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Andrés Manuel López Obrador

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Andrés Manuel López Obrador

before resigning in July 2005 to contend the 2006 presidential election, representing the Coalition for the Good of All, a PRD-led coalition that also includes the Convergence party and the Labor Party.

Head of Government of the Federal District
On 2 July 2000 he was elected Head of Government of the Federal District—a position akin to that of a city mayor, but that oversees the whole Federal District—after having won with 38.3% of votes.[1] His candidacy was contested by political opponents who claimed he was not a resident of the capital city, but they negotiated not to make an issue of it.
3rd Head of Government of the Federal District In office 2000 – 2005 President Party of the Democratic Revolution In office 1996 – 1999 Preceded by Succeeded by Born Porfirio Muñoz Ledo Pablo Gómez Álvarez November 13, 1953 (1953-11-13) Macusapana, Tabasco, Mexico Convergencia|Partido del Trabajo Rocío Beltrán Medina (1979-2003†) Beatriz Gutiérrez Müller (2006) Politician / Activist Roman Catholic

Public image
During his time as Head of Government, López Obrador became one of the most recognizable politicians in Mexico. López Obrador left the Federal District government with an 84% approval rating according to Consulta Mitofsky, a leading pollster;[2] according to an article by Reforma, López kept 80% of the promises he made as a candidate.[3][4]

Political agenda

Political party Spouse

Profession Religion

Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born November 13, 1952) is a former Mexican politician who held the position of Head of Government of the Federal District (roughly, Mayor of Mexico City) from 2000 to 2005,

López Obrador (center) with former President Vicente Fox (left) and former México State governor Arturo Montiel (right). As mayor, López Obrador implemented various social programs that included extending

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cash checks to help vulnerable groups: single mothers, senior citizens and the physically and mentally challenged. He also founded the first new university in Mexico City in three decades, the Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México UACM. López Obrador hired Rudy Giuliani to craft a zero-tolerance policy that would help reduce the escalating crime in Mexico City.[5][6] He directed the restoration and modernization of Mexico City’s historic downtown, which has 16th-17th century buildings and a large number of tourist attractions, yet had been badly maintained, overcrowded, and crime-ridden in the last few decades. He led a joint venture with Carlos Slim Helú, a native of downtown Mexico City, to expropriate, restore, rebuild and gentrify large parts of the area, creating attractive shopping and residential areas for middle and upper income residents. López Obrador used fiscal policy to encourage private sector investment in housing.[7] He granted construction firms large tax breaks and changed zoning regulations to make construction projects more financially attractive. This led to the construction of more condominiums and office building during his tenure than during any other period in Mexico City history. New high density condos have emerged in the upscale neighborhoods of Polanco and Lomas.[8] To improve traffic flow in the city’s two main inner city roads, Periférico and Viaducto, he added sections of second stories to their existing infrastructure. The effect of this in aiding the traffic problem in Mexico City is positive, but only about 10% of the total length of those roads was renovated at a very high cost. An express bus service, the "Metrobús", based on the successful Curitiba model, was built down Avenida Insurgentes, cutting through the city some 20 km from north to south.[9]

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Ramón Martín Huerta, were both accused of not organizing a timely rescue effort. López Obrador was then severely criticized when his Secretary of Government, Alejandro Encinas, declared that the lynching was part of the traditions ("usos y costumbres") of the people.[12][13] After a thorough investigation, López Obrador gave Ebrard a vote of confidence, despite a request from President Fox for López to relieve him of his duties. Later, using his constitutional powers, Fox fired Ebrard, while Ramón Martín Huerta, a member of Fox’s cabinet, received a reprimand, and continued to hold the Secretary of Public Safety until his death in a helicopter accident.[14][15] López Obrador later appointed Ebrard as Secretary of Social Development, and supported his candidacy in the PRD primaries to run for the government of Mexico City. • The opposition claims that the aging metro system was neglected (see Mexico City Metro). Funds assigned to its maintenance were diverted to the construction of the new upper levels of major routes in the city. In lieu of the planned subway line along Avenida Insurgentes, López’s government deployed a lower cost solution, the Metrobús, with lower capacity than an underground line would have had. The Metrobús has also been criticized because it uses up a dedicated lane an underground would not have used. However, due to the narrowing of lanes and central area the available lanes for automobiles remain the same. Small buses called peseros aren’t allowed to travel there anymore, so that some traffic problems could be solved.

Legal and political controversies
• He saw his law enforcement record stained by the lynching of federal law enforcement officers doing an undercover investigation in Tláhuac, in November 2004.[10] The Police of Mexico City were able to rescue one agent.[11] However, the city’s chief of police, Marcelo Ebrard, and the Federal Secretary of Public Safety,

Removal of immunity from prosecution
All elected government officials in Mexico, from mayors to the President, and all legislators, local and federal, have an official immunity called fuero that prevents criminal charges from being presented against them. If a person protected by fuero commits a crime, there has to be a process to remove the immunity so the person can be presented

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Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Mexican history to be prosecuted (after a long tradition of impunity in government). After congress voted in favor of removing López Obrador from immunity, López Obrador asked for leave from his post for a few days. President Vicente Fox, wanting to avoid a political cataclysm, and knowing that the decision made by the congress was against the will of millions of people,[18] appeared on national TV in April 2005, indicating that the issue would not be pursued any longer. The whole deal ended up closed on a technicality, and López Obrador, though without immunity, was not prosecuted (and thus remained eligible to compete in the presidential election). A few weeks later, Attorney General Rafael Macedo de la Concha resigned.

Banner supporting López in front of the Palacio de Bellas Artes. with such charges. The process is called desafuero. es un puñetas The process was kept slow, until in 2004 the Attorney General’s Office asked Congress to strip López Obrador of his immunity under charges of a misdemeanor (ignoring a court order). Under federal law, any person with criminal charges during the electoral process would not be eligible to contest in a presidential election. Because of the general slowness of the judicial system, it was very likely that a process started in 2004 would continue until the presidential campaigns of 2006, and so the process of bringing López Obrador to court would have ended his ambitions of running for the presidency in 2006. López Obrador used the moment to advance his popularity, and even put himself in a position where he was about to set foot in jail, only to be bailed out by political opponents who claimed López Obrador should follow the same judicial process as anyone else. One of the largest public marches ever seen was organized in support of López against the desafuero. Some analysts agree that the desafuero process was politically motivated by the high approval ratings shown by López Obrador. Likewise, some newspaper editorial boards throughout the world charged that the desafuero was politically motivated (including The New York Times[16] and the Washington Post)[17] and that it should be stopped, and that excluding Obrador from the upcoming elections would delegitimize the eventual winner. Still, some analysts believed that López should have faced the force of the law, and thus becoming the only public official in

2006 general election
On July 6, 2006 the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) announced the final vote count in the 2006 presidential election, resulting in a narrow margin of 0.56 percentage points of victory for his opponent, Felipe Calderón. López Obrador appealed against the results and mobilized large protests against the election. However, on 5 September 2006, the Federal Electoral Tribunal (TEPJF) ruled that the election was fair and that Felipe Calderón was winner and would become President of Mexico.[19] In contesting the election, López and his party made two primary arguments: (a) that President Fox, the CCE and other organizations had interfered during the presidential campaign, which is strictly prohibited by Mexican electoral law,[20] thereby providing grounds to annul the election, and (b) that the votes were fraudulently tallied on 2 July. Some media believed that López Obrador and his party failed to present sufficient proof of the supposed fraud. Other media believed that López Obrador did present sufficient evidence, and that the Court’s decision was flawed. In reality, López Obrador’s demands couldn’t be met because laws didn’t allow the recounting of votes; they could only be counted where there was sufficient doubt about the results. Given this circumstance, a partial recount was made, and Felipe Calderón won again. The court declared that President Fox, and the CCE, a business interest group, had interfered in the elections in the form of

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campaigning for a given candidate, which is against campaign laws. The TEPJF determined that it was not possible to accurately evaluate the influence on the election results caused by these interferences but estimated the impact of Fox’s interference as insignificant to the results of the election, and stated that similarly, it could not gauge the impact of CCE’s interference. Therefore the court decided that both interferences could not be considered as a probable judicial cause to annul the election, and the court decided to rule that the election was valid and fair.[21][22] López Obrador and his party also alleged irregularities in a large number of polling stations and demanded a national recount. He only challenged the votes tallied for President, while in the same election, and through the same organization, votes were also tallied for legislators. The same election, according to López Obrador and his party, was fraudulent and non-fraudulent. The court ruled that the evidence presented did not back his claim of fraud. Ultimately the TEPJF, in a unanimous vote ordered a recount of about 9% of the polling stations.[23] In response to the result, López Obrador’s followers proclaimed him "Legitimate President".

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
steady decline in López’s numbers.[24] Many polls at the time showed López to have fallen to second place. In others he continued at his top position.[25][26][27] López discredited the first polls, indicating foul play coming from Los Pinos. López Obrador has been severely criticized by left-wing politicians and analysts for including in his close staff many former members of the PRI who actively fought against his party in the 1980s and 1990s,[28] most notably Arturo Núñez (one of the FOBAPROA’s author),[29] Manuel Camacho Solís and Marcelo Ebrard. Also the guerrilla leader of the EZLN, Subcomandante Marcos, openly declared López Obrador to be a false left-wing candidate, arguing that he is a centrist candidate. The "moral leader" and founder of the PRD, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, did not participate in any campaign events but stated that he would still vote for his party, the PRD. López Obrador’s proposals, including his 50 commitments, produced mixed opinions from analysts. The Washington Post ran a news article indicating that López Obrador used Franklin D. Roosevelt as inspiration for his 50 commitments.[30] On May 19, Roberto Madrazo, presidential candidate for the PRI, considered by all polls to be in a distant third place, hinted at the possibility of an alliance with López Obrador to prevent Felipe Calderón from winning the election,[31][32] after both the parties had criticized the government for what, in their opinion, is supposed illegal support by the federal government for the PAN candidate’s campaigning. The PRD has said that both parties have entered into an information sharing agreement regarding the issue.[33][34] This, combined with calls from high ranking PRI member Manuel Bartlett (former interior secretary when the alleged 1988 presidential election fraud was committed) to vote for López,[35] aroused media speculation that the PRI and the PRD would indeed ally. On May 28, after López Obrador had discounted any such alliance because the PRI and PRD political tendencies cannot be conciliated,[36] Roberto Madrazo indicated that his comments were misunderstood, and that he will not step down nor will he endorse another candidate.[37][38] On 6 July 2006, Felipe Calderón was recognized as the winner of the presidential election by a narrow

Presidential campaign

Andrés Manuel López Obrador In September 2005, López was nominated as presidential pre-candidate for the PRD for the 2006 general election after the "moral leader" of the party, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, declined to participate in the internal elections when polls showed López had 90% party support. Until March 2006 he was considered the presidential front runner by the majority of polls; however, polls in late April show a

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margin of 243,934 votes, though the claim is disputed by López Obrador, who claims there were widespread irregularities in the vote and wants every single vote recounted[39] (A generalized recount is only legal in extreme circumstances according to Mexican Electoral Tribunal Jurisprudence S3ELJ14-2004 [5]). On July 8, 2006, López called for nationwide protests to ask for a recount of all votes, stating that "the government would be responsible for any flare-up of anger after officials rejected his demand for a manual recount of Sunday’s extremely close vote."[40] López’s 50 commitments can be found here.

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
million).[47] In order to compensate, they have asked the Government of Mexico City to exempt them from paying taxes this year. On Saturday 5 August, the TEPJF met in public session to decide the outcome of the complaints the PRD and its coalition partners filed. The seven magistrates voted unanimously to order the recount of 11,839 ballot boxes in 155 districts (9.2% of the total), despite López’s public demand that all votes and ballot boxes be recounted.[48] The TEPJF based its decision of a partial recount on its finding that, despite publicly demanding a vote-by-vote general recount, López Obrador’s party filed legal challenges to 71,000 polling stations (54%). Therefore, by law, the TEPJF found it could order a recount of only those 71,000 polling stations in controversy. The TEPJF ruled that it could not order a recount of the votes not in controversy because "the certainty asked by the [López Obrador] Coalition is tied to the respect for the tallies certified by the citizens in the polling stations not in controversy". However, the TEPJF did certify that principles of certainty in elections were grounds for a recount in some of the stations in controversy, since there was evidence of possible irregularities.[49] López Obrador rejected the resolution as narrow and he and his followers thus intensified their civil resistance. For about two hours on 9 August, protesters took over the tollbooths on four federal highways. These roads link Mexico City to Cuernavaca, Querétaro, Toluca, and Pachuca. The protesters prevented personnel from charging tolls in some of these roads and allowed vehicles to pass freely. Also, hundreds of López supporters surrounded four of the main offices of foreign banks, including Citibank’s Banamex, BBVA’s Bancomer, and the Mexican subsidiary of HSBC, closing them for about four hours, claiming that the foreign banks "ransack the country" and "widen the barrier between rich and poor" and because, supposedly, these banks had participated in the politics of the country supporting the PAN candidate Felipe Calderón.[50][51] On August 8 López Obrador sent a message to the press, regarding the blockades, where he explained to the people, "10 reasons" in which he stands to continue the "peaceful civil resistance".[52] López Obrador held a rally, which he called a "National Democratic Convention",

Post-Election Protests
López Obrador announced his victory to his supporters on the night of the election day stating that according to exit polls he had won by 500,000 votes. He did not cite any polls at the time,[41] later he referenced Covarrubias[42] and IMO.[43] Several days later, the Federal Electoral Institute published its final tally, which had him down by a margin of 0.58%, or approximately 243,000 votes. López Obrador then initiated legal challenges, claiming election irregularities in 54% of polling stations, and demanded publicly the votes to be recounted "vote by vote" in all polling stations. The case was discussed by the Federal Electoral Tribunal (TEPJF) and finally dismissed. While the case was discussed in the Electoral Tribunal, the IFE has called for the candidates to refrain from proclaiming themselves as winner, president-elect, or president until the final resolution was taken. Both candidates disobeyed this call. In an interview by U.S. Spanish-language TV network Univisión, López referred to himself as "President of Mexico".[44][45] López Obrador held several gatherings in downtown Mexico City with hundreds of thousands of people attending, pressuring for a "vote for vote" general recount. On 31 July, in an act of civil disobedience, he organized the blocking 12 kilometers of one of the most important roads in the capital, Paseo de la Reforma, which houses several important hotels, corporate main offices and the Mexico City Stock Market.[46] Business groups said the blockades cost Mexico City businesses located near the areas of conflict daily losses of 350,000,000 Mexican pesos (about US$35

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on 16 September, Independence Day, when a military parade was also scheduled to be held. The "democratic convention" started after the military parade. Claiming that all Mexican institutions are linked and protect each other, López Obrador said that the country’s institutions "no longer work" and called for the creation of new ones.[53] He was quoted saying "the big changes in Mexico have never been produced through conventional politics, but in the streets". Some have understood this as a call for revolution. López Obrador led a rally on the day of the state of the union speech, where sympathizers celebrated the President being prevented from delivering his speech inside congress.[54] They claimed that the President "had created a police state" in the area around the Congress building and interpreted it as a violation of the Constitution that made it impossible for Congress to be called into session, and thereby enabling Fox to address the chamber.[55] He explicitly told his followers not to be lured into violent confrontations, declaring, "We aren’t going to fall into any trap. We aren’t going to be provoked".[56] He also asked his followers to remain in the Zócalo, instead of marching to the legislative palace, the site of the state of the union speech, as had been planned. According to a poll published on December 1, 2006 in El Universal, 42% believe that Calderón’s victory was fraudulent, and 46% believe that it was not.[57] Nonetheless, 74% of Mexicans believe that the civil resistance should not continue.

Andrés Manuel López Obrador

Andrés Manuel López Obrador being proclaimed "Legitimate President of Mexico" by his supporters, this designation is purely symbolic and holds no legal force.[58] After his supporters proclaimed him as "Legitimate President of Mexico",[58] López created a "Cabinet of Denounciation" to counter all moves done by President Felipe Calderón. It is expected that this "alternative cabinet" be used as a pressure mechanism to the initiatives of the government.[60] In his speech at the proclamation ceremony, López Obrador promised to "procure the happiness of the people",[61] and announced 20 "actions of government":[62] • Foster a process of renewal for public institutions • Defend the right to information and demand openness of communication media • Attend the migration issues of Mexico, insisting in changing the economic policies of Mexico to increase employment, and oppose the border fence the US plans to build at the Mexico border • Denounce injustices and watch public servants, and demand the destitution of Ulises Ruiz and the removal of federal forces from Oaxaca • Send legislators from his coalition an initiative to make corruption a constitutional crime, and to diminish the salaries of public servants. • Not to increase tax rates for the poor. • Press for the formation of a public budget and demand more resources for agriculture. • An initiative to Senators from his coalition for a law that controls the prices of goods and services.

"Legitimate Presidency"
On 20 November 2006, Mexican Revolution day, López Obrador’s sympathizers proclaimed him "Legitimate President" in a rally at the Zócalo in Mexico City.[59] The action was planned in another rally, the "National Democratic Convention", in which supporters gave him the title. At the Convention, López Obrador called for the establishment of a parallel government and shadow cabinet. He also advocated the abolition or reform of several institutions, alleging they are spoiled and corrupt, and asked for changes to the constitution to ensure the institutions work "for the people", and provide welfare and assistance to the elderly and other vulnerable groups.

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• Creation of a "commission for the truth" to investigate the Fobaproa and watch over the construction of federal public works. • Protectionist measures for national producers. • Defend the constitutional right for a "just" and "dignified" salary. • Legally protect the black market from the economy. • Defend the autonomy and democratization of unions, and not allow the privatization of the energy sector. • Protect Mexico’s natural resources and archaeological sites. • Fight for subsidies to senior citizens, and other minorities. • Promote in Congress a welfare state. • Support for the San Andrés Larráinzar accords with the EZLN. • Indiscriminately accept all youth into public education institutions. • Guarantee access to public health services. • Expand public services into the slums. Days later, López Obrador announced that he would earn a salary of $50,000 pesos (roughly $4600 USD) a month, provided by donations.[63]

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
not López Obrador’s self-proclamation was against the law, the PRI has said that this political action is not a crime.[65] Liébano Sáenz, chief of staff of former President Ernesto Zedillo, stated that López Obrador "will become the conscience of the nation, which will do much good to Mexican democracy.[66] Raúl Vera López, Roman Catholic bishop of Saltillo, Coahuila, declared that López Obrador’s so called "legitimate presidency" is a result of the "profound discontent with how the country has been run," and that Obrador has "very deep moral backing."[67] A poll conducted by Grupo Reforma indicated that 56% of Mexicans disapprove of López taking the title, while only 19% approve. Sixty-three percent of those polled have also said that the former candidate has lost credibility. Other responses in the poll include 82% describing the political atmosphere in Mexico as "tense", and 45% of the polled blaming it on the PRD, with only 20% blaming it on the PAN, and 25% blaming both parties. (The poll was a telephone survey of 850 adults on November 18 with 95% confidence interval of +/-3.4% margin of error.).[68] In the first few months of President Calderón’s term, he has announced initiatives that mirror those of López, like price ceilings for tortillas,[69] in the form of a "Tortilla Price Stabilization Pact", that protect local producers of corn, a Presidential Decree limiting the President’s salary and that of cabinet ministers, and a proposal for a constitutional amendment that, if passed, would significantly lower salaries for all public servants in all three branches of government, and impose a cap on compensation.[70] These measures have been interpreted as actions "seeking to fulfill a campaign promise to incorporate the agenda of election rival Andrés Manuel López Obrador into his government".[70]

Andrés Manuel López Obrador with Municipal President of Cocula, Jalisco, Arturo Facundo, and some of his supporters in his visit to Cocula, Jalisco in July 2008

Influence in the 2008’s PRD elections
In 2008, the PRD held elections to renew its leadership. López Obrador candidate, Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez went against Jesús Ortega. Allegations of fraud by both factions halted recounts and raised doubts about the legitimacy of the election. Media figures commented that, while López Obrador had used phrases such as "fraud", "illegitimacy", "corruption", etc in the 2006 Mexican elections,

Reactions to the "Legitimate Presidency"
Several reactions to López Obrador’s "legitimate presidency" include an opinion by El País saying that López Obrador’s "lack of consideration to democratic institutions and rule of law seriously endanger civil peace in Mexico".[64] After speculation of whether or

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the same phrases were now used to describe the PRD’s election, and many feared that, no matter what the outcome, there would be a "legitimate" and a "spurious" President inside the Party.[71] According to exit polls conducted by Mitofsky and IMO, Encinas won by 5% and 8% points, respectively.[72]. Anyone in mexican media can refer to him as "self-proclaimed president".

Andrés Manuel López Obrador

[6] Theodore Hamm (June 2003). "Viva Rudy?". The Brooklyn Rail. http://www.thebrooklynrail.org/express/ june03/vivarudy.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. [7] María José Ortega Moncada (September 10, 2001). "El Gobierno del Distrito Federal ante el reto de la modernización inmobiliaria" (in Spanish). Inmobiliare Magazine. http://www.inmobiliare.com/ articulos.php?id_sec=5&id_art=77. Occupation of Congress Retrieved on 2008-06-15. The Mexican Congress was taken by legislat[8] Arturo Cerda (October 31, 2004). "No ors of the Broad Progressive Front (FAP), the hay que pensar en proyectos muy PRD, PT and Convergence Parties, on April sofisticados para cambiar las cosas en el 10, 2008 because of their disagreement with país; sólo hace falta cumplir la the Mexican Government regarding energy Constitución, dice López Obrador" (in policies’ discussions, claiming they violate Spanish). EsMas.com. the Constitution. López Obrador’s followers http://www.esmas.com/ took both Houses of the Congress and had noticierostelevisa/mexico/402522.html. them chained, so nobody could enter, thus, Retrieved on 2008-06-15. avoiding the approval of secondary laws [9] Marla Dickerson (June 19, 2005). "Mayor which could led to a partial privatization of seeks a way to ease traffic". The Seattle the Mexican national oil company, Times. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/ [73] Chairs and tables were used as PEMEX. html/nationworld/ barricades. López Obrador requested a 4-2002340776_mextraffic19.html. month long debate on energy policies and not Retrieved on 2008-06-15. a 50-day debate presented by the PAN, PRI, [10] Editorial (November 23, 2004). "Linchan [74] Green Party and New Alliance. a agentes de la PFP en Tláhuac" (in Spanish). EsMas.com. http://www.esmas.com/ noticierostelevisa/mexico/408253.html. [1] [1] Retrieved on 2008-06-15. [2] [2] [11] Editorial (November 23, 2004). "La PJDF [3] "Quedan compromisos pendientes de rescata a agente de la PFP" (in Spanish). cumplir". Reforma. July 28, 2005 EsMas.com. http://www.esmas.com/ (requires subscription). p. 4B. noticierostelevisa/mexico/408258.html. http://busquedas.gruporeforma.com/ Retrieved on 2008-06-15. utilerias/ [12] ""No estoy justificando lo injustificable": imdservicios3W.DLL?JSearchformatS&file=MEX/ Encinas" (in Spanish). EsMas.com. REFORM01/00633/ November 26, 2004. 00633361.htm&palabra=compromiso&sitereforma. http://www.esmas.com/ [4] "Andrés Manuel López Obrador and noticierostelevisa/mexico/408889.html. Mexico’s presidential election". Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Economist.com (requires subscription. [13] Francisco Barradas (November 25, April 20, 2006. 2004). "Explota "Jefe Diego" Vs. usos y http://www.economist.com/World/la/ costumbres" (in Spanish). EsMas.com. displayStory.cfm?story_id=6829296. http://www.esmas.com/ Retrieved on 2008-06-15. noticierostelevisa/mexico/408719.html. [5] Monica Campbell (March 17, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-06-15. "Clean and austere: Mexico’s next [14] "In the pre-electoral atmosphere, human president?". The Christian Science rights issues are in the last place" (PDF). Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/ Centro de Derechos Humanos Miguel 2004/0317/p06s01-woam.html. Retrieved Agustín Pro Juárez. Autumn 2004. on 2008-06-15. http://www.centroprodh.org.mx/Focus/ PDFS_FOCUS/2005/

Notes

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Andrés Manuel López Obrador

focus_marzo030305_baja.pdf. Retrieved articulos/nal_abril.pdf. Retrieved on on 2008-06-15. 2008-06-16. [15] "Mexico: Federal Cops Lynched". Tulane [25] "Resultados de la quinta encuesta de University. November 28, 2004. 8. intención de voto para el 2 de julio de http://www.tulane.edu/~libweb/ 2006" (in Spanish). El Universal. May 15, RESTRICTED/WEEKLY/2004_11228.txt. 2006. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/ Retrieved on 2008-06-15. graficos/animados/presid-mayo06.html. [16] Editorial Desk (April 7, 2005). "Let Retrieved on 2008-06-16. Mexico’s Voters Decide". The New York [26] [3] Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/ [27] [4] 07/opinion/07thu2.html. Retrieved on [28] Los mineros, los muertos, los políticos 2008-06-16. [29] Arturo Núñez justifica la aprobación de [17] Editorial desk (April 6, 2005). "Decision Fobaproa - El Universal - México on Democracy". The Washington Post. [30] Using FDR as Model, Presidential http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/ Hopeful Out to Build New Deal for articles/A28426-2005Apr5.html. Mexico Retrieved on 2008-06-16. [31] Excélsior [18] "Más de un millón repudiaron el abuso [32] Calderón Remains on Top in Mexico: del poder" (in Spanish). La Jornada. April Angus Reid Global Monitor 25, 2005. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/ [33] La posición del IFE es ’’tibia y débil’’: 2005/04/25/ Madrazo index.php?session=yGGAHAhdSQsfxIR2u18GHHDD8s. el IFE que Fox será imparcial el [34] "Asume" Retrieved on 2008-06-16. 2 de julio [19] Carlos Avilés, Arturo Zárate (September [35] Bloomberg.com: Latin America 5, 2006). "Proponen magistrados [36] La alianza con el PRI es decisión del declarar Presidente electo a Calderón" PRD: AMLO (in Spanish). El Universal. [37] No declinaré, mucho menos en favor de http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/ otro candidato, asegura Madrazo 373197.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-16. [38] El Economista.com.mx [20] "Campaign row heats up in Mexico". BBC [39] Va AMLO al Trife :: México :: esmas News. May 23, 2006. [40] FOXNews.com - Supporters of Mexico’s http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/ Leftist Candidate Obrador Take to americas/5007800.stm. Retrieved on Streets - The Americas 2008-06-16. [41] Gobierno Legítimo de México [21] "(TEPJF) Injerencia de Fox, mayor [42] El PRD dice que López encabeza los irregularidad: Navarro" (in Spanish). sondeos a pie de urna y convoca a la Invertia.com. September 5, 2006. población al Zócalo a las 23:00 http://mx.invertia.com/noticias/ [43] http://www.imocorp.com.mx/Inicio/ noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200609051550_INF_364930&idtel=. Estudios/07-06/ Retrieved on 2008-06-16. Presentation_National.pdf [22] "(TEPJF) Afirma que CCE tuvo injerencia [44] Univision.com - Página no está en campaña electoral" (in Spanish). disponible Invertia.com. September 5, 2006. [45] El Economista.com.mx http://mx.invertia.com/noticias/ [46] http://www.wtop.com/ noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200609051445_INF_364881&idtel=. ?nid=105&sid=582829 Retrieved on 2008-06-16. [47] El Economista.com.mx [23] Jorge Herrera, Arturo Zárate (August 5, [48] Jorge Herrera, Arturo Zarate (August 5, 2006). "Precisan recuento: 9.07% de las 2006). "Precisan recuento: 9.07% de las casillas en 149 distritos" (in Spanish). El casillas en 149 distritos". El Universal. Universal. http://www.el-universal.com.mx/notas/ http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/ 366854.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-31. 366854.html. Retrieved on 2088-06-16. [49] Defienden Certeza de Proceso Electoral, [24] Ulises Beltrán, Alejandro Cruz Martínez El Norte, 8 August 2006 (requires (April 2006). "Se cierra la contienda" (in subscription) Spanish) (PDF). BGC, Ulises Beltrán y Asociados. http://www.bgc.com.mx/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Andrés Manuel López Obrador

[50] Condenan banqueros bloqueos en years for companies found hoarding centros financieros - El Universal corn." Elecciones [70] ^ "Calderon Proposes Cap on Mexican [51] reforma.com - portada Government Salaries". Bloomberg.com. [52] http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/ January 23, 2007. 367573.html 10 razones para resistencia http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ civil news?pid=20601086&sid=acaQHjtF96DQ. [53] El Porvenir | Nacional | Plantea AMLO: Retrieved on 2008-06-16. soy presidente o resistencia [71] Ramos, Jorge (2008-04-13). "Comisión [54] Informe: "Sí se pudo": simpatizantes de técnica se rehusa a reabrir cómputo en AMLO en Zócalo - El Universal - México PRD" (in Spanish). El Universal. [55] La toma de la tribuna impide a Fox leer http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/ mensaje al Congreso 158794.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. [56] http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060902/ [72] Muñoz, Alma E.; Enrique Méndez ap_on_re_la_am_ca/mexico_elections (2008-03-27). "Ortega sólo podría ganar [57] 7 de cada 10 desaprueban eventual con trampas, asegura IMO" (in Spanish). boicot al cambio de poderes - El La Jornada. Universal - México http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2008/03/ [58] ^ http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2006/ 27/ 09/17/internacional/1158454412.html index.php?section=politica&article=009n1pol. "The Left proclaims Lopez Obrador as Retrieved on 2008-10-31. ’Legitimate’ President" [73] Gómez, Ricardo; Andrea Merlos [59] Rinde AMLO protesta como “presidente (2008-04-09). "Reforma energética, una legítimo” - El Universal - Sucesión privatización encubierta: González [60] Izquierdista Lopez Obrador prepara su Garza" (in Spanish). ’gabinete’ | terra http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/ [61] http://www.elnorte.com/nacional/ 497100.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. articulo/692806/ Requires subscription [74] Zárate, Arturo; Andrea Merlos, Ricardo [62] http://www.elnorte.com/nacional/ Gómez (2008-04-15). "Rechaza el FAP articulo/692815/ Requires subscription debate de 50 días" (in Spanish). [63] http://www.elnorte.com/nacional/ http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/ articulo/693602/ Requires Subscription 498585.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. [64] Pone AMLO en peligro paz de México: El País - El Universal - Sucesión [65] AMLO no usurpa funciones como • "Official site of Andrés Manuel López “presidente legítimo”: PRI - El Universal Obrador". http://www.amlo.org.mx/. - Sucesión Retrieved on 2006-07-11. [66] A la mitad del foro - La Jornada • Shlaes, Amity (May 26 2006). "Blame [67] Emir Olivares Alonso (November 21, Mexico, Too, for U.S. Immigration 2006). "El acto de López Obrador, por Trouble". Bloomberg.com. reclamo social, no por capricho: el http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/ obispo Vera". La Jornada. news?pid=10000039&refer=columnist_shlaes&sid=as http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2006/11/ • "The front-runner under pressure, With 21/ index.php?section=politica&article=008n1pol. his opinion-poll lead wobbling, Andrés Manuel López Obrador has yet to define Retrieved on 2008-05-31. precisely what sort of change he stands [68] http://gruporeforma.elnorte.com/ for". The Economist. April 20 2006. graficoanimado/encuestas/ http://www.economist.com/World/la/ amlo_nombramiento/ "Reprueban displayStory.cfm?story_id=6829296. nombramiento de AMLO", by Grupo • Thompson, Ginger (July 11 2006). "Leftist Reforma -In Spanish- (requires Screens Videos He Says Prove Fraud in subscription) Mexico Vote". New York Times. [69] Calderon signs accord to contain tortilla http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/ prices "The accord limits tortilla prices 92592.html. to 8.50 pesos ($0.78) per kilogram and threatens prison sentences of up to 10

External links

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Preceded by Head of Government of the Rosario Robles Berlanga Federal District 2000—2005 Preceded by Porfirio Muñoz Ledo Preceded by Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas President of the Party of the Democratic Revolution 1996—1999

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Succeeded by Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez Succeeded by Pablo Gómez Alvarez Succeeded by Unknown till 2012

Party of the Democratic Revolution Presidential candidate 2006

• "Official site of the "Legitimate http://estadis.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/ Government"". 126320.html. http://www.gobiernolegitimo.org.mx/. • (Spanish) "Redes Ciudadanas Baja Retrieved on 2007-01-01. In Spanish, this California". amlo.org. site promotes news and articles about the http://www.amlobc.com/. Retrieved on civil resistance movement that López 2006-07-11. Obrador calls "Legitimate Government", • (Spanish) "Los mineros, los muertos, los and in which he is said to be "Legitimate" políticos" ( – Scholar search). President www.jornada.unam.mx. • "Mexico mayor back on track". BBC News. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2006/03/03/ July 30 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ 020a1pol.php/. Editorial on La Jornada on americas/4425187.stm. AMLO and his party, the PRD • Poniatowska, Elena; Paco Ignacio Taibo II (April 18 2005). Democracy Now!. Description of Obrador’s magnetism. Unless otherwise noted, in Spanish and pubhttp://www.archive.org/audio/audiolished in Mexico. details• Los Primeros Pasos (First Steps) db.php?collection=democracy_now&collectionid=dn2005-0418. • ¿Y quién es? (And who’s him?) by: Blanca [audio] Gómez • (Spanish) "Official Site". lopezobrador.org. • Del Esplendor a la Sombra (From http://www.lopezobrador.org.mx/. Splendor to Darkness) Retrieved on 2006-07-11. • Tabasco, Víctima de un Fraude (Tabasco, • (Spanish) "Official Campaign site". Victim of Fraud) amlo.org. http://www.amlo.org.mx/. • FOBAPROA: un expediente abierto Retrieved on 2006-07-11. (FOBAPROA: an open folder) • (Spanish) "Unofficial campaign site". • Entre la Historia y la Esperanza (Between Lopez-obrador.com.mx. http://www.LopezHistory and Hope) obrador.com.mx/. Retrieved on • Un proyecto alternativo de nación (An 2006-07-11. alternate nation project) ISBN 685956979 • (Spanish) "Extended biography by CIDOB • Contra el desafuero: mi defensa jurídica Foundation". cidob-org. (Against the lifting of executive immunity: http://www.cidob.org/es/documentacion/ my legal defense) ISBN 9685957908 biografias_lideres_politicos/ • La mafia nos robó la presidencia (The america_del_norte/mexico/ mafia stole our presidency)ISBN andres_manuel_lopez_obrador. Retrieved 9707802154 on 2007-01-01. • Collection of articles from Council on Hemispheric Affairs concerning Mexican politics. http://www.coha.org/category/ mexico/. • (Spanish) "Zapatista leader blasts López". El Universal.

Further reading

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Andrés Manuel López Obrador

Categories: Heads of Government of the Federal District, Presidents of the Party of the Democratic Revolution, Mexican presidential candidates (2006), National Autonomous University of Mexico alumni, Former members of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, People from Tabasco, 1953 births, Living people, Scholars and leaders of nonviolence, or nonviolent resistance, Mexican Roman Catholics, Mexican democracy activists This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 20:05 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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