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									                                                  The America’s a Separate Worl d
                                                        Chapter 9 and 16

I.   Hunters and Farmers in the Americas (211-215)
Main Idea – A lthough isolated, the first A mericans developed in ways similar to the other earliest humans
Setting the Stage – Hu man settlement and civilization in the A mericas is relatively recent
A. The Earliest Americans
Peopling the Americas
     Bering Strait – land bridge – Beringia
           Ice Age – till 10,000 BC
           Also water migration along coast
           Adapted way of life to environment
Hunters and Gatherers
     Nomadic – hunting and gathering fro m Asia
B. Agriculture Prompts a New Way of Life
The Development of Farming
     Neolithic – Agricultural Revoluti on
     Eventually developed farming – 7000 BC – maize, squash, beans, potatoes
     Settled in villages – Tehuacan Valley – Mexico
     Chinampas – floating gardens – three harvests a year
I.   Di verse Societies of North America (391 - 394)
A. Complex S ocieties Build and Trade
     North America – no great empires developed
     Did create comp lex societies
B. Cultural Connections
     Shared trade network
           Colu mb ian River – Oregon
           Mississippi River – Rockies to the Atlantic
     Shared relig ious views
           Nature spirits
           Respect for the land
                 Sacred – not to be bought or sold
                 Live in harmony with the land
                 Change it as little as possible
     Shared social patterns
           Family was the basis for social organizat ion – including extended family
II. Earl y Mesoamerican Ci vilizati ons (216-220)
Main Idea – The Olmec created the first A merican civilization – influenced the later ones
Setting the Stage – First Mesoamerican civ ilizations developed about 1200 BC
A. Mesoamerica’s Mother Culture
Mesoamerica – region fro m central Mexico to the northern reaches of modern -day Honduras
The Rise of Ol mec Ci vilizati on
     Ol dest ci vilization in the Americas - 1200 BC = mother culture
     Polytheistic – nature g ods
           Jaguar – worship
     No true cit ies – ceremonial centers
           Earthen mounds
           Pyramid shaped temples
     Large stone monuments – giant heads – La Venta
     Cultural Legacy
           Style of pottery and sculpture – art
           Planned ceremonial centers
           Ritual ball games
           Urban Design
                 Pyrami ds
                 Monumental sculpture
           Most i mportant legacy
                 Elite ruling class
                  Priestly leadership
                  Religious devotion
      No written records – mysterious collapse
B. Zapotec Ci vilizati on Arises
      First real urban center – Monte Al ban
            Temp les
      Surrounded a plaza
            Model for future urban design – first city buil ders
            Hieroglyphic l anguage
            Calendar system based on sun
II. Mayan Ki ngs and Cities (395 – 399)
Main Idea – The Maya developed a highly co mplex civilizat ion based on city-states controlled by dynasties of kings.
A. Maya Create Urban Ki ng doms
      (250 - 900 AD) – Classical period of Mayas
      Yucatan Peninsula
Urban Centers
      Independent City-states – with God-kings
            Chichen Itza
            50 centers
      Characteristics of cities – influenced by the Olmecs
            Pyramids (Tikal - tallest build ings in NA till 1903)
            Temp les
            Stone carvings - pillars
            Ball court
            Residential area surrounding the city center
Agriculture and Trade Support Cities
      Linked through trade and alliances – united culture
            No uniform currency
            Farmed by building raised fields that caught and held rainwater
            Maize, beans, squash – basis for life
            Wealth and prosperity strengthened culture
Ki ng doms Built on Dynasties
      Social pyramid - theocracy
            King – holy figure – hered itary – eldest son - dynasty
            Nobles – priests and leading warriors
            Merchants and master artisans
            Peasant majority
B. Religion Shapes Mayan Culture
      Relig ion influenced most aspects of Mayan life
            Polytheistic - many Gods
            Mostly based on nature
Religious Practices
            Sacrifices included human sacrifices
Math Develops to Support Religion
      Math developed to support relig ion – concept of zero
      Calendar and astronomy
            Used to predict which God was in charge of the day
            - Two calendars – 365 + 260
            -used to pick best day to begin war or cro wn new ruler
Written Language Preserves History
      Hieroglyphic writing
            3 bark-paper codexes have survived
            Spanish destroyed the rest
      Popol Vuh – Mayan story of creation
C.   Mysterious Mayan Decline
     Toltecs took over after Mayan civilizat ion had declined
           Disruption of trade
           Population growth led to over farming
           -food shortages
     Weak city-states were all that remained when Spanish arrived
III. The Aztecs Control Central Mexico (400 - 406)
Main Idea – Th rough alliances and conquest, the Aztecs created a powerful emp ire in Mexico
A. The Valley of Mexico
Teotihuacán: An Early City -State
Teotihuacán - City of the Gods - north
     200BC - 700AD
     One of the largest cities anywhere in the world at that time – 125,000
     Pyrami d of the Sun – larger at base than Egyptian Great Pyramid
           Trade network – obsidian
           Spread art styles and religious beliefs
           No evidence of empire building
           Precursor to Aztecs
Toltecs Take Over
     Extremely warlike people – emp ire based on conquest
           War God – demanded blood and human sacrifice
     Legend of feathered serpent – Quetzalcoatl – God Peace
           Would return some day fro m across the sea to the east
B. Aztecs Buil d An Empire
Aztecs – greatest empire of Mesoamerica
     1200 – No mads called the Mexica fro m northern Mexico
     1325 – Founded Tenochtitlan
             Legend – sun god – look for city of o wn
             Eagle perched on a cactus – holding a snake in its mouth
             Lake Texcoco
Aztecs Grow Stronger
     Tri ple Alliance
     38 provinces – 5-15 million people
     Ruled based on military conquest and tribute
     Destroyed villages and slaughtered the inhabitants if they failed to pay the tribute
Nobles Rule Aztec Society
     Social pyramid
           Emperors – God king – absolute power
           Nobles – Military leaders, government officials, priests
                 Many owned vast estates – ruled like lords
           Co mmoners - Peasants
                 Merchants – spies for emperors
                 Farmers – owned their own land
Trade Brings Wealth
     Trade market larger than any in Spain
     Chinampas – artificial islands made of earth on reed mats anchored to the shallow lake bed
           Farm p lots built on the marshy fringes of the lake
Tenochtitlan: A Planned City
         Eventually filled in parts of the lake and created canals for transportation
         200,000 – larger than any European city of its time
         Island in center of lake – three raised roads in
         Other cit ies ringed the lake
         Great Temp le atop a pyramid
C. Religion, the Center of Aztec Life
     Adopted many of the Toltec gods
Sacrifices for the Sun God
          Human sacrifice on a massive scale – 1000s had their hearts carved out
          Battle tactics took prisoners to use for these daily sacrifices
D. Problems in the Aztec Empire
      Need for an ever-expanding empire created problems similar to those of Ro me
      1502 - Montezuma II
            Period of unrest and rebellion against oppression
                  Tribute and sacrifices caused provinces to rebel
                  These were the conditions when the Spanish arrived
            Old Legend – God of Peace fro m the east
III. Earl y Ci vilizati ons of the Andes (221-223)
Main Idea – Around the harsh terrain of the Andes Mountains in South America, various groups created flourishing civilizat ions.
Setting the Stage – During the same period that civilizations developed in Mesoamerica they also developed in the Andes Mountains
A. Societies Grow in the Andes Region
Peru - South America
Earl y Settlements Along the Coast
Narro w coastal plain – between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean
      This is where the first villages developed – in river valleys that cut through the otherwise desert-like p lain
      Hunter-gatherers gradually developed agriculture around 3000 BCE
The Chavin Period
Chavi n – mother culture like the Olmec – 900-200 BCE
      First influential civilizat ion of South America
            Massive earthen mounds
      Primarily a religious civilizat ion
      Art styles and relig ious images spread
B. Other Andean Ci vilizati ons Flourish
Nazca Achievements
Nazca 200 BCE – 600 AD
      Irrigation systems including underground canals
      Textiles and pottery
      Nazca Lines – drawings for their gods – only visible fro m the air
Moche Culture
Moche 100 – 700 AD
      Irrigation systems
      Pottery provides details of daily life – no writ ing
IV. The Inca Create a Mountain Empire (407 - 411)
Main Idea – The Inca built a vast empire supported by taxes, governed by a bureaucracy, and linked by extensive road syste ms
Setting the Stage – At the same time as the Aztecs – largest empire ever seen in the Americas – created by the Incas
A. The Inca Come to Power
Inca Beginnings
      Kings related to Sun God
      Mummies – ancestor worship
      80 provinces
      16 million people – largest in new world
Pachacuti Buil ds an Empire
      Pachacuti = Philip II of Macedon
      Topa Yupanqui = Alexander the Great
      Land of the Four Quarters
            2,500 miles
            Ecuador to Ch ile
      Conquered through the use of diplo macy whenever possible
            Contrast to Aztecs and Romans
            Allowed enemies to keep their o wn customs and rulers in exchange for loyalty
            Many gave up without resisting
B. Incan Government Creates Unity
      Economic and road system united emp ire
      Central bureaucracy
      Single language – Quechua = Latin
Incan Cities Show Government Presence
     Co mpare to Ro me - builders – yet without iron or wheels
Incan Government Organizes Communities
     Ayllu – s mall groups that worked together for the co mmon good
           Irrigation canals
           Agricultural terraces
           Stored food and other supplies to distribute in hard times – type of welfare system
     Families divided into groups of 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000
           Each group led by a chief – part of a chain of co mmand
     Labor tribute – mi ta – required all citizens to work for the state for a certain number of days every year
           State farms
           Public works – roads, canals, palaces
Roads Link the Empire
     14,000 miles of roads
           Two main arteries – one through the mountains
           The other along the coast
           Channels of drin king water ran alongside
           Suspension bridges made of woven vines spanned chasms
                  Bridges acted as defenses
     Postal service
     Guest houses along the way
State Controls the Economy
     Co mpared to a type of socialis m or welfare state
           Inca allowed little private co mmerce or trade
           Citizens were expected to work for the state and were cared for in return
     Land ownership – divided three ways
           State lands
           Relig ious lands
           Co mmunity lands
     Farmers worked all three types of land
           Chuno – freeze dried potatoes – kept indefinitely
Government Keeps Records
     Never developed a writ ing system
     Oral tradit ion
     Qui pu – a set of knotted strings that could be used to record numerical data
     Calendars, mathematicians, and astronomers were used for the proper worship of the gods
C. Religion Supports the State
     Machu Pichu – isolated by a rope bridge – relig ious or ceremonial city
     Polytheistic – nature gods
     Most important – sun god
           Heavy use of gold and silver – especially in Cuzco
D. Discord in the Empire
     Civil war occurred immediately prior to arrival o f Spanish – weakened emp ire
     Atahual pa won against his brother

                                            Ch. 19 - An Age of Expl oration and Isolation
Chapter 19.1

I.   Europeans Explore the East
Main Idea – Driven by the desire for wealth and Ch ristian converts, Europeans began an age of exp loration.
Setting the Stage
     Why didn’t Europe discover America sooner?
     The Middle Ages 500 - 1500 Primary Concerns Provincial
           Fall of the Ro man Emp ire - Dark Ages
                 destroyed social, economic, and political structure
           Spiritual control by the Catholic Church strained just to retain rituals of Ch ristianity
                 Defend traditions
                 Discouraged other thought or investigation
                       Stress order over liberty
                 Time o f little change - the Dark Ages
                       Traditional beliefs, institutions, and behaviors frozen in time
                     People born to three jobs: father's, priesthood, military
                     People born, lived, died in one location - travel dangerous
                     Preparing for life beyond the grave - Job
                     Books were scarce and few people could read
                     Movable type not yet invented, few records kept...little curiosity evident.
     As Europe emerged fro m the feudal Middle Ages into the Renaissance, fundamental changes stimulated interest in overseas
     exploration and exp loitation. Adventurous navigators sought new routes to Asia around Africa and across the Atlantic.

Consider the relat ive importance of each of these factors as explanations for colonizat ion.
The concept of relative impo rtance is a key factor wh ich you should consider as you study each THEM E in World History.
Which was MOST important? Why? What about the role of economics and religion? Which was mo re important and why?
A. Many Factors Encourage Explorati on
     Motives for European Exp loration and Co lonization
     Not comp letely isolation
           Marco Polo – 1275
     Lack of knowledge of geography and navigation – unable to make a long sea voyage
     The Crusades - (1095 - 1291) 11th-l5th centuries
           Attempts by European armies to reconquer areas in the Middle East and Spain that had been absorbed by expan ding Islam
           Notice the relig ious motive for the Crusades - spreading Christianity and capturing the Holy Lands
              Population explosion - led to need for control of excess population
              This is an economic mot ive
           European armies fought Moslems for control of the Ho ly Lands Palestine failed.
           Europeans came into contact with superior Arab cultures.
                      Sold iers who returned brought new ideas and products.
                      Led to revival of long-distance trading
                          Economic o r Religious? Why?
     Marco Polo - 1295 - returned to Europe after a 20 year stay in China
        His tales stimulated interest in a shorter route to Asia.
        Traditional overland routes, such as the Silk Road, were slow and expensive.
        The Mediterranean trade was dominated by Italian city-states.
        Expansion of the Otto man Emp ire Constantinople fell in 1453
                 Effected trade, adding to the need to find alternate routes.
     The Renaissance of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries
           Rebirth or rev ival of learning.
                 Desire to learn what was out there - curiosity
           Changes in Europe spur the search for a water route to Asia
                 Began in Italian city-states
                       Florence - Medici
           Indi vi dualism - celebrated human potential - Optimistic self-reliance.
                 Adventure – opportunity to test yourself
           Secularism - emphasized worldly acco mplishments.
                     Adventure and explorat ion at sea
                     Attempts to acquire new products discovered in the Middle East
                  Stimu lated interest in geography and reintroduced technology necessary for navigation
                  Co mpass and astrolabe.
                        Knowledge limited to Europe, North Africa and Western Asia.
                        Scientists wanted to know more about size and shape of the Earth.
                        By 15th century educated Europeans accepted Greek idea that the world was round.
                 Movable type, caravel ships
Europeans Seek Greater Wealth - Economic
     Commerci al Revol uti on - End of Feudalis m and the rise of Capitalism – free enterprise system
     14th c Flo rence.
           Economy based on subsistence agriculture - struggle to survive
                 Barter system - no competit ion allowed - buttonhole story
           Population explosion - led to need for control of excess population
                Difficult fo r economy to support masses - no specializat ion
                 Middle class with money to invest and trade and nation states not yet in existence.
     Spurred by beginnings of Global trade - Co mmercial Revolution
           Profitability of trade per se was fully appreciated due to general prosperity.
                 Population explosion - began again by 1450 led to need for more goods
           Power o f merchants and financiers steadily expanded - creation of the growing middle class.
           The importance of trade – main reason for expl oration
                 Sugar, glass, steel fro m Damascus and Baghdad
                 Rugs fro m Persia
                 Pepper = b lack go ld fro m India - helped with bland foods in Europe
                 Cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg, ginger, and the Spice Islands
                       Flavor and preserve meat – bland foods of Europe
                 Fine porcelain and silks fro m China
                 Perfu mes
           Europeans traded woolen goods, tin, gold, and silver
           European markets developed strong demand for products
                 Such as Far Eastern spices, dyestuffs, and textiles.
                 Keyed by travelers' descriptions.
                 Potential wealth of the East Asia trade foreseen.
                 Trade expansion long hampered by inefficiency of overland transportation.
           England will see the rise of the merchant class and the creation of markets later than Italy, Portugal, and Spain
           The difficulty of t rade
                 old routes difficu lt dangerous and expensive
                 months and years passed before goods arrived
                 camel caravans overland fro m Ch ina and central Asia crossed vast wastelands and high
                  mountains to Constantinople and Alexandria.
                 goods also moved across the Indian Ocean  by camels across the Arabian Desert  across the Mediterranean Sea
           Controlled by Italian monopol y - Genoa and Venice
                 Created middle class and led to creation of nation states
     Institutions and forms expanded to facilitate co mmercial growth
           Merchants and other middlemen. – gained the most from exp loration
           The shipping industry.
           Towns as commercial centers.
           Financiers and banks.
           Joint stock companies provided new sources of capital
                 sold stock or shares in a venture
                 enabled risk-takers to share the risk and profits
           Entrepreneurs – combined money, ideas, raw materials, labor to produce profit
           Used the profits to repeat the process
     Early emphasis on Industrial production of and trade in woolens
           Rooted capitalis m's modes of production and distribution in England.
           Encl osure Movement
                 moved to consolidate estates for more intensive agriculture
                 threw peasant farmers off their plots - fewer shepards needed
                 homeless, jobless peasants moved to the cities to become wage laborers
                 this created the first stage in industrial develop ment
     Continental Europe lagged behind industrially, depending instead on foreign trade
           Economic o r Religious? Why?
     Rise of nation-states
The Spread of Christianity - Soci al
     The Crusades – created a sense of Christian duty to spread Christianity and convert non-Christians
     The Reformati on of the 16th century
        1. Sp lintered Ro man Catholic church and dimin ished the temporal authority of the pope.
            Martin Luther - 1517 - Germany
                         The papal Bu ll wh ich condemned Martin Luther.
            Printing Press - 1450 - allowed the rap id circulation of his ideas
            John Calv in - 1536
                         fu rther splinter Europe
                            Doctrine of Predestination
                            even more insistent on individual godliness than Luther
         2. Countered traditional Ro man Catholic teachings against materialism.
             justificat ion by faith emphasized over good works
         3. Ethos of Protestantism generally related to growth of SPIRIT OF CAPITA LISM .
                        a. Sanctioned acquisitiveness.
                        b. Accounted as virtues habits of hard work, efficiency, frugality, and the like.
                        c. Accepted the basic premise that wealth should produce more wealth.
                        d. Produced decline in a purely spiritual cosmology.
         4. Created co mpetition to spread the two ideologies
                        conflicts led to the desire to spread competing ideas
                        gave people a reason to escape the relig ious wars that developed in Europe
          Economic or relig ious? Why?
Technol ogical Advances
      Factors that made explorat ion possible
      During the 1200s it would have been nearly impossible to make voyages of discovery
      Renaissance – increased the level of technology and knowledge to a level where explorat ion could begin
            Early sailors stayed close to land
            Later sailors used the position of the stars and the sun to determine direction
            Hourglasses told how long they had traveled
            Three variables to determine position
            Calculations were very inaccurate
      New instruments were needed for ocean travel
      Cartography – the art and science of map making –
            During the Renaissance works by the Hellen istic astronomer Ptolemy reappeared in Eu rope
            His maps gave Europe a better picture of the world
            His use of a grid system with latitude and longitude became the standard still used today
            His system had been imp roved upon by the Byzantines and the Arabs and the Europeans made further refinements
            Portolani – charts of coastlines and distances between ports – developed by Arab navigators
            by 15th century – Europeans were fairly accurate
            Multiple masts – Chinese
            Triangular l ateen sail – allowed ships to sail into the wind – Muslim
            Mobile enough to engage in naval warfare
            Deep-sea rudder – Chinese
            Large enough to carry heavy cannon and substantial amount of goods over long distances
            Light enough to sail up shallow inlets for repairs
                  a. Able to sail to windward.
                  b. Made remarkable speeds.
                  c. Maneuverable and durable.
      Navigati onal techni ques
            Compass – direction the ship was moving - Chinese orig in
            Astrolabe – used the sun or a star to ascertain a ship’s latitude
                  few Captains had the skill or patience required for the astrolabe
                  perfected by the Muslims
            Sextant – replaced the astrolabe as the navigation tool of choice
Political Moti ves - The Rise of Europe
The 11th c Norsemen -discovered America
      1. Chance landing and cursory exploration of " Vin land" in 1000
            a. Eric the Red - Viking settlement in Greenland in 900s
            b. Leif the Lucky Eriksson - 1000 - blown off course - landed in "Wineland the Good"
            c. Possibly the New England coast at some point.
            d. Nova Scotia or Newfoundland are other possibilities.
            e. 500 years before Colu mbus.
      2. Subsequent brief excursions dispatched - main ly for lu mber.
      3. Effects of the Vikings' voyages
            a. No permanent settlements established - Vikings not interested.
            b. Probably did not realize that they had reached a previously unknown continent.
            c. The people of Western Europe heard little or nothing of voyages.
            d. Under the feudal system western Europe was preoccupied with the struggle to survive.
     4. The A mericans left to develop in isolation for another 5 centuries
Medieval Conditions that prevented exploration
      1. Feudal structure - Nobles and Serfs
      2. System based on
          land value
         serfdo m
         bound peasantry
         static social order.
      3. Life nasty, brutish and short - war to solve problems
      4. Laws detailed - d iscouraged change
         Under these conditions colonization could not occur
What changed in Europe? What happened to allow for exp loration?
  5. These ideas and products led to the Renaissance.
  6. Feudalis m weakened.
                Peasants treated better
  7. Black Death - wiped out 50% of the population
                a. began in Constantinople -1347 A.D. - weakened their economy
                b. Black Death ended this need for population control for about 150 years
                             killed 1/ 3 of the population
                             by 1492 the problem had returned
                c. pro moted the unification of old realms into early modern states
  8. Magna Carta - 1215
                the English aristocracy curbed the powers of the king
                Parliament gained the right to meet regularly
                Parliament gained the power to pass money bills
                Th is gave Parliament a check on the power of the king
                    Economic o r Religious? Why?

E. Feudal structure deteriorated to be replaced by the Nation - State

   1. Vast temporal and spiritual changes over the centuries steadily eroded feudal structure
      fro m the Renaissance on.
   2. Monarchical centralization tended to usurp traditional role o f the nobility.
   3. Land as the basis of wealth and status declined.
               a. Alterat ion in money supply.
                   1. t remendous influ x of gold and silver fro m overseas mining and fro m piracy.
                   2. Eu rope's money supply increased seven times over in early colonial period.
               b. Consequent alteration of price level.
                   1. Increased between two and three times fro m 1540 to 1640.
                   2. Inflated cost of living.
                   3. Rents no longer able to provide traditional standard of living.
   4. Economic power passing to commercial and banking groups.
   5. Overseas ventures provided nobility with
               a. Possibility of new wealth and status.
               b. Adventure.
               c. Opportunity to be of service to monarch.

C. Onset of Nati onalism had Fundamental consequences

   1. Monarchies were centralized by dynastic houses.
               a. England under the Tudors.
               b. France under the Bourbons.
               c. Spain and Austria under the Hapsburgs.
               d. Had little power during the Middle Ages.
   2. Centralization of power consolidated.
               a. Crusades killed many feudal lords.
               b. Rising merchant-middle class supported monarchs to assure
                   protection of property and trade.
               c. Proved mo re efficient in provid ing security.
                   1. Armies of dynastic houses provided protection.
                    2. Principalit ies sought protection for self-preservation.
                d. Papal authority weakened by Reformat ion.
                e. Alliances, marriages, and diplo macy aligned power centers, the nation states.
                f. A waken ing spirit of nationalis m - monarch as symbol of unity.
   3. Unity provided greater access to resources to pay for discovery, conquest, and colonization
      national taxing systems took advantage.
   4. Nation-states sought various means of increasing their power, such as overseas expansion.
      Co mpetit ion for prestige.
   5. M iddle class sought increased investment and trade.
   6. Co mmercial Revolution
                a. The search for new routes led to explorat ion and colonization.
                b. Portuguese, Spanish, and later French, English, and Dutch sought to expand world trade
                c. Pushed trade out of the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic Ocean
                    to bypass the Italian monopoly.
   7. Explorat ion: Impulses for e xplo ration included:
                A spirit of curiosity and adventure
                Prospective wealth in precious metals, in trade, and in slaves
                missionary impulse the cross accompanied the sword
D. Reasons for voyages of explo ration wh ich followed Co lu mbus 3 G's.
            1. seek a passage through or around the Americas to the Far East.
            2. secure gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuable products sugar and indigo - blue dye
            3. establish claims to new lands.
            4. convert the Indians to Christianity.
            5. Sat isfy the spirit of adventure and intellectual curiosity.
            6. Pave the way for t rading outposts and settlements.

E. Impact on England

   Ho w did Eng land react to these events?
   Were those reactions economic or relig ious? Why?

F. Catholic Reform - occurred as a result of the Protestant Reformation

    Did this refo rm impact British colonization?
I. Early Exp lorations
Motives - 3 G's
      Go ld
Early 1400s - Europeans went in search of a better trade route to Asia
      built new emp ires
      destroyed empires
      tremendous loss of life
      lin ked world together - ending isolations of the world's major civ ilizations
                    A. Age of Expl oration
                    Moti ves
                    Glory - Interest in Trade with Asia
                    1300s - Crusades created a dependence on spices from Asia
      Spice trade controlled by Arab and Venetian merchants
      Chinese and Indian traders sold spices to Arab merchants
      Arab merchants shipped those goods by caravan across land to Europe
      they sold those goods to Venetian merchants at a huge profit
      Europeans began to look for ways to bypass the Arabs
Marco Polo – late 13th century
      Visited the court of Kublai Khan – Mongol ruler of China
      Also visited Japan
     25 year trip
     The Travels - Glo ry
     Read by many – including Christopher Colu mbus
     printing press invented in 1450 in Germany facilitated spread of scientific knowledge
     14th century – travel east by land drastically reduced
     conquest of the Ottoman Turks
     breakup of the Mongol Emp ire
     Led to consideration of trade by sea
     Go ld - Economic mot ives
     Govern ment officials
     Precious metals – Gold
     Expanded areas of trade
     Spices of the East
     Used to keep foods from rotting
     Add flavor to meals
     Spices were shipped by Arab middle men and were very expensive
     God - Relig ious Motives
     Portugal and Spain had driven out the Muslims and Jews
     Both had a strong Crusading spirit
     Desire to spread Christianity and save souls
     Hernan Co rtes – Spanish conquistador
     Duty to make Mexican natives into Catholics
     Relig ion provided the moral approval for the materialistic goals of the explo rers
B. Portugal Leads the Way – Focused on trade rather than empires or colonies
The Portuguese Expl ore Africa
     Prince Henry the Navigator – 1394 - 1460
           Son of King John I
           Never made an ocean voyage
           Sought trade opportunities
           Sought to spread Christianity to aid in the war against the Moors
           1419 – established a navig ators school and shipyard in SW Portugal
           Studied writings of Renaissance travelers.
                 map makers
                 sponsored voyages
           Sent out fleets along the west coast of Africa in search of gold
                 Reached Senegal River
                 Brought home a cargo of black Africans
                 Most were sold as slaves
           Soon – 1000 slaves were shipped every year to Lisbon
           Discovered the Go ld Coast – southern coast of the hump of West Africa
           Leased land fro m local ru lers
           Built stone forts along the coast
                 Traded gold
Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia
     Bartholomew Diaz
           1488 – Cape of Good Hope – rounded the tip of Africa
           proved that ships could reach East Asia by sailing around Africa
     Vasco da Gama
           1498 - route around the southern tip of Africa to Calicut, India
           four ships – 10 months
           returned with ginger and cinnamon
         fine silk
         skirmishes with Arabs
         returned with a several 1000 percent profit
         broke Italian monopoly
    Pedro Al vares Cabral
         1500 – Cabral claimed Brazil on his way to India – blown off course
               located east of the line of demarcation
               Portuguese colony – produced
         Slave labor was brought in fro m Africa to produce the goods
Spanish Cl aims
    Spain soon challenged Portugal's early dominance
    Monarchy consolidated by 1469 marriage of Ferdinand of Castile and Isabella o f Aragon became the most po werful in Eu rope.
    Moors finally driven out in 1492 allowing Spain to turn to foreign trade.
    Overseas thrust quickly begun.
    1492 – Christopher Colu mbus
         Convinced Spain to finance a trip to Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean
         Immediate impact – increased tensions between Spain and Portugal
               Both Spain and Portugal wanted to protect their claims in the Americas
                     Portuguese wanted this to protect their control of trade with India
                     Turned to the Pope to settle the dispute
    1493 – Pope Alexander VI stepped in to keep peace between the two Catholic nations
         Line of Demarcation – drawn in the Atlantic
               Everything west belonged to Spain
                     To Spain - all non-Christian lands to south and west toward India beyond line
                     100 leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands.
               Everything east belonged to Portugal
                     To Portugal - all lands to east of the line.
               Spain and Portugal granted exclusive sovereignty.
                     Allowed Spanish to dominate exp loration for 100 years
    1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas was signed and colonization began in earnest
         Div ided the New World.
                 Line of demarcation moved 270 leagues farther west.
                     1,100 miles west of Cape Verde Islands.
                     Portugal granted exclusive rights east of the line.
                           Included: Brazil; Africa; and Asia
                     Spain granted exclusive rights west of the line.
                     Spanish political authority flooded the region.
         Ignored by those countries shut out by the agreement
C. Trading Empires in the Indi an Ocean
    Portugal’s Tradi ng Empire
    Pedro Al vares Cabral
         1500 – Cabral sent to Calicut with a fleet of 13 ships
               less than 6 months after da Gama’s return
               Portuguese ships returned every year and fought to destroy Muslim shipping
               in order to gain a monopoly on the trade
         1509 – defeated a co mbined Turkish and Indian fleet – established control of the Indian Ocean
    Admiral Alfonso d’Al buquerque
         1510 - Set up a port at Goa – West Coast of India
               HQ for Portuguese trade empire in the area
         1511 - Fro m there spread to Mal acca – Malay Pen insula
               Strategic location in the Strait of Malacca
               Spice trade had to come to this port city
               Control of the city helped to destroy the Arab spice trade
                     Prices were 1/5th what they were under the Arab-Italian monopoly
               Provided a route to the Moluccas – Spice Islands
               Massacred Muslims or mutilated them
               More trade expeditions sent to China
               Signed a treaty with local rulers for export of cloves
         Keys to victory
               Guns and seamanship
               Heavily armed ships
               Trade empire was co mplete but limited
               Portugal lacked power to control area
                     Lacked population
                     Did not desire to control
         1514 – built at fort at Hormu z – gaining control over the Strait of Hormuz
               Controlled Persian Gulf
         Results of Portuguese exp loration and colonization
         Gradually dominated lands along sea route.
               Especially along African continent, north to south on west coast.
               The first European colonizer of Africa.
               The last remain ing Eu ropean colonizer of Africa -contemporary Angola and Mozamb ique
         Spread Catholicis m and Portuguese culture.
         Achieved wealth fro m co mmercial penetration of Asia.
    Spanish Rule in the Phili ppines
         1521 - Ferdinand Magellan – arrived in the Philippines
         1565 - first Spanish colony
               Overseas territory ruled by a parent country
               Philippines - Manila Harbor
               Spread Ro man Catholic faith
Other Nati ons Dri ve Out the Portuguese
    Dutch Traders – the Netherlands gained independence from Spain in 1581
    By 1600 – largest fleet of ships in the world – 20,000
         In Indonesia – Dutch East India Co mpany competed with England to drive out the Portuguese
         Gained control of most of Indonesia gradually by late 1700s
European Trade Outposts
    Dutch – HQ – Java
         Seized Malacca and Sp ice Islands
         Controlled the Cape of Good Hope – South Africa – Boers
         British and French began to compete - building outposts in India

I.     Spanish Conquests in the Americas (483 – 489)
Main Idea – The voyages of Colu mbus prompted the Spanish to carve out the first European colonies in the Americas
Setting the Stage – Co mpetition fo r control of t rade with Asia led Christopher Colu mbus to make a daring voyage for Spain in 149 2
to reach Asia by sailing west. He never reached Asia, but he did land in the Caribbean islands settling in motion a process that would
bring together the peoples of Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
A. Columbus’s Voyage Paves the Way
Europeans: Were in itially welco med and Native A mericans often assisted in their ad justment to an alien environ ment.
    1. Established a century prior to European North American co lonization.
       a. Able to operate freely without distracting Great Power rivals.
       b. Qu ickly subjugated the native populations.
       c. Maintained tight restrict ions on everything.
    2. Most interested in easy economic return.
       a. Able to export substantial quantities of gold and silver.
           Th is retarded long-term economic develop ment.
       b. Lost interest in North A merican explo rations when no precious metals found.
       c. few people went...planned to return home.
    3. Supported and controlled by strong united political and relig ious institutions.
       a. Centralized monarchies.
       b. Ro man Catholic church.
Native A mericans were soon, however, conquered, exploited, and sometimes enslaved.
        Indo-Eu ropean racial mix (Mestizo ) and Indian-African blending were most co mmon in Central and South
       A merica.
        Native population was decimated by epidemics of European diseases
        (especially s mall po x and measles).
        Native economies were shaken by European trade.
First Encounters
1492 – End of the Spanish Reconquesta against the Moors
       Ferdinand and Isabella
     Were able to unite Spain
     End of war left money to fund new Renaissance projects
     Success of Portugal inspired them to hire Christopher Colu mbus
          Motivation – desire to counter Portuguese power and the desire to find precious metals
Christopher Columbus (c.1451-1506) and his contributions
     Italian by birth, but Spanish by culture and choice.
     Itinerant sailor and navigator throughout most of his life.
     Laid plans for reaching Far East by western route.
            Little sense of distance involved.
            Plans rejected by Portuguese.
     Approval and patronage of Ferdinand and Isabella secure.
            Underwrote Nina, Pinta, and Santa Mari a - first two were caravel-type ships.
            Authorized Co lu mbus to claim all lands discovered in the name of the Spanish throne.
            Presented Colu mbus with letter to Empero r of Ch ina.
     Saga of the voyage remains thrilling.
            Colu mbus showed great skill during 2 month journey.
            Ep ic struggle of men testing the unknown.
            Always believed he had reached the Orient or Asia - never knew significance
     Landing data.
            October 12, 1492, on Guanahani Island in the Bahamas.
            Named San Salvador Island by Co lu mbus.
            Probably present-day Watlings Island.
            500 year anniversary - 1992
     Accomplishments of Colu mbus' four voyages: 1492-93; 1493-96; 1498-1500; 1502-04.
            Discovered "New World" for Europe.
                 1. Bahamas Islands group in 1492.
                 2. Puerto Rico, Virg in Islands, and Jamaica, among others in 1493.
                 3. Hispaniola and Cuba in 1493 before ending first voyage.
                 3. Venezuela and the mouth of the Orinoco in 1498.
                 4. Honduran coast in 1502.
            Accomplishments tarnished by Colu mbus' personal inadequacies.
                 1. Cruel and barbarous in the administering of several islands
                 2. Stubborn to the point of resisting all authority.
                 3. Determined personally to control all the West Indian islands.
                 4. Died in so me degree of d isgrace.
            New lands named "America" in 1507.
                 1. Derived fro m cartographer's error.
                 2. M istaken belief that the first exp lorer had been Amerigo Ves pucci - a Florentine merchant (viv id description).
                 3. First to recognize discovery as a new continent.
     Second trip – 17 ships – 1,000 settlers
            Intended to transform the islands of the Caribbean into colonies – lands that are controlled by another nation
     Political Importance of Co lu mbus' Exp lorat ions and Discoveries
          1492 – Christopher Colu mbus proposed the idea of sailing west to reach India
          Had made this proposal to other rulers who had turned him down
            3 ships – calculated distance of 2200 miles
            Crew was near mutiny when land was discovered
            First Europeans to set foot in the Bahamas
            Called them Indians – believed he was near India
            Spent three months searching islands for gold – found some
          Made three more voyages before his death in 1506
          Died believ ing he had reached Asia
          1507 – Amerigo Vespucci – suggested that Colu mbus had discovered a New Worl d
                     Named A merica in honor of Vespucci
Other Expl orers Take to the Seas
Reasons for voyages of explorat ion which followed Colu mbus (3 G's).
     1. seek a passage through or around the Americas to the Far East.
     2. secure gold, silver, p recious gems, and other valuable products (sugar and indigo - blue dye)
     3. establish claims to new lands.
     4. convert the Indians to Christianity.
     5. Satisfy the spirit of adventure and intellectual curiosity.
     6. Pave the way for trading outposts and settlements.
1500 – Cabral – Brazil – claimed for Portugal
1501 – Amerigo Vespucci – first to determine that America was a new continent and not Asia
1507 – New continent named America
1512 – Vasco Nunez de Bal boa – crossed Panama – discovered Pacific Ocean
1519 – Ferdi nand Magellan
     Portuguese soldier led an expedit ion for Spain to find western route to Asia
     230 men – 5 ships
           experienced one mutiny in Argentina
           reached the Strait of Magellan
           3 ships got through
           took four months to reach the Philippines where Magellan was killed
     18 men – 1 ship returned in 1522
     First to circumnavigate the globe
           proved the world was round
           increased the known size of the world
           proved that America was indeed a New World
B. Spain Buil ds an American Empire
     Building an Empire - The Conquistadors (1500 - 1540)
     1. Spanish generals with mercenary armies – came to create col onies in Mexico
     2. Ranged over vast areas in search of gold and conquest.
           Found more silver than gold
     3. Easily overpowered Indian civilizations, including
           a. Aztecs.
           b. Mayas.
           c. Incas
     4. Superior war capability co mpensated for numbers.
           a. Firearms wreaked devastation.
           b. Horse cavalry permitted little military opposition.
     5. Exp loited endemic weaknesses.
           a. Existing tribal div isions.
           b. Totalitarian ru le.
     Within three years the Aztec Emp ire was no more
Cortes Conquers the Aztecs
Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) conquered the Aztecs and won Mexico for Spain.
     1519 - Received by Emperor Montezu ma as descendant of deity.
           Aztecs – Tenochtitl an – Lake Texcoco
                 Montezuma o ffered them g ifts of gold thinking they were gods
                 Spanish were horrified by human sacrifices and attacked the temples
                 Fighting broke out
                 Thousands were slaughtered
            Later quarrels and struggles produced all-out Spanish assault.
                 600 men – technological advantage
                       Superior weapons – muskets and cannon
                       Armo r
                 Disease – smallpo x and measles
                 Cortes received support from so me peoples subordinated by Aztecs.
     1521 - Conquered and destroyed Aztec Emp ire.
           Established Spanish control for over three centuries
           Spanish later extended their control to include the Mayas and all the lands between South America and Mexico
Pizarro Subdues the Inca
Francisco Pizarro (c.1476-1541) conquered the Incas of Peru - established Spanish control.
     Sought wealth and professed friendship for Incas.
     1532 - Killed Emperor Atahual pa and assumed control.
         Thousands massacred including ruler – after ransom was paid fo r his release
         Pizarro later killed in internecine Spanish struggles.
         Spain dominated area for over 300 years.
                 Enslaved natives to mine gold / silver (Potosi, Bolivia).
                 Present day Peru – Cuzco
                 Spain eventually ruled most of South America
Spain’s Pattern of Conquest
Drew fro m techniques used during the Reconquista of Spain
     Used to conquer the Muslims
     Lived among them and imposed upon them their Spanish culture
Spanish viceroys – royal representatives – ruled local provinces
     Councils of Spanish settlers gave advice
     Spanish settlers – Peninsulares – mostly men
           Marriage with natives was common
           Mestizo – mixed Spanish – native population
           Continued to oppress natives
Two goals – Gold and God
     Encomienda S ystem
           Landowners granted the right to use Native American labor
           Pro mised to act fairly and respect the workers – no enforcement
                 Led to enslavement and mistreat ment
                       Millions died fro m the introduction of European diseases
                             This led to the introduction of African slaves
                       Natives resisted Spanish rule
                             Attempted to preserve their own culture
                             Staged periodic revolts
     Mines were created
           Go ld
     Plantati ons were created
           Sugarcane – increased production and profits led to need for more labor
The Portuguese in Brazil
     Found little gold or silver
     Built huge sugar plantations
           Also spread disease
           Also enslaved many orig inal inhabitants
C. Spain Expands Its Influence
     Spanish American colonies made Spain the richest and most powerful nation of the 1500s
           Treasure ships continually sailed into Spanish harbors
           Spain built a powerful navy to protect the gold and silver
           Spain also strengthened its army – wh ich did not lose a battle for 150 years
Conquistadors Push North
Spanish rule north of Mexico (New Spain) was third in importance
     Successive expedit ions failed in search for gold.
     Juan Ponce de Leon (c.1460-1521) - first in North A merica.
         1. Discovered Flori da in 1513, landing near St. Augustine.
         2. No evidence that he sought "fountain of youth"
         3. Conducted serious search for gold.
         4. Attempted to fund permanent settlement on return in 1521 but driven off by Indians.
     Ál var Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
           In 1528 and other members of an expedition led by Pániflo de Narváez were shipwre cked on the Texas coast.
           Cabeza de Vaca and three others made their way across Texas,
           wandered through what would become the southwestern United States,
           and in 1536 reached a Spanish settlement in Mexico.
           The native inhabitants told Cabeza de Vaca tales about cities full of gold and jewels
     Hernando de Soto (c.1496-1542).
         1. Exp lored southern part of present-day United States, 1539-42.
         2. Discovered Mississippi Ri ver in 1541.
         3. Learned of various Indian cultures - including the Creeks.
     Francisco Vas quez de Coronado (1510-54).
         1. Ranged throughout southwest (New Mexico and Arizona)
             as far east as Kansas in 1541.
             sought Seven Cities of Ci bola
         2. Discovered the Grand Canyon and buffalo herds.
         3. Expedit ions brought numerous contacts with various Indian tribes.
     Settlements did serve useful functions.
     The lack of gold convinced Spain to assign mostly priests to explore and colonize areas north of Mexico
     a. St. Augustine fortress established in 1565.
          1. First permanent European settlement in the present-day U.S.
          2. Became home base for expedit ions as far north as Chesapeake region.
          3. Spanish Florida a later source of constant friction with English in North America
              fro m first assault by Sir Francis Drake in 1586 onward.
       b. New Mexico - Arizona area settlements established, 1598 - 1608.
          1. Sante Fe - founded 1605 - second oldest city in U.S.
                  Holy Faith – series of missions spread throughout New Mexico
          2. Basis for further exp lorat ion and settlement.
          3. Temporarily driven out by Indian uprising in 1680.
          4. 17th c colonization of Texas.
          5. 18th c colonization of Californ ia.
Opposition to S panish Rule
      Goal - Conversion of natives to Catholic Christianity
            Some priests tried to protect the Native Americans
                  Bartolome de Las Casas – Do min ican monk
                  Laws were passed to prevent abuse
                  Laws were not enforced
      Enco mienda was abolished in 1542.
            Replaced by African slave labor
Nati ve Resistance
1680 – Pope – Pueblo ruler led an uprising
      17,000 – New Mexico
      Freed the region fro m Spanish control for 12 years
II. Competing Clai ms in North America (490 – 494)
Main Idea – Several European nations fought for control of North A merica, and Engl and eventually emerged victorious
Setting the Stage – Spanish success led other European nations to ignore the Treaty of Tordesillas and build emp ires of their own
A. European Nati ons Settle North America
Unsuccessful explo ration in search of a Northwest Passage to Asia introduced European nations to North America and led to the
creation of colonies
Explorers Establish New France
Gi ovanni de Verrazano (c.1480-c.1527)
      Florentine navigator sponsored by Francis I of France.
      Exp lored the Atlantic coast fro m Nova Scotia to No rth Carolina in 1524.
          Sought Northwest Passage
      Provided a tenuous basis for France's original clai m to North America.
Jacques Cartier (1491-1557)
      Made three voyages under commission of Francis I.
      Sailed into mouth of St. Lawrence in 1534 and discovered the river.
      Sailed up the St. Lawrence on 1535-36 voyage to sites of Quebec and Montreal
          claimed Canada as territory for French king.
      Failed in 1541 to establish permanent settlement at Quebec site.
          Discouraged by harsh climate and failure to discover precious metals.
          Ended serious French colonizat ion attempts until the 17th c.
Samuel de Champl ain
      1608 – Founded Quebec – first permanent French settlement in the New World – New France
Jacques Marquette and Louis Jo liet
      1673 – missionaries who explored the M ississippi River Valley
Robert La Salle
      1683 - Claimed the area a round the Mississippi River for France
            Named it Louisiana – after Lou is XIV
Failure of French Huguenot Ventures
      Port Royal settlement (South Carolina) failed in 1562.
      Settlement of Fort Caroline on St. John's River in Florida destroyed by Spanish in 1565.
Ed ict of Nantes
      St Bartholo mew's Day - 1572 - over 10,000 men, wo men, and children butchered (Huguenots)
      1598 - Edict of Nantes granted limited toleration of French Protestants.
            Restricted their travel to New World
A Trading Empire
French pattern
      Sent few settlers –priests and fur trappers had little desire to build civilizat ion
      Required Catholicis m and loyalty to France
      Jesuit missionaries went to convert Indians
     French explorers tended to live with the natives
          Trade blankets, guns and wine fo r animal skins
          Lu mbering
The English Settle at Jamestown
A. English Approach to Colonizat ion

   Impacted by Spanish, French and Dutch experiences
   British Institutions were different
      16th-century British society was based upon Protestant institutions.
      Govern ment - a constitutional monarchy with an increasingly powerfu l Parliament
   Geography was different
      New world climate - not as much of a factor for Great Britain as for Spain.
      The area settled by Britain faced smaller no madic tribes over a smaller land area.
   At first no specific plan fo r colonization or overall plan for settlement existed
      Eng lish colonies were settled before England developed a concept of empire

B. First Brit ish claim to New World - Henry VII

   English Unification - after the War of the Roses
     when the Houses of York and Lancaster merged
     with the marriage of Elizabeth of York to Henry o f Lancaster.
  Henry VII (1485-1509) strengthened the monarchy by reducing the power of the nobility.
     He turned down Colu mbus' brother who was searching for funds for exp loration.
     he authorized a venture following an economic buildup
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto; c.1455-c.1499)
              a. Venetian navigator sponsored by Henry VII of England.
              b. Sailed in 1497 seeking Far Eastern riches - Northwest Passage.
              c. Colu mbus' successes a strong incentive.
              d. Landed in New World on June 24, 1497, so mewhere in far northeast.
                  1. Lab rador, or
                  2. Newfoundland,
                  3. Cape Breton Island.
                      Cabot found a rich fishing area
              e. Clai med possession of North America for the English king.
                  When he returned to England, the king rewarded him with ten pounds
                  He disappeared during a second voyage with his brother Sebastian
                     ru mors persisted that he had returned to England
              f. Provided the orig inal basis for Eng land's North American emp ire.
  Was this explorat ion motivated by economics, polit ics, or religion? Why?

II. Tudor polit ical consolidation - decline in exp lorat ion

   Internal factor - necessary to set up overseas expansion

A. Henry VIII - (1491-1547; ruled 1509-47) - English Refo rmation

   England soon lost interest in colonizat ion under Henry VIII
       mo re interested in fathering sons as legitimate heirs
   Tho mas More's Utopia - 1516
                  h ighlighted Old World flaws vs. idealized New World potential
                  desire to create the perfect society
                  largely ignored
   1. Consolidated Tudor rule established by his father, Henry VII.
   2. Po litical supremacy challenged only by church of Ro me.
                  a. Owned about 25 percent of Eng lish land.
                  b. Enjoyed annual inco me in excess of 320,000 pounds.
   3. Henry's break with Ro me.
                  a. Honored by pope as "Defender of Faith" for h is opposition to Martin Luther.
                  b. Asked pope in 1529 for permission to divorce the queen, Catherine of Aragon.
                      1. Daughter of Ferdinand and Isbella of Spain.
                   2. Married Henry in 1509.
                   3. No male heir after 20 years of marriage.
               c. Request denied by Pope Clement VII.
               d. King defied pope.
                   1. Married Anne Boleyn in 1533.
                   2. Further enraged church by taking a succession of wives.
                   3. Broke with the pope over economic, political, and social d ifferences
                      (including his divorce and remarriage in 1529).
               e. Created Anglican Church
                  declared himself the head of the church
                   Church of England

B. Results of King's break with Ro me

   1. Church of England established with king as head (1534).
      a. Encouraged Protestantism.
          1. Lutheranis m.
          2. Calvin ism.
          3. Puritanism.
   2. Economic byproducts resulted fro m seizure of vast church landholdings.
      a. Monarchy increased its wealth and power through sales of lands.
      b. Steady inflation ensued.
          1. also caused by influ x of p irate gold and silver.
          2. More private land sales followed as in flat ion took hold.
      c. Rapid turnover in real estate changed social stratificat ion.
      d. Imp lications of new inco me d istribution.
          1. Merchant fortunes created.
          2. Excess capital available for overseas ventures.
          3. Impoverished class became potential emig rants.
   3. A century of wars with Catholic Spain.
      a. European base of the Roman Catholic church.
      b. Ho me of deposed Catherine of Aragon.
      c. England ended long alliance with Spain.
   4. General effects of the wars challenged Spain's power.
      a. Sea battles in Atlantic and Caribbean.
      b. Successful piracy of Spanish gold and silver.
      c. Forg ing of the English navy.
      d. Protection of the Reformation.
      e. Dawn ing of the Elizabethan Age.
   To what degree were these changes economic? Religious? Polit ical? Why?

C. Edward VI (1547-1553)

   Henry VIII's only living son
   too young to rule without regents
   died at age 15.
   Anglican Protestantism was consolidated by the regents and Parliament

D. Mary (1553-1558)

   Henry's daughter by Catherine of Aragon, whom he first married
   ruled b itterly
   briefly returning England to Catholicis m during her five year ru le
   forcing many Protestants to flee the continent
   to further study in leading Protestant centers of Europe.
   What happened to exploration during the reign of Ed ward and Mary? Why?

III. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - conditions that effected exp loration

A. Return to Anglican Protestantism
  Born in 1533
  Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
  Replaced Mary who had returned England to Catholicis m and persecuted Protestants
  Elizabeth established the Church of England - Ep iscopal Church
     a co mpro mise church
         dogma Protestant
         hierarchical organizat ion and liturgy - Catholic
     d issenters were not satisfied
         wanted to purify the church of Catholicis m
         left the Anglican Church to form their o wn churches
         Pu ritans who sought to substitute Presbyters and synods for bishops
     Brownists - Congregationalists
         ext reme left ist Puritans
  exco mmun icated by the Pope in 1571
     A groundswell of opposition was tolerated for the most part by Elizabeth
         Th is set the stage for a later period when relig ious persecution would provide a motive for colonization by some

B. Defeat of the S panish Armada

  1. Attack at sea
     a. Date - 7/30/1588 - Philip II - sought to wipe out Protestants
     b. Defeat of the Spanish Armada - 132 war ships
         30,000 men
         3,165 artillery pieces
     c. English Channel
     d. British fleet s maller but faster - hit and run tactics - Francis Drake
     e. Spanish fleet anchored at Calais, France after 1 week
  2. Disaster for the Spaniards
     a. 8/7/1588 - fire ships forced the Spanish out of the harbor
     b. Disorder allowed the British to win
     c. The escaping Spanish fleet was largely destroyed by a storm (Protestant Wind )
  3. A turning point in h istory - significance -biggest impact
     a. Spain had been growing rich off of the new world
     c. The biggest obstacle to British colonization was Spanish control of the Atlantic
         Allowed Brit ish to build colonies in the New World
         and challenge the Spanish control of that area
     d. England #1 - mistress of the seas
  Economic? Relig ious? Political? Why?

C. Irish Experience - (1585 - 1598)

  leaders first involved in New World co lonizing had served in Ireland
     Ireland had become a kingdo m in 1542
     Irish were mo re like Eng lish than Indians
     Control had required brutal military conquest
     Were these conflicts economic or religious in nature? Why do you think so?
  Led to view of Indians as savage and barbaric
     Brit ish will be less likely to attempt to convert the Indians than were the French and Spanish who had no such Irish
     Brit ish were mo re likely to use military force against the Indians than to attempt to assimilate them
  Were these attitudes economic, polit ical, or relig ious? Why?

D. England in 1600 - Other conditions that effected colonization

  1. Population had increased fro m 3 million to 4 million in a fifty year period
  2. Encl osure Movement
      Enclosure of land to raise sheep for a profitable woolen industry led to rural unemp loyment, movement to cit ies, and
     pressures for overseas settlement.
     a. farms turned into sheep pastures - requiring fewer workers
     b. food shortage resulted
     c. led to urbanizat ion and lay the groundwork for industrialization
     d. unemp loyment (yeo man farmers) provided indentured servants for colonization
  3. Pri mogeniture - oldest sons inherited land no mo re available for the rest
     a. younger sons sought opportunity to make it
     b. sought adventure.
  To what extent were these factors economic? Religious? Political? Why?

IV. Overseas expansion stressed in the Elizabethan Age

A. The Queen actively encouraged overseas ventures

  1. Sponsored exp loration and colonization and overseas commerce.
  2. Established England as the leading world sea power.
  3. Isolated Spain through diplo matic alliances.
  4. Severely crippled Spain's global power through destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

B. Richard Hakluyts - 1580s - 1590s

           advertised the advantages of colonizing on the far side of the Atlantic
              Nobility - new estates
             Merchants - markets and resources
              Protestant clergy - Indians needed saving
           Two o f them
           Economic? Relig ious? Political? Why?

C. Five adventurers and the Fruits of Expansionism

Sir Martin Frobisher (c.1539-94) and the search for a trade route to "Cathay."
                a. The med ieval Eu ropean name for China.
                b. Trade with the East a dream since Marco Po lo.
                c. Attempt to avoid long Portuguese trade route.
                d. Frobisher an explorer, navigator, and privateer.
                e. Searched North A merican water passages for Cathay route.
                 f. Exp lored Arctic lands in 1576.
                g. Return with "gold ore" led to royal charter for the Cathay Co mpany.
                     1. Supported by Elizabeth.
                     2. Frobisher placed in charge.
                h. Subsequent voyages and failures produced skepticism regard ing New World settlements.
                 i. Frobisher's exp lorations eventually reinforced English claims in New World.
Sir Francis Drake (c.1543-96) and the rise of English sea power (sea dog).
          The most celebrated English exp lorer and adventurer of the Elizabethan Age
          nephew of John Hawkins - slave trader fro m England
          Hawkins sold slaves in Spanish colonies
      b. Extensively involved in piracy, especially against Spain. (4600% profit)
      c. Active in the African slave trade.
      d. Circu mnavigated world, 1577-80.
          1. First Englishman to do so.
          2. Spread English influence and laid the basis for future British imperial settlements
      e. Played lead ing role in defeat of Spanish Armada.
      f. Personified rising of England's global sea power.
Sir Humphrey Gil bert (c.1537-83) and the glimpse of British A merica.
      a. Adventurer and soldier, half brother of Sir Walter Raleigh.
      b. "Pacifier" of Ireland with ruthless measures.
      c. Advanced plan for colonizing North A merica.
          1. Important as gateway to Cathay.
              wrote in 1576 that America was an island.
             If so there must be a way around it to the north.
          2. Base for attacks on Spanish, French, and Portuguese.
          3. Base for general piracy.
     d. Granted charter by Elizabeth in 1578 for New World settlement.
          1. Voyage of 1578-79
             devoted to piracy
             and attempt to find the No rthwest passage.
          2. 1583 voyage reached Newfoundland in August.
             a. 260 prospective settlers landed - colony failed.
             b. Adventurers, paupers, artisans, and religious dissidents.
          3. Land claimed for English crown.
             a. Claim acknowledged by fisherman-settlers.
             b. Conflicted with French claims.
     e. Gilbert later cru ised south on Atlantic seaboard.
     f. Lost at sea in 1583 on the return voyage
     g. Voyages spurred other adventurers.
Sir Walter Raleigh (c.1554-1618) and the Roanoke Col ony.
     a. The personificat ion of the Elizabethan man.
          Gilbert's half brother, Raleigh, received a renewal o f the Gilbert patent
          1. Gentleman, man of letters, soldier, seaman, strategist, and poet.
          2. Favorite at the Court.
          3. Persecutor of the Irish.
          4. Advocate of strong English naval power.
          5. Proponent and planner of North American co lonization.
             a. To oppose Spain and other North American colonizat ion.
             b. To further piracy.
             c. To find the passage to Cathay.
     b. The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island, 1584-89.
          1. First attempt at English settlement in A merica.
          2. Never personally v isited by Raleigh, the chief planner and financier
             (North Carolina).
          3. Discovered in naval survey of Chesapeake region.
             ships commanded by Sir Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane
             They spied on Spanish defenses in the Caribbean
          4. Landing in 1584 solid ified English claim to the continent.
          5. Land named " Virg inia," fo r the Virg in Queen, by Raleigh.
             He dispatched a colonizing party April 1585 to Roanoke Island
             leav ing Lane in charge.
             The colonists abandoned the area June 1586
             returning to England with Sir Francis Drake
              Grenville returned with supplies to find the colony abandoned and left 15 men.
          6. Another expedition under John White arrived in Ju ly 1587 and found no survivors
             leav ing another group of colonists.
             First wo men and children brought over in 1587.
          7. First white child of English parents, Virginia Dare, born in 1587.
             White returned to England one week after his granddaughter
              Virg inia Dare was born - Aug. 18
             the first English child born in the New World.
          8. Series of failures and tragedies obviously beset settlement.
          9. Supply ships arrived in 1591 and found no survivors.
             White found no trace of the colonists except for the letters CRO carved in a tree
             and the word CROANOAN carved in a doorpost.
          7 A final expedit ion dispatched in Mar 1602 made a futile search for survivors.
George Weymouth
     searched (Mar 1605 - Ju ly 1606) for territory suitable for colonization for English Catholics
     after English persecution of Catholics intensified
     h is favorable report helped stimulate co lonization
   Were these events economic, polit ical, or relig ious? Why?

D. Elizabeth's death in 1603 altered the English approach to colonization

   an approach which had failed to establish any permanent settlements
  what was the primary emphasis for exp loration and colonization by the Brit ish prior to 1607
  was it polit ical? econo mic? relig ious? Why do you think so?

I. Fundamental changes in policy after Elizabeth

A. Do mestic Changes Under James I (1556-1625; Ruled 1603-25)

  1. Relig ious strife increased
     believed in the divine right of kings
     saw nonconformity to his bishops as a threat to his authority as king of the realm
        stiffened in his opposition to Puritans and Nonconformists
        The struggle between the Crown as head of the Church and Puritans resulted in
             a Great Mig ration of them to New England
             something wh ich began under James I and continued under Charles I
  2. Parliament suppressed.
  3. Peace made with Spain - 1604.
     a. England agreed to end sea battles and piracy.
     b. Conflict in the New World to be avoided.
     c. Treasury deprived of large annual booty fro m piracy.

B. Trading Co mpanies became structural key to overseas ventures

  1. In contrast to reliance on individuals or on the Crown.
  2. Provided outlet for investment of excess capital.
      A rising merchant class invested in joint stock companies
      (corporations) for speculation at home and abroad
  3. Granted charters to conduct trade throughout vast global areas
      a. Possessed power to determine policy.
      b. Operated autonomously, but subject to Crown's pleasure.
  4. Muscovy Company of London.
      a. First English trading company.
      b. Formed in 1553.
      c. Operated in Russia and Asia until 1615.
  5. East India Co mpany
      a. Formed in 1600, functioned until 1858.
      b. Granted monopoly on trade in eastern hemisphere.
  6. Jo int-stock features of trading companies.
      a. Appealing means of raising capital for overseas ventures.
          1. Risk and profit were limited in proportion to number of shares owned.
          2. Policy determined by shareholders.
              a. Regular meetings held.
              b. Directors elected to supervise affairs between regular meetings.
          3. Supported politically and financially by Crown, aristocracy, and merchants.
      b. Co mpanies also contracted with emigrants to settle overseas areas.
          1. Co mpany's investors paid for passage and bore initial costs of settlement.
          2. Investors owned first seven years of colony's produce.
          3. Settlers assumed ownership of produce after seven years.
      c. Prospective settlers paying for passage had no contractual obligation to company.
  7. M ilitary governor appointed by Crown to rule each settlement.
      a. Carried political writ of Crown.
      b. Economic policy left to co mpany and its members .
      c. Jurisdictional d isputes arose fro m the beginning.
  Are these factors economic? Political? Relig ious? Why?

C. Financing for Colonial Develop ment

  Four types of explorat ion and colonization financing methods were formed in the 1500s
    a. Trading Co mpany or Jo int Stock Co mpany Co lony
        Hoping to find something of value to send back to the mother company, using individual investors.
        1 With the king's permission, a co mpany was formed which often had exclusive rights of trade in a part icular
        area or over a part icular product.
        2 These company charters enabled the owners to sell stock or shares to private investors, who were hoping
        fo r div idends.
    b. Covenant or Self-governing Colony
        colonies created and governed by the settlers
            Ply mouth
             Rhode Island
    c. Proprietary Co lony
        One indiv idual or g roup was given by the crown the right to govern or to settle a specified co mpany as in
        Mary land.
            The government formed could be any type
            colonists had to be guaranteed basic English rights.
    d. Royal Colony
        remained under Crown control.
        Fo r various reasons most English colonies lost their separate status and reverted to royal colonies by 1776.
  Did each of these colony types have the same motive for co lonization? Why do you think so?

D. Roanoke Colony Failu re - 1591

  Walter Raleigh
  1st English failu re - Virg inia

E. Two Virg inia Co mpanies formed

  As a result of Weymouth's exp lorations
     t wo interrelated groups of merchants from London and Ply mouth petitioned the crown in 1605 for a patent to
     co lonize for profit
         rather than prey on Spanish settlements and shipping.
         granted in April 1606
     Two Virgin ia Co mpanies were authorized :
         London Co mpany
             South Virgin ia
             region between 34 degrees North and 41 degrees North (present-day New York city)
         Ply mouth Co mpany
             North Virgin ia
             region between 38 degrees North (present-day Washington D.C.) and 45 degrees North.
     Because neither was to settle within 100 miles of the other, a neutral zone occurred.
     A co mpany received all lands 50 miles north and south of the first settlement and 100 miles in land
  Factors that influenced the character of English settlements
     Co lonies were business enterprises - profit was a principal concern
     Ties to crown were indirect
         developed own polit ical and social institutions
     Tried to isolate themselves fro m the Indians - as in Ireland
     Insufficient planning meant that nothing went as planned
         failed to consider geography of the environment into wh ich they went
         failed to take the right type of settlers to produce a successful colony in the early years
  What was the motive fo r creat ing these companies? Was it political? Economic? Religious

F. Sagadahoc Failure - 1607

  1. Ply mouth Co mpany explo red New England coast in 1606.
  2. Established settlement at mouth of Sagadahoc River (Maine) in August, 1607.
      landed 100 men
  3. Abandoned after one winter.
  4. Co mpany's efforts dimin ished.

II. Virginia - Jamestown (1607-1609)

A. Settlement established in 1607

  1. Three co mpany ships left England in December 1606 and landed in May 1607
       Susan Constant
            under Captain Ch ristopher Newport.
   2. 144 left Eng land - only 104 made it to Jamestown
   3. Settlement on "James River" peninsula named "Jamestown."

B. Failures and Hardships inherent in the situation

   Role of Geography
      1. Site in swampy area - unhealthy.
      2. Natural failures to discover gol d or the passage to India.
           next attempted to pile up exports
               lu mber
           geography made this difficu lt or impossible
      3. Food shortages critical.
           Su rrounded by heavy woods which were difficult to clear for planting
      Great d ifficu lty was experienced adjusting to the new environment:
           many died of disease and insufficient food.
   Relat ionship with the Indians worse than expected
      less trade with Indians than hoped as well
      expected to easily subdue the Indians as the Spanish had
           intended to use them for labor
      instead found that they had settled near powerful local Indians
           this created a labor shortage
   Supply route and commun ication with London unplanned
   Type of Settlers chosen - 1st two voyages
      Settlers poorly prepared for life in the wilderness.
      unproductive mix of settlers
           young, single men
           not family oriented
           no permanent stake in the commun ity
           get rich and go home
      1/3 were gold-seeking adventurers
           gentlemen - not used to hard physical labor
           another 1/3 had criminal backgrounds
      Lacked carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths
   Polit ical authority quickly bro ke down.
      a. Personal wrangling among settlers.
      b. Local council incompetent, by and large.
   Colony soon faced extinction.
      a. Original 144 reduced to 38 by 1608.
           Newport returned twice fro m London with supplies in 1608.
      b. 110 new settlers arrived in 1608.
      c. Population by 1610 numbered only 50.
           Of first 900 only 60 survived
           recruited farmers beginning in 1609
   What factors seem to have gone into the selection of the first settlers?
      Were all of these men here fo r the same reasons or was there variety?
      Would there have been differences in the type of people on the second wave of ships? How about the third?
      How would knowledge of the fatality rates have effected the type of people who volunteered to come?
           What types of people might have stopped coming as a result?
   What role did geography play? Did this effect the development of Chesape ake culture? How?

C. Emergence of J ohn Smi th (c.1580-1631)

   Sold ier and Adventurer assumed control in days of worst adversity - 1608
      1. One of seven company appointees to original governing council.
      2. Possessed natural force o f personality and skill.
        age - 27
    3. Emerged as dominant leader in first few years.
        Captain John Smith - do minated the colonial council
           enforced discipline
           overcame political dissension.
  Smith's mult iple act ivities averted extinction
    1. Laid p lans for economic diversificat ion.
        co mpulsory work program
           "He who shall not work shall not eat"
           emphasized self-sustaining agriculture primarily maize
           proved to be a turning point for the colony's survival
           but not its profitability.
        less than 12 of 200 d ied during second winter with Smith in charge
    2. Constructed houses.
    3. Opened relations with Indians.
        Trade begun (original goal to convert not followed up).
        Organized raids against Indians for food and slaves
        Heroic epic of capture by Powhatan and alleged salvation by Pocahontas.
            Crucial assistance was offered by Chief Powhatan and his
           Algonkian Indian Confederacy.
        Basic conflicts transcended Smith's personal friendships.
           Pressure on the Indians to convert to Christianity and to become farmers also led to conflict.
           1. First massacres only a few years off.
           2. By 1630 Virginia settlers and Indians in a state of perpetual hostility.
               Warfare ended with a treaty "recognizing" English authority.
    4. Surveyed and charted surrounding regions.
        a. Chesapeake Bay area.
        b. Potomac River
    5. Dissension and injury forced his return to England in 1609.
  What do you think motivated Smith?

III. Jamestown, Virginia - under Co mpany Control (1609-24)

A. New Charter - Virginia Co mpany

  Co mpany officers requested additional help fro m the Crown
    granted the colony a new charter June 1609
    turned the trading company into a Jo int Stock Co mpany,
    p lacing its control into the hands of a company-selected council
    extending its boundaries fro m "sea to sea and 200 miles north and south of Old Point Co mfo rt."
  Encouraged investment and settlement through new stock offerings.
    a. Shares sold at 12 pounds, 10 shillings, per share.
    b. Funds underwrote colonization.
    c. Each shareholder granted 100 acres of land.
    d. No import or export duties were charged on goods to the New World.
  Encouraged emigration fro m England.
    a. Passage offered for 6 pounds per person.
    b. Free passage provided in exchange for labor.
        1. Shareholder paid passage.
        2. "Indentured Servant" yeomen agreed to perform labor
            Over 60% o f settlers arrived indentured
            (obliged to work fo r a set period of years to pay off their passage money).
            a. Seven years fixed as term.
            b. Percentages agreed for splitting profits and produce.
            c. Most were single men between the ages of 15 - 24.
            d. Most had occupied the lower rungs of the social ladder in England
        3. Servant then guaranteed own land.
  What type of people came? Why did they come? What motivated the king to let them go? What motivated stockholders to
  pay for the voyage?
  New wave of settlement - same results
     9 ships
   600 settlers including some wo men and children
   2 of the 9 ships never made Jamestown
Smith had refused to yield authority to De La Ware's interim, Tho mas Gates
   left - Oct 1609
   because of a gunpowder burn, returned to London.
.The colony faced a d ifficult t ime during the winter of (1609 -10) without Smith's forceful leadership
   Starving time - 1609-1610
       hostile Indians surrounded the settlement
       they lived off of "dogs, cats, rats, snakes, toadstools, horsehides" and "the corpses of dead men"
       reduced again to only 60 of 500 - survivors in 1610.
       were in the process of abandoning the colony when the new governor arrived
Tho mas Lord De La Warr - 1st governor of Virginia
   arrived June 1610 after some dissension in the colony
   convinced the colonists to stay
   convinced the company to send in new waves of colonists
   How did they convince people to keep coming? What type of people do you think came at this point?
Sir Thomas Dale assumed control of the colony May 1611 after an ill De La Warr left.
   Dale Code imposed severe penalties for internal disorder.
   He began construction of a fort at Henrico, fifty miles fro m Jamestown.
   Sir Tho mas Gates Aug 1611 - early 1614, co mpleted stockades at Henrico.
A Third Charter granted in Mar 1612 placed Bermuda under co mpany control and allowed the use of a lottery in Eng land
as a fundraising device.
   a. Dale served as governor (early 1614 to Apr 1616).
   b. George Yeard ley was acting governor in (1616-17).
   c. Sir Samuel Argall misruled as deputy Governor until Nov 1618.
   d. John Rolfe introduced 1612 a profitable marketable cash crop -- West Indian Tobacco
       1 The first shipment of Tobacco went to England in Mar 1614.
       2 Because several settlers received their o wn land, they grew their o wn tobacco and the company suffered
       3 Although frowned upon by James I, p ipe smoking became fashionable in court and tobacco became very
       popular in England.
       4 Although some profit was made by the settlers, most of it was made by the tobacco merchants in London.
   e. Rolfe's marriage to Pocohontas 1614 briefly stabilized relat ions with local Indians
Sir Edwin Sandys , a Puritan with a high position in Elizabeth I's court and the Earl o f Southampton, gained control of the
co mpany 1618 and introduced reforms through Yeard ley who governed fro m Apr 1619.
   a. The harsh legal code was repealed in 1619, allowing the settlers the Rights of Englishmen including a
   representative assembly .
   b. A General Assembly
       co mposed of 22 burgesses 2 fro m each town, hundred or plantation
       the Governor and Council met in the Jamestown church fro m 9-14 Aug 1619
       first colonial legislature in the New World , the beginning of representative government.
   c. A system of granting land to subordinate corporations was continued.
       1 To encourage new settlers, a new headright system was installed
           any investor who bought a share for 12 1/ 2 shillings
           or went to the Virginia Co lony, received fifty acres of land.
       2 To encourage agricultural settlements and families, the company sent ninety women to the colony for more
           Pay ment for a wife was for her passage to the colony, about 125 pounds of tobacco.
   d. A Dutch man-of-war stopped in Jamestown and left 20 b lack "indentured" servants
       the introduction of black labor in the English colonies .
Under governor Sir Francis Wyatt (1621-24).
   a. A break in 1619 between the Sandys -Southampton group and Sir Thomas Smith , e x-treasurer +
       the lottery suspension by the Privy Council in 1622 resulted in many unprofitable years
   b. The co mpany went into receivership to be managed by the Privy Council starting in Ju ly 1623.
   c. Its charter was revoked 24 May 1624 and the colony became a royal colony.
   d. As a profit venture, the joint-stock co mpany failed in A merica and was abandoned after the Virginia colony.
Between (1607-1619), 1,650 settlers had left England fo r Virginia.
   a. 300 returned to England
   b. Of the 1,350 who remained, only 351 were alive at the beginning of 1619.
   c. Within five years, of 8,000 immigrants, Jamestown had only 1,132 population.
   d. In 1622, a major Indian uprising killed 347 settlers, including John Ro lfe after Pocohontas had died in London.
The labor p roblem at least temporarily as well as the distribution of land was greatly aided by the use of indentured
      a. For passage to the New World, the one paying the passage received land while the one who migrated to Virgin ia
      worked for a specified period of years, usually fro m 5 to 7 years.
      b. The servant was given food, shelter and clothing, but no wages.
      c. At the end of the period of service, the servant received something
          lu mp cash sum,
   Because the company continued to suffer financially, when the company went bankrupt, at Sandys' request Virg inia
   became the first Royal co lony.
      a. The cro wn appointed the governor and the council wh ich governed the colony.
      b. Colonists retained the basic rights of Englishmen.
      c. Although the crown did not call for a continuation of the House of Burgesses, the governors found it impossible to
      rule without it.
      d. The House of Burgesses met annually after 1629.
   Why didn't the original pro moters of the colony make a profit?
      a. Unrealistic goals
          No valuable co mmod ity was produced by Indians for wh ich the company could trade
          and no gold existed in the area
          making agriculture the key to wealth and industry.
      b. Many early settlers were not used to gathering or producing their own food
              ignorant of woodlore who did not know how to get their own game and fish although the area was
              plentiful in game, nuts and berries, and fish and
              who scorned manual labor
              who had co me for gold, not farmers co ming to establish an agricultural settlement.
      c. Poor knowledge of health practices led to settling around marsh lands which fostered diseases
      d. Working on company lands provided little incentive for artisans and skilled laborers who were sorely needed in
      Virg inia.
      e. Profitable staple crops like tobacco were discovered too late for the co mpany.
      f. The relationship with local Indians was unstable especially after John Smith left.
          1 It stabilized after John Ro lfe married Pocahontas but deteriorated after her death in London of small po x in
          2 A 2nd major uprising in 1644 resulted in nearly 350 settlers' death, after wh ich the Indian rebellion was put
          down in such a manner that a similar massive uprising never reoccurred
      g. Bickering in London among co mpany officials over policy hurt the company.

 C. Virgin ia's Surv ival assured by Tobacco

   1. Planted West Indian strains developed by Spanish.
   2. Successful experiments conducted by John Rolfe (1585-1622).
       John Rolfe (who married Pocahontas, Powhatan's daughter)
          successfully planted a cash crop of tobacco
          which was marketed despite the King's expressed distaste for the "filthy weed."
             a. Bu lk shipments to England began in 1614.
             b. In 1617, 20,000 pounds shipped to England.
                 As tobacco exports boomed, more land was put under cultivation
                 further straining relations with Native A mericans.
             c. Further cult ivation and production stimulated - ru ined soil.
   3. Tobacco established as solid economic base by 1620.
   This is clearly an economic motive - What percentage of the Virgin ia colonists do you think had this as their primary motive
   before 1620? After 1620?

D. Indian Po licy

   After early problems with Powhatan John Rolfe married Pocahontas and there was a period of peace
   Opechancanough - launched an attack against the colony in 1622
      triggered by the murder of an Indian by an English man
      1/4 if co lonists killed
      Virg inia Co mpany went bankrupt - Virgin ia became a royal colony in 1624
   New Policy - perpetual en mity
      John Smith - "now we have just cause to destroy the Indians by any means possible"
    annual military expedit ions sent out against the Indian villages
     Population growth after 1630 increased pressure on Indian lands
   What motivated this policy? Was the same policy fo llo wed in New England?

IV. In itial political drift toward self-govern ment

A. Charter of 1609 defined Virg inia Co mpany's Political relationship with settlers

   1. Po wer invested in London-based company council.
   2. Resident council under control of resident governor appointed by company.
   3. Lord Tho mas de la Warr served, 1610-11, as lord-governor and captain-general,
       with absolute authority.
   4. Settlers assured of general rights and privileges of all Englishmen.

B. Factors arose that suggested popular political part icipation

   1. Distance fro m London always a major factor.
      a. Inefficiency of reliance upon authority thousands of miles and months of travel distant.
      b. Co mmon sense of solving minor local p roblems locally.
      c. A general factor in growth of habit of self-reliance in all English North A merican colonies.
   2. Co mmon-sense modifications of Charter of 1609.
      a. Planters named their representatives to a local assembly.
      b. Effective power remained with co mpany, governor, and appointive council.
      c. Assembly met as House of Burgesses in 1619.
   3. House of B urgesses - Limited self-govern ment offered as incentive.
      a. A "burgess," in original English political sense, a "citizen."
      b. Two burgesses attended from each of the 11 plantations.
          1. Governor and council also in attendance.
          2. Meeting held in Jamestown church.
      c. Termed the first representative assembly in New World.
          1. Held no exalted notion of function or mission.
          2. Discussed common problems.
          3. Affirmed basic princip les of common -law rights.
          4. Passed first legislation.
      d. Ordered by company as part of 1619 colonial reorganizat ion.
   4. Efficiency of decentralization realized.
      a. Colony divided into county units in 1619
          indicating steady movement westward, along James River and inland.
      b. Judicial units assigned to localit ies.

C. Political self-reliance became habitual in 1620s despite Royal opposition

   1. Both James I and Charles I hostile.
      a. Refused to recognize House of Burgesses - made Va. Royal Col ony in 1624.
      b. Scorned its advice on local policy imp lementation.
      c. House of Burgesses continued to meet and function during 1625 -39 period.
          1. Neglected during English civil strife.
          2. Habits of self-government inculcated.
      d. Future powers impended.
          1. In 1643 House of Burgesses would deny right of taxat ion without its approval.
          2. Through 1650s House of Burgesses would enjoy large measures of freedo m under the Co mmon wealth.

V. Significant New Virg inia Co mpany land policy - 1619

A. Basic Object ives

   1. Attract settlers (even offered wives for purchase).
      Ninety "younge, handsome and honestly educated maydes"
          (young wo men) were sent by the Co mpany in 1619.
      The same year a Dutch slave ship deposited twenty African blacks.
         It is believed they were considered indentured and that legalized slavery developed somewhat later.
   2. Insure colony's growth.
   3. Generate profits for shareholders.

B. Dependence on Availability of land for economic develop ment

   1. Vast quantities assumed to be "free."
      a. By virtue of English claim.
      b. Little or no appreciat ion of Indian claims.
   2. 100 acres granted automatically to all pre-1616 settlers.
   3. Reversal of o ld European dilemma of land scarcity.
   4. Pro mise of land a major inducement for land-starved Europeans.

C. "Headright" system instituted

   1. "Rights" granted investors for payment of passage of others.
       a. 50 acres per "head."
       b. Thus to acquire 50 acres of Virginia land
           an investor merely paid for an emigrant's passage to the New World.
       c. Merchant planters reaped greatest benefits.
   2. So me speculators paid passages for groups.
       a. Thereby acquired large land tracts.
       b. Dispatched indentured servants to work them.
       c. Constituted beginnings of plantation system.
       d. Population steadily increased.
       e. Speculat ive groups able to pool funds and establish estates, sharing costs and profits.

D. Advantages offered by Indentured Servitude

   1. Acquisition of land the key for decades.
      a. Enclosure laws proceeded throughout the 17th c in England
      b. Large groups of common lands taken fro m rural population.
      c. Increasing impoverishment.
      d. Accelerated emigration to New World.
   2. Opportunity to begin "new life."
   3. Seven years of labor the contractual limit.
      a. Unlike Africans.
          1. 1619 arrival and sale began slavery in Virginia and in North A merican colonies
             On ly 300 by 1650.
          2. Virg inia would legalize slavery in 1661.
      b. Labor repaid payment of passage.
      c. Servants received some percentage of profits and of produce.
   4. Granted 100 acres after exp iration of contractual term beginnings of yeoman -farmer class.

E. Qu itrent system to provide co mpany with profits

   1. One shilling tax per 50 acres per year charged on each headright.
   2. Two shillings charged on former servants' 100-acre grants.
   3. Tremendous expanse of "free" land available to company
      prov ided perpetually increasing rental inco me.

VI. Basic trends in Virg inia's first 25 years

A. Mismanagement and the end of the Virg inia Co mpany

   1. Supply procedures remained chaotic.
   2. Profits were theoretically great but actually modest.
   3. Illness and disease continued to inhibit growth stability of the colony.
       a. 1618 population estimated at under 1,000.
       b. Over 4,000 settlers arrived between 1618 and 1624.
       c. 1624 population still estimated at 1,275.
      d. Of total immigrat ion between 1607 and 1624
          1. 14,000 estimated immigrants.
          2. Nearly 13,000 had died.
  4. Control over population spreading to interior increasingly difficult.
  5. Ind ian troubles chronic.
      a. 1622 massacre of over 350 settlers suggestive.
      b. Conflict inevitable in the nature of the situation.
      c. suppression of Indians between 1619 - 1622 led to great prosperity.
  6. James I dissolved Virg inia Co mpany in 1624.
  7. Virgin ia became a Royal Co lony.

B. Despite enormous difficulties, Colony was permanently established

  1. Land policy of 1619 provided great attraction during Great Migration of 1630s.
  2. Tobacco established as economic base.
      a. Markets in England and on European continent steadily expanding.
      b. Monopoly on all Virginia tobacco decreed by king in 1621.
  3. Conditions in England pro mpted emigration.
      a. Inflat ion.
      b. Enclosure laws.
      c. Po lit ical and religious repression under Charles I, 1625-49.
  4. Immigrants included skilled craftsmen.
      a. Brickmakers.
      b. Ironworkers.
      c. Vintners.
      d. Glass blowers.
  5. Great M igration of the 1630s.
      a. Estimated that over 40,000 came to the New World.
          1. To West Indies.
          2. To New England.
          3. To Virg inia.
      b. Virg inia's population in 1640 estimated at 8,000.
Puritans Create a “New Engl and”
1620 – Pilgrims – founded second British colony – Plymouth, Massachusetts
     Persecuted for their religious beliefs in Eng land
     Sought religious freedo m – Separat ists
1628 – Puritans – Massachusetts Bay co lony
     City on a Hill – model Christian co mmunity
     Mostly made up of families as opposed to the single men who created Jamestown
The Dutch Found New Netherland
The Netherlands
Dutch won their independence fro m Spain in the late 1500s
     Few natural resources
     Limited farmland
     Large Dutch midd le class saw commerce as the key to survival
     1599 – First Dutch expedit ion to East Asia
     1600s – golden age
            Dutch ships carried mo re cargo and less crew than other European ships
            Amsterdam became the world’s largest commercial city
            Dutch had highest standard of living
     1609-1610 – Henry Hudson claimed land in North A merica for the Dutch
            Hudson River
            Hudson Bay
     1621 – Dutch West India Co mpany established to build colonies in the New World
            New Amsterdam – Manhattan Island
            Mouth of the Hudson River
            Focused on the fur trade
     To encourage settlement they opened their colonies to other people and other religions
            Germans                  Protestants
            French                   Catholics
            Scandinavians            Jews
Col onizing the Cari bbean
       French – Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martin ique
       British – Barbados, Jamaica
       Dutch – Antilles, Aruba
             Tobacco and Sugar Plantations
             African slave labor
B.     The Fight for North America

The English Oust the Dutch

England Battles France

C.     Nati ve American Reaction

A Strai ned Relationshi p

Settlers and Nati ve Americans Battle

Nati ves Fall to Disease
Slave Trade
         1600s – most colonies based their economies on agricultural products
                   this required extensive use of labor
                   Enslaved Africans planted the crops and worked in the mines
         The Tri angul ar Trade
                   Fro m Eu rope to Africa - Manufactured goods
                            Ru m
                   Fro m Africa to America – Middle Passage
                            Slaves – most of whom were war captives
                            Captured by other Africans
                            Ships packed tightly
                            Chained together with little roo m to move
                            Darkness, heat, disease
                            10-24 million
                            20% died during the trip
                   Fro m A mericas to Europe
                            Go ld
         Slave life
                   Hard work – short life expectancy
                   Resistance did occur
                   1804 – Hait i – successful slave uprising against the French

B. Early French, Dutch, and English Co lonies enjoyed less success

     1. Po wers always conscious of global power balance.
                  a. Chronic political, economic, and religious strife.
                  b. Each continental war had colonial counterpart.
     2. North America less susceptible to easy economic exp loitatio n.
     3. Relationships with Indians more co mp licated.
                  a. Indian population spread out rather than concentrated and politically centralized.
              b. Encroachments not concentrated.
                  1. No slavery owing to the nature of the land and its natural economic develop ment.
                  2. Land conflicts localized.
                  3. General westward movement delayed until 19th c.
              c. European powers vied to secure diplomat ic alliances with Indian tribes.
   4. Mother countries disunited.
              a. Continental wars.
              b. Civ il wars.
              c. Relig ious strife.
              d. Min imal allocation for overseas ventures.


What motivated the English to begin explorat ion and then colonization? Look a t each of the factors and determine the motives for
changes in British policy beginning in 1497. Were those motives economic polit ical, or relig ious in origin? Why do you think so?

I. Explorat ion - Background to the English Colon ial Experience

VII. Mary land: An early Proprietary venture

A. George Calvert, first Lord Balt imore (c.1580-1632).

   1. sought to establish a religious refuge for Catholics
       a. Catholic and confidant of James I.
       b. Investor in Virg inia Co mpany and other trading companies.
           1. Great ly interested in colonization ventures - profit.
           2. Failed in attempt to colonize Newfoundland, 1622-27.
           3. Requested charter farther south.
           4. Died before charter g ranted.
   2. Chesapeake Bay charter.
       a. Granted in 1632 to Cecilius Calvert (c.1605-75), second Lord Baltimo re.
       b. Bestowed complete authority over approximately 10 million acres.
       c. Named Maryland in honor of queen of Charles I.
       d. Actually settled by Leonard Calvert (1606-47), brother of Cecilius, in 1634.
   3. Relig ious toleration an unusual feature.
       a. Relig ious concessions were expedient in maintaining loyalty to the proprietor.
       b. Served to attract a variety of settlers to the colony.
       c. Protestant governor appointed in 1648.
       d. Toleration Act passed in 1649.
           1. Guaranteed freedo m of worship for all Christians who accepted the Trinity
              actually no record of persecution of deviating Christians or of Jews.
           2. Served to attract religious expatriates to such an extent that Catholics were a minority throughout
           Mary land's colonial history.
   4. Economic base established paralleled Virgin ia's.
       a. Feudal land pattern granted huge estates - ignored
       b. Trade with other colonies quickly established.
       c. Tobacco developed as economic staple.
       d. Soil exhaustion caused by extensive farming hastened westward movement.
       e. Headright system instituted to attract settlers.
       f. Smallholders' farms.
   5. Po litical institutions also paralleled neighboring Virgin ia's.
       a. Original feudal h ierarchy resisted by settlers.
           status determined by ability
       b. Relat ive polit ical freedo ms developed in Virg inia by 1630s infiltrated Mary land.
       c. Representative assembly emerged in 1650.
           1. Smallho lders assumed powers of assembly.
           2. Gentry dominated council.
           3. Crown continued to appoint governor.
   6. Po litical disturbances along class lines continued through1670s and 1680s.
   7. Proprietary govern ment replaced by royal govern ment fro m 1691 to 1715.
      a. Gentry's influence remained do minant.
      b. Lower classes developed economic and political power slowly.

Robert Beverley - examp le o f daily life on the Chesapeake

   Four generations elapsed in the Chesapeake settlements before the quality of life changed fro m frontier living to a more
   refined style.
      p lanters economized on everything possible in order to buy as many indentured servants (and later slaves) as possible
      thus homes were primat ive - vision of plantation living will not co me true for some t ime

D. Virgin ia as a Royal Colony

   James I appointed Wyatt as governor in 1624.
      a. Yeardley became governor in Mar 1626 fo llowed by Franc is West (Nov 1627 - Mar 1629) who convened a
      General Assembly in Mar 1628.
      b. John Harvey served until 1639 and was replaced by Wyatt again (1639-41).
   Virg inia under Sir William Berkeley (1606-77), governor (1642-52).
      a. He abolished the poll tax.
      b. In Jan 1649 Virgin ia declared allegiance to the Stuarts follo wing the death of Charles I and became a refuge for
      Cavaliers fleeing England.
          1 Parliament in Oct 1650 retaliated with a blockade on Virginia, sending two armed vessels.
          2 Berkeley and the Council submitted in Mar 1652, receiving liberal terms.
   The Burgesses chose as governor Richard Bennett , a Parliamentary commissioner.
   Samuel Matthews , as successor until his death in 1659, threatened to dissolve the burgesses, who removed him temporarily
   as an object lesson, before re-electing him.
      When the Protectorate collapsed in 1660, the burgesses controlled Virgin ia until lawfu l authority wa s restored in
      Eng land, electing the Royalist Berkeley governor in Mar who was then commissioned by Charles II upon the
      Restoration in England.
   Virg inia after the Restoration
      a. Because of the Acts of Trade and Navigation 1650, tobacco prices declined.
      b. Efforts to decrease tobacco production occurred, replacing it with cloth works in every county.
      c. The Dutch Wars 1664, 1672 caused severe losses to the tobacco fleet.
      d. Continued unrest occurred after a severe cattle epidemic, a new poll tax was introduced and many servant
      uprisings happened.
      e. A further outcry occurred fro m Virgin ia when Charles II granted proprietary rights to a 5 million acre tract of land
      which the Virginia colony claimed.
   Bacon's Rebellion
      a. Nathanial Bacon of Henrico County without commission led several frontiersmen against bands of renegade
      Susquehannock Indians for which he was declared a traitor in May 1676.
      b. He then led 500 against Jamestown unopposed, forcing Gov. Berkeley to sign his commission.
      c. Berkeley could not raise sufficient fo rces against Bacon, and fled East to the shore.
      d. Large p lantation owners supported Bacon who continued to make retaliatory raids against the Indians, before
      driv ing Berkeley's forces out of Jamestown.
          1 After Bacon died suddenly on 18 Oct, rebel fo rces were captured or surrendered under promise of
          2 COL Herbert Jeffreys was sent to restore order, but his royal pardons for the rebels were nullified by
          Berkeley 10 Feb 1677.
          3 23 rebels were executed before Jeffreys formally took over the government.
   Later Governors
      a. Sir Hen ry Ch icerley served as governor fro m Nov 1678 - May 1680 fo llo wed by Lord Culpepper to Sept 1683.
      b. Lord Howard of Effingham 1683-89 struggled with Virginia's legislature who presented James II with a list of
      grievances in Sept 1688.
          1 James II was removed under the Revolution of 1689 , and rep laced by William and Mary in Feb 1689
          before the grievances were addressed.
          2 Howard's removal and the accession of William and Mary were hailed in VA as victories

III. Establishment of Maryland

A. Background -- Ten years after Virg inia became a Royal Colony
  A second plantation colony England's fourth colony of the original thirteen was estab lished near VA by George Calvert
  1580-1632 who resigned as James I's Secretary of State 1625 after converting to Catholicis m, although he was declared
  First Lord Balt imore by James I.
     a. As a member o f the Virg inia Co mpany 1609-20 and the Council for New Eng land 1622, Calvert purchased the
     southeastern peninsula of Newfoundland and created the colony of Avalon, which did not prosper.
     b. Although he settled in Virgin ia in Oct 1629, he was forced to leave when he refu sed to take the necessary Oaths
     of Allegiance and Supremacy to the Monarch.
     c. Calvert applied for a proprietary charter fro m Charles I for territory north of the Poto mac River, but he died in
     1632 befo re the request was finalized, wh ich then passed to his son, Cecilius , 2d Lord Baltimo re 1605-75.
     d. He established the first proprietory colony, Mary land, named after Queen Henrietta Maria
     e. The charter stipulated:
         1 Colonists must be guaranteed basic English rights.
         2 Calvert could make laws with the consent of free male property owners.
         3 The first legislative assembly met in 1635, and split into two houses in 1650.
         4 Because the charter did not forbid the establishment of churches other than Protestant, Lord Baltimo re
         made Mary land a haven for English Catholics.
         5 The proprietor could grant manorial estates which he did to many Catholic relatives and friends bu t settlers
         could not be attracted without the promise of land of their own.
         6 Few Catholics would migrate, and Protestant settlers soon outnumbered Catholics, who were now
         threatened with restrict ions in their own co lony.

B. Settlement of Maryland

  The first 200 settlers arrived in Virginia in Feb 1634.
  Calvert, ruling by Deputy, appointed as first governor his brother, Leonard Calvert , who established a manorial govern ment
  and fostered friendly relat ions with the Indians.
  Trouble brewed between these settlers and William Claiborne 1587-1677 of Virg inia over territory within Mary land's grant
  but which had been used by Claiborne.
  The crown ruled against Claiborne's claim in Apr 1638.
  During the Interregnum
     a. The Calverts were ousted from their proprietorship briefly and again under William III and forced to flee to
     Virg inia after additional trouble fro m Claiborne and fro m Richard Ingle , a Protestant t obacco grower, both of who m
     captured parts of Maryland and plundered other parts.
     b. The charter was almost revoked after Ingle returned to England in 1647.
     c. Under a Protestant deputy governor, William Stone , Maryland pas sed an Act of Toleration in Apr 1649, one of
     the first such acts to grant religious freedo m in the colonies, although it did not protect Jews or Athiests, but tolerated
     d. A Ro man Catholic royalist governor, Thomas Greene , recognized Charles II's claim to the throne and caused an
     investigation of the colony in England.
     e. Parliamentary co mmissioners, including Claiborne, designated William Fuller as governor who called an Assembly
     in 1654, which repudiated the proprietor's authority in the colony and also revoked the Act of Toleration, denying
     Catholics the protection of law.
     f. A b rief civil war in 1655 was won by the Puritans who imprisoned Stone.
  Philip Calvert regained his place as proprietor in Nov 1660 and was succeeded by Charles Calvert who became 3d Lo rd
  Balt imore in 1675.
  Increasing tension 1661-81 between the proprietary regime and the anti-proprietary party, led by Josias Fendall ousted as
  governor when the Calverts returned to power
     a. The proprietors became unpopular when the price of tobacco dropped.
     b. Problems intensified after voting restrictions were limited to freeholders Dec 1670, Indian raids increa sed,
     nepotism rose, and anti-Catholic sentiment grew.
     c. A short-lived rebellion was crushed in Sept 1676 with the leaders hanged.
     d. A second rebellion Apr 1681 was unsuccessful before Fendall was banished.
  Revolution of 1689 in Maryland 1684-95
     a. Lord Baltimo re returned to England in May 1684 to settle boundary disputes with Virg inia and with Penn's colony
     to the north and to answer charges that he favored Roman Catholics and interfered with roya l customs collectors.
         1 His nephew, George Talbot , act ing governor in his absence, was accused of murdering a collector 1684, a
         charge of which Lo rd Baltimore was also questioned.
         2 Lord Baltimo re was fined for obstructing the collectors, and Talbot was sentenced to death before the king
         banished him for five years in 1686.
     b. During Lord Baltimo re's absense, anti-proprietary sentiment grew amidst rumors that the colony would be turned
     over to Catholics, and was aided by a struggle between the assembly and Baltimo re's new appoint ment, William
     Joseph .
     c. After the accession of William and Mary and the declaration of war with France in May 1689, John Coode led a
     Mar against St. Mary's and forced Joseph and his lieutenants to surrender.
   Maryland as Royal Co lony
     a. The new assembly petitioned the crown to take over the colony and elected Nehemiah Blakiston as president.
     b. The Lords of Trade made Maryland a royal colony in 1691 and appointed Sir Lionel Copley as first royal
     c. The Church of England was established in Maryland 1692.
     d. Its capital was moved fro m St. Mary, a catholic city, to the Protestant city of Annapolis, 1695
     e. Benedict Leonard Calvert converted to Anglicanism 1713, rearing his children as Protestants.
     f. The proprietorship was returned in 1715 to his son Charles Calvert , as 4th Lord Balt i more, when the charter of
     1632 was restored.

C. Develop mental Patterns in Maryland similar to Virg inia

   Prosperity was connected to tobacco farming.
   Init ially a wh ite indentured labor force was brought in to work the plantations.
   In the late 1600s, large nu mbers of lifet ime b lack servants began to flood the colony

   Charles I (1625-49) proved to be even more headstrong concerning the monarchy and ruled without Parliament fro m
   (1628-40), levying taxes by royal decree.

         The struggle between Charles I and Parliament intensified into a civ il war which resulted in the
         execution of Charles I and an end to the Migration.
         Pu ritans ruled England during the Interregnum (1649-60) under Oliver Cro mwell

   So me, frustrated at the inability to further change the Anglican Church under Elizabeth I, eventually left the church and
   were called Separatists .
      a Separatists had no hope for the Church of England; it could not b e salvaged.
   b So me mig rated to Holland before migrating to the New World - Pilgrims

D. The Plantation

   1. Developed in one-crop areas.
      a. Virginia's tobacco culture, for examp le.
      b. South Caro lina's rice and indigo.
      c. West Indian sugar.
   2. Meaning of term shifted.
      a. Originally, a settlement - Jamestown served as the London Company's "plantation."
      b. Later came to mean indiv idual holdings.
   3. Definit ion dependent upon quantitative factors.
      a. Nu mber of servants and slaves separated "plantation" from farm.
      b. Large hold ings grew out of
           1 . Headright system.
           2. Successful marketing of crops.
   4. Virgin ia tobacco the earliest plantation crop.
      a. Configuration of rivers and bays opened interior to large holdings.
      b. Seventeenth-century development survived natural and economic calamities.
      c. Indentured servants replaced by slaves.
   5. Debt capitalizat ion a negative feature.
      a. English bankers contracted for crop.
      b. Middlemen handled sales.
      c. Cred it advanced on crop prediction.
      d. Debt servicing inevitable even if crop failed or market price dro pped.
      e. Planter at mercy of weather and free market conditions.
       f. Good times produced rich returns and allowed h igh standard of living.
      g. Tendency through generations toward indebtedness producing fixing of a co lonial de btor economy on South.
   6. Plantation society.
      a. Great house on landscaped escarpment largely fict ional.
           1. So me ho mes of architectural distinction.
           2. Much imitation of classical forms.
           3. Great mansions date fro m eighteenth century.
      b. Ancillary build ings: laundry, smokehouse, kitchens, school.
     c. Slave quarters.
         1. Cab ins and barns.
         2. Tiny smallholdings of private vegetable patches.
         3. Ch icken pens and pig pens.
         4. Much squalor.
     d. Nuclear p lanter family.
         1. Mythological stock characters - Gone with the Wind" characters surrounded by "Uncle Remus"
         2. Reality usually lacked g lamour and emphasized hard work.
         3. Evo lved depending upon size of holdings and wealth.
     e. Relat ionship to hinterland plantations.
         1. Lav ish social interaction overemphasized.
         2. Planter intermarriages frequent.
  7. Po wer o f planters.
     a. Set social norms in locality and region.
     b. Do minated economy.
         1. Provided market for s mall-farmer majority.
         2. Usually controlled most desirable lands.
         3. Maintained contacts with middlemen and bankers.
     c. Do minated polit ical power.
         1. Through deference to ''natural aristocracy" rather than conspiracy or corruption.
         2. Regularly elected to office.
     d. Provided only contact with Europe.

E. The Enslavement of Africans on Plantations

  1. Spanish importat ion of Africans as slaves began early in sixteenth century.
  2. First black men imported fro m Africa to Virgin ia in 1619.
  3. Slave trade expanded over next half-century: English and North Americans, especially New Englanders became chief
  slave traders.
  4. Barbarities of pract ice suggestive of prevailing concepts.
     a. Unspeakable horrors of Middle Passage and attitude toward worth of a hu man life.
     b. Ingrained European racial prejudice.
         1. Clearly indicated in Elizabethan literature and travel accounts.
         2. Made slave trade an acceptable way of turn ing profit.
     c. Theory of perpetual slavery co mmon.
         1. Right of victors in "just wars" to enslave vanquished.
         2. Slaves generally losers in tribal wars.
         3. Fell p rey to enterprising English slavers.
  5. Factors increased the popularity of the slave trade.
     a. Obvious profitability.
     b. Slow decline in immigrat ion of English indentured servants.
     c. Appeal of slavery as an institution.
         1. Provided permanent solution to labor problem.
         2. Investment automatically appreciated - average cost about 1730 was between 20 and 30 pounds.
         3. Hu man reproduction anticipated.
         4. Property rights perpetually guaranteed - legal codification of permanent slavery fixed; after mid-seventeenth century.
  6. Racial d iscrimination in English colonies was automatic.
     a. Duration of servitude not fixed as with white servants.
     b. Racial bias produced discriminatory patterns.
     c. Different cultural traits assumed to be inferior to European cultures.
     d. Assumption of inferiority had legal consequences.
         1. Virg inia codified slavery in 1661.
         2. New Yo rk passed strong fugitive slave law in 1705.
     e. Treatment of slaves left so]e]y to master's discretion - considered as another piece of property.
  7. By the early eighteenth century half of the population of Virginia, Maryland, and South Carolina held in slavery.

F. The Indians

  1. Continuous hostility natural in situation.
     a. Steady westward movement of settlers.
         1. Incompatib le ways of life.
          2. Indian weaknesses.
              a. Tradit ional tribal rivalries.
                  1. Produced disunity vis-a-vis white settlers.
                  2. Indiv idualist, independent ethos.
              b. White unity and firepower.
   3. Early outbreaks date fro m beginnings of European settlement.
      a. By 1630 Virginia settlers and Indians in state of perpetual hostility.
      b. 1637 victory of Connecticut settlers destroyed power of Pequot Indians.
      c. Gradual Indian retreat to interior by 1700.
      d. Would continue over two following centuries.
   4. Periodic small- and large-scale conflicts throughout colonial period all along frontier.


A. Indian Troubles and Frontier Dynamics

   1. Tribal rivalries produced migration of Susquehannocks into Virginia fro m North.
   2. Virgin ia milit ia unit massacred Indian peace emissaries in 1675.
   3. Retaliatory raid killed 36 innocent settlers in Virgin ia interior.
   4. Troubles added to exp losive general situation in Virg inia.
      a. Tobacco in depressed state owing to market conditions and one-crop economic dependency.
      b. Polit ical control in hands of Tidewater planters and their English patrons.
      c. General po lit ical indifference to inland welfare.
      d. Governor Berkeley aimed to preserve peaceful relat ions with Indians.
   5. Frontier rage.
      a. Directed against Indians in general.
      b. Directed against Virgin ia's colonial government.

B. Nathaniel Bacon 1647-76.

   1. English lawyer.
      a. Became large Virgin ia frontier landowner.
      b. Up ward mobility factor.
          1. Frontier wealth and status.
          2. Member of governor's council, representing smallholders of the interior.
   2. Led retaliatory scalping raid against Indians.
   3. General rising of interior approached class war.
      a. Bacon versus Berkeley.
      b. Frontier versus Tidewater.
      c. Farmers versus gentry.
      d. Poor versus middle and upper classes.
   4. Bacon's 1675 assault on Indians denounced by Berkeley.
   5. Bacon's forces attacked and burned Jamestown and drove Berkeley fro m cap ital.
   6. Bacon suddenly died in 1676 and the movement collapsed.
      a. Fo llo wers persecuted, some killed.
      b. Reforms eventually enacted.
          1. Representation made more equitable.
          2. Guarantees provided for frontier protection.
          3. Berkeley recalled by London.
   7. Transcendent conflicts remained.
      a. Class, regional, racial, and cultural.
      b. Wars against the Indians continued.
          1. Ever westward.
          2. Throughout colonies.

Europeans in North A merican had little basis for relating to Indian civilizations

         First confrontation not until fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
         Cultural gaps were immense.
         Europeans tended to reject Indian cultures and race as inferior.

         VI. Contrasting World Views
A. Understanding the scope of development of Indian civilizat ions essential

   1. Scope
      a. Involved millions of people.
      b. co mprised vast areas of two continents.
      c. produced rich diversity of cu ltural patterns.
      d. unfolded without interruption over centuries.
   2. Effects
      a. St rong cultural heritage.
      b. Disrupted by European colonization.
      c. Continues in attenuated forms.

B. Eastern Indians developed similar languages

   1. Were developing rap idly
       a. population
       b. social customs
       c. agricultural revolution
   2. considered Europeans a dangerous threat like any tribe would be to their tribe.

C. Differences large

It is sometimes said that the Europeans who came to the A mericas settled a "virgin land" that was unused and unspoiled; is
or is this not an accurate description of what happened?

Define savage. Then use this definition to demonstrate that the pre-Colu mb ian Indians of the Americas were or were not

   1. Europeans considered differences as defects
   2. Native A mericans sought to live in harmony with the environment
      a. Indians viewed every part o f the environ ment as sacred
          land = source of co mmon sustenance rather than wealth
          Native A mericans showed remarkable respect for and adaptation to their environ ment. Examp le: Use of
          "dry farming" and irrigation in the arid Southwest.
      b. land ownership - co mmunal
          this limited social stratification
          stressed group rather than individual
          mo re concerned with personal valor than personal wealth - more egalitarian
      c. matrilineal pattern among the Iroquois was not uncommon
          family membership determined through female line
          shared power in the economy
          divorce wo man's choice
          Wo men played a secondary role lobbying and instructing politically
              leaders could be removed if they ignored the council of wo men
          Div ision of labor was based on gender.
              Male act ivity stressed warfare and hunting
              female emphasized nurturing of children, p lanting and gathering of crops, and preparation of food.
      d. Religious differences
          no written tradit ion
          worship of spirits similar to pre-Christian European beliefs
          less structure
      Native A merican technology had some crucial gaps (use of iron, the wheel).
   3. Europeans sought to subdue nature - the enemy
      a. A resource to be used and conquered
          source of wealth
          very destructive uses of the environment
      b. Land should be privately possessed - created inevitable conflict
                  courts to settle disputes
                      material wealth
                     polit ical status
                     personal identity
                  social structure built around these concepts
                     land-wealthy elite
                      mass of propertyless individuals at the bottom of the pyramid
                      Europeans less egalitarian
              c. Traditional roles of men and wo men - challenged by native concepts of greater equality
              d. relig ion - Christianity
                  single god
                  written scriptures
                  organized clergy
                  Protestant Reformat ion influences - those not like us serve the devil
                     convert or
           3. no madic vs. permanent settlements and other differences were of lesser importance

        C. European colonizers brought cultural elements eventually destructive of Indian civilizations

           1. Varieties of messianic Christianity that refused to tolerate Indian relig ious beliefs.
               a. Puritanis m.
               b. Pilgrim Separat ism.
               c. Ro man Catholicism.
               d. Other Protestant dispensations.
               e. All eventually forced to tolerate one another
                   but at same t ime felt driven to "save" the Indians.
           2. More sophisticated weapons of destruction, especially firearms.
           3. Do mesticated horses.
           4. Into xicants.
           5. New strains of diseases.
           6. Discriminatory behavior based on preconceived racial assumptions of inferiority
               also manifested toward Africans.
           7. Economic g rowth that fostered Indian dependency.
           8. British experiences in Ireland led them to believe that they should stay separate from the Indian s
               unlike Spanish and French colonists

        Consider how the Spanish, French and Dutch patterns of settlement differed fro m that of the English. What were the social,
        economic, and political d ifferences? Were the British more or less humane?

Short and Long Term Effects

  OVER VIEW When Eu ropeans sailed westward for Asia they encountered the Americas. Exp loitation of resources
  enriched some Eu ropeans but brought tragedy to Native Americans and enslavement for African A mericans.
     • The first African slaves were brought to Europe by the Portuguese in the 1440s.
     • Co lu mbus's voyage set in motion a vast westward migration of peoples and significant cultural interchange.
     • Indians (and later, African slaves) were coerced to work in mines and on farms.
     • So me Catholic missionaries denounced treatment of Indians.
     • The flow of wealth to Spain led to inflation and eventual economic decline.
  Describe the impact of Europeans on Native American (Indian) cultures and the impact of Native cu ltures on Europeans.
  Then explain why it was or was not a good thing that European culture prevailed. How did the Spanish, French, and
  English vary in their treat ment of the Indians? Which was better? Why?

A. Spanish Power - Tremendously Increased in the 16th Century

  1. Came into control of vast areas and millions of subjects. One of the largest emp ires in h istory
  2. Enhanced position in the European balance of power - #1 till 1588
  3. Gained tremendous sources of wealth - created dependency.
              a. Go ld and silver mines actually weakened Spain
               b. Ranches, farms, and extensive real estate holdings (little reinvest).
               c. Tax base which yielded about 20 percent of private profits.
               d. 10 x as much gold and silver as all other mines comb ined
  4. Benefited fro m efficient vehicles of control.
               a. Ro man Catholic church - missionaries were very successful.
                   1. Useful emphasis on "next world" for subjugated peoples.
                   2. Theological certainty backed by political force.
                   3. A llo wed only R.C. - no haven for those escaping persecution
                       Pope's Revolt - 1680
                           Pueblo leader named Pope led an uprising
                           to protect Indian religious practices in New Mexico
                           R.C. forced to integrate practices
               b. Tight control maintained by the Spanish monarchy - poor leadership
                   1. allowed no self-rule
                   2. Co mmon law bound native peoples to serve the whims of Spanish landholders.
                   3. Same lack of freedo m as home - life mo re unappealing.
                   4. Mercantilist restrictions left colonial economy strangled
               c. Brutality and slavery - Indians became the principal labor source.
  5. Price Revoluti on
               vast sums of silver created inflation
               led to major redistribution of wealth
               Inflation created conditions which drove other Europeans to the New World
                   increased the number of people liv ing at the margins of society
  6. The first of the European colonizers, spurred later efforts.
               200,000 Spanish in New World before the Brit ish showed up
  7. Spain in the West Indies Set Pattern for Later Colonizers
               a. Larger and more successful than British as a colony lasted longer.
               b. Joined in the seventeenth century by English, French, and Dutch co lonial invasions.
               c. Original interest in gold quickly frustrated.
                   1. Tobacco culture the first economic mainstay.
                   2. After 1650, most islands relied on plantations and sugar.
               d. Black Legend - Conditions of brutality and impoverishment the rule
                   1. first overran and destroyed Indian civilizations
                   2. then tried to enslave survivors - cheap labor
                   3. finally adopted one of two attitudes
                       a. left them alone to live in isolated forests, mountains, and deserts
                       b. created mission communit ies to convert Indians to Christianity
                           (then taught farming)
                       c. African slaves imported by Portuguese traders.
        Theory that stated that a Nation-States power was dependent on its wealth
        Goal of every nation was to become as wealthy as possible
        Particularly as measured by Gold and Silver = Bullion
        This led nation-states to desire colonies
                   Raw materials
        Could beco me wealthy through trade
        Sought favorable balance of trade – exports greater than imports
                   This led nation-states to aid businesses
                   Sold monopolies – the right to operate free of local co mpetition
                   Set tari ffs – taxes on imported goods to protect industries fro m foreign co mpetition
        Purpose of colonies – make parent country self sufficient

B. Spanish Rule in Southern Americas Had Mixed Effects

   1. Wretched conditions produced decline of native population.
               a. Brutal overwork co mmon on ranches and plantations introduced by the Spanish.
               b. Rise in d isease and mortality stunning.
               c. Population dimin ished in Mexico fro m appro x. 25 million to appro x. 1 million.
   2. Basic elements of Spanish culture hybrid endured through centuries.
               a. Language and education - Church-run universities (85 years before).
               b. Religion - Catholicism.
                c. Architecture - Cathedrals.
   3. Intermarriage created mestizo class.
                a. few immig rants from Spain - outnumbered by natives
                b. many singles rather than families.
                c. Spanish merged with Indians to a larger extent than did the Brit ish.
   4. Left legacy of concentrated land ownership and wide class distinctions.
   5. Spanish culture absorbed some Indian social customs

III. Impact of European colonization on the American Indians

A. Interrupted centuries of isolation and cultural evolution of 100s of societies

B. Introduction of the Hors e and Firearms

   by the Spanish early in the 17th century produced the most fundamental changes
   1. So me tribes deserted traditional sedentary agricultural ways.
   2. Marauding bands developed in the 17th century
      a. Co manche.
      b. Arapaho.
      c. Kio wa.
      d. Cheyenne.
      e. Dakota Siou x.
       f. Apache
   3. By 1660 many North American Indian tribes were economically dependent upon the fur trade.
   4. New hunting tribes of the Plains emerged, like the Blackfoot. (buffalo)

C. Hostility between Europeans and Indians

   present from the beginnings of colonization, have continued
   1. cultural patterns and value systems marked ly different.
   2. steady encroachment on Indian lands.
       a. appropriation of land more important than sanctity of treaties.
       b. Indian concepts of property ownership and sale antithetical to laws of capitalis m.
   3. European assumptions of racial and cultural superiority.
   4. Material objectives and behavior of colonizers.
       a. Desire for quick wealth through discovery of gold and silver.
       b. Tendency to plunder and disregard Indian rights.
       c. Messianic attempts to Christianize and "civilize" the Indian s.
       d. Frequent resort to barbarism and slavery.
       e. Unquestioned assumption that the rights of discovery transcended the rights of
           indigenous peoples.

D. Advantages of European settlers over the Indians

   1. Weapons - firearms vs. spears and arrows.
   2. Agricu ltural Output - Europeans could support larger population
   3. Manufactured Goods
   4. Immunity to certain d iseases such as smallpo x wh ich destroyed entire tribes.
   5. Po litical organization - unity vs. individual tribes play one tribe against another.

IV. Cultural Diffusion

A. Fro m the New World to Europe

   1. Plants and Agricultural methods
      a. tobacco
      b. corn - more important than gold
      c. beans
      d. tomatoes
      e. potato
         1. revolutionized the international economy.
         2. fed the rapid population growth of Europe.
  2. Diseases
     a. Syphilis

B. Fro m Europe to the New World

  1. Plants and animals
     a. cattle, swine, and horses
     b. seeds of Kentucky bluegrass
     c. dandelions, daises
  2. Diseases
     a. Types.
         1. s mallpo x
         2. yello w fever
         3. malaria
     b. Killed 67% - 90% of Indian population (Examp le Hispaniola)
         1. Population - 5 million in 1492.
         2. d isease, enslavement, and armed aggression by the Spanish.
         3. Population - 250 in 1592.
     c. Between 1500 - 1800 over 50% of immigrants to the New World were Africans
         most were taken to the Caribbean to replace the Indian population as laborers.
         First slaves - 1502
         slavery had been primarily fo r criminals and prisoners of war not laborers

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