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Arab League

Arab League
This article contains Arabic text, written from right to left in a cursive style with some letters joined. Without proper rendering support, you may see unjoined Arabic letters written left-to-right, instead of right-to-left or other symbols instead of Arabic script. Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Syria Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen Eritrea India Venezuela Leaders Flag

‫ةيبرعلا لودلا ةعماج‬
Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya League of Arab States Secretary General Council of the Arab League Speaker of the Arab Parliament

Amr Moussa (since
2001)

Syria Nabih Berri

Establishment Alexandria Protocol Area Total area with Western Sahara Area excluding Western Sahara Population 2007 estimate Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita

March 22, 1945

13,953,041 km2 (2nd2) 5,382,910 sq mi 13,687,041 km2 ( 5,280,291 sq mi) 339,510,535 (3rd2) 24.33/km2 63/sq mi 2007 estimate $2,364,871 million (6th2) $11,013 (70th) 21 currencies ---ISO 4217 codes bracketed: Algerian dinar (DZB) Bahraini dinar (BHD) Comorian franc (KMF) Djiboutian franc (DJF) Egyptian pound (EGP) Iraqi dinar (IQD) Jordanian dinar (JD) Kuwaiti dinar (KWD) Lebanese livre (LL, LBP) Libyan dinar (LYD) Mauritanian

Headquarters Official languages Membership

Cairo, Egypt1 Arabic 22 Arab states 3 non-arab observer states ---Algeria Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco

Currency

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ouguiya (MRO Moroccan dirham (MAD) Omani rial (OMR) Qatari riyal (QAR) Saudi riyal (SAR) Somali shilling (SOS) Sudanese pound (SDD) Syrian pound (SYP) Tunisian dinar (TND) United Arab Emirates dirham (AED) Yemeni rial (YER) Time zone (UTC+0 to +4)

Arab League
Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.[2][3] It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region. Each member state has one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on April 13, 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures. The Arab league has played an important role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states. Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labor issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

Website (Arabic) http://arableagueonline.org/
1 2

From 1979 to 1989: Tunis, Tunisia. If ranked among nation states.

Life in the Arab League

• • • • • • •

Culture Demographics Education Economy Enlargement Foreign relations Geography

• • • • • • •

History Government Transportation Military Politics Sport Lists

The Arab League (Arabic: ‫ةيبرعلا ةعماجلا‬‎ alJāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), officially called the League of Arab States (Arabic: ‫لودلا ةعماج‬ ‫ةيبرعلا‬‎ Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organization of Arab states in Southwest Asia, and North and Northeast Africa. It was formed in Cairo on March 22, 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on May 5, 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members. The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries."[1] Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League’s Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the

Members and dates
The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan (Jordan from 1946), and Yemen. There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab states and 4 observers being admitted. Egypt’s membership was suspended in 1979 after it signed the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty, and the League’s headquarters were moved from Cairo to Tunis. In 1987, Arab countries restored diplomatic relations with Egypt and the country was readmitted

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Egypt[5] Iraq[6] Jordan[7]b Lebanon[8] Saudi Arabia[9] Syria[10] Yemen Libya Sudan Moroccod Tunisia Kuwait Algeria UAE Bahrain Qatar Oman Mauritania Somalia Palestine[11]e Djibouti Comoros Eritrea Brazil Venezuela India to the league in 1989 while the league’s headquarters moved back to Cairo. In September 2006, Venezuela was accepted as an observer, and India in 2007. Israel is not a member despite 20% of its population being of Arab origin, nearly half the Jewish population being descended from Jews from Arab countries, and Arabic being an official language. Neither is Chad a member, although Arabic is in both official and vernacular use there. Four countries are observer states — a status that entitles them to express their opinion and give advice but denies them voting rights.[4] The current members and observers of the Arab League are listed below along with their admission dates. Notes: March 22, 1945a

Arab League

May 5, 1945 March 28, 1953c January 19, 1956 October 1, 1958 July 20, 1961 August 16, 1962 June 12, 1972 September 11, 1971 September 29, 1971 November 26, 1973 February 14, 1974 September 9, 1976 April 9, 1977 November 20, 1993 observer since 2003[12] observer since 2003 [13]
[14] [15][16] [17]

observer since 2006[18] [15] observer since 2007[19]

Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993. 40s 50s 60s 70s Note a: Date of foundation.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Note b: As Transjordan. Note c: Libya announced its withdrawal on October 24, 2002, which would have been effective one year later; however, Libya then retracted its decision to withdraw on January 16, 2003, reaffirmed it on April 3, 2003, before retracting it again on May 25, 2003. Note d: The sovereignty of Western Sahara is disputed between Morocco and the Polisario Front’s Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic government. The Arab League recognizes it as a part of Morocco. Note e: Representatives from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).

Arab League
The Charter of the Arab League[1] endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League[20] and the committees[21] were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.[22] Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Geography
The area of members of the Arab League covers around 14 million km2 and straddles two continents: Western Asia as well as Northern and Northeastern Africa. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the High Atlas Mountains, and the Fertile Crescent which stretches from Iraq over Syria and Lebanon to Palestine. The area comprises also deep forests in southern Arabia and southern Sudan as well as the major parts of the world’s longest river—the Nile. The area has witnessed the rise and fall of many ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Rome, Ancient Israel, Assyria, Babylon, Phoenicia, Carthage, Kush, and Nabateans.

Economy
The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil and natural gas resources; it also has great fertile lands in South of the Sudan, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World. The region’s instability has not affected its tourism industry, that is considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt, UAE, Algeria, Tunisia, and Jordan leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally. Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by other smaller Arab organizations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). However, several promising major economic projects are set to be completed soon.[23] Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, scheduled to be accomplished in 2010. It will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. The Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA), planned to come into effect on January 1, 2008, will render 95% of all Arab products free of customs. Economic development in the Arab League is very disparate. Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist

Governance

Administrative divisions in the Arab League

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Country Arab Leaguea Saudi Arabia Egypt Algeria United Arab Emirates Kuwait Morocco Iraqb Syria Sudan Tunisia Qatar Libya Oman Yemen Lebanon Jordan Bahrain Mauritania Somaliab Palestineb Djibouti Comoros GDP (PPP) US$M 2,340,427 564,561 403,961 224,748 167,296 130,113 138,250 102,300 87,091 80,706 76,999 75,224 74,752 61,607 52,050 48,896 27,986 24,499 5,818 5,575 5,034 1,738 719

Arab League
GDP (PPP) US$ per capita 6,844 23,243 5,491 6,533 37,293 39,306 4,433 3,600 4,488 2,172 7,473 80,870 12,277 23,967 2,335 12,704 4,886 32,064 1,800 600 1,100 2,271 1,125

between the rich oil states of UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, and Algeria on the one hand, and poor countries like the Comoros, Mauritania, and Djibouti on the other hand. Arab economic funding is under development. As an example, the Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur with 500 million dollars, and Egyptian and Libyan companies are planning to build several wells in this dry area.

List of member states by GDP (PPP)
Further information: List of countries by GDP (PPP) and List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita This following table lists the gross domestic product (GDP) of the Arab League and its member states based on purchasing power parity (PPP) and measured in US dollar. If not indicated otherwise, the figures are Arab League HQ building in Cairo, Egypt based on the 2007 data published by the International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, in April 2008.[24]
Notes: Note a: The IMF source does not provide data for the compound Arab League. The total GDP figure

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
has been calculated as the sum of the GDPs of the member states. The per capita value is derived on the basis of the population stated in the infobox. Note b: The IMF source does not provide data for this country. The reported figures are taken from a 2007 estimate of the CIA published in the CIA factbook.[25] For Palestine, a 2006 estimate was retrieved from the same source which is published as "West Bank (includes Gaza Strip)".

Arab League
independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. The mission was welcomed with reservations by Israel. Following Venezuela’s move to expel the resident Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai made a public plea to move the Arab League headquarters from Cairo to Caracas, Venezuela.[28]

Status of Palestine
Further information: Arab Peace Initiative Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the league from its inauguration.[26] This was done by means of an annex that declared:[1] “ Even though Palestine was not able ” to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine’s special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence

Demographics

Dubai at night The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically diverse association of 22 member states, although a vast majority of the league consist of Arab people. As of January 1, 2007, about 314,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. This threatens to diminish the slow economic expansion expected in the league’s developing countries. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 80 million. The least populated is Djibouti, with about 500,000 inhabitants. Most of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf have large populations of foreign laborers. The UAE’s Arab population counts for less than 20% of its total population, while 50% originate from South- and Southeast Asia, although they are not citizens. Some Arab states of the Persian Gulf

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organization representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on May 29, 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on June 2, 1964. At the Beirut Summit on March 28, 2002 the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[27] a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalization of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel was demanded to withdraw from all occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognize an

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also import cheap Arab labor, mainly from Egypt, Yemen, and Somalia. Since large parts of the Arab League are deserts, the population is concentrated in and around cities where most the trade and industry are located. The largest Arab cities are Cairo, followed by Baghdad, Khartoum, Damascus, Riyadh, Alexandria and Casablanca.

Arab League
1952 to 1972 1972 to 1979 1979 to 1990 1990 to 1991 1991 to 2001 2001 to date

Abdul Khalek Hassouna Mahmoud Riad Chedli Klibi Assad al-Assad Ahmad Esmat Abd al Meguid Amr Moussa

Comparisons with other organizations

Summits

A UAR stamp commemorating important Arab League dates Summits Held in Arab Cities The Arab League resembles the Organization of American States, the Council of Europe, and the African Union, in that it has primarily political aims. However, membership in the league is based on culture rather than geographical location. In this respect, the Arab League resembles organizations such as the Latin Union or the Caribbean Community. The Arab League differs notably from the European Union, in that it has not achieved a significant degree of regional integration and the organization itself has no direct relations with the citizens of its member states. However, the Arab League is based on principles that support and promote a unified Arab nationalism and a common position among Arabic states on various issues. All Arab League members are also members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. In turn, the memberships of the smaller GCC and Arab Maghreb Union organizations are subsets of that of the league. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Cairo: 13–17 Jan. 1964. Alexandria: 5–11 Sep. 1964. Casablanca: 13–17 Sep. 1965. Khartoum: 29 Aug. 1967. Rabat: 21–23 Dec. 1969. Cairo (first emergency summit): 21–27 Sep. 1970 Algiers: 26–28 Nov.1973. Rabat: 29 Oct. 1974. Riyadh (2nd emergency summit): 17–28 Oct. 1976. Cairo: 25–26 Oct. 1976. Baghdad: 2–5 Nov.1978. Tunis: 20–22 Nov. 1979. Amman: 21–22 Nov. 1980. Fes: 6–9 Sep. 1982.

Secretaries General
Abdul Rahman Azzam 1945 to 1952

Casablanca (3rd emergency summit): 7–9 Sep. 1985 16. Amman (4th emergency summit): 8–12 Nov. 1987. 17. Algiers (5th emergency summit): 7–9 Jun. 1988.

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18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Casablanca (6th emergency summit): 23–26 Jun. 1989. Baghdad (7th emergency summit): 28–30 Mar. 1990. Cairo (8th emergency summit): 9–10 Aug. 1990 Cairo (9th emergency summit): 22–23 Jun. 1996.

Arab League
• General Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture for Arab Countries • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) • International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions • List of largest cities of the Arab League • Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Pan Arab Games • United Arab Command

Cairo (10th emergency summit): 21–22 Oct. 2000. 23. Amman: 27–28 Mar. 2001. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Beirut: 27–28 Mar. 2002. Sharm el-Sheikh: 1 Mar. 2003. Tunis: 22–23 May. 2004. Algiers: 22–23 Mar. 2005. Khartoum: 28–30 Mar. 2006. Riyadh: 27–28 Mar. 2007.

References

30. Damascus: 29–30 Mar. 2008. 31. Doha: 28–30 Mar. 2009. • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits: • Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946 • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1956 • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages: • On 25 November 1981: The 5-hours meeting ended without an agreed on document. • On 6–9 September 1982

See also
• Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport (AASTMT) • Arab Air Carriers Organization • Arab Charter on Human Rights • Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) • Arabic industrial development and mining organization • Arab Inter-parliamentary Union • Arab League and the Arab–Israeli conflict • Arab Maghreb Union (UMA) • Arab Monetary Fund • Arab Organization for Industrialization • Parliament of the Arab League • Arab World • Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) • Federation of Arab Trade Unions and Labor Societies • General Arab Insurance Federation

[1] ^ "Pact of the League of Arab States, March 22, 1945". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 1998. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ mideast/arableag.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. [2] "The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO)". http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ ev.phpURL_ID=36214&URL_DO=DO_PRINTPAGE&URL_S [3] Ashish K. Vaidya, Globalization, (ABCCLIO: 2006), p.525 [4] "India invited as observer for Arab League summit". Press Trust of India. 2007-03-27. http://www.expressindia.com/ fullstory.php?newsid=83760. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. [5] "League of Arab States: Arab Republic Of Egypt". Arab League Online. http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ english/ details_en.jsp?art_id=853&level_id=11. Retrieved on June 12, 2007. [6] "League of Arab States: Republic Of Iraq". Arab League Online. http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ english/ details_en.jsp?art_id=845&level_id=11. Retrieved on June 12, 2007. [7] "League of Arab States: The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan". Arab League Online. http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ english/ details_en.jsp?art_id=835&level_id=11. Retrieved on June 12, 2007. [8] "League of Arab States: Republic Of Lebanon". Arab League Online.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arab League

http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ 200607/18/eng20060718_284210.html. english/ Retrieved on 2007-10-17. details_en.jsp?art_id=851&level_id=11. [19] " Retrieved on June 12, 2007. [20] "Internal Regulations of the Council of [9] "League of Arab States: Kingdom Of the League of Arab States". Model Saudi Arabia". Arab League Online. League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ Winthrop University. 1998-04-06. english/ http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/ details_en.jsp?art_id=841&level_id=11. mlas/CouncilRegs.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on June 12, 2007. 2008-07-09. [10] "League of Arab States: Arab Republic Of [21] "Internal Regulations of the Committees Syria". Arab League Online. of the League of Arab States". Model http://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, english/ Winthrop University. 1998-04-06. details_en.jsp?art_id=843&level_id=11. http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/ Retrieved on June 12, 2007. mlas/CmteeRegs.html. Retrieved on [11] "League of Arab States: State Of 2008-07-09. Palestine". Arab League Online. [22] "Internal Regulations of the Secretariathttp://www.arableagueonline.org/las/ General of the League". Model League of english/ Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop details_en.jsp?art_id=847&level_id=11. University. 1998-04-06. Retrieved on June 12, 2007. http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/ [12] "Eritrea Joins Arab League As Observer". mlas/SecGenRegs.html. Retrieved on The Somaliland Times. 2003-01-17. 2008-07-09. http://www.somalilandtimes.net/2003/52/ [23] http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/ 5214.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-13. idUSN2041155720081120 [13] "Speech by the President of the [24] "Report for Selected Countries and Republic, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, on Subjects". World Economic Outlook the occasion of his visit to the Database. IMF. April 2008. Headquarters of the League of Arab http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/ States". Foreign Affairs Ministry of 2008/01/weodata/ Brazil. http://www.mre.gov.br/ingles/ weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2013&ssm=1&scsm=1& politica_externa/discursos/ Retrieved on 2008-07-24. discurso_detalhe.asp?ID_DISCURSO=2265&Imprime=on. [25] "Field Listing — GDP (purchasing power [14] "‘Turkey and Brazil both looking for parity)". The world factbook. CIA. solutions to social and economic 2008-07-15. https://www.cia.gov/library/ problems,’ says outgoing Brazilian publications/the-world-factbook/fields/ ambassador". Todays Zaman. 2001.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-24. http://www.todayszaman.com/tz-web/ [26] Geddes, 1991, p. 208. detaylar.do?load=detay&link=145687. [27] "The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002". al[15] ^ "Venezuela Receives Arab League bab.com. 2005-10-01. http://www.alSupport for UN Security Council Seat". bab.com/arab/docs/league/peace02.htm. venezuelanalysis.com. 2006-07-19. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/ [28] "Kuwaiti MP calls to move Arab league to 1844. Retrieved on 2007-10-17. Venezuela". AFP, via CaribbeanNetNews. [16] "Latin leanings". Al-Ahram Weekly. 2009-01-15. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2003/669/ http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/ re2.htm. news-13536--12-12--.html. Retrieved on [17] "Getting Brazil Close to Arabs Is a Lula’s 2009-01-16. Pet Project". http://www.brazzilmag.com/ content/view/2354/41/. [18] "Arab League accepts Venezuela as • Ankerl, Guy: Coexisting Contemporary observer". People’s Daily Online. Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, 2006-07-18. Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INU Press, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/ 2000. ISBN 2-88155-0044-5

Further reading

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Geddes, Charles L: A Documentary History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Greenwood Press, 1991. ISBN 0-275-93858-1

Arab League
• Arab Gateway – The League of Arab states • World Statesmen – Arab League • Winthrop University – Arab League General Information • Jewish Virtual Library – The Arab League • Looklex Encyclopedia – Arab League

External links
• Arab League – official site in Arabic, English version under construction

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