trainig, reluctance or inability of employers to release staff for training, gender stereotyping and their own caring abilities. The research aimed to highlight these issues and explore mechanisms to aid the sector to do this. A research report with findings and recommendations for improving the participation of women from the Care sector in improving their qualifications and progressing within the industry. The report will Research Output contribute towards increased employability and increased qualifications for women through their greater and more effective participation in learning. 1 - The college sector was heavily critised for not delivering to and supporting the workers in the Care Sector. FE colleges are unresponsive to the needs of the sector possibly because the problems faced by the sector present too many challenges in terms of workforce development and training or because of different cultures existing. 2 - Shift working is a major feature of employment within the care sector and therefore NVQ observation is not Key Findings feasible within current practices in colleges. 3 - The research was concerned to examine barriers to learning experienced by a workforce that is predominantly paid minimum wages. 4 - The research had many positive findings relating to issues of an awareness of "lifelong learning" and how it might lead to increased wages, career development and progression out of the "benefits trap", which is still a reality for many of the women surveyed. The research findings will be circulated to all five North West LSCs and as many colleges that wish to read it. Findings and recommendations are being Dissemination of Results presented at both sub regional and regional level and have been posted on various organisations' websites and have been noted by both DFES and DOH. Initial research findings and policy recommendations will be produces to Follow up Outcomes and Benefits enable organisations such as LSCs, RDAs and Local Authorities to discharge their roles more effectively. Project Name and Number Gender Discrimination At Work; Number 28 (031080NW3) Organisation The University of Manchester ESF Funding £50,372 Project Start Date 8/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Full literature review and 30 interviews with women and men at junior, Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned middle and senior levels in 8 organisations Aims 1 - To investigate gender discrimination and organisational change Why it was needed Presence of gender discrimination within organisations Research Output Research paper and abstracts. 6 case studies of organisations 1 - In all sectors, women's employment was concentrated in lower paying occupations and had often been affected by downsizing. 2 - Opportunities for women's progression to higher levels were developing within IT departments in financial services organisations. 3 - Anti-discrimination practices were found to be most fully developed in local government and least in biopharma/chemical industries. 4 - Recruitment policies were not found to contain inherent gender bias. However, there was little active Key Findings promotion of part time, job sharing or flexible hours in advertisements. 5 - Training was available in all the organisations but access was often dependant on IT literacy and use of the internet or the existence of a good relationship with a nominating line manager. 6 - The introduction of new pay systems in the private sector was widespread and in local government, pay remained collectively negotiated and was set by job type within grades. 7 - Only one organisation had conducted an equal pay audit. 8 - Findings on progression within organisations indicated fewer women than men progressing to senior levels, the major reason was an endemic long hours Initial results were presented at a Work, Employment and Society Conference. Paper was submitted to the Industrial Relations Journal. An Dissemination of Results abstract was accepted to the British Sociological Association and was sent for consideration to the Gender Work and Organisation Conference. 6 case studies were distributed to the participating organisations. Project Name and Number Older Workers in the North West; Number 29 (051005NW3) Organisation The University of Salford ESF Funding £67,638 Project Start Date 11/1/2005 Project End Date 12/31/2006 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Age Both quantitative and qualitatibe methods to be used. The quantitative research will examine the employment histories of older workers in the North West and quantifying the likelihood of reemployment and identifying links between reemployment, training and education. The key will be to identify Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned the extent to which older workers in the North West are more advantaged or disadvantaged than in other parts of Britain. The qualitative side will be gained through interviews with older people including those unemployed, employed, reemployed after a period of unemployment and employers. 1. To inform equal opportunities and social inclusion policy that will support older people who are unemployed but want to return to work or who are in Aims work but want to improve their employment position. 2. To carry out research into institutional discrimination in employment and follow on actions to combat discrimination Evidence from government surveys suggests that older workers are disadvantaged in terms of their employment and reemployment opportunities. When people over 50 lose their jobs because of redundancy or for other reasons they are also less likely to be reemployed than young people and when they are reemployed they are less likely to be in full time employment. Some older people who lose their jobs and remain unemployed may eventually move into retirement but around a third of Why it was needed people aged 50 plus in the UK who are not in work would like to find a job. These people feel they are facing obstacles such as age discrimination, obselete skills and health difficulties that prevent them from being reemployed. Nevertheless, population ageing is causing a shortage of younger people in work and therefore there will be a necessary increase in the numbers of older people who need to be in work. Therefore, the obstacles need to be address - the first step is to identify them. Research Output A research report and publication in economics and social policy Key Findings Research Ongoing Through academic conferences and publications as well as trade unions and Dissemination of Results other workers associations. The report will be made available to other interested parties within the government and social services Project Name and Number WINWIT Women in NW IT; Number 30 (031079NW3) Organisation The University of Salford ESF Funding £77,242 Project Start Date 9/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Case study interviews with 11 women, on line questionnaire including a web-based data collection and analysis tool was completed by 37 women. The data was then analysed and compared to national trends in Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned the IT industry. Project evaluation was carried out through the formation of a project steering committee who met every three months, an advisory committee who met at monthly intervals and the project team who met weekly. 1. To undertake an in-depth study of the position of women in the IT sector in the NW England. Specifically the project will investigate i) why women are poorly represented in the IT sector ii) why those women that have succeeded in entering the sector are not well represented at senior and managerial grades and iii) why women are dropping out at Aims disproportionate rates to men. 2. To identify if there are real or perceived barriers that are stopping women from participating in the IT industry and then take action to overcome these barriers. 3. To research this phenomenon in terms of its effects on IT industries in the NW and compare it against national trends for women's employment and progression in the IT sector. Women are underrepresented in the ICT sector, particularly at managerial levels, despite attaining similar IT qualifications at GCSE level. Additionally, the number of women working in IT has been dropping over Why it was needed the past 6 years as women account for a higher proportion of those leaving the sector than of those entering. This is likely to worsen as there are fewer women studying IT. A report documenting the results of the year long investigation and Research Output which highlights good practice existing in some organisations and suggests guidelines and actions to enable barriers to be overcome. Other ESF Outputs 1 - There is currently no standard definition of IT or what constitutes working in IT such as roles and occupations. 2 - The culture of many IT organisations is unaccommodating to women as the male majority culture is adopted. 3 - The existence of male networks was perceived by many women as a major factor to their exclusion or as a barrier to progression. People are still being recruited and promoted through informal procedures. Women were excluded from male spaces in technical, male dominated environments. 4 - Lack of self confidence in IT skills and ability Key Findings held many women back from progressing. Many women do not aspire to progress to senior levels of management as they have found their comfort zone and do not want to take on the stress and long hours that comes with such seniority. 5 - Some organisations that have work-life balance policies do not have structures in place to accommodate the option in practice and women who choose a work-life balance option are being penalised in terms of pay and progression. 6 - Huge pay gaps are reported, including pay discrimination and salary secrets. 7 - Diversity policies and was held to are being misused and misunderstood was some A workshop procedures disseminate results, an industry result and Dissemination of Results targeted at North West IT organisations, three publications resulted from the project and a website was provided. Recommendations from the report included: encouraging females into the IT industry through better promotion of the IT industry to include women and promoting women's support networks; actively welcoming women into the industry including being more supportive of women with children and eradicating informal recruitment procedures; making organisational culture more accommodating for women by prohibiting offensive and Follow up Outcomes and Benefits aggressive behaviour and eradicating the long-hours culture; removing gender discrimination from pay by carrying out equal pay audits, promoting the equal pay questionnaire to eradicate salary secrets and implementing formal pay structures that are fair; and understanding the benefits of diversity by valuing individuals for their creativity and ideas by rewarding their efforts and monitoring existing equality and diversity policies and procedures and re-evaluating them on a regular basis. Project Name and Number Cultural Barriers To Women; Number 31 (041109NW3) Organisation The University of Salford ESF Funding £108,020 Project Start Date 9/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Ethnicity and Gender Surveys were conducted and then 187 interviews and 7 focus groups, 4 with Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned groups of women and 3 with organisations 1. To undertake research that examined barriers that ethnic minority females Aims face in employment and entrepeneurship. There is vast evidence to suggest that ethnic minority women have fewer opportunities and experience greater discrimination than white women in the British labour market. However, there are also considerable differences in economic activity between different ethnic minority groups. There are fewer Why it was needed white female students than ethnic minority female students, suggesting that ethnic minority women have a greater necessity to study because of the lack of job opportunities available to them. Ethnic women are also paid less than white women. Research Output Final report Project Name and Number Stepping Stones; Number 32 (011398NW3) Organisation Trafford MBC ESF Funding £14,451 Project Start Date 8/1/2001 Project End Date 7/31/2002 Geographical Scope Local - Trafford Type of Discrimination Disability Consultations with disabled stakeholders were undertaken. Meetings were attended for all the JIP WtW Strategy and sub groups to obtain information, make contacts and update the group on progress made. The research project was advertised on the Trafford Disability Partnership website as a Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned means of attracting people to participate and information was pulled together from various sources and consultation to produce a report on the barriers faced by disabled people in obtaining employment. From this an intial plan was developed to identify the nature and range of actions to overcome the barriers. 1. To identify both the barriers faced by disabled people in obtaining Aims employment, and appropriate actions to overcome those barriers and discrimination faced. Within Trafford there were a large number of residents claiming Disability Living Allowance, Incapacity Benefit and Severe Disability Allowance. Why it was needed Surveys had identified barriers to employment such as transport and accreditation but also captured an overriding perception among this target group of employer discrimination based on disability A report documenting information about the barriers disabled people Research Output face when trying to access employment, training and learning opportunities. Other ESF Outputs 1 - That Trafford MBC adopt the Internation Labour Organisation's Code of Practice for Managing Disability in the Workplace. 2 - Establish a Breakthrough UK Trafford (through the use of ESF funding). 3 - The promotion of the Social Model of Disability throughout the borough. 4 - Establish a Trafford Forum of disabled residents. 5 - A link person(s) within Key Findings Trafford MCE to liase with statutory agencies. 6 -That Trafford MBC joins the Employers Forum on disability. 7 - A link person(s) within Regeneration (TMBC) to liase with new and existing business contacts to promote the Social Model of Disability and equal opportunities for all. 8 - Trafford MBC to establish a Forum of disabled employees. 9 - Trafford MBC to introduce a mentoring scheme for disabled employees. The Joint Investment Plan (Welfare to Work) Strategy Group will take forward the issues raised in the report and its recommendations. Work is underway to start the process of creating an Employers Disability Forum Dissemination of Results within the borough, which this report will influence. A Learning Disability Employment Strategy Group has been established, which the report has been circulated to in addition to a variety of other organisations involved in the JIP and providing services to disabled people. The JIP WtW Strategy Group has received and commented on the research Follow up Outcomes and Benefits undertaken and a full term evaluation of the project has been written up, which provides a framework of best practice for any future research work. Project Name and Number Gender Inequality NW; Number 33 (031088NW3) Organisation Tribal Regeneration ESF Funding £59,375 Project Start Date 12/1/2003 Project End Date 3/31/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Review of relevant literature and conduct of a statutory sector review. Completing a study using ONS data to highlight issues relevant to the North Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned West region and obtaining information on barriers faced by ultimate beneficiary group through interview, questionnaire and focus groups. 1. To identify barriers to progression of women in the labour market across the North West region, including the contribution made by problems accessing learning. 2. To develop gender equality through the Aims implementation of feasible, flexible and practical local initiatives. 3. To identify ways of supporting progression into/in the labour market through the implementation of feasible and practical community and workplace learning agendas. The project is necessary to acquire a developed set of regional data. This data can be used beyond this project, as it will be freely available on the website that is constructed, Previous research has found barriers to women's employment and education that are national. These include issues of Why it was needed childcare and family responsibilities, lack of confidence, inability to participate in training / education and stereotyping. The research will provide the basis for new / improved provision across the North West to address the continuing disadvantage faced by women in progressing in he labour market. An action research report identifying barriers and making Research Output recommendations for forwarding progression within the labour market. Other ESF Outputs 1 - Money matters are crucial in the decision to join or remain in the labour market, with many sacrificing more fulfilling jobs for those which are higher paid. 2 - NW women feel that employment is an important part of their life as it gives them a sense of identity, promotes personal development and provides a positive role model for women. 3 - NW women believe that education provides a route out of poverty, improves quality of life and is almosr essential to gaining employment. 4 - The following barriers to Key Findings entering and maintaining employment were identified: inappropriate education / training / qualifications; inaccessible employment sectors; inflexible working arrangements; lack of appropriate, particularly part time, employment opportunities; stereotyping, discrimination and a general lack of understanding in the workplace; insufficient, expensive and inflexible childcare; inadequate public transport; limited knowledge of available information, advice and guidance; low self confidence and geographical exclusion. 5 - Barriers were found to be more severe for groups such as lone parents with low educational qualifications, BME women wishing to work 500 copies of the report were disseminated to key agencies, women's groups and voluntary organisations throughout the North West. A 4 page executive Dissemination of Results summary was produced and translated into 3 ethnic minority languages. The reports were all made available on the Tribal Regeneration website. Project Name and Number Faith & Enterprise for Women; Number 34 (031081NW3) Organisation UK Islamic Mission ESF Funding £148,444 Project Start Date 6/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Ethnicity and Gender Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned Completion of a baseline study, feasibility studies, action plan, trials and pilot. 1. To provide information about barriers to employment and economic activity for women in the North West region. 2. To identify how a third sector organisation can overcome such barriers. 3. To research how social Aims enterprise is a vehicle for women to overcome barriers to emploument, work experience and training within a business and how it can add value to the delivery of ESOL / Numeracy. Regional evidence suggests there is a major problem of economically inactive women within the region. In particular, for Muslim women: they experience low levels of employment compared to the national position; they Why it was needed experience low levels of income; a lack of access to promotion / senior positions; have low levels of skill inhibiting activity; and have a lack of access to childcare. Research Output Final report. Greater participation in voluntary activity by local women - women engaging in the research project as well as a general interest in voluntary work Other ESF Outputs generating amongst the women in the community; Project enhanced relations with public sector agencies.e.g. LSP and City Council, attending meetings and participation in steering group meetings 1 - Considering the large number of service providers that engage directly with women who belong to the Muslim faith it is interesting that there was such a large gap emerging from the research. 2 - There were key areas of interest in soft skills training identified by the women themselves. 3 - An organisation that functioned as an intermediate labour market, sensitive to Key Findings the needs of local women was the ideal solution to removing many of the barriers that the women faced. 4 - Sustainability would be ensured by common ownership of the model bridging their domestic lives and enter the labour market on a firm and safe footing. 5 - There are currently few opportunities to build the kind of human and social capital that gives people more control over their lives and more value for the training and job readiness programmes that currently exist. As a result of the success of the project, public agencies such as the Equal Opportunities Commission have welcomed the "Faith and Enterprise Report" Follow up Outcomes and Benefits and will use the findings and contents as part of future research they intend to conduct. Project Name and Number Equality in Social Housing Sector; Number 35 (001290NW3) Organisation UMIST ESF Funding £33,017 Project Start Date 7/1/2000 Project End Date 1/7/2001 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender The production of a model of the social housing sector detailing all sources of funding and control. Interviews were conducted with relevant bodies and individuals involved in key research positions within the sector, along with Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned 75 housing associations and housing trusts. Discussions were held with active learning set members. Questionnaires were developed and sent to 240 housing associations and housing trusts. 1. To reduce the disparity between women and men in their level of participation in the social housing sector. 2. To determine the degree of inequality and develop ways in which equality can be not only promoted, but Aims achieved in a manner that is sensitive to both business and individual needs. 3. To provide improved access and participation in the social housing sector and provide a cost effective method of monitoring this move towards true equality. Women are underrepresented in the construction industry with only 3% at professional level and 1% at trade and craft level. The industry is known for its poor record of equal opportunities and thie has been a major source of concern for Housing Associations. However, the extent of the problem has not been established. Data does not exist in a format that gives access to Why it was needed information on vertical and horizontal segregation and levels of discrimination in recruitment, retention and reward. Equal opportunity monitoring in this sector is at best poor and a method for creating and maintaining a gender baseline is essential if the position of women in the sector is to be accurately assessed. The data would form the basis for policy recommendations to increase the participation of women in this sector. 1 female trainer was trained on the project. A model of the social housing sector detailing the main funding bodies, regulating bodies and sector players. A database detailing breakdowns of equality data Research Output pertaining to the sector. An in depth report that was printed as part of the UMIST working papers series. An academic paper for publication in a top sector journal. The findings of the project have been used by other organisations to promote equality in the sector. A final report will be widely disseminated to those within the social housing sector, at government level and globally through conference presentations and further publications. The project has Dissemination of Results produced a database of the current position of equality within the social housing sector and has identified a number of ways in which the monitoring process can be achieved more effectively. This information will be passed to those in policy making positions within the sector, Project Name and Number Click into Place'; Number 36 (041112NW3) Organisation Univ. of Central Lancashire ESF Funding £28,105 Project Start Date 10/11/2004 Project End Date 9/30/2005 Geographical Scope Sub regional - Lancashire Type of Discrimination Gender Initially the project looked at lots of baseline quantitative data but found this to be irrelevant. Therefore, they switched to qualitative methods, completing Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned a series of interviews through which they were able to identify barrier for female entrepeneurs 1. To undertake research into the barriers to female entrepreneurship in Lancashire. The results will then be used to inform the development of the Aims Lancashire Creative Industries Partnership. 2. To also seek to address the lack of awareness and under-estimation of the skills needs and requirements as they relate to self employment and owner-management. Previous research demonstrated that there had been a shift in the ownership and management pattern of small hotels in Blackpool whereby previously the day to day management was completed by the female and the male was employed elsewhere, it is now common place for the male to manage the hotel day to day and for the female to be less involved. Why it was needed Participants in the research highlighted problems faced by women managing alone in accessing capital from banks, obtaining grant support and liasing with contractors, for example. With the advent of the creative industries initiative and the development of the Creative Industries Partnerships, where the University is expected to play a strategic role, it was felt important to investigate exactly what barriers women faced when managing a business. No final report, website was set up in conjunction with Creative Lancashire, Fresh Creative. The work is also to be developed into full Research Output modules which will become part of a Foundation Degree for the Creative Industries at Manchester Metropolitan University Other ESF Outputs 1 - The project found the following key barriers for females entrepreneurs: it is hard to get focused, readily available business support. 2 - lack of female Key Findings focused business support. 3 - Business Link do not really have any focused support for such entrepreneurs. 4 - often it is too expensive to join associations, etc. 5 - they often feel isolated The findings have been used to set up a website called Headspace offering Dissemination of Results virtual online support for female entrepreneurs in the sector, including online forums and discussion groups. Website was set up in conjunction with Creative Lancashire, Fresh Creative (www.myheadspace.org). The work is also to be developed into full Follow up Outcomes and Benefits modules which will become part of a Foundation Degree for the Creative Industries at Manchester Metropolitan University Project Name and Number BME Communities and the Media; Number 37 (041020NW3) Organisation University of Salford ESF Funding £77,884 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Ethnicity Three public meetings were held for group discussions to take place and Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned consultations and 50 semi structured interviews 1. To research and evaluate the factors that dissuade BME communities from pursuing the media as a profession. i.e. to answer the questions: what can be done to encourage more ethnic minorities to consider media as a career; what are the barriers that prevent ethnic minorities from seeking a career in the media; what are the barriers that prevent ethnic minorities from gaining media employment; what are the experiences of ethnic minority Aims people working in the media; and what action can be taken to improve the standing of ethnic minorities in the media. 2. The long term aim of the project is to improve the recruitment of BME communities in the media and journalism employment and education. The objective is to create stronger relationships and greater understanding between the BME communities and media employers, which will be mutually beneficial There is evidence to support the presence of labour market discrimination against BMEs entering the media. It has been established using qualitative surveys commissioned by Skillset that only a small percentage of Britain's BME communities view the media as a potential career. During the Why it was needed disturbances in Oldham and Burnley in 2001 it was argued that a lack of ethnic minority journalists meant the situation was not adequately understood or sympathetically presented. Therefore, discrimination not only prevents BME access to journalism and the media, but also distorts the way the media presents BME issues. An Action Plan resulting from initial meetings, a television programme on Channel M to highlight the project and a major report outlining the research and evaluation findings. A raised awareness of the main Research Output issues within the media and journalism, which will be strengthened by the involvement of industry bodies such as Skillset and the Cultural Diversity Network. Other ESF Outputs 1. The report highlighted various barriers inequalities and barriers including the lack of diversity on most media courses, lack of success in finding work and no feedback being received causing disillusionment, he majority of jobs being in London, employers looking for a certain image, discrimination in interviews, further barriers were found to career progression including lack of role models and stereotyping at work. 2. The study identified things that helped a career in media including good careers advice and support, work Key Findings experience, specialty ethnic minority recruitment schemes and contacts. 3. The report sugmmarises the steps taken by the Media to increasing the number of ethnic minorites but suggests that it could do more by engaging with minority communities; carrying out regular reviews of diversity policies and intiatives, providing mentors, giving feedback from interviews and work placements, providing advice workshops and support groups, advertising in the ethnic press, recruiting more minorities into decision making positions and demonstrating an appreciation of diversity. 4. The report also provides recommendations for what ethnic minorities can do: voice their concerns to A proposal to conduct a panel at the TV from the Nations and Regions Follow up Outcomes and Benefits conference in 2006 and a conference paper to follow. Project Name and Number Gender in Cultural Industries; Number 38 (031078NW3) Organisation University of Salford ESF Funding £152,206 Project Start Date 9/1/2003 Project End Date 12/31/2004 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender A mixed method approach was taken using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Two questionnaire surveys were designed, one for Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned undergraduates and one for graduates with 331 responses received. Interviews were conducted with 40 undergraduates and alumni 1. to understand why women are well represented in certain areas of cultural industries such as textiles and some areas in art and design and under represented in other areas such as music, media and performance. 2. Aims To identify what factors allow women to progress in the well represented areas and transfer best practice into other areas where women are in the minority. 3. The project will investigate the impact of employment and self employment for women in these areas. Cultural industries are one of the fastest growing industries in both the UK and the North West and is growinf twice as fast as the economy as a whole. Nationally women outnumber men on most undergraduate arts, media and cultural programmes and whilst women seem to have a high presence in areas such as textiles and art and design, their presence is much reduced in areas such as media, music and performance. Discrimination exists in areas perceived as "men dominated" such as sound production, recording, etc, but Why it was needed women received more equality of opportunity in textiles and art and design. Previous research has identified specific issues that can make starting a business more challenging for women than men and, at a cultural level, there is a failure to recognise and value the contribution and potential contribution of women owned businesses to the UK economy. Therefore, government policies have not been focused on this area of activity. The project will help inform solutions to some of these problems. Research Output A research report and a website 1. The research confirmed that there are significant and persistant gender divisions and inequalities within the cultural and creative industries. 2. The sector is in danger of falling behind other occupations and being more divided along gender lines than other sectors. There are currently certain aspects of cultural industries woek that are highly segregated, and some jobs that are still inaccessible to women. 3. Women outnumber men on undergraduate arts, media and cultural programmes and have high expectations of careers and opportunities, however, they were also found to Key Findings have inadequate knowledge and understanding on how to progress their careers and continues to encounter barriers in gaining capital and in managing their work life balance. 4. Participants noted they felt there was a lack of structured information about entering the various industries as they failed to recognise the importance of accessing information on self employment and placements until they were in the workplace. 5. There are still strong gender divisions in some areas of degree and module choices, with technical areas continuing to be dominated by male students. Sexist attitudes persist in activitythat have been traditionally dominated by males. Full dissemination areas was undertaken to implement effective advocacy and ensure that the findings were shared with policy makers, Universities and organisations concerned with supporting cultural and creative SMEs. Dissemination of Results This included a one day conference entitled "Sexing the Scene". A website was estanblished (www.sexingthescene.org.uk) to publish the conference proceedings and report. Project Name and Number Women into SET Businesses; Number 39 (041068NW3) Organisation University of Salford ESF Funding £122,724 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender A detailed research and literature review. 180 questionnaires to SET Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned undergraduates. 20 interviews with SET entrepreneurs. 2 workshops held and a conference. 1. Target existing entrepreneurial women in SET and identify specific needs and problems they have experienced. The project will investigate how the women tackled and overcame these barriers. 2. Case study a number of gender differentiated SET start up companies both successful and unsuccessful, and the level of support offereed by different agencies. 3. Aims Investigate the longer term difficulties of women in SET beyond their initial entrpreneurial phase - analysing company management. 4. Develop and support a local network for women entrepreneurs in SET (WINSET). 5. Disseminate the results of the study through WINSET, web based media, academic and industry publications and the National Centre for Women in SET. There has been increasing concern regarding gender discrimination in SET based industries ad entrepreneurial activity. In 2000, the Labour Force Survey found that there were 290,000 women working with SET degrees compared to over 1 million men. This reflects the under representation identified in the RDP. Additionally, only 26% of the self employed are Why it was needed women, and of those, the concentrations were in retail and service sectors. Growth in female employment was being seen in the managerial, professional and technical occupations but only 1 in 10 jobs taken by women are in the manufacturing and technology sectors. 12-14% of businesses are owned by women but far fewer are in SET, indicating a low level of technology enterprise. A final report, development of a website. A good practice guide for SET Research Output entrepreneurs that has been distributed to business support agencies and relevant bodies. The report found that women were positive abour entrepreneurship but felt that business support agencies were too general and that women were still considered "outsiders" in the world of SET. Some Best Practice recommendations were made by the report including: 1. Support the existing programmes to improve the situation of women in SET, thereby encouraging positive feelings about starting a SET business; 2. better understanding of technology industries among generalised support Key Findings agencies, which is seen as important as women tend not to see themselves as technology entrepreneurs and access technology specific support; 3. recognition of later starts of businesses by women, which means they can miss out on university support. Strengthenning University links with the community would overcome this; 4. Recognise part time entrepreneurs' needs - the model of enterprise support is full time and needs to be adjusted; 5. work to promote diversity amongst SET occupations, particulaty in representations of women at work; and 6. ensure that there are opportunities to come to SET later in career or to refresh skills, i.e. by The report has also lead to changes in the marketing procedure for the Master of Enterprise degree programme which is specifically aimed at Follow up Outcomes and Benefits developing technology entrepreneurs. There are proposed two journal papers for reference to the research. Project Name and Number Developing Female Engineers; Number 40 (041095NW3) Organisation University of Salford ESF Funding £124,712 Project Start Date 4/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Review of relevant literature on women in SET disciplines and also engineering students to identify relevant issues and current practices and to contextualise the team's findings. 136 student Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned questionnaires were sent out and a further 190 to qualified engineers. 122 were received back. 18 in depth interviews and 2 focus groups were carried out. 1. To explore the experiences and views of male and female engineering students and engineers in industry in the North West. 2. To uncover barriers to women engineers progression as well as Aims good work practices that encourage both women's entrance into engineering degrees and careers and retention therein. 3. To recommend strategies to encourage women to pursue engineering careers. Previous research has shown that men predominate engineering and technology occupations. Also, althoug there is a rapid increase in the number of highly qualified women, the proportion of women in Why it was needed engineering and technological occupations had only risen marginally. Therefore, the representation of women in these sectors is poor, and improving only very slowly. There is a distinct need for a project designed to promote engineering careers to women, with the specific aim of retaining qualified engineers. Final report, website, brochure setting out project findings and best practice recommendations to be sent to organisations involved in promoting women in the industry as well as industrial and Research Output governmental organisations involved with the SET area, leaflet promoting industrial placements to be distributed to engineering students in the NW. Barriers to female engineers were found to be: 1. cultural stereotypical perceptions of women; 2. lack of access to good career advice; 3. engineering not publicised enough as a career choice for women; 4. engineering and science equated with masculinity; 5. university experience can be intimidating as women find themselves to be a minority; 6. graduating without confidence in technical abilities - engineering degree not practical enough; 7. not a lot of Key Findings women role models in faculty for engineering students; 8. visibility - women are more visible as a minority and can feel stressed or feel they need to outperform others; 9. less access to informal networks; 10. discrimination at recruitment level; 11. having no organised policies concerning work status and career progression when coming back after a career break; 12. working practices that do not accomodate a concern with work life balance; and 13. women's professional abilities are questionned on the basis of their gender. Workshop, website, presentation of the project at Women in North West Information Technology (WINWIT) Conference, best practice brochure sent to organisations involved in promoting women in the Dissemination of Results engineering industry as well as industrial and governemental organisations, leaflets promoting industrial placements, and presentation of findings at the 13th International Conference of Women Engineers and Scientists. Project Name and Number Disability and the Employer; Number 41(011400NW3) Organisation Warrington Disability Services ESF Funding £10,217 Project Start Date 10/1/2001 Project End Date 7/31/2002 Geographical Scope Local - Warrington Type of Discrimination Disability Methodology will be a mixture of desk research, postal survey, interviews Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned with key informants and semi structured interviews e.g. focus groups, community consultation, etc. 1. to identify at a local level, what barriers are inhibiting employers giving Aims equal consideration to disabled people. 2. to identify how disabled employees sustained their employment once they had attained it. Discrimination against disabled people in relation to employment is most vividly illustrated by comparing disparity in employment rates for disabled people and non-disabled people at regional level: 40% of working age disabled are in employment compared with 73% of working age able Why it was needed bodied. In Warringtn there are 10,700 claimaints of either IB or SDA of whom 16% who under benefit rules are not required to work, who wish to work. Only 3% of Warrington companies employ staff who are registered disabled. A final research and resource document to be used as the focus for Research Output development strategies for supporting disabled people into employment. Dissemination of Results A conference was held and the report was presented publicly. A local implementation group will ensure that the recommendations of the Follow up Outcomes and Benefits report will be addressed, and implemented wherever practicable Project Name and Number Warrington Multicultural Forum; Number 42 (021199NW3) Organisation Warrington Multicultural Forum ESF Funding £12,958 Project Start Date 8/1/2002 Project End Date 12/31/2003 Geographical Scope Local - Warrington Type of Discrimination Ethnicity Research programme consisted of face to face interviews with 300 minority ethnic people, informed by consultations with local service providers, Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned community leaders and community representatives. Discussion of findings and ensuring completeness, and presentation of a draft document for open consultation 1. to identify barriers and deficiencie in services offered to the local minority ethnic population of Warrington, which mitigates against their successful integration in the local labour market. 2. to improve the capacity of the CVO, Aims specifically Warrington Multicultural Forum, sector serving the minority ethnic population by recommending points of action for future funding bids, which will improve the overall employability of the minority ethnic population of Warrington Local information is sparse, but information from the 1991 census showed 1.3% of population in Warrington was BME, the highest in Cheshire, and Why it was needed there were 2,470 people classified as BME. The unemployment rate is 11% compared with 4% for whites and the gap is increasing. A research report. A "toolkit" was produced for use by BME groups to Research Output support them in developing their own capacity as organisations to engage more fully in the community. 1 - Key barriers identified were: low confidence and self-esteem in community; limited linkages/contact from Mainstream agencies; tokenism; limited (if any) Capacity Building Support; lack of understanding of needs, issues and culture; no community spaces for some communities - forced to Key Findings deliver community initiatives from religious places and portacabins; language problems - no translation - many left in darkness; community divisions; women's exclusion; no clear role models within ethnic communities; and key service providers ignorant of needs and barriers faced by ethnic minority communities. A meeting was convened to launch the report with 29 individuals Dissemination of Results representing 19 statutory, voluntary and community organisations in attendance. 150 copies of the report have been circulated to relevant parties. The Forum held a meeting following the launch to begin to plan collaborative actions in the light of the research and planned to convene again a few Follow up Outcomes and Benefits months later to see how the report had influenced individual organisations in terms of their service delivery to BME groups. Project Name and Number Womens Opportunity Toolkit; Number 43 Organisation CETAD Lancaster University ESF Funding £43,878 Project Start Date 1/1/2004 Project End Date 6/30/2005 Geographical Scope Regional - North West Type of Discrimination Gender Using results from previous research, the project will run developmental / research workshops, which will give 20 women to address issues they have Research Methods Used and Lessons Learned encountered in their working life. These findings will build into additional themes for development in e-learning on the BlackBoard web based system and CD Rom. 1, Research, development and the creation of a toolkit to xupport and enhance the skills of women in, and into, management and alert employers Aims to strategies which can be used to encourage their development in the organisation. The project pilots e-learning and online systems supporting the above in the region's SMEs There remains a marked stereotyping in work-based learning programmes with men accounting for 60% of all learners (Lancashire LSC Business Plan 2002/03). There is also evidence that there are six times as many men as women in top management positions in the County and almost twice as Why it was needed many men in the second tier of management. This heavy occupational segregation by gender has an impact both on the economy and on individual economic prosperity and a strong influence on the continuing pay gap between men and women. Research Output CD Rom, Awards Ceremony to present candidates with Certificates Mid and end programme evaluation questionnaires were completed by the beneficiaries, covering a range of factors relating to the course. The end Other ESF Outputs programme summary showed that 100% of beneficiaries felt that their knowledge and skills had been improved and 100% felt that they had benefited from the teaching and learning in small groups.
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