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2008 conflict in Lebanon

2008 conflict in Lebanon
2008 conflict in Lebanon

Map of Lebanon
Date May 7, 2008 – May 14, 2008 (main phase, sporadic clashes continued into July) Lebanon Doha Agreement

Location Result

was sparked by a government move to shut down Hezbollah’s telecommunication network and remove Beirut Airport’s security chief Wafic Shkeir over alleged ties to Hezbollah. Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah said the government’s decision to declare the group’s military telecommunications network illegal was a "declaration of war" on the organization, and demanded that the government revoke it.[8][9] Hezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement militiamen loyal to the government, in street battles that left 11 dead and 30 wounded. The opposition-seized areas were then handed over to the Lebanese Army.[10] The army also pledged to resolve the dispute and has reversed the decisions of the government by letting Hezbollah preserve its telecoms network and re-instating the airport’s security chief.[11][12] Rival Lebanese leaders reached a deal on May 21 2008, to end the 18-month political feud that exploded into fighting and nearly drove the country to a new civil war.[13] It was the worst violence in Beirut since Lebanon’s 1975-90 civil war.[14]

Belligerents Future Movement Progressive Socialist Party Lebanese Democratic Party Casualties and losses 27 killed (see here) 26 killed, 1 missing (Hezbollah),[1][2][3] 10 killed (SSNP),[3] 2 killed (LDP),[3] 1 killed (Amal) 34 Lebanese civilians killed,[4] 1 Australian civilian killed,[5] 2 soldiers killed[6] 2 policemen killed Hezbollah Amal Movement Syrian Social Nationalist Party Free Patriotic Movement

On December 1, 2006, a series of protests and sit-ins began in Lebanon, led by groups that opposed the government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora. The opposition group was made up of pro-Syrian Hezbollah and Amal, and the Free Patriotic Movement (FPM). A number of smaller parties were also involved, including the Marada Movement, the Lebanese Communist Party and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party.[15] Members of the government are part of the March 14 Alliance, a coalition of anti-Syrian political parties and former militias that include the Progressive Socialist Party, the Lebanese Forces and the Future Movement. The two groups are also divided along religious lines, the majority of Sunnis supporting the government and the Shi’a supporting the opposition group. Druze aligned with Walid Jumblatt support the government, while those allied to

The 2008 conflict in Lebanon [7] began on May 7, after Lebanon’s 17-month long political crisis spiraled out of control. The fighting


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Talal Arslan have backed the opposition.[16] The Christian community is divided as well, with Michel Aoun claiming to have 70% of the Christian community’s support, based on the results of 2005 parliamentary elections.[17][18][19][20] His claims were "undermined" in August 2007,[19] when Aoun’s candidate, little-known Camille Khoury, was elected with less than a 1% margin in the Matn District by-election. He was running against former Lebanese president Amin Gemayel, who was reclaiming the seat of his slain son, Pierre Amine Gemayel.[21] Seymour Hersh believed that the U.S was working to weaken and disarm Hezbollah with the help of Saudi Arabia, who was attempting to strengthen extremist Sunni militias as a counterweight to the Shi’a Hezbollah.[22][23] Franklin Lamb wrote that the United States and Israel had planned for a possible Israeli strike against Hezbollah targets if Hezbollah attempted to take over the government.[24] Borzou Daragahi, the L.A. Times bureau chief in Beirut, wrote that the Saudis had disowned the attempt by Sunnis in Lebanon to found a militia in the guise of a security force named Secure Plus.[25] As’ad AbuKhalil, professor of political science at the California State University, Stansilaus, stated that he believed the US was attempting to fund and arm Sunni militias to instigate a Sunni-Shiite conflict.[26] Pepe Escobar wrote in the Asia Times that the US gave $60 million to the Lebanese Internal Security Force at the Interior Ministry, and accused the US of fomenting sectarianism in Lebanon.[27]

2008 conflict in Lebanon
Ancient history of Lebanon Foreign Rule Assyrian Rule Babylonian Rule Persian Rule Macedonian Rule Roman Rule Byzantine Rule Arab Era Ottoman Rule French Rule Modern Lebanon 1958 Lebanon crisis Lebanese Civil War 1982 Lebanon War Syrian occupation of Lebanon 2005 Lebanon bombings Cedar Revolution 2006 Lebanon War 2006-8 political protests 2007 North Lebanon conflict 2008 conflict in Lebanon Topical Military history Economic history Timeline of Lebanese history In May 2008 the tensions between the government and the opposition escalated when the government announced a series of security decisions. Heads of the government accused Hezbollah of preparing for a terrorist attack, which was dismissed by Hezbollah as scaremongering.[28][29] On May 3, leaders of the government accused Hezbollah of setting up a hidden, remote-controlled camera in a container park overlooking the main runway of Beirut’s international airport. The accusation is that the Shia movement, which controls the suburbs where the airport is located, was spying on air traffic in preparation for a possible attack, perhaps aimed at assassinating one of the prominent pro-government figures who fly in and out of the facility. Hezbollah dismissed the accusations as scaremongering, saying that those who leveled them were simply parroting a US campaign against it and other groups which are resisting Israel.[29] Later,

May 2008 controversies and protests

This article is part of the series on: History of Lebanon Ancient History Phoenicia


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2008 conflict in Lebanon
network and persecuting those controlling it.[31]

On May 7, 2008, a work strike called for by the country’s union federation to demand higher wages and decry high prices was used as a pretext by the opposition to launch its attack. The opposition threw their weight behind the strike which paralyzed large parts of Lebanon’s capital Beirut. The clashes were first reported when government and opposition supporters in a pro-Government sector of Beirut exchanged insults and began throwing stones at each other after the Hizbollah men insisted on blocking the roads.[32] Witnesses said security forces intervened and gunshots were heard, apparently troops firing in the air to disperse the crowds. Around the city, pro-Hezbollah protesters carrying machine guns and weapons, blocked roads with burning tires and terrorized people in their neighbourhoods. The road toward Beirut international airport was blocked and cut off from the rest of the city, and the Beirut Port was occupied as a main reminder of 1975-90 civil war. By the end of this day, the Hezbollah militia had completely conquered the streets of West-Beirut, enforced an armed blockade on houses of Majority leaders Saad Hariri and Walid Jumblatt, and declared that it will continue with its actions until the Government backs down.

A car heavily damaged during the unrest in Lebanon on May 9. Al Jadeed, a Lebanese TV station, reported that the cameras could not see above the airports security wall and therefore would be useless to spy on the airport. [30] On May 6, 2008 the government attempted to disable Hezbollah’s private communications network. Hezbollah is reported to operate an extensive fixed-line telecommunications network covering its strongholds of south and east Lebanon, and the southern suburbs of Beirut. The telecommunication network was a key element in the 2006 Lebanon War, which shocked the Israeli military of Hezbollah’s efficient communications with its fighters across Lebanon. Hezbollah has made clear that it regards the private network as an integral part of its defensive measures against Israel. The government also ordered the commander of security at Beirut international airport, Brig Gen Wafiq Shuqeir, to return to the Army Command who had been suspected of sympathizing with Hezbollah, and accused of failing to deal with a secret camera allegedly set up by Hezbollah in a container overlooking the main runway, to monitor the movement of aircraft and VIPs.[28] On May 7, 2008 a labor strike which was planned before the month of May turned into violence when pro-government and opposition gunmen started their shootings, leading to clashes among the two groups in Beirut. The next day, Hezbollah’s leader Hassan Nasrallah stated on television that the telecommunications network was essential in the militant group’s resistance against Israel. Nasrallah further said that the government was declaring war by threatening to shut down the group’s private communications

Armed clashes
May 8 - May 9: Takeover of Beirut

A Lebanese APC in Beirut, on May 9, during the unrest


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On May 8, 2008, minutes after Nasrallah’s comments referring to pro-government actions as "a declaration of open war",[33] heavy street battles began. Fighting began along Corniche Mazraa, an avenue separating Shiite and Sunni areas, spreading to the western, southern and eastern parts of Beirut where Sunni and Shiite neighborhoods overlapped. Combat was heard near the office of Lebanon’s Sunni religious leader - an ally of the government - and near the official residence of the opposition-aligned parliament speaker. Machine guns and rocket propelled grenades were used by both sides. Opposition militants overran and burnt-down three pro-government offices. More barricades were set up, closing major highways. A CNN correspondent, pinned down with a Lebanese army unit during an intense gun battle, reported that government forces had not reacted to the violence. The army decided not to intervene in the clashes for fear of a breakup of the army along sectarian lines, which happened during the civil war.[33]

2008 conflict in Lebanon
Fighting from the previous day lasted throughout the night and only stopped for a short time a little bit after dawn on May 9, 2008. However, the fighting quickly resumed after the brief lull. Late in the afternoon, the few Government supporters who had shown some resistance in Beirut had surrendered their arms to the Hezbollah-led opposition. The opposition moved in and took over their abandoned positions in west Beirut, virtually taking over more than half of the capital. About 100 opposition militants in camouflage uniforms marched down Hamra Street. All the media outlets related to the pro-Government Future Movement ( Future Television, Future News, Al Mustaqbal Newspaper, and Radio Orient) were occupied by opposition fighters and forced onto close. [34][35] The armed occupation of Beirut by the pro-Hezbollah militiamen continued till the end of the crisis with almost no reactions in from the Army nor the Beiruti Government loyalists. Later that evening sporadic clashes erupted in Sidon, where two civilians were killed; and in Mar Elias in the Bekaa Valley where a woman was killed.Also, eight people were killed near the town of Aley in clashes between government supporters and opponents. Seven Hezbollah fighters were among the dead.[2][36]

May 10 - May 12: Aley falls and fighting spreads North
On May 10, 2008, a funeral procession was attacked by a shop-owner affiliated with the Amal Movement, whose shop was previously burned down by Sunni militants, leaving six people dead. An Associated Press photographer who witnessed the shooting said the attack came as a procession of 200 people headed toward a nearby cemetery to bury a 24-year-old pro-government supporter killed in previous fighting.[37] At least 14 people were killed in northern Lebanon in the town of Halba in clashes, as government loyalists raided an office of the SSNP. 10 of the dead were SSNP members, three were government loyalists and one was an Australian citizen who was trying to get information at the SSNP offices about evacuating from the city.[38][5] Meanwhile, east of Beirut in Aley, a progovernment Druze group affiliated with the Progressive Socialist Party kidnapped three

Armed Hezbollah fighters near the Crowne Plaza in Beirut on May 9


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2008 conflict in Lebanon
to the Lebanese army. Many roads in the capital remained blocked, including the airport road, as the opposition continued a campaign of civil disobedience. In Tripoli, Sunni supporters of the government had reportedly been fighting opposition followers in the Alawite dominated Jabal Mohsen area with machine-guns and rocket-propelled grenades.

Battle of Mount Barook and Aley District
On May 9, heavy fighting broke out in Mount Lebanon between pro-government Progressive Socialist Party militiamen and opposition forces - mainly LDP, SSNP and Tawhid Party. The clashes started in Aytat, near Kayfoun and soon expanded to cover many spots in Mount Lebanon including Baysur, Shuweifat and Aley. Most of the fighting was concentrated on Hill 888. It started when four Druze members of the Aley municipal police were kidnapped and one killed by Hezbollah.[46] Soon after the news of the kidnapping of the policemen was received, the Mayor of Aley assembled a group of PSP fighters and went up to Hill 888. As they reached the hill they were attacked by Hezbollah gunmen who wounded many of the PSP and municipality members. This developed into an armed clash.[47] During the initial fighting three Hezbollah fighters were captured and executed by the PSP in retaliation for the killings of the Druze policemen. Artillery and mortars were used for the first time during these battles. A ceasefire agreement was supposed to take place at 18:00 of the same day, but fighters from both sides continued to exchange fire. Negotiations were ongoing for the PSP militiamen to surrender their positions to the Lebanese Army.[48] The battles at Aley stopped for several hours, but the two sides clashed again in Mount Barook to the southeast shortly before midnight. Barook separates the Druze heartland of Shouf from the mainly Shi’ite southern end of the Bekaa Valley. That night Hezbollah’s fighters deployed from southern Beirut to the Qmatiyeh area, taking up position in the woods and dense undergrowth surrounding the village to protect its residents from pro-government Druze incursions. There was initially an attack by Druze who

Flags of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party in Beirut during the unrest on May 9. Hezbollah members and shot and stabbed two of them to death.[39] One other person was killed in fighting in Sidon and two soldiers died in fighting east of Beirut.[40] At least 40 people have been killed, four days after Beirut street battles have ignited.[41] On the other hand, Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora said the decision on the communications issue would be dealt with by the army.[42] The Lebanese army said it had frozen measures taken by the government against the Hezbollah movement, and called for all armed militants to withdraw from the streets.[43] Then Hezbollah’s TV station, AlManar, announced that Hezbollah-led opposition forces would withdraw all their gunmen from Beirut in compliance with the Lebanese army’s request, but a civil disobedience campaign will continue until the group’s demands are met.[42] During the night between May 10 and May 11, heavy fighting broke out between Hezbollah sympathizers and supporters of the government in Tripoli. One woman was killed.[44] On May 11, Beirut was quiet, after control of areas seized by the opposition was handed


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were members of the PSP militia but were soon beaten back. After that Hezbollah went on the offensive and attacked their rival’s positions. The Druze fighters had fought the Hezbollah militants from dug-in positions left over from the 1975-90 civil war.[49] The Druze used snipers, mortars and even twinbarreled 23 mm anti-aircraft guns to blast at the advancing Hezbollah. However, opposition fighters were backed up by Katyusha rockets fired from southern Beirut in support of the Hezbollah offensive. Opposition forces bombarded the pro-government Druze area with artillery while ground forces attacked Druze positions using rockets and machine guns.[50] The strategic Hill 888 was assaulted repetitively but the defenders repelled those first attacks.[51] The opposition troops then stormed Deir Qubal, a small village near Choueifat, but were pushed back towards the surrounding hills. Hezbollah then tried to seize Ain Aanoub, but again the attack failed.[52] By morning the pro-government Druze fighters agreed to a surrender and control of several villages loyal to Lebanon’s pro-government Druze leader Walid Jumblatt had been handed to the army[45]. All of their weapons were confiscated by Hezbollah and the PSP retreated from the region.[53] 17 Hezbollah fighters died in the battle,[54] 11 of them in the mountain town of Chouweifat,[55] along with at least 17 PSP militiamen and two civilians. The kidnapped municipality police members were released by Hezbollah on May 12.[56]

2008 conflict in Lebanon

May 13-May 14: The Army intervenes and tensions are defused
Starting at 06:00 a.m. May 13, local time, the Lebanese Army started to deploy to prevent any further fighting. After moving its headquarters, Future TV was back on the air by 4:30 p.m.[58] Lebanese Tourism Minister Joe Sarkis announced that the port of the bay of Jounieh will start accommodating ships and ferries for Lebanese arriving from and leaving to Cyprus.[59] There was less fighting then during the previous days and the rival militias took the chance to bury their dead. On May 14, Lebanon’s pro-government and opposition factions, had reached a deal to revoke the two decisions that sparked the fighting.[60] On the same day, the opposition ended its civil disobedience campaign. Also, this day was when the airport had opened for one day to allow a plane to arrive for a meeting and then departure again.[61]

Doha Agreement
Rival Lebanese leaders clinched a deal on Wednesday, May 21, 2008, to end the 18-month political feud that exploded into fighting and nearly drove the country to a new civil war.[13] The deal is considered a victory for the Lebanese opposition as they secured their demand for veto-wielding power in the new government and a new electoral law which could benefit the opposition in the 2009 parliamentary elections. The agreement was considered by various Middle East analysts of being another blow to the Bush administration’s policies in Lebanon.

Clashes in Hamra and Tripoli
After a day of relative quiet in Beirut renewed gunfire was heard in the commercial area of Hamra in the western part of the city shortly after midnight on May 12. The fighting occurred near the home of Future Movement leader Saad al-Hariri. A two-man Al Jazeera camera crew suffered injuries while trying to film the fighting and were evacuated by the Lebanese army.[57] Meanwhile in Tripoli clashes left one person dead and at least six others [57][4] The Army stated that if the wounded. clashes did not end by morning of the next day they will intervene and use force if necessary to end the fighting.

June-July 2008: Clashes continue
Since the Agreement there have been frequent minor security incidents between supporters of the opposing factions. Delays in the formation of a national unity government as stipulated in the accord, have raised fears of a further deterioration in the security situation.[62] On June 17, three people were killed in clashes between pro- and anti-government residents in two villages in the Bekaa Valley, in eastern Lebanon, according to a Lebanese military official.[63]


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On June 22 and June 23, at least nine people, eight civilians and a policeman, were killed and 55 others were wounded in Tripoli, in clashes between pro-government Sunnis based in the Bab el-Tabaneh district and proSyrian Alawites from Jabal Mohsen. Machine guns and rocket-propelled grenades were used in the clashes, which started around four in the morning.[64] Also on June 22, a senior officer of the Islamist group Jund al-Sham, Imad Yassin, was wounded by a bomb, along with another Islamist, in the Palestinian refugee camp Ain al-Hilweh.[65][66] A pro-Syrian Druze politician of the Lebanese Democratic Party, Saleh Aridi, was killed in a car bomb on September 11, 2008.[67][68]

2008 conflict in Lebanon

United States Assistant Secretary of State Sean McCormack discussing the unrest in Lebanon denounced the violence and singled out Syria and Iran for backing Hezbollah, which she accused of trying "to protect their state within a state."[6] Iran’s Foreign Ministry Spokesman Mohammad-Ali Hosseini has called on national unity among the Lebanese adding that the situation can be "managed through talks and consensus-building." Hosseini blamed the U.S. and Israel for the ongoing hostilities in Lebanon. [74] Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud alFaisal accused Iran of "backing what happened in Lebanon, a coup" and called for "all regional parties to respect the independence and sovereignty of Lebanon and to stop meddling in its affairs and inciting sectarian tensions". He had further accused Hezbollah of taking "violent, offensive measures, which aim at an annihilation of people."[75] Prime Minister Fouad Siniora urged the Lebanese army to restore order, assuring that the country won’t fall to Hezbollah after four days of clashes.[76] On May 11 Arab foreign ministers meeting in Cairo have urged an immediate halt to the fighting in Lebanon and agreed to send a ministerial delegation to Beirut to try to mediate an end to the crisis.[45]

Fighting in Tripoli
From July 25 and 80 days forward, fierce sectarian clashes raged in the northern Lebanese port city of Tripoli, killing 23 people. Militants from rival Sunni and Alawite communities fought each other with rocket-propelled grenades and automatic weapons. On September 8, Alawite and Sunni leaders signed a reconciliation agreement, which ended the fighting and tension which has haunted Tripoli since the civil war.[69][70] Sunni Future Movement leader Saad Hariri subsequently visitted Tripoli and stated "We are both Lebanese and we will not allow anyone to tamper with us. I will do everything I can in order not to let anyone damage the Alawites’ security in Tripoli and to foil any external plot to tamper with the security of the Alawites or the security of Tripoli".[71] On August 13 and September 29, car bombs targeting civilian busses in Tripoli killed five people, including five soldiers, in the first incident, and 16 people, including 7 soldiers, in the second.[72][73]

U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice strongly reaffirmed U.S. support for the Lebanese Prime Minister Fouad Siniora and reached out to key world leaders for ways to buttress his government. "We will stand by the Lebanese government and peaceful citizens of Lebanon through this crisis and provide the support they need to weather this storm," she said in a statement. Rice

During the heavy battles in Beirut and east and north of the city 84 people were killed and 200 were wounded while one Hezbollah supporter was missing.[4] Among the dead were confirmed to be 27 pro-government and 39 opposition fighters, two soldiers[6] and 16


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civilians, 15 Lebanese and one Australian.[77][78][79][3] Another 12 people were killed in June, including one policeman. And a further nine died in July, also including one policeman.

2008 conflict in Lebanon

[9] "Lebanon tensions rise in clash with Hezbollah". Haaretz. 981937.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-10. [10] "Lebanese army moves into W. Beirut after Hezbollah takeover". Haaretz. 981696.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-10. [11] "Hezbollah Pledges Pullout From Beirut • 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests as Army Makes Concession". Bloomberg • Lebanon bombings and assassinations L.P.. (2004-present)#2008 news?pid=20601087&sid=aqf3zxx_..5I&refer=home Retrieved on 2008-10-05. [12] "Hezbollah to Withdraw Gunmen in Lebanon". New York Times. [1] "Clashes resume in North Lebanon". BBC News. world/middleeast/11lebanon.html?hp. middle_east/7395421.stm. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-10-05. 2008-05-12. [13] ^ "Lebanese leaders ’expect to elect a [2] ^ "Beirut streets ’calm’ after clashes". Al president’ in 24 hours". France 24. Jazeera. exeres/ 20080521-lebanon-hezbollah-doha2BB82CA0-4895-4454-8E29-7072B103E06C.htm. election-presidential&navi=MONDE. Retrieved on 2008-05-10. Retrieved on 2008-05-31. [3] ^ "Death toll in Lebanon rises to 18 as [14] "Beirut street clashes turn deadly". clashes intensify across country". Daily France 24. Star (Lebanon). 20080509-gunmen-force-shutdown-pro government-tv-lebanonarticle.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=2&article_id=91930. unrest&navi=MONDE?q=node/1671710. Retrieved on 2008-05-11. Retrieved on 2008-05-09. [4] ^ "Lebanon army gives gunmen deadline [15] Cecil, Bill. "Half of Lebanon rallies to to disarm". Al Arabiya. demand sweeping changes". 05/12/49725.html. Retrieved on 2006/world/lebanon-1221/. Retrieved on 2008-05-13. 2008-05-09. [5] ^ "Australian killed in Lebanon: DFAT". [16] "Hezbollah in control of west Beirut". Al The Hawkesbury Gazette. Jazeera. exeres/3D7DD5AC-6C8C-44EE-A39Dnews/national/national/general/ EACB9A8FDD8B.htm. Retrieved on australian-killed-in-lebanon-dfat/ 2008-05-09. 768453.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. [17] "Christian leader says Lebanese [6] ^ "Hezbollah withdrawing gunmen from opposition ready for power". The Beirut". Al Arabiya. Guardian. world/2006/dec/13/syria.lebanon. 05/10/49626.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-05-13. 2008-05-12. [18] "Lebanese Christians split over protests". [7] "The psychological fallout of Lebanon’s BBC. ’mini civil war’". Reuters. middle_east/6300739.stm. Retrieved on 2008-05-10. 2008/05/10-132330-1.htm. Retrieved on [19] ^ "Lebanon by-election highlights 2008-06-22. Christian disunity". Reuters. [8] "Hezbollah takes over west Beirut". BBC news. latestCrisis/idUSL06198754. Retrieved middle_east/7391600.stm. Retrieved on on 2008-05-10. 2008-05-10.

See also



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2008 conflict in Lebanon

[20] "Aoun’s hour". Al Ahram. 09lebanon.html?ex=1367985600&en=27fbc7f2741a0 Retrieved on 2008-05-09. re1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-13. [32] "LEBANON: High prices, low wages feed [21] "Vote leaves Lebanon’s Christians violent political stand-off". IRIN. divided". Reuters. Report.aspx?ReportId=78100. Retrieved 2007-08-06-lebanon-elections_N.htm. on 2008-05-17. Retrieved on 2008-06-05. [33] ^ "Gunbattles break out in Beirut". CNN. [22] "Hersh: Bush administration arranged support for militants attacking Lebanon". meast/05/08/lebanon.hezbollah/ The Raw Story. index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. news/2007/ [34] "Hezbollah gunmen seize control of Hersh_Bush_arranged_support_for_militants_0522.html. Beirut neighborhoods". Forbes. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. [23] Seymour M. Hersh. "The Redirection". 09/ap4990140.html. Retrieved on The New Yorker. 2008-05-09. [35] "Hezbollah militants take over West 2007/03/05/070305fa_fact_hersh. Beirut". CNN. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. WORLD/meast/05/09/beirut.violence/ [24] "Did Hezbollah Thwart a Bush/Olmert index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-09. Attack on Beirut?". CounterPunch. [36] "Lebanon death toll up following northern clash". Ynet. lamb05162008.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-15. 0,7340,L-3541431,00.html. Retrieved on [25] "LEBANON: Saudis disown Sunni 2008-05-16. militia". Los Angeles Times. [37] "Six killed during Beirut funeral: medics". France 24. babylonbeyond/2008/05/lebanon saudis.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-15. 20080510-six-killed-during-beirut[26] "81 Dead in Lebanon as Hezbollah funeral-medics. Retrieved on Clashes with US-Backed Pro-Government 2008-05-10. Forces". Democracy Now!. [38] "Day 5: Lebanese dare to hope worst is over". Daily Star (Lebanon). 12/81_dead_in_lebanon_as_hezbollah. Retrieved on 2008-07-15. article.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=2&article_id=919 [27] "Hezbollah’s big challenge". Asia Times. Retrieved on 2008-05-16. [39] Mona Alami. "LEBANON: Druze Take On Middle_East/ID19Ak02.html. Retrieved Hezbollah, Because They Must". Inter on 2008-05-14. Press Service. [28] ^ "Beirut to axe Hezbollah telecoms". news.asp?idnews=42450. Retrieved on BBC news. 2008-12-24. middle_east/7385733.stm. Retrieved on [40] "12 killed in pro and anti-government 2008-05-10. gun battle in northern Lebanon". Ynet. [29] ^ Jim Muir. "Hezbollah in airport spying row". BBC news. 0,7340,L-3541533,00.html. Retrieved on hi/middle_east/7382289.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-16. on 2008-05-10. [41] Robert F. Worth. "Hezbollah to Withdraw [30] "NEW TV Evidence". NTV. Gunmen in Lebanon". The New York Times. watch?v=ldmciLwdjUs. Retrieved on 11/world/middleeast/11lebanon.html?hp. 2008-05-10. Retrieved on 2008-05-11. [31] Nada Bakri. "Shiite-Sunni Clashes [42] ^ Yoav Stern. "Hezbollah fighters retreat Intensify in Beirut". New York Times. from Beirut after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. world/middleeast/ spages/981696.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-11.


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2008 conflict in Lebanon

[43] "Lebanese army revokes government hizballahstoughestfoeinlebanon;_ylt=AsddSgiJhYKEu decisions against Hezbollah". France 24. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. [54] "Heavy fighting breaks out in north 20080510-lebanese-army-overturnsLebanon". government-decisions-against-hezbollah lebanon&navi=MONDE. Retrieved on ?id=164676. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. 2008-05-11. [55] "Clashes resume in north Lebanon". [44] "Lebanese army sends troops north". BBC. BBC. middle_east/7395421.stm. Retrieved on middle_east/7394395.stm. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. 2008-05-16. [56] "Monday’s live coverage of the war in [45] ^ "Day 5: Lebanese dare to hope worst is Lebanon". Ya Libnan. over". The Daily Star (Lebanon). 05/breaking_news_l_7.php. Retrieved on article.asp?edition_id=1&categ_id=2&article_id=91930. 2008-12-24. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. [57] ^ "Fresh clashes in north Lebanon". Al [46] Kandy Ringer. "Lebanon’s Fighting Jazeera. Spreads to Druze Heartland". BBC News. exeres/9696FDD9-BE2C-4610-B5BB D7FE88C2B003.htm. Retrieved on 20080512134939559. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. 2008-12-24. [58] "Lebanese army deploys troops around [47] "Saturday’s live coverage of the war in the country to impose law and order by Lebanon". Ya Libnan. force". The Conservative Voice. 2008/05/_1415_governmen.php. article.html?mi=D90KNN300&apc=9002. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. Retrieved on 2008-05-19. [48] "Fighting spreads in Lebanon". Al [59] "Tuesday’s live coverage of the war in Jazeera. Lebanon". Ya Libnan. exeres/ 38C58B5A-9969-442A-858C-54EED513CB43.htm. 05/breaking_news_l_8.php. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-05-16. 2008-05-19. [49] Nicholas Blanford/Qmatiyeh. "Hizballah’s [60] "’Deal reached’ on Lebanon impasse". Al Toughest Foe in Lebanon". Time Jazeera. (magazine). exeres/ world/article/ E35F9232-7693-457C-8C75-4059212E3E5D.htm. 0,8599,1756914,00.html?xid=feedRetrieved on 2008-05-15. yahoo-full-world. Retrieved on [61] "Breaking News: Live coverage of the 2008-12-24. war in Lebanon". Ya Libnan. [50] "Hezbollah-led forces take revolt to mountains above Beirut". CNN. 05/_time_shown_on.php. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. meast/05/11/lebanon.violence/ [62] "One dead, 15 wounded in north index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-15. Lebanon clashes". Reuters. [51] "Sunday’s live coverage of the war in Lebanon". Ya Libnan. newsdesk/L22592806.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 2008/05/breaking_news_l_6.php. [63] "Several injured in northern Lebanon Retrieved on 2008-12-24. clashes". France 24. [52] Walid Phares. "Lebanon’s "300"". Lebanon Wire. 20080622-hezbollah-sunni-northern lebanon-clashes-tripoli&navi=MONDE. 08051239WPLW.asp. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 2008-12-24. [64] Bassem Mroue. "Fighting breaks out in [53] "Hizballah’s Toughest Foe in Lebanon". northern Lebanon; 4 dead". Associated Time (magazine). Press. s/time/20080514/wl_time/


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
breakingnews/ci_9665984. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. [65] "Three dead, 30 wounded in north Lebanon clashes". Reuters. worldNews/idUSL2259280620080622. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. [66] "Heavy fighting rocks north Lebanon". Al Jazeera. news/middleeast/2008/06/ 20086226195408187.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. [67] "Lebanon opposition member Saleh Aridi killed in car bomb blast". The Australian. story/0,25197,24329378-2703,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. [68] "Violence returns to Beirut as car bomb kills sheik". The Australian. story/0,25197,24331560-15084,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. [69] "Nine killed in sectarian fighting in Lebanon". France 24. 20080726-nine-killed-sectarian-fightinglebanon. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. [70] Suzan Haidamous. "North Lebanon reconciliation struck through joint efforts". Xinhua News Agency. 2008-09/09/content_9880896.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [71] "Hariri tells Alawites in north Lebanon: We are all Lebanese". Ya Libnan. 09/hariri_tells_al.php. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [72] "Lebanon bomb hits bus carrying soldiers". Reuters. world/middle-east/lebanon-bomb-hitsbus-carrying-soldiers-945438.html. Retrieved on =2008-12-24.

2008 conflict in Lebanon

[73] Andrew Wander. "Lebanon: Bus bomb kills soldiers in Tripoli". The Daily Telegraph. news/worldnews/middleeast/oman/ 3101351/Lebanon-Bus-bomb-killssoldiers-in-Tripoli.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-24. [74] "Iran highlights need for Lebanese unity". Press TV. Detail.aspx?id=55137&sectionid=351020101. Retrieved on 2008-05-12. [75] "Saudi Arabia criticizes Iran’s Hezbollah support". Boston Globe. middleeast/articles/2008/05/13/ saudi_arabia_criticizes_irans_hezbollah_support/. Retrieved on 2008-05-30. [76] "Lebanon army moves to end crisis". BBC News. middle_east/7393982.stm. Retrieved on 2008-05-10. [77] "Hezbollah fighters in Beirut melt away". Boston Globe. news/world/middleeast/articles/2008/05/ 10/ police_2_killed_in_shooting_targeting_beirut_funeral/ Retrieved on 2008-05-11. [78] "At least two dead in shooting at funeral in Lebanon". Reuters. middleeastCrisis/idUSL10455768. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. [79] "Hezbollah to withdraw gunmen in Lebanon". International Herald Tribune. 11lebanon.php. Retrieved on 2008-05-15.

External links
• Deal for Lebanese Factions Leaves Hezbollah Stronger • Doha Compromise is ’No Cave In to Hezbollah’

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