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Angela Merkel

Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel

Chancellor of Germany Incumbent Assumed office 22 November 2005 President Deputy Preceded by Horst Köhler Frank-Walter Steinmeier Gerhard Schröder

Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Minister In office 17 November 1994 – 26 October 1998 Chancellor Preceded by Succeeded by Helmut Kohl Klaus Töpfer Jürgen Trittin

Women and Youth Minister In office 18 January 1991 – 17 November 1994 Preceded by Succeeded by Born Political party Spouse Alma mater Profession Religion Hannelore Rönsch Claudia Nolte 17 July 1954 (1954-07-17) Hamburg, West Germany CDU Ulrich Merkel (div.) Joachim Sauer University of Leipzig Physical chemist Protestant (Lutheran)

9 April 2000, and Chairwoman of the CDUCSU parliamentary party group from 2002 to 2005. She leads a Grand coalition with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), formed after the 2005 federal election on 22 November 2005. In 2007, Merkel was also President of the European Council and chair of the G8. She played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. In domestic policy, health care reform and problems concerning future energy development have thus far been the major issues of her tenure. Merkel is the first female Chancellor of Germany. From 2006-2008, Forbes Magazine has named her the "most powerful woman in the world".[1] In 2007 she became the second woman to chair the G8 after Margaret Thatcher. Chancellor Merkel is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an International network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development. In 2008 Merkel received the Charlemagne Prize "for her work to reform the European Union". The prize was presented by Nicolas Sarkozy.

Early life
Angela Merkel was born as Angela Dorothea Kasner in Hamburg on 17 July 1954, as the daughter of Horst Kasner (b. 6 August 1926 in Berlin-Pankow), a Lutheran pastor and his wife, Herlind (b. 8 July 1928 in Danzig, now Gdansk, Poland, as Herlind Jentzsch), a teacher of English and Latin. Her mother is a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Her grandparents on her mother’s side lived in Elbing in East Prussia; one of them being Masurian. She has a brother, Marcus (born 7 July 1957), and a sister, Irene (b. 19 August 1964).

Angela Dorothea Merkel (German pronunci[ˈaŋɡela doʁoˈteːa ˈmɛɐ̯kəl]; born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany), is the current Chancellor of Germany. Merkel, elected to the German Parliament from MecklenburgVorpommern, has been the chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since
ation:

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Merkel’s father studied Theology in Heidelberg (then West Germany) and, afterwards, in Hamburg. In 1954 her father friendly towards socialism[2] - received a pastorship at the church in Quitzow (near Perleberg in Brandenburg) which then was in the socialist German Democratic Republic (GDR), and the family moved to Templin. Thus Merkel grew up in the countryside 80 km (50 miles) north of Berlin. Gerd Langguth, a former senior member of Merkel’s Christian Democratic Union states in a book[3] that the family’s ability to travel freely from East to West Germany during the following years, as well as their possession of two automobiles, leads to the conclusion that Merkel’s father had a ’sympathetic’ relationship with the communist regime, since such freedom and perquisites for a Christian pastor and his family would have been otherwise impossible in East Germany. Like most pupils, Merkel was a member of the official, Socialist-led youth movement Free German Youth (FDJ). Later she became a member of the district board and secretary for "Agitprop" (Agitation and Propaganda) at the Academy of Sciences in that organisation.[4] However, she did not take part in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, which was common in East Germany, and was confirmed instead. Merkel herself described her FDJ youth movement years as "cultural work", but her youth movement vacations to Moscow still cause controversies in conservative German media, claiming Communist ideological influences.[5] Merkel was educated in Templin and at the University of Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritz Bastei, a project students intiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University of Leipzig. However, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed.[6] Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. She learned to speak Russian fluently, and earned a statewide prize for her proficiency. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry[7] she worked as a researcher.

Angela Merkel
In 1989, Merkel got involved in the growing democracy movement after the fall of the Berlin Wall, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. Following the first (and only) democratic election of the East German state, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière.[8]

Member of Bundestag
At the first post-reunification general election in December 1990, she was elected to the Bundestag from a constituency which includes the districts of Nordvorpommern and Rügen, as well as the city of Stralsund. This has remained her electoral district until today. Her party merged with the west German CDU[9] and she became Minister for Women and Youth in Helmut Kohl’s 3rd cabinet. In 1994, she was made Minister for the Environment and Reactor Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform on which to build her political career. As one of Kohl’s protégées and his youngest cabinet minister, she was referred to by Kohl as "das Mädchen" ("the girl").

Leader of the Opposition
When the Kohl government was defeated in the 1998 general election, Merkel was named Secretary-General of the CDU. In this position, Merkel oversaw a string of Christian Democrat election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999 alone, breaking the SPD-Green coalition’s hold on the Bundesrat, the legislative body representing the states. Following a party financing scandal, which compromised many leading figures of the CDU (most notably Kohl himself, who refused to reveal the donor of DM 2,000,000 because he had given his word of honour and the then party chairman Wolfgang Schäuble, Kohl’s hand-picked successor, who wasn’t cooperative either), Merkel criticized her former mentor, Kohl, and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. She was elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female chair of her party, on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been chosen to lead; Merkel is a Protestant, originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative

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party with deep Catholic roots, and has its strongholds in western and southern Germany. Following Merkel’s election as CDU leader, she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and was favoured by many Germans to become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder’s challenger in the 2002 election. However, she did not receive enough support in her own party and particularly its sister party (the Bavarian Christian Social Union, or CSU), and was subsequently out-manoeuvred politically by CSU leader Edmund Stoiber, who had had the privilege of challenging Schröder but squandered a large lead in the opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. After Stoiber’s defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU chairwoman, Merkel became leader of the conservative opposition in the lower house of the German parliament, the Bundestag. Her rival, Friedrich Merz, who had held the post of parliamentary leader prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel. Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda concerning Germany’s economic and social system and was considered to be more pro-market (and pro-deregulation) than her own party (the CDU); she advocated changes to German labour law, specifically, removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week, arguing that existing laws made the country less competitive because companies cannot easily control labour costs at times when business is slow.[10] Merkel argued for Germany’s nuclear power to be phased out less quickly than the Schröder administration had planned. Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. This led some critics to characterize her as an American lackey. She criticised the government’s support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she was seen as being in unison with many Germans in rejecting Turkish membership of the European Union.

Angela Merkel

Comparisons
As a female politician from a centre right party, and a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl" and even "The Iron Frau" (all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady" -- Thatcher also has a science degree: an undergraduate degree in chemistry). Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agenda are similar.[11] In addition to being the first female German chancellor and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first from East Germany (although born in Hamburg), the first born after World War II, and the first with a background in natural sciences. She studied physics; her predecessors law, business and history. Merkel topped Forbes magazine’s list of "The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007 and 2008. [12] On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/ CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with a 21% lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU campaign suffered when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU’s platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance. Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party’s broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU’s platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This was compounded by Merkel proposing to increase VAT to reduce Germany’s deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT. Although Merkel’s standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof’s proposals,

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she remained considerably less popular than Schröder, and the CDU’s lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election. Merkel was also criticized for plagiarizing a passage from a speech used by President Ronald Reagan in a 1980 US presidential debate for her own television election duel with Gerhard Schröder, the Social Democratic chancellor. On 18 September Merkel’s CDU/CSU and Schröder’s SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU winning 35.3% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%) of the second votes to the SPD’s 34.2%. Neither the SPDGreen coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag, and both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory. A Grand Coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship. However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet.[13] [14] The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November.[15] Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.[16]

Angela Merkel
employees during their first two years in a job, pensions will be frozen and subsidies for first-time home buyers will be scrapped. On foreign policy, Germany would maintain its strong ties with France and eastern European states, particularly Russia, and support Turkey for one day joining the European Union. Merkel had stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it is this issue on which her government will be judged.[18]

Chancellor of Germany
On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany.

Foreign policy

Merkel in conversation with Prime Minister of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko (7 February 2009) In her first week in office, Merkel visited the French president Jacques Chirac, the EU leaders gathered in Brussels, the SecretaryGeneral of NATO, Jaap de Hoop Scheffer, and British Prime Minister Tony Blair, and received President Pohamba of Namibia. On 25 September 2007, Chancellor Angela Merkel met the Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in Berlin in the Chancellery amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.[19] In 2009, she criticized the Roman Catholic Church over the lifting of the excommunication of controversial bishop Richard Williamson, a member of the Society of Saint Pius X. [20] Jesuit Father Federico Lombardi, director of the Holy See’s Press Office, responded to the Chancellor by saying that in condemning

Merkel with United States President Barack Obama. Reports had indicated that the Grand Coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differ from Merkel’s political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition’s intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.[17] Employment protection will no longer cover

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Holocaust-denial claims the Pope "could not have been clearer". [21]

Angela Merkel
to major falls in worldwide stockmarkets with the FTSE 100 and DAX stock exchanges falling 6% at one point. Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.[27]

Policy on the Middle East and Iran
According to ‘Mail & Guardian Online’ and ‘Deutsche Welle’, Merkel in August 2006 informed the German news agency Mehr that she had received a letter from the Iranian president Ahmadinejad.[22][23] She further told Mehr, that to her opinion this letter contained “unacceptable” criticism of Israel and “put in question” the Jewish state’s right to exist, and that therefore she would not formally respond to the letter. On 16 March 2007, Merkel arrived in Israel to mark the 60th anniversary of the Jewish state. She was greeted at the airport by Prime Minister Ehud Olmert, an honor guard and many of the country’s political and religious leaders, including most of the Israeli Cabinet. [2] [3] Until then, U.S. President George W. Bush had been the only world leader Olmert had bestowed with the honor of greeting at the airport. [4] [5] Merkel was granted special permission to speak before Israel’s parliament, which is normally done only by heads of state. [6] Merkel made her first visit to the Middle East as President-inoffice of the European Council in April 2007.

Cabinet
The cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in at 16:00 CET, 22 November 2005. • Angela Merkel (CDU) – Chancellor • Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD) – Vice Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs • Wolfgang Schäuble (CDU) – Minister of the Interior • Brigitte Zypries (SPD) – Minister of Justice • Peer Steinbrück (SPD) – Minister of Finance • Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg (CSU) – Minister for Economics and Technology • Olaf Scholz (SPD) – Minister for Labour and Social Affairs • Ilse Aigner (CSU) – Minister for Consumer Protection, Food, and Agriculture • Franz Josef Jung (CDU) – Minister of Defence • Ursula von der Leyen (CDU) – Minister for Family, Senior Citizens, Women, and Youth • Ulla Schmidt (SPD) – Minister for Health • Wolfgang Tiefensee (SPD) – Minister for Transport, Building, Urban Development • Sigmar Gabriel (SPD) – Minister for Environment, Nature Preservation and Nuclear Safety • Annette Schavan (CDU) – Minister for Research and Education • Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul (SPD) – Minister for Economic Co-operation and Development • Thomas de Maizière (CDU) – Minister for Special Affairs and Director of the Chancellor’s Office On 31 October, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as Chairman of the party in November, which he did. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated for the Economics and Technology post, announced his withdrawal on 1 November. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel’s attempt at forming a viable coalition and cabinet, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and

Economic and financial policy
In her first government address on 30 November 2005 she announced her objective of improving the German Economy and reducing unemployment.

Liquidity crisis
Following major falls in worldwide stockmarkets in September 2008, the German government stepped in to assist the Mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout which was agreed on October 6, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.[24] On Saturday October 4, following the Irish Government’s decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticized,[25] Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits after all. [26] However, it emerged on October 6 that the pledge was a political move and would not be backed by legislation.[27] This confusion led

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severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November.

Angela Merkel
Oxygen Gas-Phase Thermolysis". Acta Chim. Hung. 129 (6): 855–864. Merkel, Angela; Ilka Böger, Hans Joachim Spangenberg, Lutz Zülicke (1982). "Berechnung von HochdruckGeschwindigkeitskonstanten für Zerfallsund Rekombinationsreaktionen einfacher Kohlenwasserstoffmoleküle und -radikale (Calculation of High Pressure Velocity Constants for Reactions of Decay and Recombinations of simple Hydrocarbon Molecules and Radicals)". Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie 263 (3): 449–460. Merkel, Angela; Lutz Zülicke (1985). "Berechnung von Geschwindigkeitskonstanten für den C-HBindungsbruch im Methylradikal (Calculation of Velocity Constants for the Break of the Carbon-Hydrogen-Bond in the Methyl Radical)". Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie 266 (2): 353–361. Merkel, Angela; Lutz Zülicke (1987). "Nonempirical parameter estimate for the statistical adiabatic theory of unimolecular fragmentation carbon-hydrogen bond breaking in methyl". Molecular Physics 60 (6): 1379–1393. doi:10.1080/ 00268978700100901. Merkel, Angela; Zdenek Havlas, Rudolf Zahradník (1988). "Evaluation of the rate constant for the SN2 reaction fluoromethane + hydride: methane + fluoride in the gas phase". Journal of American Chemical Society 110 (25): 8355–8359. doi:10.1021/ja00233a012. Mix, H.; J. Sauer, K.-P. Schröder, A. Merkel (1988). "Vibrational Properties of Surface Hydroxyls: Nonempirical Model Calculations Including Anharmonicities". Coll. Czechoslov. Chem. Commun. 53 (10): 2191–2202. Schneider, F.; A. Merkel (1989). "The lowest bound states of triplet (BH2)+". Chemical Physics Letters 161 (6): 527–531. doi:10.1016/ 0009-2614(89)87033-2. Merkel, Angela; Lutz Zülicke (1990). "Theoretical approach to reactions of polyatomic molecules". International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 36: 191–208. doi:10.1002/qua.560380214. Merkel, Angela (1998). "The role of science in sustainable development". Science 281 (5375): 336–337. doi:10.1126/science.281.5375.336.

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Personal life
In 1977, Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982.[28] Her second husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer. He remains out of the spotlight. She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons. [29] Merkel is also prominent at German national football team’s matches, and is an honorary club member of Energie Cottbus.

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Honours
In 2003, Angela Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration. In 2007 Merkel was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.[30][31] She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) for 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.[32][33] In January 2008 she was awarded the Bundesverdienstkreuz (Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany).[34] She was also awarded the honorary doctorate from Leipzig University in June 2008[35] and University of Technology in Wrocław (Poland) in September 2008[36]. •

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Selected published works
• Der, R.; A. Merkel, H.-J. Czerwon (1980). "On the influence of spatial correlations on the rate of chemical reactions in dense gases. I. Quantum statistical theory". Chemical Physics 53 (3): 427–435. doi:10.1016/0301-0104(80)85131-7. • Der, R.; R. Haberlandt, A. Merkel (1980). "On the influence of spatial correlations on the rate of chemical reactions in dense systems. II. Numerical results". Chemical Physics 53 (3): 437–442. doi:10.1016/ 0301-0104(80)85132-9. • Boeger, I.; A. Merkel, J. Lachmann, H.-J. Spangenberg, T. Turanyi (1982). "An Extended Kinetic Model and its Reduction by Sensitivity Analysis for the Methanol/

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Angela Merkel

References
[1] Serafin, Tatiana (2006-08-31). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/ lists/2006/11/06women_AngelaMerkel_34AH.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-01. Serafin, Tatiana (2007-08-30). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/ lists/2007/11/biz-07women_AngelaMerkel_34AH.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. Serafin, Tatiana (2008-08-27). "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #1 Angela Merkel". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/ lists/2008/11/ biz_powerwomen08_AngelaMerkel_34AH.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-17. [2] Allgäuer Zeitung, 11 March 2009, Bitterböser Sarkasmus [3] Langguth, Gerd (2005) [2005] (in German). Angela Merkel. Munich: dtv. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. [4] Allgäuer Zeitung, 11 March 2009, Bitterböser Sarkasmus [5] Allgäuer Zeitung, 11 March 2009, Bitterböser Sarkasmus [6] [1] [7] Merkel, Angela (1986) (in German). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their velocity constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods). Berlin: Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic (dissertation). cited in Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) (in German). Angela Merkel. Munich: DTV. pp. 109. ISBN 3-423-24495-2. and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry) [8] Langguth, Gerd (2005) [2005] (in German). Angela Merkel. Munich: dtv. pp. 112–137. ISBN 3-423-24485-2. [9] About Germany: Angela Merkel (CDU) the chancellor of Germany.

[10] http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ deutschland/0,1518,249207,00.html [11] http://www.slate.com/id/2122001/ [12] "The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women". http://www.forbes.com/2007/ 08/30/most-powerful-womenbiz-07womencz_em_cs_0830power_land.html. [13] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/ 4325600.stm [14] http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/ europe/10/13/germany.government.ap/ [15] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/ 4434812.stm [16] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/ 4458430.stm [17] BBC NEWS | World | Europe | German coalition poised for power [18] BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Merkel defends German reform plan [19] Euronews.net, Merkel meets with the Dalai Lama [20] Merkel criticizes Catholic Church over Holocaust denier [21] Vatican rebuts Merkel’s criticism over Holocaust denier [22] "Ahmadinejad Claims Holocaust Invented to Embarrass Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2006-08-28. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/ article/0,2144,2149241,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-23. [23] EQBALI, ARESU (2006-08-28). "Ahmadinejad: Holocaust was made up". Mail and Guardian Online. http://www.mg.co.za/article/ 2006-08-28-ahmadinejad-holocaust-wasmade-up. Retrieved on 2008-10-21. [24] Parkin, Brian; Suess, Oliver (6 October 2008). "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ news?pid=20601087&sid=amxJTktF7JMs&refer=ho Retrieved on 2008-10-06. [25] "Germany guarantess all private bank accounts". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/10/ 05/ap5510085.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-06. [26] "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ content/article/2008/10/05/ AR2008100500816.html?hpid=secbusiness. Retrieved on 2008-10-06.

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Political offices Preceded by Ursula Lehr Preceded by Klaus Töpfer Preceded by Gerhard Schröder Preceded by Vladimir Putin
Russia

Angela Merkel

Minister for Women and Youth of Germany 1991 – 1994 Minister for the Environment and Reactor Safety 1994 – 1998 Chancellor of Germany 2005 – present Chair of the G8 2007

Succeeded by Claudia Nolte Succeeded by Jürgen Trittin Incumbent Succeeded by Yasuo Fukuda
Japan

Preceded by Matti Vanhanen
Finland

President of the European Coun- Succeeded by José Sócrates cil Spring 2007 Portugal Secretary General of the Christi- Succeeded by an Democratic Union of Germany Ruprecht Polenz 1998 – 2000 Chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany 2000 – present Chairwoman of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group 2002 – 2005 Incumbent

Party political offices Preceded by Peter Hintze Preceded by Wolfgang Schäuble Preceded by Friedrich Merz

Succeeded by Volker Kauder

[27] ^ "Bank uncertainty hits UK shares". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/ 7654182.stm. Retrieved on 2008-10-06. [28] Biographie: Angela Merkel, geb. 1954 [29] Germany’s First Fella, Angela Merkel Is Germany’s Chancellor; But Her Husband Stays Out Of The Spotlight - CBS News [30] American Friends of the Hebrew University [31] Honorary Doctorates - The Hebrew University of Jerusalem [32] Charlemagne Prize 2008: Angela Merkel [33] http://www.karlspreis.de/ index.php?id=32&doc=68 (German) [34] Bundesverdienstkreuz für Merkel | tagesschau.de [35] Pressemitteilung 2008/106 der Universität Leipzig [36] Doktorat honoris causa dla Merkel,Rzeczpospolita

• (English) Merkel on her party’s website • (German) Merkel site as member of the bundestag • Angela Merkel in the German National Library catalogue (German) • Chancellor Angela Merkel with Council of Women World Leaders Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH Merkel, Angela Angela Dorothea Merkel German politician 17 July 1954 Hamburg, Germany

External links
• (English) Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany • (German) Merkel’s personal website

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Angela Merkel

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angela_Merkel" Categories: Chancellors of Germany, 1954 births, Female heads of government, German Christian Democratic Union politicians, German chemists, German physicists, German Lutherans, German women in politics, Karlspreis Recipients, Leaders of political parties, Living people, Members of the German Bundestag, People from Hamburg, University of Leipzig alumni, Current national leaders This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 09:36 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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