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Means of Income in Traditional Islamic State

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 261

Means of Income in Traditional Islamic State document sample

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									                                 Election Results and Platforms
Country       isoa3   Year         Party
Afghanistan   AFG            1969
Afghanistan   AFG            1988
Afghanistan   AFG            2005 Hizb-e-Islam
Afghanistan   AFG            2010
Albania       ALB            1991
Albania       ALB            1992
Albania       ALB            1996
Albania       ALB            1997
Albania       ALB            2001
Albania       ALB            2005
Albania       ALB            2009

Algeria       DZA            1991 al-Jabha al-Islamiyya li'l-Inqadh (Islamic Salvation Front)
Algeria       DZA            1991 Harakat al-Mujtama‘ al-Islami (Hamas)
                                  Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance
Algeria       DZA            1991 Movement)
                                  Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance
Algeria       DZA            1997 Movement)
Algeria       DZA            1997 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for the Society of Peace, Hims)
Algeria       DZA            2002 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform - El-Islah)
                                  Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance
Algeria       DZA            2002 Movement)
Algeria       DZA            2002 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for the Society of Peace, Hims)
Algeria       DZA            2007 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform - El-Islah)
                                  Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance
Algeria       DZA            2007 Movement)
Algeria       DZA            2007 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for the Society of Peace, Hims)
Azerbaijan    AZE            1995
Azerbaijan    AZE            2000
Azerbaijan    AZE            2005
Bahrain       BHR            1973

Bahrain       BHR            2002 Islamic societies (not parties, but candidate affiliations)

Bahrain       BHR            2006 Jam'iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society)

Bahrain       BHR            2006 Jam'iyyat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) (Shi'a)
                                  Jam'iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic
Bahrain       BHR            2006 Tribune Society)
                                  Jam'iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic
Bahrain       BHR            2006 Reconciliation Society) (Shi'a)



                                               Page 1
                             Election Results and Platforms

Bahrain     BHR          2010 Jam'iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society)

Bahrain     BHR          2010 Jam'iyyat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) (Shi'a)
                              Jam'iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic
Bahrain     BHR          2010 Tribune Society)
                              Jam'iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic
Bahrain      BHR         2010 Reconciliation Society) (Shi'a)
Bangladesh BGD           1973
Bangladesh BGD           1979 Muslim League & Islamic Democratic League (IDL-R)
Bangladesh BGD           1986 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh)
Bangladesh BGD           1988
Bangladesh BGD           1991 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front)
Bangladesh BGD           1991 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh)
Bangladesh BGD           1996 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front)
Bangladesh BGD           1996 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh)
Bangladesh BGD           2001 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front)
Bangladesh BGD           2001 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh)
Bangladesh BGD           2008 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front)
Bangladesh BGD           2008 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh)
             BIH
Bosnia-Herzegovina       1996
             BIH
Bosnia-Herzegovina       1998
             BIH
Bosnia-Herzegovina       2000
             BIH
Bosnia-Herzegovina       2002
             BIH
Bosnia-Herzegovina       2006
             BIH
Bosnia-Herzegovina       2010
Brunei       BRN     .
Burkina Faso BFA         1970
Burkina Faso BFA         1978
Burkina Faso BFA         1992
Burkina Faso BFA         1997
Burkina Faso BFA         2002
Burkina Faso BFA         2007
Chad         TCD         1969
Chad         TCD         1990
Chad         TCD         1997
Chad         TCD         2002
Comoros      COM         1978
Comoros      COM         1982
Comoros      COM         1987
Comoros      COM         1992
Comoros      COM         1993

Comoros     COM          1996 Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice
                                           Page 2
                          Election Results and Platforms
Comoros     COM       2004
Comoros     COM       2009
Djibouti    DJI       1982
Djibouti    DJI       1987
Djibouti    DJI       1992
Djibouti    DJI       1997
Djibouti    DJI       2003
Djibouti    DJI       2008
Egypt       EGY       1976
Egypt       EGY       1979
Egypt       EGY       1984   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) with Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid (New Wafd
Egypt       EGY       1987   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) with Hizb al-'Amal (Labour Party)
Egypt       EGY       1990   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood)
Egypt       EGY       1995   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood)
Egypt       EGY       2000   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood)
Egypt       EGY       2005   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood)
Eritrea     ERI   .
Ethiopia    ETH       1973
Ethiopia    ETH       1987
Ethiopia    ETH       1995
Ethiopia    ETH       2000
Ethiopia    ETH       2005
Gambia      GMB       1972
Gambia      GMB       1977
Gambia      GMB       1982
Gambia      GMB       1987
Gambia      GMB       1992
Gambia      GMB       1997
Gambia      GMB       2002
Gambia      GMB       2007
Guinea      GIN       1968
Guinea      GIN       1974
Guinea      GIN       1980
Guinea      GIN       1995
Guinea      GIN       2002
            GNB
Guinea-Bissau         1977
            GNB
Guinea-Bissau         1989
            GNB
Guinea-Bissau         1994
            GNB
Guinea-Bissau         1999
            GNB
Guinea-Bissau         2004
            GNB
Guinea-Bissau         2008
Indonesia IDN         1971 Nahdatul Ulama (Revival of the Ulama)

Indonesia   IDN       1971 Partai Muslimin Indonesia (Muslim Party of Indonesia)
                                       Page 3
                      Election Results and Platforms
                         Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (Indonesian
Indonesia   IDN   1971   Nahdlatul Community Party)
                         Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (Indonesia Islamic Union
Indonesia   IDN   1971   Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1971   Perti (Islamic Educators Association)
Indonesia   IDN   1977   Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1982   Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1987   Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1992   Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1997   Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1999   Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1999   Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1999   Partai Keadilan (Justice Party)

Indonesia   IDN   1999 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party)
                       Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (Indonesian
Indonesia   IDN   1999 Nahdlatul Community Party)
Indonesia   IDN   1999 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia   IDN   2004 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party)
Indonesia   IDN   2004 Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR) (Reform Star Party)
Indonesia   IDN   2004 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party)

Indonesia   IDN   2004 Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party)

Indonesia   IDN   2004 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party)
                       Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (Indonesian
Indonesia   IDN   2004 Nahdlatul Community Party)
Indonesia   IDN   2004 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party)
Indonesia              Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party)
            IDN   2009
Indonesia   IDN   2009 Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR) (Reform Star Party)
Indonesia   IDN   2009 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party)
Indonesia              Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party)
            IDN   2009
Indonesia              Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party)
            IDN   2009
Indonesia              Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama (PKNU) (Ulema National
            IDN   2009 Awakening Party)
Indonesia   IDN   2009 Partai Matahari Bangsa (PMB) (National Sun Party)
Indonesia              Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (PPNUI)
            IDN   2009 (Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party)
Indonesia              Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development
            IDN   2009 Party)

                                   Page 4
                       Election Results and Platforms
Iraq         IRQ   2005   al-Ittihad al-'Iraqi al-Muwahhad (United Iraqi Alliance)
Iraq         IRQ   2005   Jabhat al-Tawafiq al-'Iraqiyya (Iraqi Accord Front)
Iraq         IRQ   2005   Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union)
Iraq         IRQ   2010   Iraqi National Movement (INM, Al-Iraqiya Coalition)
Iraq         IRQ   2010   Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union)
Iraq         IRQ   2010   Kurdish Islamic Party
Iraq         IRQ   2010   Sadrist Movement
Jordan       JOR   1989   Jama'at al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin (Society of Muslim Brothers) & allied independents
Jordan       JOR   1993   Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF)
Jordan       JOR   1997   Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF)
Jordan       JOR   2003   Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF)
Jordan       JOR   2007   Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF)
Jordan       JOR   2010
Kazakhstan   KAZ   1994
Kazakhstan   KAZ   1995
Kazakhstan   KAZ   1999
Kazakhstan   KAZ   2004
Kazakhstan   KAZ   2007
Kirgizstan   KGZ   2000
Kirgizstan   KGZ   2005
Kirgizstan   KGZ   2007
Kirgizstan   KGZ   2010
Kuwait       KWT   1971
Kuwait       KWT   1975
Kuwait       KWT   1981   Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers)

Kuwait       KWT   1981 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait       KWT   1985 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers)

Kuwait       KWT   1985 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait       KWT   1985 Independents
Kuwait       KWT   1990
                        Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional
Kuwait       KWT   1992 Movement)

Kuwait       KWT   1992 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Sha'bi (Popular Islamic Association)
                        Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional
Kuwait       KWT   1996 Movement)
Kuwait       KWT   1996 Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement)

Kuwait       KWT   1996   Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait       KWT   1996   Independents
Kuwait       KWT   1999   Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement)
Kuwait       KWT   1999   Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement)
                                     Page 5
                         Election Results and Platforms

Kuwait     KWT       1999   Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait     KWT       1999   Independents
Kuwait     KWT       2003   Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement)
Kuwait     KWT       2003   Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement)

Kuwait     KWT       2003   Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait     KWT       2003   Independents
Kuwait     KWT       2006   Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement)
Kuwait     KWT       2006   Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement)

Kuwait     KWT       2006 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait     KWT       2006 Independents
Kuwait     KWT       2008 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement)

Kuwait     KWT       2008   Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait     KWT       2008   Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party)
Kuwait     KWT       2008   Independent Sunni Islamists
Kuwait     KWT       2009   Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement)
Kuwait
           KWT       2009   Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association)
Kuwait     KWT       2009   Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party)
Kuwait     KWT       2009   Independent Sunni Islamists
Lebanon    LBN       1968
Lebanon    LBN       1972
Lebanon    LBN       1992   al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society)
Lebanon    LBN       1992   Hizbullah (Party of God)
                            Jami'at al-Mashari' al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya (The Association
Lebanon    LBN       1992   of Islamic Charitable Projects)
Lebanon    LBN       1996   al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society)
Lebanon    LBN       1996   Hizbullah (Party of God)
                            Jami'at al-Mashari' al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya (The Association
Lebanon    LBN       1996   of Islamic Charitable Projects)
Lebanon    LBN       2000   Hizbullah (Party of God)
Lebanon    LBN       2005   Hizbullah (Party of God)
Lebanon    LBN       2009   Hizbullah (Party of God)
Libya      LBY   .
Malaysia   MYS       1969   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)
Malaysia   MYS       1974   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of the Barisan N
Malaysia   MYS       1978   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)
Malaysia   MYS       1982   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)
Malaysia   MYS       1986   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)
Malaysia   MYS       1990   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)

                                        Page 6
                       Election Results and Platforms
Malaysia     MYS   1995   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party)
Malaysia     MYS   1999   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of Barisan Altern
Malaysia     MYS   2004   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of Barisan Altern
Malaysia     MYS   2008   Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of Barisan Altern
Maldives     MDV   1989
Maldives     MDV   1994
Maldives     MDV   1999
Maldives     MDV   2005
Maldives     MDV   2009   Adhaalath Paatee (Justice Party)
Maldives     MDV   2009   Islamik Dimokretik Paatee (Islamic Democratic Party)
Mali         MLI   1979
Mali         MLI   1982
Mali         MLI   1985
Mali         MLI   1988
Mali         MLI   1992
Mali         MLI   1997
Mali         MLI   2002
Mali         MLI   2007
Mauritania   MRT   1971
Mauritania   MRT   1976
Mauritania   MRT   1992
Mauritania   MRT   1996
Mauritania   MRT   2001
Mauritania   MRT   2006
Morocco      MAR   1993
                        Mouvement Populaire Démocratique et
                        Constitutionnel (Constitutional and Democratic Popular
Morocco      MAR   1997 Movement)
Morocco      MAR   2002 Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party)
Morocco      MAR   2007 Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party)
Niger        NER   1970
Niger        NER   1989
Niger        NER   1993
Niger        NER   1995
Niger        NER   1996
Niger        NER   1999
Niger        NER   2004
Niger        NER   2009
Nigeria      NGA   1979
Nigeria      NGA   1983
Nigeria      NGA   1992
Nigeria      NGA   1999
Nigeria      NGA   2003

                                     Page 7
                                   Election Results and Platforms
Nigeria     NGA                2007
Oman        OMN                1991
Oman        OMN                1994
Oman        OMN                1997
Oman        OMN                2000
Oman        OMN                2003
Oman        OMN                2007
Pakistan    PAK                1970     Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan)
Pakistan    PAK                1970     Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam
Pakistan    PAK                1970     Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam/ Jamaat-e-ahl-e-hadith
Pakistan    PAK                1970     Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Pakistan
                                        Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) as part of the Pakistan National
Pakistan    PAK                1977     Alliance
Pakistan    PAK                1985     Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan)
Pakistan    PAK                1988     Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan)
Pakistan    PAK                1988     Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam
Pakistan    PAK                1988     Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam (JUI-F)
Pakistan    PAK                1990     Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan)
Pakistan    PAK                1990     Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam
Pakistan    PAK                1993     Islamic Jamhoori Mahaz
                                        Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) as part of the Pakistan Islamic
Pakistan     PAK                 1993   Front
Pakistan     PAK                 1993   Mutahida Deeni Mahaz
Pakistan     PAK                 1997   Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan)
Pakistan     PAK                 1997   Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam
Pakistan     PAK                 2002   Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
Pakistan     PAK                 2008   Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan)
Pakistan     PAK                 2008   Jamaat-e-Ulama-e-Islam (Fazl)
Palestine    PSE                 1996   Independents
Palestine    PSE                 2006   Hamas
             .                   1978
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
             .                   1986
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
Qatar        QAT        .
Saudi Arabia SAU        .
Senegal      SEN                 1968
Senegal      SEN                 1973
Senegal      SEN                 1978
Senegal      SEN                 1983
Senegal      SEN                 1988
Senegal      SEN                 1993
Senegal      SEN                 1998
Senegal      SEN                 2001
Senegal      SEN                 2007
Sierra Leone SLE                 1973
                                                   Page 8
                        Election Results and Platforms
Sierra Leone   SLE   1977
Sierra Leone   SLE   1982
Sierra Leone   SLE   1986
Sierra Leone   SLE   1996
Sierra Leone   SLE   2002
Sierra Leone   SLE   2007
Somalia        SOM   1969
Somalia        SOM   1979
Somalia        SOM   1984
Somalia        SOM   2004
Sudan          SDN   1968   Hizb al-Umma, Imam (Nation Party, Imam)
Sudan          SDN   1968   Hizb al-Umma, Janub (Nation Party, South)
Sudan          SDN   1968   Hizb al-Umma, Sadiq (Nation Party, Sadiq)
Sudan          SDN   1978
Sudan          SDN   1980
Sudan          SDN   1982
Sudan          SDN   1986   National Islamic Front
Sudan          SDN   1986   New National Umma Party
Sudan          SDN   1996
Sudan          SDN   2000
Sudan          SDN   2005
Sudan          SDN   2010   Hizb al-Mu'tamar al-Watani al-Sudani (National Congress Party of Sudan)
Sudan          SDN   2010   Hizb al-Umma al-Qaumi al-Sudan (National Umma Party - Sudan)
Sudan          SDN   2010   al-Mu'tamar al-Sha`bi (Popular Congress)
Syria          SYR   1973   Muslim Brotherhood
Syria          SYR   1977
Syria          SYR   1981
Syria          SYR   1986
Syria          SYR   1990
Syria          SYR   1994
Syria          SYR   1998
Syria          SYR   2003
Syria          SYR   2007
Tajikistan     TJK   1995   Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRPT)
Tajikistan     TJK   2000   Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRPT)
Tajikistan     TJK   2005   Hizbi Nahzati Islomi Tojikiston (Party of the Islamic Front of Tajikistan, also known as
Tajikistan     TJK   2010
Tanzania       TZA   1970
Tanzania       TZA   1975
Tanzania       TZA   1980
Tanzania       TZA   1985
Tanzania       TZA   1990
Tanzania       TZA   1995
Tanzania       TZA   2000
                                       Page 9
                           Election Results and Platforms
Tanzania    TZA        2005
Tunisia     TUN        1969
Tunisia     TUN        1974
Tunisia     TUN        1979
Tunisia     TUN        1981
Tunisia     TUN        1986
Tunisia     TUN        1989   Independents linked to Ennahda
Tunisia     TUN        1994
Tunisia     TUN        1999
Tunisia     TUN        2004
Tunisia     TUN        2009
Turkey      TUR        1969
Turkey      TUR        1973   Milli Selâmet Partisi (National Salvation Party)
Turkey      TUR        1977   Milli Selâmet Partisi (National Salvation Party)
Turkey      TUR        1983
Turkey      TUR        1987   Refah Partisi (Welfare Party)
Turkey      TUR        1991   Refah Partisi (Welfare Party)
Turkey      TUR        1995   Refah Partisi (Welfare Party)
Turkey      TUR        1999   Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party)
                              Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development
Turkey      TUR        2002   Party)
Turkey      TUR        2002   Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party)
                              Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development
Turkey       TUR       2007   Party)
Turkey       TUR       2007   Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party)
TurkmenistanTKM        1994
TurkmenistanTKM        1999
TurkmenistanTKM        2004
TurkmenistanTKM        2009
             ARE
United Arab Emirates   2006
Uzbekistan UZB         1994
Uzbekistan UZB         1999
Uzbekistan UZB         2005
Uzbekistan UZB         2009
                            Tajammu' al-Yamani li'l-Islah (Yemeni Congregation for
Yemen       YEM        1993 Reform)
                            Tajammu' al-Yamani li'l-Islah (Yemeni Congregation for
Yemen       YEM        1997 Reform)
                            Tajammu' al-Yamani li'l-Islah (Yemeni Congregation for
Yemen       YEM        2003 Reform)
Yemen
(Arab
Republic)   YEM        1988 Independents linked to Muslim Brotherhood

                                         Page 10
                                                          Election Results and Platforms
              Q1. Does        Q2. Does        Q3a. Does       Q3b.       Q3c.
              the party       the party       the party       Strong/wea Adjudicatio Q4a. Shari'a Q4b. Islamic morality
                                                                                                               Q4c. Economy




                          0               0               1             2           1           0           1           0
                          0               2               1             2           1           1           0           1

                          0               0               1             2           1           0           0           1


ociety of Peace, Hims)
 al Reform - El-Islah)


ociety of Peace, Hims)
                          0               1               0                                     0           0           1


                          0               2               1             1           2           0           1           0




                                                                       Page 11
        Election Results and Platforms




0   2   1          2           0         1   1   0

0   2   1          2           0         1   1   0

0   2   1          2           0         1   1   0

0   1   0                                0   0   1




                   Page 12
                                            Election Results and Platforms




th Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid (New Wafd Party)
                          0          1      1          2           1         1   0   0

                        0            1      1          2           1         0   0   0
                        0            2      1          2           0         0   1   0
                        0            1      1          2           0         1   0   0




                                                       Page 13
                           Election Results and Platforms




velopment Party)
velopment Party)
velopment Party)
velopment Party)
velopment Party)


                   0   1   0                                0   0   1




velopment Party)




velopment Party)




                                      Page 14
                                Election Results and Platforms
                        0   1   0                                0   0   0
                        0   1   0                                0   0   0
                        0   1   0                                0   0   0




                        0   0   1          2           1         1   0   0
                        0   2   1          1           1         1   0   0

                        0   2   1          1           1         0   0   0
                        0   2   0                                0   0   0




                        0   0   1          1           2         1   0   0




stitutional Movement)


                                           Page 15
                                              Election Results and Platforms




stitutional Movement)


                         0            0       1          2           2         1   0   0

stitutional Movement)




                         0            1       1          1           1         1   0   1

                         0            0       1          2           0         1   0   0



stitutional Movement)




                         0            0       0                                0   1   0




                         0            0       0                                0   0   1


                         0            0       0                                0   0   1
                         0            0       0                                0   0   0




mic Party), as part of the Barisan Nasional




                                                         Page 16
        Election Results and Platforms

0   1   0                                0   0   0
0   1   0                                0   0   1
0   1   0                                0   0   0




0   1   1          2           0         1   0   0
0   1   0                                0   1   0




                   Page 17
        Election Results and Platforms




0   2   1          2           0         1   0   0




0   2   1          2           2         1   0   1




0   0   0                                0   1   0




0   1   1          1           1         0   1   0




                   Page 18
                                  Election Results and Platforms




ongress Party of Sudan)
a Party - Sudan)




                          0   1   0                                0   1   1




                                             Page 19
        Election Results and Platforms




0   1   0                                0   1   1




0   1   0                                0   1   1

0   1   0                                0   0   1

0   1   0                                0   0   1
0   1   0                                0   0   1

0   1   0                                0   0   1
0   1   0                                0   1   1




0   2   1          2           0         1   0   1

0   2   1          1           1         1   1   0




                   Page 20
                                     Election Results and Platforms
           Q4e. Political Q4f.
                          structure                 Q4h.          Q4i. National Q4j. Palestine/Israel
Q4d. Democracy/ liberalization Justice Q4g. Social welfarePan Islamism                        Defense
                                                                                Security and Q4k. Nationalism/ National Un




           0            1            0            1            0            0            0            0
           0            0            0            1            0            0            0            0

           0            1            0            1            0            0            0            0




           1            0            0            1            0            0            0            0


           0            0            0            0            0            0            0            0




                                                 Page 21
        Election Results and Platforms




0   0   0          1           0         0   0   0

0   0   1          0           0         0   0   0

0   0   0          1           0         0   0   0

0   0   0          1           0         1   0   0




                   Page 22
        Election Results and Platforms




0   0   0          0           0         0   0   0

0   0   0          0           0         0   0   0
0   0   0          0           1         0   0   0
0   0   0          0           0         0   0   0




                   Page 23
        Election Results and Platforms




1   0   1          0           0         0   0   0




                   Page 24
        Election Results and Platforms
0   0   0          0           0         1   0   1
0   1   0          0           0         1   0   1
0   0   0          0           0         1   0   1




1   0   0          0           0         0   0   0
0   1   0          0           0         0   1   0

0   0   0          0           0         0   1   0
0   0   0          0           0         0   1   0




0   1   0          0           0         1   0   0




                   Page 25
        Election Results and Platforms




1   1   0          0           0         0   0   0




1   0   0          0           0         0   0   0

0   1   0          0           0         1   0   0




0   1   0          0           0         1   0   0




0   1   0          0           0         1   0   0


0   0   0          0           0         1   0   0
0   0   0          0           0         1   0   0




                   Page 26
        Election Results and Platforms

1   0   1          0           0         0   0   0
0   0   1          0           0         0   0   0
0   0   1          0           0         0   0   0




0   1   0          1           0         0   0   0
0   0   0          0           0         0   0   0




                   Page 27
        Election Results and Platforms




0   0   0          0           0         1   0   0




0   0   1          0           0         0   0   0




0   0   1          1           0         0   0   0




0   0   0          0           0         0   1   1




                   Page 28
        Election Results and Platforms




0   0   0          0           0         0   0   1




                   Page 29
        Election Results and Platforms




0   1   0          0           0         0   0   0




0   0   0          0           0         0   0   0

1   0   0          0           0         0   0   1

1   0   0          0           0         0   0   0
1   0   0          1           0         0   0   0

1   0   0          0           0         0   0   0
0   0   0          0           1         0   0   0




1   0   0          0           0         0   0   0

0   0   1          0           0         0   0   0




                   Page 30
                                     Election Results and Platforms
Q5. Where Q6. How        Q7. Does        Q8a.Is jihad Q8b. In       Q9. What is Q10. Does       Q11. Does
does the  does the       the party       mentioned? what            the party's the party       the party




         2           0               2             1            2            0              1               1
         2           0               1             0                         2              1               1

         0           0               2             0                         0              1               2




         0           0               2             0                         2              1               0


         2           0               1             0                         2              2               1




                                                   Page 31
        Election Results and Platforms




2   1   1          1           1         1   1   2

2   1   1          1           1         1   2   2

2   1   1          1           1         0   2   2

1   1   2          0                     0   2   0




                   Page 32
        Election Results and Platforms




0   1   1          1           2         2   1   1

1   1   1          1           2         2   1   0
2   2   0          0                     1   0   0
2   1   1          0                     2   2   2




                   Page 33
        Election Results and Platforms




1   1   0          0                     0   1   0




                   Page 34
        Election Results and Platforms
1   1   1          0                     0   1   0
1   1   2          0                     1   2   0
1   1   1          0                     0   1   0




2   1   1          1           3         2   1   2
2   1   2          1           2         2   1   2

2   0   2          1           2         2   1   2
2   0   2          1           2         2   1   2




0   0   1          0                     0   2   0




                   Page 35
        Election Results and Platforms




0   0   1          0                     1   2   2




1   1   1          0                     0   2   1

1   0   1          0                     0   2   2




0   1   1          1           2         2   0   0




2   1   1          1           0         2   0   0


1   1   1          1           2         2   1   0
0   1   1          0                     0   0   0




                   Page 36
        Election Results and Platforms

1   1   1          0                     0   2   1
1   1   1          0                     0   2   0
1   1   1          0                     0   2   0




2   0   2          0                     2   2   1
1   0   1          0                     0   1   0




                   Page 37
        Election Results and Platforms




2   2   1          0                     1   1   2




1   2   1          1           2         2   1   0




2   0   2          0                     2   1   0




2   1   1          0                     2   1   0




                   Page 38
        Election Results and Platforms




0   0   1          0                     0   0   0




                   Page 39
        Election Results and Platforms




2   0   1          0                     2   1   2




2   0   2          0                     2   2   1

0   1   1          0                     0   0   0

1   0   1          0                     0   2   0
1   0   1          0                     2   2   0

1   0   2          0                     0   1   0
0   0   2          0                     2   0   0




2   0   1          1           2         2   1   2

2   0   1          0                     2   1   0




                   Page 40
                                                  Election Results and Platforms
Q12. Is the       Q13. Is the
party             party             total seats    pctvotes      seatswon        pctseats      Coalition


                                             249                            40       16.06%




              2                 1            231       48.00%           188          81.39%
              0                 0            231        5.30%             0           0.00%

              2                 2            231        2.20%                0         0.00%

                                             380        8.72%               34        8.95%
                                             380       14.80%               69       18.16%
                                             381

                                             381          0.6%               1         0.26%
                                             381          7.1%              38         9.97%
              2                 2            389

                                             389        3.40%                5        1.29%
              1                 2            389        9.68%               52       13.37%




                                              30

                                              40                            19       47.50%

                                              40                             5       12.50%

                                              40                             0         0.00%

                                              40                             7       17.50%

                                              40                            17       42.50%                1



                                                              Page 41
           Election Results and Platforms

         40                       3          7.50%

         40

         40                       2          5.00%

         40                      18         45.00%

        300 --                   20          6.67%   1
        300      4.61%           10          3.33%
        300
        300       0.79%           1          0.33%
1   0   300      12.10%          18          6.00%
        300       1.09%           1          0.33%
1   1   300       8.62%           3          1.00%
        300       0.67%           2          0.67%
1   1   300       4.28%          17          5.67%
        300                       0          0.00%
1   2   300                       2          0.67%




         43                       3          6.98%
                      Page 42
          Election Results and Platforms

        24




        448    15.12%           58         12.95%   1
2   2   448    17.50%           57         12.72%   1

2   2   434                     13          3.00%
0   0   432                     17          3.94%
1   1   432                     88         20.37%




        360

        360     5.40%           24          6.67%
                     Page 43
          Election Results and Platforms

        360    18.70%           58         16.11%

        360     2.39%           10          2.78%
        360     0.70%            2          0.56%
        360    29.29%           99         27.50%
        364    25.54%           94         25.82%
        400    15.95%           61         15.25%
        400    14.90%           62         15.50%
        425    22.66%           89         20.94%
        500     7.31%           35          7.00%
        500     1.80%           14          2.80%
2   2   500     1.36%            7          1.40%

        500    17.44%           51         10.20%

        500     0.60%            3          0.60%
        500    10.68%           58         11.60%
        550     6.44%           53          9.64%
        550     2.44%           14          2.55%
        550     2.62%           11          2.00%

        550     7.34%           45          8.18%

        550    10.56%           52          9.45%

        550     0.80%            0          0.00%
        550     8.15%           58         10.55%
                  6.01          42
        560                                 7.50%
        560       1.21           0          0.00%
        560       1.79           0          0.00%
                  7.88          59
        560                                10.54%
                  4.94          26
        560                                 4.64%
                  1.47           0
        560                                 0.00%
        560       0.40           0          0.00%
                  0.14           0
        560                                 0.00%
                  5.32          39
        560                                 6.96%

                     Page 44
          Election Results and Platforms
0   0   275    41.19%          128         46.55%   1
1   2   275    15.09%           44         16.00%
1   1   275     1.29%            5          1.82%
        325                     92         28.31%
        325                      3          0.92%
        325                      3          0.92%
        325                     40         12.31%
2   1    80                     33         41.25%
2   1    80                     16         20.00%
         80                     12         15.00%   1
0   2   104    10.40%           17         16.35%
0   2   110                      6          5.45%




         50                      5     10.00%

         50
         50                      4          8.00%

         50
         50                      2     12.00%
         50

         50                    14.5        29.00%

1   0    50                     6.5        13.00%

         50
         50

         50
         50                     14         28.00%
         50                      3          6.00%
         50                      1          2.00%
                     Page 45
          Election Results and Platforms

        50                       2          4.00%
        50                      14         28.00%
        50                       2          4.00%
        50                       1          2.00%

1   2   50                       3          6.00%
        50                      15         30.00%
        50                       6         12.00%
        50                       2          4.00%

        50                       2          4.00%
        50                      11         22.00%
0   2   50                       3          6.00%

1   0   50                       4          8.00%
        50
        50                      10         20.00%
        50                       1          2.00%

        50                       2          4.00%
        50                                  0.00%
        50                       8         16.00%


        27                       3         11.11%
1   0   27                       8         29.63%

        27                       1          3.70%
        27                       1          3.70%
1   0   27                      10         37.04%

        27                       0          0.00%
0   1   27                       8         29.63%   1
0   1   27                      14         51.85%   1
        27                      13         48.15%   1

        104    23.80%           12         11.54%
        154                     14          9.09%   1
        154    15.50%            5          3.25%
        154    14.46%            5          3.25%
        177    15.50%            1          0.56%
        180                      7          3.89%

                     Page 46
          Election Results and Platforms
        192                      7          3.65%
2   2   193                     42         21.76%   1
2   2   219    24.10%            7          3.20%   1
0   0   222                     23         10.36%   1




        77        0.90           0          0.00%
        77        0.13           0          0.00%




        222



        325     4.14%            9          2.77%
2   2   325                     42         12.92%
0   0   335                     46         13.73%




                     Page 47
          Election Results and Platforms




0   0   300     6.00%            4          1.33%
        300     4.00%            7          2.33%
        300                      0          0.00%
        300                      7          2.33%

        200                      9          4.50%   1
        207                     10          4.83%
1   1   217                      7          3.23%   1
        217                      1          0.46%
        217                      7          3.23%
        217     3.00%            8          3.69%   1
        217                      6          2.76%
        217                      4          1.84%

        217                      3          1.38%
        217                      2          0.92%
        217
        217                      2          0.92%
1   1   272    11.30%           45         16.54%
        338
        338                      6          1.78%
         88                      4          4.55%
0   0   132    44.45%           74         56.06%




                     Page 48
          Election Results and Platforms




        218        18           20          9.17%
        218        2.4          30         13.76%
        218       21.2          36         16.51%




        260                     51         19.62%
        260                    100         38.46%




        446
        446
        446




         63                      0          0.00%
         63                      2          3.17%
2   2    63     9.15%            2          3.17%
         63     8.20%            2          3.17%




                     Page 49
          Election Results and Platforms




        141         12           0          0.00%




        214
        450
2   1   450    11.80%           48         10.67%
        450     8.60%           24          5.33%
        400
        450     7.16%            0          0.00%
2   1   450    16.88%           62         13.78%
        550    21.33%          158         28.73%
2   2   550    15.48%          111         20.18%

2   2   550    34.17%          361         65.64%
2   1   550     2.49%            0          0.00%

2   2   550    46.52%          341         62.00%
2   1   550     2.34%            0          0.00%




        150

2   2   301                     62         20.60%

2   0   301                     63         20.93%

        301    22.55%           46         15.28%


        128                     32         25.00%

                     Page 50
                                     Election Results and Platforms
totalvotes                        turnout
                    registeredvoters                              notes
                                                    Source for confirmation
                                                    ipu.org
        1,547,000                                   ipu.org
        6,078,250     12,977,336       49.37%       Katzman 2005 http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/67158.pdf no
        4,265,347                                   ipu.org
        2,500,000      2,500,000       98.92%       ipu.org
        2,500,000      2,500,000      100.00%       ipu.org
        2,500,000      2,500,000       89.08%       ipu.org
        2,500,000      2,500,000       72.56%       ipu.org
        1,323,900      2,500,000       52.96%       ipu.org
                                       49.23%       ipu.org
                        3084946             50.77   ipu.org

                                                    wiki         1991 election missing from ipu.org
                                                    wiki         1991 election missing from ipu.org

                                                    wiki         1991 election missing from ipu.org

       10,496,352     16,767,309       65.60% ipu.org            FIS banned. number of seats excludes 8 reserved for oversea
       10,496,352     16,767,309       65.60% ipu.org            FIS banned. number of seats excludes 8 reserved for oversea
        7,420,867     17,951,127       46.17% ipu.org

        7,420,867     17,951,127       46.17% ipu.org            chronicle calls these moderate islamist parties. Effective vote
        7,420,867     17,951,127       46.17% ipu.org            chronicle calls these moderate islamist parties. Effective vote
        7,420,867     17,951,127       46.17% ipu.org

        5,700,632     18,760,400       35.51%       wiki         17th may
        5,700,632     18,760,400       35.51%
        3,556,277      4,132,800       86.05%       ipu.org
        2,883,819      4,241,550       68.00%       ipu.org
        1,891,977      4,675,572       40.47%       ipu.org
           19,456         24,883       78.40%       ipu.org      no parties allowed. dissolved after 2 years. 30 elective seats

                         650,000       53.00% ipu.org            Boycott by opposition shi'a parties b/c king's 40 member app

                         295,686       72.00% Wiki & ipu.orgsalafist – allied with al menbar. One seat was won by a slafist

                         295,686       72.00%

                         295,686       72.00% Wiki & ipu.orgsunni – affiliated with Muslim Brotherhood

                         295,686       72.00% Wiki & ipu.orgshia. won every seat it contested



                                                      Page 51
                          Election Results and Platforms

               318,668     67.00% Sameer Khalfan on Gulf/2000, http://www.electionguide.org/election.php

               318,668                         boycott
                           67.00% Sameer Khalfan and http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511

               318,668     67.00% Sameer Khalfan and http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511

                318,668    67.00% Sameer Khalfan and http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511
18,851,808   35,205,642       57% ipu.org
15,200,000   38,000,000    40.00% ipu.org        Moslem League headed a two party coalition with IDL-R that
             47,880,000
             48,000,000           ipu.org        Boycott by Jamaat-i-Islami along with two other leading oppo
   269,434   62,289,556    52.00% Kabir 2006
32,390,569   62,289,556    52.00% ipu.org        Chronicle unclear as to what it means by voters (I entered as
   461,517   56,000,000    74.00% Kabir 2006
41,440,000   56,000,000    74.00%                feb and june elections in 1996
             74,660,443    75.00%   Kabir 2006
55,905,518   74,660,443    75.00%
             81,058,698    86.29%   ipu.org
             81,058,698    86.29%   ipu.org
 2,396,000    2,900,000    82.62%   ipu.org
              2,750,000       70%   ipu.org
 1,597,805    2,508,349       64%   ipu.org
 1,228,923    2,343,075    55.44%   ipu.org
              2,755,207    54.80%   ipu.org
              3,132,231    56.49%   ipu.org
                                    ipu.org
  1112883     2,395,226    48.70%   ipu.org
 1,161,824   2,887,550     40.24%   ipu.org
 1,215,419   3,564,510     35.24%   ipu.org
 2,111,978   4,985,352     44.53%   ipu.org
  1724064     2913219      64.00%   ipu.org
  2233228     4466354      56.43%   ipu.org
 1,583,422   1,664,848     95.10%   ipu.org
             3,000,000     56.00%   ipu.org
             3,200,000     48.50%   ipu.org
  2185646     4171169      52.40%   ipu.org
   200939      263317      76.30%   ipu.org      non-party elections
                                    ipu.org      non-party elections. Ipu.org has no results
               340,000        65%   ipu.org      only one political party
                                    ipu.org      no turnout data on ipu.org
                                    ipu.org      no turnout data on ipu.org

                           20.00% ipu.org
                                      Page 52
                          Election Results and Platforms
               225,000     65.00% ipu.org         ipu: "Officials said more than 65 per cent of the 225 000 regi

   79,380        85,995    92.30%   ipu.org        only one political party
   89,475       100,881    88.69%   ipu.org        only one political party
   71,827       151,066    48.44%   ipu.org
                165,942    56.82%   ipu.org
                178,799    48.00%   ipu.org
                151,490    72.61%   ipu.org
              9,564,482    39.77%   ipu.org        single party elections
             11,000,000             ipu.org        no turnout data on ipu.org
 5,146,565   12,339,418    43.10%                  ipu describes new wafd as 'centre-right'
                                    ipu.org and Library of Congress Country Study on Egypt: http://lcweb2.loc.g
 6,824,908   14,324,162    50.45%   ipu.org & LoC Alliance with the Socialist Labour Party and Socialist Liberal P
 6,902,982   16,326,229    44.42%   ipu.org        57 independents elected. Al Wafd, Socialist Liberal and Socia
 9,812,942   20,987,453    47.99%   ipu.org        MB contested 150 constituencies. 112 independents won sea
             24,602,241       25%   ipu.org        excluding 10 presidential appontments and 2 undecided seat
 8,488,358   31,253,417    28.13%   ipu.org        12 seats remained undecided due to security concerns – I've
                                    ipu.org
              7,300,000             ipu.org        no turnout data on ipu.org
             15,700,000    83.35%   ipu.org        single party marxist state
                                    ipu.org        no turnout data on ipu.org
             20252000      90.00%   ipu.org
             27372888      82.60%   ipu.org
               136,521     76.10%   ipu.org
               216,234     81.90%   ipu.org
               166,102              ipu.org        no turnout data on ipu.org or ifes
                           80.20%   ipu.org
               400,000     55.80%   ipu.org
               444,061     69.32%   ipu.org
               167817      56.38%   ipu.org        Opposition boycott, 33 uncontested seats not included in tur
               628160      41.70%   IFES           5 unopposed seats not included in turnout figures. Ipu states
                                    ipu.org        single party elections, no turnout data on ipu.org
             2,436,487     99.80%   ipu.org        single party elections
             2,506,298     95.69%   ipu.org        single party elections
             3,049,262     61.91%   ipu.org        multiparty elections. ipu describes "generally satisfactory con
              4458831      71.61%   ipu.org
  169,940                           ipu.org        single party elections
  214,400      223,592     95.89%   ipu.org        single party elections. Turnout calculated from votes for the
               396,938     45.00%   ipu.org
               503,007     80.00%   idea.int
               605018      74.37%   ipu.org
               593739      82.00%
54,699,509   58,179,245    94.00%

54,699,509   58,179,245    94.00% ipu.org
                                      Page 53
                            Election Results and Platforms

 54,699,509    58,179,245    94.00%

 54,699,509    58,179,245    94.00%   ipu.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_legislative_election,_1971
 54,699,509    58,179,245    94.00%   ipu.org
 63,998,344    70,662,155    90.56%   ipu.org        100 appointed members excluded
 74,930,875    82,132,263    91.23%   ipu.org        96 appointed members excluded
               94,000,000       93%   ipu.org        100 appointed members excluded. Approximate voter figure
 97,789,534   105,565,697       91%   ipu.org        100 appointed members excluded
110,938,069   124,740,987       89%   ipu.org        75 appointed members excluded from totals. Megawati barr
106,586,630   118,217,393       93%   ipu.org
106,586,630   118,217,393       93%   ipu.org
106,586,630   118,217,393       93%   ipu.org

106,586,630 118,217,393         93% ipu.org         Gus Dur, secular govt, moderate

106,586,630 118,217,393         93% ipu.org
106,586,630 118,217,393         93% ipu.org

113,658,386 148,000,373         84% ipu.org
113,658,384 148,000,370         84% ipu.org

113,658,384 148,000,371         84% ipu.org

113,658,385 148,000,372         84% ipu.org

113,658,387 148,000,374         84% ipu.org
113,658,383 148,000,369         84% ipu.org         silence of 5 main islamist parties on Islamic law during runup
  6254580 171265442           70.99
                                      ipu.org       IPU: Some Islamic parties - such as the PKS, the PAN and the
  1264333 171265442           70.99 ipu.org
  1864752 171265442           70.99 ipu.org
  8206955 171265442           70.99
                                      ipu.org
  5146122 171265442           70.99
                                      ipu.org
  1527593 171265442           70.99
                                    ipu.org
   414750 171265442           70.99 ipu.org
   146779 171265442           70.99
                                      ipu.org
  5533215 171265442           70.99
                                      ipu.org

                                        Page 54
                          Election Results and Platforms
12,191,133   15,568,702       80%   ipu.org        ipu.org has number of candidates fielded by party
12,191,133   15,568,702       80%   ipu.org
12,191,133   15,568,702       80%   ipu.org
             18,900,000       62%   ipu.org
             18,900,000       62%   ipu.org
             18,900,000       62%   ipu.org
             18,900,000       62%                  Part of Iraqi National Alliance
                                    ipu.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadrist_Movement
                877,475    63.00%   ipu.org        MB won 20 seats, 12-14 seats to independent Islamic candid
  804,000     1,501,229    54.68%   ipu.org        36 IAF candidates ran – CEIP report 2006
              1,480,000    47.45%   ipu.org        Islamist opposition boycott, “protesting the one-person, one
 1,342,999    2,325,496    57.75%   ipu.org        Political arm of the MB. 6 seats reserved for women. no wom
                           54.00%                  IAF fielded 22 candidates
                                                   IAF Boycott
                           73.52%   ipu.org
              8,860,897    80.73%   ipu.org
              8,411,757    63.00%   ipu.org
                           53.00%   ipu.org        IPU: "Almost nine of Kazakhstan's 15 million population were
              8,891,561    68.41%   ipu.org
              2,505,763    60.50%   ipu.org        turnout was 64% in first round, 57% in second round
                           58.00%   ipu.org        candidates as independents. turnout was 57% in first round,
  1650698                  71.93%   ipu.org
              2,852,751    56.59%   ipu.org
                 40,649             ipu.org        no turnout data on ipu.org
   30,863        52,994    58.20%   ipu.org
                 41,698    90.00%   ipu.org, Layne voter turnout is approximate. IPU: “shia muslims achieved lim

                41,698     90.00% ipu.org
                56,745     84.58% Brown, ipu.org

   47,745       56,745     84.58% ipu.org
   47,745       56,745                            Brown
                           84.58% ipu.org, Layne,“Islamic fundamentalist candidates suffered somewhat of a s
                           62.00% ipu.org        opposition boycott, turnout figure claimed by govt. NB: elect

                81,440                          Tetrault
                           85.00% Tetrault (199x), ipu.orghas 7 of the independent candidates cross-listed wit

                81,440                          Tetrault
                           85.00% Tetrault (199x), ipu.orghas 7 of the independent candidates cross-listed wit

               107,000     80.00% ipu.org
               107,000     80.00% ipu.org

               107,000     80.00%   ipu.org
               107,000     80.00%   ipu.org       IPU describes this group as including "Shi'ite, Sunni, Muslim f
               112,883     83.00%                 Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database
                                    ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of Democracy
               112,883     83.00%                 Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database.
                                    ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of DemocracyTurnout from Journ
                                      Page 55
                        Election Results and Platforms

             112,883                          Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database
                         83.00% ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of Democracy
             112,883                          IPU describes this group as "Islamist", giving
                         83.00% ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of Democracy them 20 seats. S
             136,000             Brown 2008 Brown states that HADAS won 2 seats itself, though it effecti
             136,000                           Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database
                                 ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database

             136,000                           Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database. Abdullah Akash is in
                                ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database
             136,000            ipu.org        no details on ipu of how to apportion the 21 Islamists among
             340,248     91.92% ipu.org, Brown 2008, Kuwait Politics Database
             340,248     91.92% Kuwait Politics Database

             340,248     91.92% Kuwait Politics Database
 310,879     340,248                             2008
                         91.92% ipu.org, Brownobservers estimated turnout at 65%. IPU gives 21 seats to th
 214,886     361,684                            el 2008
                         59.41% ipu.org, el Najjar Najjar's figures are used over IPU's per advice of Michael H

 214,886     361,684                            el 2008
                         59.41% ipu.org, el Najjar Najjar's figures are used over IPU's per advice of Michael H

             361,684                            el 2008
                         59.41% ipu.org, el Najjar Najjar's figures are used over IPU's per advice of Michael H
             384790           59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database
             384790
                              59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database
             384790           59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database
             384790                            calculated as a residual from the 11 seats allocated to Sunni I
                              59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database
                         57.80% ipu.org
            1,321,346                          no 1994 available ipu.org. El Khazen's turnout data taken fr
                         52.50% ipu.org, El Khazenturnout data onat: http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/pspa/e
            1,822,890    24.48% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362
            1,822,890                          (this article also mentions how Hizbullah deliberately left som
                         24.48% ipu.org and http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/stable/pdfplus/3992

            1,822,890    24.48% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362
1,137,040   2,577,257    44.11% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362
1,137,040   2,577,257    44.11% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362

1,137,040   2,577,257    44.11% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362
            2,700,000    51.00% ipu.org
1,380,369   3,002,028    46.47% ipu.org
            3000000           50 ipu, wiki
                                 ipu.org       no direct elections
                                               West Malaysia only - Polling suspended in East Malaysia afte
                         72.80% Drummond and Hawkins 1970
                                               PAS
                                 Noor 2004, ipu.orgexpelled from National Front in 1977, held 9 seats at diss
3,473,430   5,059,689    68.65% ipu.org        PAS put up 88 candidates. voters cast no ballots in 9 constitu
4,165,697   6,081,628    75.40% ipu.org
4,625,272   6,791,446    74.39% ipu.org        PAS put up 98 candidates. Hizbul Muslim is part of UMNO co
            8,000,000    70.00% ipu.org        approximate turnout figure. PAS fielded 30 candidates

                                   Page 56
                          Election Results and Platforms
              9,012,370    71.81%   ipu.org
              9,700,000    71.00%                   (2000)
                                    ipu.org, Weiss Alternative front: Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS), People's Ju
 7,104,597                 73.92%                  Alternative front:
                                    ipu, Moten and Mokhtar (2006) Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS), People's Ju
             10,922,139    72.74%   ipu.org, IFES
                90,084     68.68%   ipu.org        political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group
               109,072              ipu.org        political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group
               128000      77.40%   ipu.org        political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group
               157027      71.29%   ipu.org        political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group
     1487      209000      78.87%   ipu.org, wiki First elections since political parties were legalized
      214      209000      78.87%   ipu.org, wiki First elections since political parties were legalized
              3,283,985    97.00%   ipu.org        single party elections
              3,591,716    96.14%   ipu.org        single party elections
                                    ipu.org        single party elections, no turnout data on ipu.org
              3,701,006    97.80%   ipu.org        single party elections
              4,780,416    21.09%   ipu.org        constitutional ban on religious parties
              5,254,299    21.57%   ipu.org        constitutional ban on religious parties
                           30.17%                   Center (http://www.cartercenter.org/news/documents/doc
                                    ipu.org, Carterconstitutional ban on religious parties
               6267363     32.19%   ipu.org        constitutional ban on religious parties
                534,994    95.60%                  single party state 1961-78
                                    http://africanelections.tripod.com/mr.html
                                                   no turnout data.
                                    http://africanelections.tripod.com/mr.html
              1,174,087    38.90%   http://africanelections.tripod.com/mr.html
                                    ipu.org        Islamist parties not allowed by regime - Party of Democratic
               1028630     54.00%   ipu.org        Islamist parties not allowed by regime - Party of Democratic
               1073287     73.42%   ipu.org        Islamist parties not allowed by regime - Party of Democratic
 6,222,218    7,153,211    62.75%   ipu.org        ipu identifies no Islamists. Also no Islamists in 1984, 1977, an


 6,371,630   12,790,631    58.30%   ipu.org        put up 140 candidates. IPU calls them “moderate”
 5,936,370   13,884,467    51.61%   ipu.org        55 of 91 consituencies contested – Ben-Layashi from MERIA
             15,510,505    37.00%                  PJD runs in all constituencies according to Ben-Layashi from M
              1,924,977    96.80%   ipu.org        single party elections
              3,508,274    95.00%   ipu.org        single party elections
              4,000,000    56.00%   ipu.org        approximate turnout
              4,376,031    34.90%   ipu.org
                           39.17%   ipu.org
               4587684     30.00%                  The Polity IV country report for Niger describes
                                    ipu.org, http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/Niger2007.pdf a low turnou
               5278598     44.67%   ipu.org
               6059961     51.27%   ipu.org
             48,000,000    32.00%                  African elections database puts turnout
                                    ipu.org, http://africanelections.tripod.com/ng.html at approximately 72%
25,400,000   65,300,000    38.90%   ipu.org
                           25.00%   ipu.org        only 2 parties allowed
              57938945     41.00%   ipu.org        only 2 parties allowed
              60823022     50.00%   ipu.org

                                      Page 57
                          Election Results and Platforms
                           58.33% ipu.org          IPU has no official turnout data, but does cite the Nigerian El
                                    ipu.org        restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics
                                    ipu.org        restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics
                                    ipu.org        restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics
                                    ipu.org        restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics
                262,000    74.00%                  universal suffrage for consultative council - but no ipu
                                    ipu.org, http://www.pogar.org/countries/theme.asp?cid=13&th=3 statist
                338,683    62.70%   ipu.org        universal suffrage for consultative council
             56,941,500    63.00%   Nasr (1995)
             56,941,500    63.00%   Nasr (1995)
             56,941,500    63.00%   Nasr (1995)
             56,941,500    63.00%   Nasr (1995)

17,000,000   31,000,000                          elections in march, martial law in July. Nasr states that the Ja
                           54.84% ipu.org, Nasr (1995)
                           52.93%                non-party elections
                                  ipu.org, Khan (2004), Nasr (1995) under zia. ipu says Islamists lost out. Kha
19,598,609   46,194,417    43.00% ipu.org        Jamaat given 26 seats to contest, winning 7
19,598,609   46,194,417    43.00% ipu.org, Khan (2004)
19,598,609   46,194,417    43.00% ipu.org, Khan (2004)
21,163,911   47,065,330    44.97%                8 seats
                                  ipu.org, Khan (2004) for Jamaat itselfout of 18 seats given to contest by IJI
21,163,911   47,065,330    44.97% ipu.org, Khan (2004)
             55,000,000    41.00% ipu.org        voter turnout is approximate. Khan (2004) gives 40.5%

             55,000,000    41.00%   ipu.org         voter turnout is approximate. Khan (2004) gives 40.5%
             55,000,000    41.00%   ipu.org         voter turnout is approximate. Khan (2004) gives 40.5%
19,361,917   55,068,024    35.42%                   boycott
19,361,917   55,068,024    35.42%                   207 muslim
                                    ipu, wiki, elections.com.pk seats and 10 non-muslim seats directly elected. 2
             72,000,000    42.00%                   excluding 60 seats of Pakistan
                                    ipu.org and Election Commission reserved for women, 10 for minorities. Re
             80,910,318    44.00%   ipu.org         boycott
             80,910,318    44.00%   ipu.org         IPU mistakenly lists the MMA as running. Only the JUI(F) ran,
   715,966    1,028,280    71.66%                   http://www.elections.ps/template.aspx?id=54
                                    Central Elections Commission Palestin
 1,011,992    1,332,396    74.64%   www.elections.ps
                654685     91.27%   ipu.org
                817253     88.78%   ipu.org
                                    ipu.org         No electoral system. Parties are banned.
                                    ipu.org         consultative council appointed by king
             1,306,791     93.00%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
             1,327,572              ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties. No turnout data on ip
             1,566,250     62.24%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
             1,928,257     56.00%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
             1,932,265     57.87%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
             2,650,000     40.74%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
             3,164,827     39.20%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
              2808253      67.00%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
              5004096      34.75%   ipu.org         constitutional ban on religious parties.
                                    ipu.org         No turnout data on ipu
                                      Page 58
                         Election Results and Platforms
              686,810              ipu.org     No turnout data on ipu
                                   ipu.org     No turnout data on ipu
             2,000,000             ipu.org     only one official party. No turnout data on ipu.org
             1,500,000    50.06%   ipu.org
              2342547     83.00%   ipu.org
 1984106                  75.80%   ipu.org
  879,554                          ipu.org     dominated by ruling socialist party. no turnout data on ipu
3,985,838                          ipu.org     dominated by ruling socialist party. no turnout data on ipu
             4,220,466    99.86%   ipu.org     dominated by ruling socialist party
                                   ipu.org     selection by clans
1,825,510    3,049,813    59.86%   ipu.org
1,825,510    3,049,813    59.86%   ipu.org
1,825,510    3,049,813    59.86%   ipu.org
                                   ipu.org     Only one legal party. no turnout data on ipu.org
                                   ipu.org     Only one legal party. no turnout data on ipu.org
                                   ipu.org     Only one legal party. no turnout data on ipu.org
             6,000,000             ipu.org     No turnout data on ipu
             6,000,000             ipu.org     No turnout data on ipu
5,525,280   10,000,000    55.25%   ipu.org     parties banned
             12000000              ipu.org     No turnout data on ipu
                                   ipu.org     appointment, not election
                   323             ipu.org
                     1             ipu.org
                     4             ipu.org
             3,300,000             ipu.org     Boycott
                                   ipu.org     no opposition. No turnout data on ipu
                                   ipu.org     no opposition. No turnout data on ipu
                                   ipu.org     no opposition. No turnout data on ipu
3,264,616    6,576,907    49.64%   ipu.org     no opposition
3,693,656    6,037,885    61.17%   ipu.org     no opposition
5,501,940    6,691,323    82.20%   ipu.org     no opposition
 4556475      7181206     63.00%   ipu.org     no opposition
              7805994     56.00%   ipu.org     no opposition
             2,684,000    84.00%   ipu.org     Opposition (including Islamist) boycott
2,622,533    2,873,145    93.73%   ipu.org
2,831,724    3,134,666    92.59%   ipu.org     Opposition parties protested election irregularities, calling fo
             3,621,174    90.84%   ipu.org
                                   ipu.org     One party state until 1992. no turnout data on ipu.org
             5,577,569    81.71%   ipu.org     One party state until 1992.
             6,604,408    84.70%   ipu.org     One party state until 1992.
                                   ipu.org     One party state until 1992. no turnout data on ipu.org
                                   ipu.org     One party state until 1992. no turnout data on ipu.org
                                   ipu.org     Ban on religious organizations in politics. No turnout data on
             10880484              ipu.org     Ban on religious organizations in politics. No turnout data on
                                     Page 59
                          Election Results and Platforms
             15705223      72.52%    ipu.org       Ban on religious organizations in politics
             1,443,347     94.70%    ipu.org       No opposition allowed prior to 1987
             1,623,743     96.80%    ipu.org       No opposition allowed prior to 1987
             1,800,144     81.40%    ipu.org       No opposition allowed prior to 1987
             2,321,031     84.50%    ipu.org       No opposition allowed prior to 1987
             2,622,482     82.94%    ipu.org       No opposition allowed prior to 1987
             2,711,925     76.46%    ipu.org       Opposition parties and independents linked to an-Nahda run
             2,976,366     95.47%    ipu.org       Ennahda banned in 1992, religious parties not allowed
              3387542      92.00%    ipu.org       Ennahda banned in 1992, religious parties not allowed
              4609237      91.45%    ipu.org       Ennahda banned in 1992, religious parties not allowed
              4974707         89.4   ipu.org
             14,788,552    64.30%    ipu.org
10,723,658   16,798,164    66.80%    ipu.org       national salvation party founded 1972 – no prior Islamic orie
14,785,814   21,000,000    70.41%    ipu.org       approximate electorate
17,328,735   19,740,500    92.20%    ipu.org       coup in 1980
23,971,679   26,376,926    93.27%    ipu.org
24,416,700   29,979,123    83.90%    ipu.org
28,040,392   34,068,304    85.16%    ipu.org
31,051,199   37,506,817    87.00%    ipu.org

30,650,285   41,452,823    76.94% ipu.org     NB electoral laws restricting parties in parliament to those w
30,650,285   41,452,823    76.94% www.belgenet.net, ipu.org

34,822,907   42,571,284    84.26%    ipu.org
34,822,907   42,571,284    84.26%    www.belgenet.net, ipu.org
             2,013,423     99.77%    ipu.org
              2200000      98.90%    ipu.org
              1915000      76.88%    ipu.org
              2763993           30   ipu.org     govt claims 93.87% turnout, opposition parties say closer to 3
                                     ipu.org     No Political parties. electorate of 0.8% of population selected
                           94.00%    ipu.org     Islamist groups banned by regime
             12703488      93.00%    ipu.org     Islamist groups banned by regime
             14332736      85.10%    ipu.org     Islamist groups banned by regime
             17215700         87.8   ipu.org

              2,700,000    90.00% ipu.org          approximate electorate and voter figures

 2,827,261    4,637,728    60.96% ipu.org

 5,912,394    8,035,721    75.98% ipu.org



              1,113,000              ipu.org       IPU says one fourth of seats won by candidates “sympathetic

                                       Page 60
                                                     Election Results and Platforms




nts/organization/67158.pdf no parties - independents only. Ipu.org for turnout




excludes 8 reserved for overseas algerians
excludes 8 reserved for overseas algerians


e islamist parties. Effective votes are less than the number of voters (from turnout)
e islamist parties. Effective votes are less than the number of voters (from turnout)




after 2 years. 30 elective seats – 14 appointed

arties b/c king's 40 member appointed shura council has equal legislative rights. 98.4% support for consitutional changes in referendum. U

r. One seat was won by a slafist independent




 Brotherhood




                                                                 Page 61
                                                    Election Results and Platforms

electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511, ipu.org




ide.org/election.php?ID=1511

ide.org/election.php?ID=1511

o party coalition with IDL-R that was “extreme rightist”. Electorate figures are labelled “approximate.” Note that 30 additional womens se

ong with two other leading opposition groups.

t means by voters (I entered as registered voters). Jamaat pledged support to BNP, which was 5 seats short of a majority




                                                                 Page 62
                                                     Election Results and Platforms
 65 per cent of the 225 000 registered voters went to the polls"




our Party and Socialist Liberal Party. LoC suggests turnout closer to 25%
Wafd, Socialist Liberal and Socialist labor parties boycotted the poll, though many members ran as independent. IPU doesn't mention MB
cies. 112 independents won seats, 99 of them joined the ruling NDP. Assuming MB candidates didn't, that leaves a max of 13
ontments and 2 undecided seats for alexandria. arrests of mb and violence by police. Ipu.org has no turnout data (nor IFES). Turnout figur
 due to security concerns – I've excluded them from the total number. MB officially banned, but allowed to back independents. They cam




tested seats not included in turnout
ed in turnout figures. Ipu states turnout as approximately 38%
out data on ipu.org


ribes "generally satisfactory conditions" for polling, despite boycott of one of the opposition groups.


 t calculated from votes for the single political party (PAIGC) divided by registered electors. Actual turnout may have been higher due to sp




                                                                   Page 63
                                                    Election Results and Platforms




esian_legislative_election,_1971




uded. Approximate voter figures

ded from totals. Megawati barred from running




ies on Islamic law during runup to elections. Error in ipu voting numbers

ch as the PKS, the PAN and the PKB - adopted more moderate positions to attract voters. However, that strategy reportedly caused intern




                                                                 Page 64
                                                     Election Results and Platforms
ates fielded by party




 to independent Islamic candidates allied to MB. Although parties were banned, MB could nominate candidates due to legal status as a ch

protesting the one-person, one-vote formula.” These 12 seats won by IAF candidates (as independents) and their leftist allies. principle slo
ts reserved for women. no women won, so a special commission appointed them. Islamists contested 30 seats




an's 15 million population were eligible to elect deputies and more than 53 per cent cast votes." OSCE recorded improved voting conditio

d, 57% in second round
 urnout was 57% in first round, 59% in second round




 IPU: “shia muslims achieved limited results”. The Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait also go by the name of "Islamic Society for Social Reform




dates suffered somewhat of a setback” - no figures in ipu
gure claimed by govt. NB: election in June, Iraqi invasion in August

dent candidates cross-listed with both Hadas and the Salafis, which we have split evenly between the two parties to determine the seats w

dent candidates cross-listed with both Hadas and the Salafis, which we have split evenly between the two parties to determine the seats w




cluding "Shi'ite, Sunni, Muslim fundamentalists, Islamic Deputies"

s Database. Turnout from Journal of Democracy Election Watch no. 4 1999, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/election
                                                                 Page 65
                                                       Election Results and Platforms


 lamist", giving them 20 seats. Seats allocated to other Islamists are subtracted from this number
n 2 seats itself, though it effectively controlled 2 more through close allies.


s Database. Abdullah Akash is included in the Tajammu number per the recommendation of Michael Herb.
 portion the 21 Islamists among the different parties.Approximate voter figures.




at 65%. IPU gives 21 seats to the Islamist bloc, from which 6 are subtracted for the Islamic constitutional Movement (per Brown 2008, ma
er IPU's per advice of Michael Herb

er IPU's per advice of Michael Herb

er IPU's per advice of Michael Herb




the 11 seats allocated to Sunni Islamists by the IPU

 Khazen's turnout data taken from lliya Harik, 'Mann Yahkurn Lubnan' (Beirut: Dar al-Nahar lil-Nashr, 1972)

w Hizbullah deliberately left some seats open in order to broker alliances with other parties)




uspended in East Malaysia after May 13 race riots. PAS contested 61 seats.
ont in 1977, held 9 seats at dissolution of parliament in 1978. The number of seats won is the PAS component of the National Front.
ers cast no ballots in 9 constituencies where candidates ran unopposed

bul Muslim is part of UMNO coalition, won 1 seat
AS fielded 30 candidates

                                                                  Page 66
                                                    Election Results and Platforms

y of Malaysia (PAS), People's Justice Party (PKR),and Democratic Action Party (DAP). PAS got 27 seats. Majority in Kelantan and Trangganu
y of Malaysia (PAS), People's Justice Party (PKR). PAS got 6 seats

ut there is an islamist group
ut there is an islamist group
ut there is an islamist group
ut there is an islamist group
arties were legalized
arties were legalized


out data on ipu.org




y regime - Party of Democratic Convergence not allowed. No turnout data on ipu.org
y regime - Party of Democratic Convergence not allowed
y regime - Party of Democratic Convergence not allowed
o no Islamists in 1984, 1977, and 1970. The proto-PJD was denied participation.


lls them “moderate”
ted – Ben-Layashi from MERIA 2007
according to Ben-Layashi from MERIA 2007




or Niger describes a low turnout of less than 30%


ts turnout at approximately 72%




                                                               Page 67
                                                      Election Results and Platforms
ta, but does cite the Nigerian Election Commission as claiming that over 35 million of 60 million eligible voters cast their votes
 ative council - no ipu statistics
 ative council - no ipu statistics
 ative council - no ipu statistics
 ative council - no ipu statistics
ative council - but no ipu statistics. UN POGAR: "Out of 800,000 Omanis eligible to vote, 262,000 registered to vote, and 74% of those, or 1




w in July. Nasr states that the Jamaat won 9 of the PNA's 36 seats. This election was widely thought to have been rigged.
 ipu says Islamists lost out. Khan notes that the Jamaat-e-Islami was the only party allowed to participate as a political organization in the
est, winning 7


 18 seats given to contest by IJI, 3% of vote

 Khan (2004) gives 40.5%

 Khan (2004) gives 40.5%
 Khan (2004) gives 40.5%

 muslim seats directly elected. 20 women's seats indirectly electedelections.com.pk is produced by 2 pakistani websites covering elections
or women, 10 for minorities. Restrictions on Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, violence during elections, restrictions on rallies. EU observer

as running. Only the JUI(F) ran, the JI boycotted the election over the judges issue and Musharraf's reelection as president
plate.aspx?id=54




s parties. No turnout data on ipu




                                                                  Page 68
                                                     Election Results and Platforms


nout data on ipu.org




party. no turnout data on ipu
party. no turnout data on ipu




out data on ipu.org
out data on ipu.org
out data on ipu.org




election irregularities, calling for elections to be invalidated. OSCE challenged turnout percentage

o turnout data on ipu.org


o turnout data on ipu.org
o turnout data on ipu.org
s in politics. No turnout data on ipu.org
s in politics. No turnout data on ipu.org
                                                                  Page 69
                                                  Election Results and Platforms




endents linked to an-Nahda run but win no seats; source for percent of votes: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/democracy/1994_hrp_report
gious parties not allowed
gious parties not allowed
gious parties not allowed


ded 1972 – no prior Islamic oriented groups?




 arties in parliament to those with >9% of vote




 pposition parties say closer to 30% http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insightb/articles/eav121508b.shtml
e of 0.8% of population selected by rulers




won by candidates “sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood”

                                                              Page 70
                                               Election Results and Platforms




nsitutional changes in referendum. Unknown coherence among candidates




                                                           Page 71
                                                    Election Results and Platforms




” Note that 30 additional womens seats are elected by the parliament – not directly.




s short of a majority




                                                                Page 72
                                                    Election Results and Platforms




 ependent. IPU doesn't mention MB (journalistic sources on net mention boycott)
  that leaves a max of 13
 urnout data (nor IFES). Turnout figure from IDEA ("Building Democracy in Egypt" 2003) and Blaydes (2006)
wed to back independents. They campaigned under the slogan “Islam is the answer.” govt cracked down on MB in 3 rd round after initial st




nout may have been higher due to spoiled or blank ballots.




                                                                Page 73
                                                    Election Results and Platforms




hat strategy reportedly caused internal divisions among the PKS. Other Islamic parties which had won seats in the 2004 elections - the PPP




                                                                Page 74
                                                         Election Results and Platforms




candidates due to legal status as a charity

ts) and their leftist allies. principle slogan: “Islam is the solution”




E recorded improved voting conditions, but still falling short of international standards.




e of "Islamic Society for Social Reform"




two parties to determine the seats won by each party. Approximate turnout figure from ipu.org.

two parties to determine the seats won by each party. Approximate turnout figure from ipu.org.




rnals/journal_of_democracy/election_watch/v010/index.html
                                                                      Page 75
                                                Election Results and Platforms




nal Movement (per Brown 2008, matches Kuwait Politcs Database) and two each for the two Salafi movements.




mponent of the National Front.




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. Majority in Kelantan and Trangganu




                                                  Page 77
                                                     Election Results and Platforms
le voters cast their votes




stered to vote, and 74% of those, or 194,000, actually voted."




o have been rigged.
pate as a political organization in the elections.




 pakistani websites covering elections (pakcyber.com and paktribune, an internet daily)
ns, restrictions on rallies. EU observers called them “seriously flawed” b/c of access to state resources (media) and Musharraf's expanded p

eelection as president




                                                                 Page 78
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u/ERC/democracy/1994_hrp_report/94hrp_report_nea/Tunisia.html




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wn on MB in 3 rd round after initial strong showing




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n seats in the 2004 elections - the PPP and Crescent Moon and Star Party (PBB, 11 seats) - were reportedly losing ground. PDI-P leader Me




                                                                Page 84
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(media) and Musharraf's expanded powers. Commonwealth accepted vote as credible, but not the campaign. HRCP denounced “electora




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tedly losing ground. PDI-P leader Megawati held talks with the PPP while the PD engaged with the PKB. Pre-election polls indicated that o




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                                               5/8/07 4:25pmStatistical Data for 2002 election at ecp.gov.pk/content/Stat.html
ampaign. HRCP denounced “electoral malpractice”





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KB. Pre-election polls indicated that only the PD would secure over 25 per cent of the votes nationwide.




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t ecp.gov.pk/content/Stat.html




                                           Page 108
1.Does the party call for a violent revolution against the state?
        l   0 = No (including non-mention)
        l   1 = Yes
2.Does the party support democracy? Do they define democracy?
        l   -1 = Opposition to democracy
        l   0 = No mention of democracy
        l   1 = Secular democracy. Statement of support for democracy and a secular polity.
        l   2 = Islamic democracy. Statement of support for democracy with explicit reference to Islamic principles (
3.Does the party require the implementation of the shari'a? What is their definition of the shari'a? Who will adjudica
        l   3a. Implementation of the shari'a
            0 = No (including non-mention)
            1 = Yes
        l   3b. Definition/ view of the implementation of the shari'a
            0 = No details
            1 = Weak form. No law which goes against the sharia, or some other statement which acknowledges th
            2 = Strong form. Quran and Sunnah as the only source of law
        l   3c. Adjudication
            0 = No mention
            1 = Consensus, discussion and collective decision making
            2 = Other. Singular authority such as a grand mufti or commission
4.What are the top three issues in the party platform?
        l   A series of dummy variables capturing which categories are present in the top 3 issues state in a platform
5.Where does the party stand on women's rights and the implementation of Islamic family law?
        l   0 = No mention
        l   1 = Full legal equality for women
        l   2 = A distinct women's role in family and society
6.How does the party propose to treat minorities?
        l   0 = No mention
        l   1 = Full legal equality for minorities
        l   2 = “separate but equal” style of inclusion with reference to some Islamic criteria
7.Does the party platform propose any welfare programs such as pensions, poverty relief, and medical care for those
        l   0 = None
        l   1 = Limited set of programs which are not central.
        l   2 = Extensive set of programs which are important to the platform.
8.Is jihad mentioned? In what context? How is jihad defined?
        l   If Jihad is mentioned at all
            0 = No
            1 = Yes
        l   Context in which it is used
            0 = non-violent usage
            1 = self-defense only
            2 = with reference to a specific circumstance, such as in Palestine or the historic struggle against colon
              3 = combating external enemies more generally
9.What is the party's position on the Israel/ Palestine conflict?
       l    0 = not mentioned
       l    1 = general support for Muslim freedom movements
       l    2 = explicit support for Palestinian independence
10.Does the party mention an anti-corruption stance in its platform?
       l    0 = No
       l    1 = Yes, but only briefly.
       l    2 = Yes, it is important to the platform.
11.Does the party platform propose banning interest based banking?
       l    0 = No
       l    1 = No, but Islamic banking is supported.
       l    2 = Yes.
12.Is the party platform accepting of a free market economy?
       l    0 = not mentioned
       l    1 = price controls and active government role in distribution
       l    2 = support for market based competition as organizing principle of economic activity
13.Is the party platform encouraging towards foreign investment?
       l    0 = not mentioned
       l    1 = Opposes foreign investment, proposing some measure of autarkic self-reliance.
       l    2 = Engaging in global economy
nce to Islamic principles (e.g. shura) in agreement with democratic state structures.
hari'a? Who will adjudicated disputes over the meaning of the shari'a?




ent which acknowledges the Sharia as a guiding framework for legislation.




 issues state in a platform




nd medical care for those in need?




oric struggle against colonial powers
                                                     1. Does the
                                                     party call for a
                                                     violent            2. Does the party
                                                     revolution         support democracy?
                                           No. of    against the        Do they define
Country   Year         Party               Pages     state?             democracy?




                                                                       Democracy is not
                                                                       mentioned. Shura
                                                                       appears in reference
                                                                       to getting rid of
                                                                       despotism through
                                                                       eradicating the
                                                                       political and economic
                                                                       monopoly. (p. 95)
                                                                       Running industrial
                                                                       institutions through an
                                                                       Islamic approach of
                                                                       shura, mutual respect
                                                                       and responsibility. (p.
Algeria                                                                101)
                 1991 al-Jabha al-Islamiyya li'l-Inqadh (Islamic Salvation Front)
                                                      No.




                                                                        A combination
                                                                        between democracy
                                                                        and shura, what they
                                                                        called "shura-
                                                                        democracy" principle
Algeria          1991 Harakat al-Mujtama‘ al-IslamiNo.
                                                   (Hamas)              (p. 124)
                                                            Not mentioned.
                                                            "shura should be
                                                            considered as the way
                                                            and the system of
Algeria   1991 Harakat al-Nahda al-IslamiyyaNo.             governance. (p. 142)
                                            (Islamic Renaissance Movement)




                                                           Setting up a political
                                                           democratic system
                                                           based on pluralism
Algeria                                                    and freedom.
          2007 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform) (p. 1, 9) of power and recognizing the majo
                                            No. Acknowledging peaceful transition
                                                              Yes. "Promoting
                                                              democracy" is one of
                                                              the main premises of
                                                              the platform (p. 2).
                                                              Increased citizen
                                                              participation
                                                              mentioned several
Algeria                                                       times.
             2007 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for "Peaceful change" (p. Hamas)
                                              No: slogan is the Society of Peace, 1)


                                                             "Jamaat-e-Islami
                                                             wants to bring about a
                                                             total change in
                                                             government through
                                                             democratic
                                                             processes." (5)
                                                             Every individual and
                                                             party has the right to
                                                             express and mobilise
                                                             opinion in accordance
                                                             with the principle of
                                                             democracy and law."
Bangladesh   1991 Jamaat-e-Islami          18 No             (6)
                                            Yes: building
                                            Bangladesh as a "truly
                                            Islamic and
                                            democratic welfare
                                            state." Some details
                                            on that. Doesn't
                                            define democracy, but
                                            constitutional changes
                                            still have a
                                            competitive electoral
                                            system with
                                            guarantees of free
                                            speech and
Bangladesh   1996 Jamaat-e-Islami   46 No   fundamental rights.




                                            Yes: but with Quran
                                            and Sunnah as the
Bangladesh   2001 Jamaat-e-Islami   19 No   only source of law.
                                            Yes. Although the
                                            objective is an Islamic
                                            welfare state, "Jamaat
                                            believes that only
                                            government of the
                                            people elected
                                            through adult
                                            franchise can bring
                                            these reforms." The JI
                                            defines itself as a "a
                                            modern and
                                            democratic Islamic
                                            political party ...
                                            working to establish a
                                            liberal parliamentary
Bangladesh   2008 Jamaat-e-Islami   22 No   system of democracy"
                                              "the basis for the
                                             reform in Egypt is to
                                             establish a
                                             comprehensive and
                                             sound democratic
                                             ruling system. (p. 306)
                                             To establish the
                                             democracy, certain
                                             means have to be
                                             adopted: 1)
                                             Reconsideration of the
                             There is        Constitution with a
                             nothing         view to change the
                             mentioned       political system from
                             about a violent totalitarian to a multi-
                             revolution.     party democratic
                             Instead, "the system; 2) "the
                             basis for the abolishment of laws
                             reform in       and anti democratic
                             Egypt is to     practices, e.g. the
                             establish a     annulment of
                             comprehensiv Emergency laws, the
                             e and sound     revocation of bad
                             democratic      reputation laws and
             al-Ikhwan al-   ruling system. the freedom to
             Muslimeen       (p. 306 & see establish political
             (Muslim         also question parties without
Egypt   1987 Brotherhood)    2)              getting permission
                                              Yes. The reform will
                                              not be achieved but
                                              through the
                                              application of
                                              democracy which we
                                              believe in, abide by its
                                              principles, and call
                                              other political and
                                              parties and groups to
                                              uphold to it as a
                                              national contract/pact
                                              (Ar. mithaq). The
                                              principles of this
                                              mithaq are: 1) the
                                              people is the source of
                             No.              authority, 2) State
                             Committed to     Authority alternation
                             uphold to the    through election, 3)
                             state            The freedom of belief
                             republican       and religious practice,
                             democratic       4) the freedom of
                             constitutional   expression, 5) the
             al-Ikhwan al-   parliamentary    freedom of
             Muslimeen       political        establishing political
             (Muslim         system. (p.      parties, etc. (p. 169-
Egypt   1995 Brotherhood)    169)             171).
                                              Yes: "the system of
             al-Ikhwan al-                    shura, or election of
             Muslimeen                        the head of state." (p.
             (Muslim                          10) On political
Egypt   2000 Brotherhood)                     pluralism (pp. 18-19).
                               No. "We proclaim once again our refusal to employ violence, opposing, in




             al-Ikhwan al-
             Muslimeen                        Yes. They support the
             (Muslim                          democratic process
Egypt   2005 Brotherhood)    43 No            and a civil state.
                                               Yes. Democracy is
                                               defined in a section on
                                               characteristics of the
                                               party entitled
                                               "Demokrat" (pp. 34-
                                               36). There is talk of
                                               accountability,
                                               remaining true to the
                                               law, and democracy as
                                               a principle and value
                                               that is at once
                                               political, economic
                                               and legal which
                                               provides a framework
                                               for political power,
                                               management, and the
                                               decision-making
                                               process. Later, in the
                                               party’s national
                                               agenda platform,
                                               developing
                                               democratization in
                                               terms of clean,
                                               honest, free and fair
                                               elections is included as
                                               a plank, as well as
                                               rights for a free press
Indonesia   1998 Partai Keadilan (PK)    No.   (p. 96; 100). Universal




                 al-Ittihad al-'Iraqi          Yes. They describe a
                 al-Muwahhad                   secular and
                 (United Iraqi                 constitutional
Iraq        2005 Alliance)              4 No   democracy.
                                                            The Front seeks
                                                            pluralism within one
                                                            united Iraq. (p. 1) It
                                                            highlights in its
                                                            political program the
                                                            need to establish a
                                                            political democratic
                                                            system to help
                                                            guarantee the
                                                            freedom of expression
                                                            and the press and the
                                                            civil societies. (item
                                                            #11 in the political
Iraq   2005 Jabhat al-Tawafuq al-'Iraqiyya                  program section, p. revolution or resistance against the s
                                             No There is no mention for a violent3)




                                                           Yes. "Promoting
                                                           values and culture of
                                                           moderation,
                                                           tolerance, coexistence
Iraq                                                       and human rights"
       2005 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union)
                                        3 No
                                               Not mentioned. There
                                               is the affirmation on
                                               the right of all citizens
                                               of religion and of free
                                               expressions. These
                                               rights cannot be
                                               prevented under the
                                               justifications of
                                               exceptional laws,
              Jama'at al-Ikhwan                emergency laws. All
              al-Muslimin                      laws that contradict
              (Society of Muslim   Not         these rights are to be
Jordan   1989 Brothers)            mentioned   abolished. (p. 3)
                                          Yes. Working for the
                                          abolishment and the
                                          amendment of some
                                          constitutional rules
                                          with a view to
                                          enhance democracy.
                                          Some of these
                                          regulations include
                                          the dissolution of the
                                          parliament only in
                                          case of dire necessity,
                                          the non-legality of
                                          bringing any one
                                          before court unless
                                          there is first a
                                          resolution from the
                                          parliament with an
                                          absolute majority, etc.
                                          (p.4) The more focus,
                                          however, was on the
                                          concept of shura, e.g.
                                          taking administrative
                                          decisions based on the
                                          shura and not on
                                          individual basis (p. 8),
              Jabhat al-'Amal al-         working to generalize
              Islami (Islamic             the shura
Jordan   1993 Action Front - IAF)   No.   parliamentary
                                          Exerting efforts to
                                          create a sound
                                          environment that
                                          helps achieve the
                                          hopes of the people of
                                          freedom, shura and
                                          democracy.
                                          Acknowledging that
                                          democratic practices
                                          are defective and the
                                          lack the integrity of
                                          election process, and
                                          the unjust distribution
                                          of parliament seats,
                                          etc. (p. 1) The Ummah
                                          is the source of
                                          power/legislation.
                                          Establishing a
                                          constitutional court is
              Jabhat al-'Amal al-         a step toward the real
              Islami (Islamic             advancement of
Jordan   2003 Action Front - IAF)   No.   democracy. (p. 2)
                                                   Constitutional reforms
                                                   are needed to
                                                   enhance democracy.
                                                   One of the basic
                                                   constitutional reforms
                                                   is to activate the
                                                   principle that the
                                                   ummah is the source
                                                   of power/legislation.
                                                   (p.1) Some of the
                                                   other reform
                                                   regulations include
                                                   preventing the
                                                   government from
                                                   issuing temporary
                                                   regulations,
                                                   dissolution of the
                                                   parliament only after
                                    No. There is a the end of its
                                    need for a     constitutional term,
              Jabhat al-'Amal al-   peaceful       and the issuance of a
              Islami (Islamic       gradual        new election law. (p.
Jordan   2007 Action Front - IAF)   reform. (p. 1) 1)
                                                              "Democracy" is not
                                                              mentioned in the
                                                              whole platform.
                                                              However it is stated
                                                              that authoritarian
                                                              government has to be
                                                              abolished and people
                                                              should be given the
                                                              right to participate in
                                                              running the affairs of
                                                              the country. (p. 87) A
                                                              majoritarian
                                                              parliamentary
                                                              government should be
Kuwait                                     No.                instituted. (p. 89)
         1992 Al-Tajammau` al-Islami al-Sha`bi It calls for the establishment of a parliamentary government chosen b
Kuwait                                                          Not mentioned.
         2003 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-SalafiNo. It calls for the establishment of a modern civic society that correspon
                                                                In previous years, the
                                                                Movement introduced
                                                                a project to organize
                                                                the political sphere
                                                                through a party
                                                                system basis, with a
                                                                view to "develop the
                                                                democratic process
                                                                and public
                                                                engagement". (p. 5)
                                                                According to the
                                                                Movement, the
                                                                Ummah Council
                                                                should be elected
                                                                according to
                                                                democratic public
                                                                choice. The
                                                                government should be
                                                                chosen on a
                                                                majoritarian
                                                                parliamentary basis.
Kuwait   2008 Al-Harakat al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya             (p. 8)
                                             No. It calls for respecting the constitution and denies any unconstitutiona
                                                               The word
                                                               "democracy" itself is
                                                               not mentioned.
                                                               However some
                                                               democratic
                                                               manifestations were
                                                               apparent in the
                                                               platform but used
                                                               within Islamic
                                                               references. EX. The
                                                               platform refers to the
                                                               enhancement of
                                                               freedom, and the
                                                               parliamentary process
                                                               and the public
                                                               engagement in making
                                                               the political decision.
Kuwait                                                         (p. of
          2008 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-SalafiPeaceful transition 1) power through election.




                                                             The want to "abolish
                                                             political sectarianism"
Lebanon   1992 Hizbullah                   7 No              (254)




                                                             They want to abolish
                                                             the allocation of seats
                                                             on confessional lines
                                                             and introduce
                                                             proportional
                                                             representation instead
                                                             as that would
                                                             constitute "real
Lebanon   1996 Hizbullah                   7 No              representation" (256),
                                    Abolishing political
                                    sectarianism to allow
                                    for "better
Lebanon    2000 Hizbullah    8 No   representation" (265)




Lebanon    2005 Hizbullah    1 No   Not mentioned.




                                    Yes. They want more
                                    checks and balances
                                    against a dominant
                                    executive, freedoms
                                    of expression and
                                    information.
                                    Detention without
Malaysia   1999 PAS         39 No   trial will be abolished.
                                                              Yes. Democracy is
                                                              defined as a
                                                              parliamentary
                                                              democracy, with a
                                                              free press and free
Malaysia   2004 Barisan Alternatif (BA, which includes PAS)
                                               No.            and fair elections.
                            Yes. Democracy is
                            defined on the first
                            page of the party
                            manifesto as
                            something that
                            guarantees the people
                            choosing their
                            government (p. 1).
                            Democracy must
                            support the spirit of
                            the law, achieve
                            justice, and be
                            bolstered by free, fair,
                            and clean elections (p.
                            1). The party
                            manifesto also calls
                            for the formation of
                            “watchdog” agencies
                            to monitor various
                            government
                            operations, and a free
Malaysia   2008 PAS   No.   press (p. 7, 31).
                                                            Yes. The party
                                                            considers democracy
                                                            one of the basic
                                                            elements of its
                                                            platform. The party
                                                            defines democracy as
                                                            the process of
                                                            accepting democratic
                                                            principles that include
                                                            the recognition of the
                                                            multi-party system,
                                                            peaceful transition of
                                                            power, constitutional
                                                            reform, guaranteeing
                                                            freedom and human
                                                            rights, civil society
                                                            development, etc. (pp.
                                                            17-23) The party will
                                                            try to democratize the
                 Hizb al-'Adala wa'l-                       media so that all
                 Tanmiyya (Justice                          political and civil
                 and Development                            organization will make
                 Party)                                     use of them. (p. 20,
Morocco   2002                                              47)
                                            No, the party calls for peaceful transition of power through election. The




                                                             Yes: repeated mention
                                                             of "augmenting the
                                                             participation of the
                                                             media in democratic
                                                             development and
                                                             opening and the
                                                             preservation of the
                                                             national identity" (p.
                                                             1), "consolidate
                                                             participatory
                                                             development" and
                                                             "reinforce democratic
Morocco                                                      development" (p. 3).
          2007 Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party)
                                              No
                                          Yes. They identify
                                          prerequisites for a
                                          stable democracy as
                                          the acceptance of
                                          majority rule (and thus
                                          an Islamic state),
                                          government by freely
                                          elected
                                          representatives (not
                                          the army or
                                          bureaucracy), and a
Pakistan   1969 Jamaat-e-Islami   42 No   fair and honest media.




                                          Yes. They want to
                                          establish an "Islamic
                Islamic                   Democratic State"
                Democratic                aimed at a "just social
Pakistan   1988 Alliance          17 No   order. " (1)
                                              The party intends to
                                              make Pakistan a "true
Pakistan    2002 MMA     1 No                 Islamic welfare state"


                           "The
                           Palestinian
                           People are still
                           in the process
                           of National
                           Liberation and
                           have the right
                           to use all         Yes. The party
                           means              describes a
                           including          government with
                           armed struggle     separate branches,
                           to achieve this    the rule of law, and
Palestine   2006 Hamas   6 goal."             rights for its citizens.
                                                                Yes. The support the
                                                                "democratization
                                                                process" of the
                                                                country and seek to
                                                                "Achieve the missions
                                                                thru legal
                                                                representative of the
Tajikistan   2002 Hizbi Nahzati Islami Tajikistan No.
                                               9                country" (1)




                                                                 Yes, it supports Free
                                                                 Democracy (Hur
                                                                 Demokrasi) and "Milli
                                                                 Gorus has the
                                                                 determination of
                                                                 introducing a
                                                                 democratic state
                                                                 which is most suitable
                                                                 to our national
                                                                 specifities and
                                                                 national character. P.
Turkey                                           Salvation Party)44.
             1973 Milli Selâmet Partisi (NationalNO
                                                 Does not make any
                                                 arguments against
                                                 democracy, yet the
                                                 term(s) democracy or
                                                 democratic are rarely
                                                 in the platform p. 15, .
                                                 In all those instances,
                                                 however, the concept
                                                 is used to critique the
                                                 understanding of
                                                 democracy (i.e.
                                                 'guided democracy
                                                 since 1946, p.15),
                                                 (laws relating to the
                                                 unification of
                                                 curriculum/
                                                 education(al) (1924)
                                                 are anti-democratic p.
                                                 90) or when the
                                                 platform calls for an
                                                 autonomous and
                                                 democratic university
                                                 system pp. 106-108. It
                                                 seems like in order to
                                                 describe the kind of
                                                 regime the party
                                                 proposes the term
Turkey   1991 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) NO   Adil Duzen (Just/Fair
                                                            Yes. It describes
                                                            democracy as primacy
                                                            of people's will over
                                                            any other power.
                                                            Further it describes
                                                            the parliament as an
                                                            institute where the
                                                            will of people
                                                            realizes/is reflected.
                                                            Finally the platform
                                                            states that Turkey
                                                            could be incorporated
                                                            into modern
                                                            democratic world only
                                                            through application of
                                                            democracy in full and
Turkey   1999 Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party) NO             effectively p.6.


                                                            Yes. The arty is
                                                            described as a
                                                            conservative
                                                            democratic
                                                            organization.
                                                            Democracy is defined
                                                            with reference to
                                                            people's free will (free
                                                            and fair elections),
                                                            rule of law and
Turkey                                                      pluralism. P.3 of Part
         2002 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development Party) I)
                                            NO
                                                            Yes. It describes
                                                            democracy as
                                                            "individuals turning
                                                            the right to rule, with
                                                            their free will, into a
                                                            common people's will
                                                            through consent."
                                                            p.27 The program calls
                                                            for establishment of a
                                                            full democracy based
                                                            upon human rights,
                                                            freedoms and rule of
Turkey   2002 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) NO            law. p.27

                                                            Yes, Democracy is
                                                            defined as a political
                                                            regime where
                                                            sovereignity belongs
                                                            to the nation.
                                                            Pluralism is underlined
                                                            as a precondition of
Turkey                                      NO              democracy. P.10.
         2007 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development Party)
Turkey   2007 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) NO   Not dicussed
                                                   Resisting dictatorship
                                                   with all its forms and
                                                   replacing it with a
                                                   democratic republican
                                                   system. (p. 10)
                                                   Developing the
                                                   military institution to
                                                   perform its task in
                                                   development along
                                                   with protecting the
                                                   democratic system
                                   No. The rule of based on the peaceful
                                   the peaceful transition of powers.
                                   transition is a (p. 23) The media
                                   translation for discourse should be
                                   the Islamic     directed to enhance
                                   principle that the shurite democracy
                                   the people has (note the term)
                                   the right to    efforts. This will
             Tajammu' al-          choose their happen through
             Yamani li'l-Islah     leaders         informing the people
             (Yemeni               through free of all relevant
             Congregation for      elections. (p. information and news.
Yemen   1993 Reform).              11)             (p. 34)




                                                   Yes, it defines
                                                   democracy as shura:
                                                   meaning
                                                   "participation in
             Tajammu' al-                          government and the
             Yamani li'l-Islah                     people's right to
             (Yemeni                               decide on their affairs
             Congregation for                      and choose their
Yemen   1997 Reform).            18 No             rulers"
3.Does the party require
the implementation of
the shari'a? What is their
definition of the shari'a?     4.What are the
Who will adjudicated           top three issues 5.Where does the party stand on women's 6.How does the party
disputes over the              in the party     rights and the implementation of Islamic propose to treat
meaning of the shari'a?        platform?        family law?                              minorities?




Politics means siyasa          Ending
shar`iyyah, i.e. ruling        despotism and
based on shura and the         establishing
rulings of Islam. (p. 95)      shura and
Political legislations have    equality through   Reform the Algerian family on the lines of
to be subject to the           political and      the Shari`a. (Subtitles in p. 111). Giving
rulings of shari`a. Islam is   economic           mothers maternity grants through the
the theological                reform,            social solidarity institutions. (p. 112) Taking
framework and                  establishing the   care of women through enhancing their
ideological precept for        Islamic hisba      behavioral and faith level, and increasing
the political work in all      system, and        their political and civilizational awareness,
walks of life. (p. 92)         social welfare     etc. (p. 112)                                   Not mentioned.

                                                  Developing the family law to cope with the
                                                  progress of the society, however within
The establishment of an                           the framework of its values. Liberating
Islamic system of              Political and      women from the traditions that have
governance based on            constitutional     nothing to do with Islam, especially the
shura, equality, justice       reform             habit of depriving her of inheritance.
and freedom. Working           (including the     Increasing the grant given to the
toward the application of      application of     housewives. Increasing the level of her
the shari`a and the            the Shari`a),      participation in public life, politically,
abolition of the laws that     economic           socially and economically, and reviewing
are against its texts and      reform and         the laws that deprives women their rights.
objectives. (p. 125)           social reform      (p. 133)                                   Not mentioned.
One of the goals is to
establish an Islamic state
that applies the rulings
of Islam. The declaration
of the supremacy of
Allah's shari`a. The
power/authority is in the
hands of people but
practiced within the
limits of shari`ah.
Relations with non-
Muslims are subject to
the rulings of shari`a first   Political reform,   Not mentioned. Caring for the women,
and then subject to the        economic            their education and their guidance as long
interest of the state. (p.     reform, and the     as protecting her from exploitation. (p.
142-3)                         social reform       144)                                       Not mentioned.




                                            Stressing the critical role of women in the
                                            society. Providing her with her legal rights
                                            through enacting laws and legislations.
Not mentioned. Stressing                    Having a complete program for women
the national identity with Democratic       development that include her role in the        Not mentioned.
its three aspects: Islam, political reform, house as a mother and as wife and her role      Getting rid of tribalism
Arabism and Amazigism. free economy, in the society as a co-worker. Encouraging             and holding to national
(p. 10)                    social welfare   women to join the political life. (p. 34-36)    unity. (p. 45)
                                                                                             No mention, though
                                                                                             the introduction
"Our objective is the                                                                        characterizes the
construction of a            "Preserve Islam                                                 Algerian people as:
modern state according       from being _                                                    "Algeria is a land of
to the principles of Islam   [terni], the state                                              Islam and Arabness.
[dans le cadre des           from _                                                          The Algerian people, of
principes de l’islam], of    [s'effondrer], the                                              Amazigh origin, are an
democratic choice, and       country from                                                    integral part of the
of the republican            being                                                           Greater Maghrib, of
system." (p. 2) "Create      dismembered,                                                    the Arab-Muslim
the institution of the       and society from                                                world, and of the
Grand Mufti of Algeria"      being _                                                         African region
(item #45, p. 6).            [déchirée]." (p. 1) (item #38, p. 6)                            [espace]." (p. 1)




                                                                                            "The state will
                                                                                            guarantee the rights of
                                                                                            all citizens irrespective
                                                                                            of race, color or
                                                "Special laws related to marriage, divorce, religion" (6) "All non-
                                                and inheritance will be enacted to protect Muslims will be given
"The Quran and Sunnah                           the rights of women guaranteed in the       the liberty to perform
shall be the source of all                      Quran and Sunnah." (9) The platform's       their religious rituals
laws" (8). No formal       Shari'a              approach to "Safeguarding the rights of     freely and without any
statement of who will      Islamic morals       women" is presented within the context of interference from
interpret Islamic law.     Social welfare       the status guaranteed by Islam (19)         outside" (13)
Platform suggests that
the govt would have to
meet the basic needs of
the people before
introducing hadood
punishments such as
amputation, stoning.
Three phases: first is to
introduce the precepts
so that we can love God;
second establish an
atmosphere where the
precepts can be
followed; third             Implementation
promulgate laws and         of the Shari'a
punishments. No details     Anti-corruption   In favor of women's education. Abolish
on adjudication over        Elimination of    dowry. Employment and participation in
implementation of           interest-based    public life, but "within the bounds of   equal rights as per
Sharia.                     economy           'shariah'" (43).                         Muslims.

Laws based only on                          Rights of women and their dignity to be
Quran and Sunnah. No        Implementation upheld - in accordance with Islam. No
suggestion of how to        of the Shari'a  dowry payments or honor killings (or
instiutionalize Sharia      Anti-corruption attacks). Women's employment and           equal rights to
based legal system.         Islamic morals education to be supported.                  Muslims.
No. "Jamaat will
continue to resist all
attempts and efforts
designed against the
country and against the
principles of Quran and
Sunnah. As a primary
step to establish an
Islamic welfare state, the
existing laws of the                                                                      Full legal equality:
country will be suitably                                                                  "Equal opportunities
amended and necessary                                                                     for people from all
administrative reforms                                                                    religions and ethnic
will be carried out." The                                                                 background shall be
word sharia does not                                                                      guaranteed."
appear, while Quran and                                                                   Additionally,
sunnah are mentioned                                                                      protection of the
once each. However,                                                                       ethnic minority
there are numerous                              Some support of women's rights, including Chittagong Hill People
references to expanding                         equal pay and maternity leave. However, is mentioned.
the role of religion in      Self sufficiency   the major statement on women's rights is: However, the platform
public and private life,     National           "In order to ensure women’s rights and    includes a proposal for
including the                Defense            dignity, employment shall be provided     a strong blasphemy
establishment of salat       Poverty            according to their aptitude and           law to counter anti-
(daily prayers).             Alleviation        competence. "                             religious publications
The application of the
Shari`a is a religious
obligation and national
necessity. There is no
space to agree or to
object to this principle.
Every Muslim has to
respond to Allah's
Command and apply the
shari`a immediately.
Acknowledging that the
matter would take time
but at least immediate
declaration of the
principle is needed. (p.
308) The concept of
shari`a goes beyond the
question of hudud, or
the civil and the criminal
laws. It covers also
media, education,
economics,
constitutional system,       Democratic
etc. (p. 308-9) The          system; the
shari`a laws are not         application of
drafted only by the state    the Shari`a;
law-makers, but it is a      (Islamic) moral                   Copts are citizens in
complementary task that      values            Not mentioned   the Islamic state
No specific vision was
given. It is mentioned,
however, that though
acknowledging that the
Qur'an and the Sunnah
constitute the                              Woman is half of the society. Her civil and     Copts are partners in
Constitution to govern                      criminal and financial status are not less      both the land and the
Muslims…the nation has                      than man. All her financial transactions are    destiny. Their freedom
to have a written                           valid with no need to father's, husband's       of religious expression
Constitution that it                        or brother's permission. She has the right      should be respected.
agrees upon. This         Political reform, to participate in election, to be part of the   National unity and
Constitution should be    judiciary reform parliamentary councils, to hold any              brotherhood spirit
based on the shari`ah     and economic      government position (with the exception         should be maintained.
texts.(130)               reform            of the Caliphate or the like), etc. (181)       (pp. 181-2)
                                                                                               "As the Texts
                                                                                               guarantee to non-
                                                                                               Muslims the freedom
                                                                                               of opinion, in addition
                                                                                               to the freedom of
                                                                                               religion, they reject all
Yes: "Decree shari'a as                                                                        constraint on Jews and
the essential foundation                                                                       Christians to make
of the activities of the                                                                       them obey the laws of
Islamic state and                                                                              Islamic shari'a. They
society." (p. 12) On                                                                           allow them to live in
interpretation: with                                                                           conformity with the
regard to shura/election,                                                                      laws that they believe
"many Texts have not                            "In general, women are not inferior beings     in, to marry in
been utilized, or have                          to men." Women have right to participate       accordance with their
been incorrectly                                in elections, in unions, in government         laws, and these
interpreted" (p. 10);                           positions , including judicial posts, except   marriages are
elsewhere, "From this                           Grand Imam. "Penal and civil responsibility    recognized by the
effort and that of many     Decreeing Islam     rests with the man," though women don't        Islamic state, Islamic
scholars, who devoted       as foundation of    need men's approval for financial              society, parenthood
their lives and their       state and           transactions. "We have clarified that the      being established by
studies to commenting       society; working    superiority of the husband over the wife is    this marriage
on the Qur'an and           to realize the      limited to problems common to the              rendering inheritance
clarifying the sunna and    unity of Islamic    woman and the man, and that it is a            legitimate." (p. 9) No
the laws that it _          states, with Arab   superiority of affection, of compassion,       need for non-Muslims
[renferme], was born the    states at their     and of consultation with regard to the         to observe Islamic
wealth of ideas called      head (pp. 12-       responsibilities that the husband carries."    rules on eating and
'Islamic law.'" (p. 8)      13).                (p. 23)                                        drinking, but they


The shari'a to be applied,                      Mixed. Women are to be given special
but no individual may                           protections so that they can meet their
claim religious authority                       family duties while retaining their
beyond enjoining good Moral reform              economic, social and cultural rights.
and forbidding evil -      based on Islamic     Women can work, but within the limits of Equality and non-
which belongs to all.      values.              keeping their 'honor and dignity.'       discrimination.
                                                                                          Although minorities
                                                                                          are not explicitly
                                                                                          mentioned, all people
                                                                                          are considered equal
                                                                                          under the law (p. 41).
                                                                                          The party’s basic
                                                                                          principles--“prinsip
                                                                                          dasar”, include
                                                                                          support for national
                                                                                          unity and respect for
                                                                                          pluralism “in a
                        Justice and        As described in the party’s basic principles-- proportional manner”
                        prosperity for all “prinsip dasar”, women are to be afforded (p. 42). The national
                        (political, legal, the same rights as men (p. 41). The            agenda platform
                        economic,          national agenda platform includes a            section on the
                        social), and the section on women and describes support economy notes that all
                        development of for developing women in the context of             people should have
                        a strong civil     developing civil society and mentions          equality and fairness in
                        society            specifics such as improvements in              economic opportunity
                        (masyarakat        education, woman and infant health,            irregardless of race,
No, there is no mention madani) (pp. 2, family economy and legal protection (p.           ethnicity or religion (p.
of shari'a.             8; 48-49).         100). Islamic family law is not discussed.     94).


                            1. A united Iraq -
                            land and people -
                            with full national
                            sovereignty.
                            2. A timetable                                                    Full legal equality.
                            for the                                                           They oppose
                            withdrawal of                                                     discrimination on the
                            the                                                               grounds of sects,
                            multinational                                                     religions, or
They want an Iraq that forces from Iraq.                                                      ethnicities. They want
"Iraq that respects the     3. A                                                              to preserve the rights
Islamic identity of the     constitutional, "The woman: Supporting the woman's                of ethnic and religious
Iraqi people" and declare pluralistic,         participation in the political, economic and   minorities and protect
that "The state religion is democratic and social life, encouraging her creativity and        them from
Islam." They do not         federally united preserving her dignity." This is listed under    marginalization and
mention the shari'a.        Iraq.              Public Services.                               discrimination.
There is no mention for                                                                    There was no
the application of the                                                                     reference for the word
shari`ah in the Front                                                                      minority. However the
platform. The only                                                                         platform stresses the
reference for the shari`a                                                                  Iraqi national unity and
was in the context of                                                                      identity and discards
women rights and the                                                                       all forms of ethnic or
need to guarantee their                                                                    sectarian disputes.
rights as dictated by the                                                                  Respecting the fabric
Islamic Shari`a. (p. 7)                                                                    of the Iraqi society and
Another reference for                                                                      enhancing the spirit of
the word "shar`i [not                                                                      tolerance,
shari`a]" was in the                         The Front would work for the enacting of      brotherhood and
context of collecting the                    laws and regulations that would guarantee     citizenship are
Zakah through economic                       women their rights as dictated by Shari`a.    essential in the Front
and shar`i institutions.                     Women would be given the opportunity to       political program. (p.
The word shar`i in this     Freeing the      participate in the political and civil        2) The Front calls to
context may indicate        country from the activities. Supporting the civil societies    reconsider the Ba`th
two meanings: according     occupation,      that focus on women's issues within the       'eradication' law to
to the Islamic Shari`a or   National Unity framework of the Islamic and Arabic             ensure that its
collected by legal          and solidarity,  values. Enacting laws that maintain the       application will not
institutions. Both          the              dignity of the women and prohibit its         result in any sectarian
meaning can be applied      reconsideration exploitation. (p. 7) As for the Question on    exploitation. (p. 2.
and maybe both were         of the           Family Laws, there was no clear or explicit   Item #8 in the political
meant. (p. 5)               constitution     reference to it in the platform.              program)




                                                                                           Somewhat
                                                                                           contradictory, as they
                                                                                           mention both the
                                                                                           cultural rights of
                            1. Settling the                                                nations in Iraq
                            border of                                                      (Turkmen, Assyrians,
                            Kurdistan                                                      Chaldeans), but
                            2. Compensating                                                actually prioritize
                            the victims of                                                 individual rights.
                            genocide           They mention preventing gender              "Equity in citizenship,
                            3. Security and discrimination in employment and               rights and
No                          stability in Iraq. confronting violence against women.         responsibilities." Also,
The application of the
shari`ah is one of the
basis for the
establishment of the MB,
along with freeing the
Muslim world from
occupation. Islam is the                                                                Not mentioned. One of
only source of                                                                          the state's duties is to
legislation. The party                       Equality and integration between men and guarantee the
presence in the            The application women. Woman has the right to own            freedom of worship
parliament is one of the   of the shari`a,   property, to work and to join ranks to     and religion for all
means to apply the         the issue of      achieve progress in the society within the citizens. Scientific
shari`ah, justice, and     freedom, and      framework of Islam. Her participation      freedom and freedom
equality among the         the jihad to free should not have priority over her duty     of expressions have to
people. (p. 1)             the Muslim land towards her home and her family. (p. 11) be guaranteed. (p. 2)
Yes. IAF works for the
application of the shari`a
through its main agenda                                                                    Not mentioned.
which raises the slogan                                                                    However in one
"Islam is the Solution".                                                                   occasion, the platform
(p. 2, 4) The Front                           Cooperation with women organizations         calls for the annulment
managed to entertain                          and institutions, both in the government of parliamentary seats
the phrase 'according to                      and in the civil society to encourage        that were designated
the shari`ah" in various                      women to take its role, away from the        on tribal basis, so as to
laws in the previous         The application foreign customs and values, in building the be in accordance with
parliament sessions. (p.     of the shari`a,  community and help achieve its               the Constitution. (p. 5)
3) For this platform, they   the integrity of advancements in all walks of life. (p. 11)   It also demands
are encouraging              the electoral    Enacting laws that would help women get provided equal job
contracts in accordance      system, and the their legal and religious rights. Encouraging opportunities for all
with the shari'a and free    conflict between the participation of women in the public     citizens, regardless of
of usurious interests. (p.   Palestine and    sphere, in political activism and in the     their opinions or
15)                          Israel.          development field. (p. 14)                   religions. (p. 6)
                                          Cooperation with women organizations
                                          and institutions, both in the government
                                          and in the civil society to encourage the
                                          women to take its role, away from the
                                          foreign customs and values, in building the
                                          community and help achieve its
                                          advancements in all walks of life. (p. 6)
                                          Enacting laws that would help women get
                                          their legal and religious rights. Encouraging
                                          the participation of women in the public
The application of the                    sphere, in political activism and in the
shari`a is a religious                    development field. Educating women of
obligation and a basic                    their rights such as rights to work,
goal for the party. The   The application education, husband selection, inheritance
party vision stems from of the shari`a,   rights, etc. Stressing the significance of the
the ultimate goals of the the political   woman's role as a mother and child-raiser
shari`a in protecting the reform, and the to confront the westernization projects.
life, the intellect, the  conflict        Stressing the role of the voluntary women
freedom, the property     between         civil societies to help building the society
and the honor of the      Palestine and   and expressing the women's aspirations.
human being. (p. 1-2)     Israel.         (p. 7)                                         Not mentioned.
                                            Affirming the legal rights of women
                                            through the activation of legislations that
                                            complete the legislative framework of
                                            women's rights. Encouraging the
                                            participation of women in the public
Not mentioned.                              sphere, in political activism and in the
(compare with the                           development field. Educating women of
previous years                              their rights such as rights to work, to
platforms!) The party                       education, to husband selection, to
vision stems from the                       inheritance, etc. Stressing the significance
ultimate goals of the                       of the woman's role as a mother and child-
shari`a in protecting the Political reform, raiser to confront the westernization
life, the intellect, the  economic          projects. stressing the role of the voluntary
freedom, the property     reform, and the women civil societies to help building the
and the honor of the      Palestinian-      society and expressing the women's
human being. (p. 2)       Israeli conflict. aspirations. (p. 4-5)                         Not mentioned.
The party requires the
application of the
Shari`ah. It requires to
amend the second item
in the Constitution to
make the Shari`ah the
Main Source of
legislation. All anti-
shari`ah current
legislation should be
amended according to
the Shari`ah, however
through a well planned
program. The
administrative authority
has to abide by the
shari`ah when making
administrative decisions                                        Not mentioned. It
or issuing any procedural                                       states, however,
regulations. Kuwait                                             Kuwaiti media has to
should avoid the miss-                                          deepen the national
application of the                                              unity. (102) Final
shari`ah in some Arab       The application                     solution should be
and Islamic countries.      of the Shari`ah.                    attempted for those
"The application of the     National                            who do not have
shari`ah" should not be     Security.                           Kuwaiti nationality (i.e.
only a banner that is       Administrative                      non-identified
raised only for political   reform.            Not mentioned.   nationality groups)
One of the basic
principles of the
platform is the
application of the
shari`a. It is considered
the main point of
reference in all fields of
legislations, be political
or economic, etc. The
party demands the
amendment of the
second article in the
constitution to the effect    The application
that the shari`ah             of Shari`a,
becomes the ONLY              political reform
source of legislation. The    (the separation
legislative,                  between the
administrative, and           royal family and                   Not mentioned.
executive bodies should       the executive                      However it stresses
be committed to this          administration,                    the rights for those
article and work              reforming the                      living in Kuwait for
accordingly. (p. 1) The       electoral system,                  long time and were
platform stresses the         etc), human                        not naturalized yet.
reference to shari`a in all   rights (stressing                  The party discussed
its various sections,         the rights of the                  their position in details
quoting qur'anic or           'without                           suggesting different
prophetic references.         nationality                        steps of how to
The party also calls for      category')        Not mentioned.   accommodate them.
 In the platform long
introduction, the
Movement counts
among its earlier
contributions through
which it called upon the
executive authority to
adopt the laws prepared
by the Higher
Consultative Committee
with regard to the
application of the
Shari`a. The Movement
also supported and            As put by the
participated in drafting a    platform, first to   The platform does not indicate any specific
number of Islamic-            maintain the         way of how to handle women issues or
related laws, i.e. the laws   Kuwaiti identity     family laws. It only states that women
on zakah, Laws                and the              issues occupied and still occupies a        No reference for
pertaining to Islamic         Islamization of      significant position on its agenda. It      certain minorities
banking, etc. (p. 4)          the laws,            introduced the laws for the civil rights of were made. The
Under the section             secondly, to         women in order to guarantee women their movement calls for a
regarding the Movement        respect the          rights in work and life. The Movement       government that
development project,          constitution and     introduced a number of law drafts with a works for the
item 3 argues for the         to respect           view to empower the Kuwaiti women in all enhancement of
need to make use of the       freedoms, and        fields. The movement established a special national unity and do
efforts of various            thirdly,             office in its administrative organization   not allow any sectarian
institutions, e.g. the        development of       that are dedicated to women issues. (pp. 5- or group favoritism.
Higher Council for            the country.         6, 10, 12)                                  (pp. 5, 6, 9, 13)
                                            The question of women's rights is among
                                            the priorities of the party. It calls for giving
                                            the woman all the rights given to her by
                                            the Shari`a. Also there are other rights that
Yes. It calls for the                       the woman should be guaranteed: being
application of shari`a in                   just to the sons and daughters of a Kuwaiti
all fields of life. The   The application women who got married to non-Kuwaitis,
application of shari`a,   of Shari`a,       equal rights in the job market, giving social
though referred to it     political reform, and housing services and bonuses for the
without details, is the   and the safety    women who are responsible for raising
number one issue in the and security of their kids, protecting her and maintaing
party agenda. (p.1)       the country.      their dignity, etc. (p. 3-4)                     Not mentioned.


                          1. Resistence to
                          the Israeli
The implementation of occupation.
the sharia is not         2. Electoral
mentioned, but the        reform.
mission of the party (and 3.
this platform) are        "Harmonization"
described as part of "the between media
Islamic project" and      freedoms and                                                      Religious practice is to
following from legal      Lebanon's Arab-                                                   be free and the
responsibility under      Muslim cultural                                                   Abrahamic faiths
Islam (247).              identity.        Women are not mentioned.                         respected.


                          1. Resistence to
                          the Israeli
                          occupation.
                          2. Abolishing the
                          confessional        While equal rights for all are mentioned
                          political           (256), the platform also states that "[t]he
                          structure.          woman’s role is based on her being the
                          3. Pro-poor         other half that raises and is effective       Freedom of religious
                          economic            in all the political, educational, social,    practice and belief is
No mention of shari'a.    development.        cultural and economical life." (258)          supported (259).
                         1. Resistence to
                         the occupation.
                         2. Maintaining
                         good relations
                         with Syria
                         3.
                         "developmental-    Introductory statement uses "his/her" as
                         service oriented   the pronoun to refer to individual         "All people are equal
No mention of            socio-economic     Lebanese. Supports the participation of    in rights and duties"
implementing shari'a.    program" (263)     women in public life (265).                (265).

                         1. Safeguard
                         Lebanon's
                         independence
                         and end the
                         occupation of
                         the shib'a farms
                         2. Help the UN
                         investigation
                         into Hariri's
                         death.
                         3. Preserve the
                         special
No mention of            relationship with
implementing shari'a.    Syria             Not mentioned.                               Not mentioned.
                                                                                        Freedom of religion
                                                                                        and opnness towards
                                                                                        ethnic diversity.
                                            They intend to "[e]nforce strictly laws     "Healthy cultural
                           1. Checking the regarding the rights, interests and dignity elements from outside
                           power of the     of women and abolish laws and               will be accepted,
                           executive.       regulations that discriminate against       subject to our own
                           2. Eliminating   women." Equal pay for women and             social and ethical
There is no suggestion     corruption,      extended maternity leave are also           values." The pro-
that the shari'a will be   cronyism, and    mentioned. No specifically Islamic aspect bumiputra policies of
implemented, but under nepotism.            to family law is mentioned, though the      the NEP are to be
religion and culture       3. A transparent family is to be the "fundamental unit" of a reformed, but more as
there is a proposal to     regulatory       "just and democratic society ... built upon an anti-corruption
"[e]stablish a             framework for the fundamental spiritual and ethical          measure than to
Commission for Shari’ah corporate           values that are part of the teachings of    eliminate
Law at the Federal level." governance.      Islam and other religions."                 discrimination.
                                                                                            Minorities are to be
                                                                                            treated with respect.
                                                                                            There is to be freedom
                                                                                            of religion and no
                                                                                            forcing of culture. The
                                                                                            manifesto calls for the
                                                                                            creation of an
The manifesto calls for                                                                     “Institute of Relations
reforming shari'a law vis-                                                                  Between Religions and
a-vis women's rights                                                                        Ethnicities” to improve
except for regulations on                      The manifesto calls for reforming shari'a mutual understanding,
tithing and the                                law vis-a-vis women's rights except for      respect, and care.
management of shari'a                          regulations on tithing and the               Minorities should
courts. Although not                           management of shari'a courts. They also enjoy equal access to
explicitly referring to                        propose improving women's rights,            government programs
shari'a, the manifesto                         increasing the representation of women in such as microcredit
proposes the creation of                       the labor force to 30%, removing             lending. The
uniform family law for                         discrimination against women in the          indigenous shall be
all. Shari'a is not defined,                   workforce, and more day care for the         protected from
and the manner for                             children of working mothers. In terms of development projects
adjudicating disputes is Justice, peace,       family law, there is a call for the creation that threaten their
not mentioned.               and prosperity.   of uniform family law for all.               livelihood and land.
                                                                                        Because of the history
                                                                                        of threats to national
                                                                                        integration due to
                                                                                        tensions stemming
                                                                                        from a politics of
                                                                                        ethnicity and
                                                                                        manipulation of
                                                                                        religion, the manifesto
                                                                                        calls for: (A) mutual
                                                                                        respect and
                                                                                        understanding
                                                                                        between religions and
                                                                                        their followers; (B)
                                                                                        creation of a
                                                                                        “Negotiation Council”
                                                                                        for non-Muslims to
                                                                                        ascertain and protect
                                                                                        their rights and
                                                                                        responsibilities; and
                                                                                        (C) the creation of a
                                                                                        “Dialogue Council” to
                                                                                        strengthen agreement
                                            There is no explicit mention of women’s     and encourage
                        Benevolent          rights or Islamic family law. The manifesto national integration of
                        service, justice,   does call for a number of programs/laws all groups (p. 36).
                        and clean           to facilitate women at work (e.g.           There is also mention
No, there is no mention government (p.      guaranteed maternity leave, work-at-        of helping reduce the
of shari'a.             1).                 home concessions, etc.) (p. 26).            gap between rich and
Yes. According to the
party platform, all the
country reform projects
have to be based on
Marji`iyyah Islamicyyah,                       The party calls for the betterment of
i.e. Islamic references,                       women's conditions through the
and in harmony with the                        fulfillment of social justice and striking a
cultural values of the                         balance of rights between man and
country. Adopting the                          woman. The party has a reservations on
marji`iyyah islamiyyah                         the ways that previous governments had
does not mean at all to                        dealt with women and family issues. These
practice monopoly or                           governments based their ideology on
throw any doubts about                         international agreements and charters
the religiosity of the                         which in many instances contradicted with
Moroccan society. (p. 6)                       Islam. The party calls for an active
Islamization of the                            cooperative woman. The party calls for the
constitution should be                         ending of women illiteracy, providing her      It is not clear but the
put into action. There                         with her legal and legitimate rights,          platform calls for a
has to be a clear text in                      especially those relevant to her family        national dialogue
the constitution that the                      fortune, reforming the divorce system and      between the country's
shari`ah is the sublime                        reviewing the present law that allows          different groups,
source of legislation for                      polygamy. The party will work on fighting      especially, those of the
all the laws and            The application all forms of women exploitation and will          southern regions. (p.
whatever contradicts        of Shari`ah in all attempt to guarantee her political and         14) A national projects
this source has to be       fields of life,    professional rights. The party will also       has to be launched to
voided. Economic            Democratic         propose a law to grant her son from a non-     liberate the occupied
policies and legislation    reform, and        Moroccan husband the Moroccan                  islands of Ceuta and
have to be reviewed to      social welfare     nationality. (pp. 29-31)                       Melilla,. (p. 14)


                            1. Improve role
                            of Ministry of
                            Islamic Affairs. 2.   Consolidate Family Law so that it [the
                            Promote               family] recovers its role in social stability
                            national culture      and development. Improve conditions of
                            for full              women and children, and people who are
                            participation in      left unprovided for [les catégories
                            the efforts of        démunies]." Promote women's literacy,
                            development           girls' education, women's health and that
                            and reform. 3.        of the family, "support the integration of
                            Modernization         women in the workforce [la vie active] so
                            and media             that they may participate in economic
                            upgrading [mise       development. Grant justice to working
                            à niveau              women [la femme active] by abolishing all
                            mediatique]. (p.      employment discrimination." Oppose
Not mentioned.              1)                    violence against women.                       Not mentioned.
                         1. "Pakistan is
                         and has to be an
                         Islamic polity"
                         (4)
                         2. to "preserve
                         the integrity and                                                Separate
                         solidarity of                                                    representation for non-
"The Holy Quran and      Pakistan" (4)                                                    Muslims (12), which
Sunnah should be         3. "the granting                                                 includes Qaidianis (13).
explicitly declared as   of maximum        They intend to "amend the current family       "All their legal and civil
chief source of law. "   autonomy to       laws to bring them into conformity [with       rights will be
(11)                     every region" (5) the shari'a]"                                  preserved." (33)


                          1. "Supremacy of
                          the Holy quran
                          and sunnah in
                          Pakistan"
                          2. "Provision of
                          acceptable
Yes. Constitutional       economic
amendments will be        opportunities on                                                "Equal rights and equal
enacted to make the       the basis of                                                    protection under the
"Holy Quran and sunnah equality for all                                                   law for every citizen of
the supreme law of        sectors of                                                      Pakistan." (5)
Pakistan" and wider       society"                                                        All the constitutional
changes will "bring the 3. "Provision of                                                  and legal rights of
entire legal order in     inexpensive                                                     minorities will be
conformity with Islam" justice for all                                                    safeguarded and the
(7).                      members of                                                      state will be fully
The Federal Shari'at      society without    "Women will be given full opportunity to responsible for the
Court will be empowered discrimination       participate in the family and all walks of   protection of life,
to "issue interim orders on the basis of     life. The personal, family, social, economic liberty, honour and
and provide relief to the colour, race or    and political rights of the women will be    human rights of
aggrieved persons" (7). sex." (4)            fully protected." (17)                       minorities." (18)
                        1. "To revive
                        fear of God,
                        affection to the
                        Prophet (PBUH)
                        and service to
                        people with
                        particular
                        emphasis on
                        government
                        officials and
                        cabinet
                        members"
                        2. "To make
                        Pakistan a true
                        Islamic welfare
                        state to ensure
                        justice to people
                        and eradicate
                        corruption
                        whatsoever"
                        3. "To ensure
                        provision of
                        bread, clothes,
                        shelter,
                        education, jobs
                        and marriage      The party aims to "protect rights of
Sharia is not mentioned expenses to all women guaranteed by Islam and
in this brief outline.  citizens"         restoration of their honour and prestige"        Not mentioned.




                          1. "Islam is our
                          Reference."
                          2. "Palestine is
                          Arab and Muslim    "Palestinian family Laws are to be derived
The party states that     Land."             from and conform to the Shari'ah law"
"Islam is our Reference" 3. "Palestinians    "Women's rights will be guaranteed so         "The rights of
and that "The Islamic     are one nation     that they can contribute to the building of   minorities are to be
Law will be the source of regardless of      society, socially, economically and           protected on the basis
Palestinian Legislation" location."          politically."                                 of good citizenship"
                                                                                              Nothing in platform,
                                                                                              but constitution of
                                             No suggestion of implementing any Islamic        party states that
                             Political       laws, and limited mention of women               "Defending of peace
                             Independence of altogether: "Increase of political and           stability, national
                             Tajikistan      cultural knowledge of civilians, particularly    consolidation and
                             Socio-economic women and youths thru political gathering         minorities
                             development     with their participation in political affairs    brotherhood of the
No.                          Islamic morals of the country" (4) work at the economic
                                             Women can and do                                 country" is a goal (3)
                                               life. (For example as a nurse or               Praises the tolerance
                                               gynecologist) In Islam both men and            of the Millet (Millet
                                               women are given                                here is used with
Not explicitly. Laicism is                     right/responsibility/obligation? To science    reference to Ottoman
described as tolerance to                      and religious practice (ilim ve ibadet). The   past. Yet, it is never
other's ideas and faith                        god (Cenab-I Hak) does not discriminate        clear if it refers only to
and the way secularism                         human beings as woman, man, black,             ummet or Turkish
had been officially                            white. P.35. In society Islam has allocated    Muslims) in the history
interpreted in Turkey is                       responsibilities to women which are            towards other faiths.
criticized. Pp. 51-53.                         compatible with her creation. It has never     (p. 18). It is stated that
Further, many issues                           deemed her obliged to compulsory work          when in the medieval
such as how trade and                          systems neither as in the west nor as in       Europe freedom of
business should be done                        the east. Our men may not like it now. I       conscience was under
and how women's rights                         am telling this as a joke. Let me explain      oppression (mezalim)
be understood are                              With great care that in a Muslim family        the nation (our nation)
explained referring to       1) Economic       woman is not obliged to do any work. She       (Milletimiz) stayed
verses of Qur'an. pp. 35-    development/ is not even obliged to take care of her kid.        respectful to human
38. Further the party        Industrial        It is man's duty to do all house duties and    rights and never
calls for annulment of       leap.2)Spiritual to earn income of the house. pp. 35-36.         oppressed people
the article 163 of the       and Moral         THEN REFERCES TO SURAT VERSES FROM             from other faiths and
Turkish Criminal Code        revival /leap /   QUR'AN (TO PROVE HOW SUBLIME THE               races. So that, many
which sanctions              return to         PLACE OF WOMEN IN ISLAM IS.) pp. 36-           mid-European and
propagating an Islamic       traditional       38. We, ..... will create a samil system to    Balkan nations could
order (Sheria) and           ancestral and     prevent them from working at jobs which        maintain their their
manipulation/exploitatio     religious values. are not compatible with their sex/gender       national and spiritual
n of religious sentiments.   3)reorganization and to protect their honor and wisdom           values up to the date.
pp.55-56.                    of state.         (haysiyet ve seref)...will provide help to     p.32.
     Economic
     development                                                      Not Specified. Yet, at
     and fair                                                         the section on legal
     distribution of                                                  reform the platform
     economic                                                         states that regardless
     resources,                                                       of their ethnic,
     administartive                                                   religious, lingual or
     and legal           Praises the importance of the women in       criminal background
     restructuring of    the society. Calls for creating conditions   no individual should be
     the system and      for women such that their working will not tortured. P. 94. And
     Moral/ethical       prevent them from carrying out their         also calls for legalizing
     revival/return to   familial duties. It critiques understandings education according to
     traditional         of equality between genders which lead to each community's
     ethical             the obliged working of women at              (sect, or social group )
NO   principles.         unsuitable and hard jobs. pp. 96-97.         worldview p. 90.
     1) Making
     Turkey a leading                                             Proposes a
     country. 2)                                                  government which
     Economic                                                     does not discriminate
     development 3)                                               among its citizens
     Democratization Describes woman as the main pillar of        along religious, ethnic
NO   .                family and society. P. 8.                   and racial lines. P.5.




                                                                 The platform refers to
                                                                 cultural and faith wise
     1) Economy . 2)                                             differences as a wealth
     Restructuring of Party calls for implementation of all      for the country and
     the state and    measures possible to increase the          proposes to take
     bureaucracy to women's participation, responsibility and measures for their
     increase         rights. It also calls for taking necessary preservation and also
     efficiency. 3)   measures to fight against discrimination   their representation at
     Political        and violence against women. P. 11 of Part the political realm. P. 3
NO   liberalization   V.                                         of Part I)
                     The platform does not have a special
                     section on women. Women's problems are
                     mentioned under the family section and
     Economic        the major issue is described as the trade
     Development,    off between women's need to work and
     Democratization their duties towards their families and
     (Human Rights kids. The party proposes to take necessary
     and Freedoms), measures to enable working women also
     Social/Economic to conduct their motherhood and family
No   equality.       related duties. p. 39                     Not Addressed




     Economy,
     Bureaucratic,
     legal political re- Proposes to take necessary measures to
     organization/libe fight against domestic violence and honor Interestingly enough
NO   ralization,         killings againt the women. P. 97        not addressed.
     1)Economic
     reconstruction
     (development,
     fair distribution
     of income,
     lessening the
     dependency on
     western capital
     (IMF, World
     Bank). 2) Moral
     and Spiritual
     revival. 3)
     Foreign Policy
     (Struggling
     against
     imperialist
     racism (post cold
     war - post 9/11
     attack of the
     west (NATO)
     against Islam.
     Creation of
     solidarity among
     Muslim
     countries.
     Fighting against
     Zionist
NO   conspiracy.       Not Specified   Not Specified
The application of shari`a
in all life affairs and
considering it the source
of legislations. The
constitution and laws
should be amended
according to its
principles. (p. 18-19)
Committing oneself to
shari`a is an Islamic
obligation. (p. 12)
Shutting down the wine                        Special attention for women education.
factory because it is                         Establishing special educational institution,
against the shari`a of                        including colleges, for women. Adopting a       Not mentioned.
Allah. (p. 13) Codifying   The democratic well planned policies to tackle the issue of        Stressing only the
the rules of the shari`a.  political reform, sex-intermingling. (p. 31) Securing women        national unity. (p. 10,
(p. 21) Collecting the     the application their rights as dictated by Islam, such as         13) Strengthening
zakah and distributing it  of the shari`a`, her rights to work, to receive educations,        connections among
according to the shari`a.  and economic       to own property and to get inheritance,         the different tribes. (p.
(p. 26)                    reform.            etc. (p. 41)                                    41)
                           1. Islam as a
                           belief and a life-
                           governing law
                           (Shari'ah)
                           2. Justice as a
                           political
                           endavour to be
                           established
                           through
"Ensuring the supremacy "freedom,
of the Islamic Shari'ah as equality and
the basis for the          shura"
supremacy of law.          3. Liberty
Accepting shura and        through Islam,
popular free choice as     to be              Families are recognized as the "first social
the principle for the      "entrenched in institution" and the source of good
legitimacy of authority the person's          individuals. Women are mentioned only in
and its acceptance. "      inner being"       the context of mothers and housewives.          Not mentioned.
7.Does the party platform propose
any welfare programs such as          8.Is jihad mentioned? 9.What is the party's
pensions, poverty relief, and medical In what context? How position on the Israel/
care for those in need?               is jihad defined?     Palestine conflict?




Taking care of the young people till
maturity age. (p. 111) Creating more
job opportunities to stop the growth
of immigration. Reconsidering the
housing policy. Granting mother
maternity funds. Reconsideration of
family grants especially for the low
income. Increasing pensions so as to
meet the price increase and economic
situation. Offering pensions for the       Mentioned only in
disables in line with their social status. reference to colonial
(111-113)                                  time. (p. 118)          Not mentioned.




                                                                   The issue of Palestine is an
Establishing national fund for housing                             Arab Islamic issue.
to help the low income. Increasing                                 Therefore we will work to
the grant given to the housewives (p.                              liberate Palestine as a
133). Developing a national medical                                whole and not giving away
program to improve medication                                      any inch of it. (p. 136)
process. (p. 131)                      Not mentioned.              Israel is not mentioned.
Increasing the monthly allowance for
each child to 500 dinars. Improving
the students' situation and increasing
their monthly scholarships. Providing
medications to all members of the
society. Taking care of the orphans
and the widows and the seniors or
people with disabilities in case there
are no one taking care of them.
Securing work, housing, medication,
and childhood and maternity rights.
(p. 144)                               Not mentioned.   Not mentioned.




The party has a welfare program for
children, women, youth and in
different fields as well such as
housing, medical care, etc. Providing                   Supporting the Palestinian
social care program of two levels:                      people in its struggle to
protective level and medication level.                  regain its full right and to
(p. 27) Facilitating housing options                    establish his independent
through special funds. (p. 34)         Not mentioned.   state. (p. 53)
                                                                    "Continue to consider the
                                                                    Palestinian question as the
                                                                    central cause of the Arab-
                                                                    Muslim nation, provide it
                                                                    with the necessary aid for
                                                                    all plans for the recovery
                                                                    of the Palestinian lands,
                                                                    especially Jerusalem, the
                                                                    return of the refugees, and
                                                                    the creation of an
                                                                    independent Palestinian
Yes, pp. 4-6.                            No                         state." (item #53, p. 7)




                                                                    Not specifically mentioned,
                                                                    but "moral and material
                                                                    assistance will be given to
                                        "The spirit of jihad will   the struggle for the
                                        be isntilled into the       independence of the
"The state will take responsibility to people and the armed         Muslim people."(22)
meet the basic needs of citizens" (13). forces so that they will    However, friendly relations
Several social security programs        be ready to sacrifice       with all countries is an
(including medicare for the poor) are their lives to preserve       objective. Non-
described (18), as well as access to    the sovereignty and         interference in internal
medical facilities and medicien at fair independence of             affairs of others also
prices (19).                            Bangladesh. " (10)          mentioned.
                                                               Not specifically mentioned,
                                                               but support is extended to
                                                               the freedom struggles of
                                                               Muslims elsewhere.
                                      Jihad to be              However, friendly relations
                                      emphasised as the        with all countries is an
                                      spirit of the defence    objective. Non-
Poverty relief, unemployment          forces, and of sacrifice interference in internal
insurance and medical care for the    for the nation amongst affairs of others also
poor are mentioned.                   the general populace. mentioned.


                                                              No mention, and no
Food, clothing, employment, health                            language in favor of
care, housing and education will be   Jihad as the ideology   Muslim freedom struggles
guaranteed by the state.              of national defense.    (as per 1996).
                                       No. Previous mentions
                                       of jihad as the spirit of   Not mentioned in this
                                       national defense have       platform, though the party
                                       been replaced with the      website prominently
Repeated mention of different          intention "to inculcate     features a response to the
welfare programs under many            moral values in the         most recent (Jan 09)
different subheadings of the platform. defence forces "            violence in Gaza.
                                                                 Support fully the
                                                                 Palestinians. "Amid the
                                                                 various international
Under the title "treatment of the daily-                         conflicts and challenges,
life problems,” the platform                                     our conflict with the
proposes: subsidizing basic              Jihad is only           Zionist enemy is the most
commodities, obliging the business       mentioned in            dangerous threat. Calling
establishments to provide housing for reference to the           for the freezing of Camp
their employees; the no-cost medical Palestinians and the        David agreement and the
services in the state hospitals; local   Lebanese in their jihad complete boycott of Israel.
manufacturing of medicine. (312-313) against Israel. (p. 316) (p. 316)
                                                                Jihad is mentioned in
                                                                reference to Israel. The
                                       Jihad is mentioned in only way to end the Zionist
                                       reference to Israel. The colonial entity is to
                                       only way to end the      perform Jihad to remove
                                       Zionist colonial entity the Zionist entity and to
Noting specific. The party calls for   is to perform Jihad to regain the land. All
fighting poverty, providing good       remove the Zionist       negotiations have to be
housing, balanced food, medical and    entity and to regain     stopped and naturalization
educational services. (p. 179)         the land. (p. 184)       has to be ceased. (p. 184)
                                                             Not mentioned, though
                                                             Bosnia/Herzegovina and
                                                             Chechnya are mentioned
                                                             as examples of human
No                                   No                      rights abuses (p. 24).




Zakat for those who deserve it.
Accommodation (with state services)
for all. Basic education. Universal                          Supporting Palestinian
healthcare. Securing pensions for the                        resistence by all possible
poor.                                 Jihad not mentioned.   means
There are numerous places where
social justice is noted as a value and
goal but no explicit programs are
mentioned. The national agenda
platform includes a section on the
economy which calls for the provision
of fair and equal economic
opportunities for all, including the   There is no mention of
poor (p. 94).                          jihad.                 No mention.




                                                            Not mentioned. They do
                                                            mention the safety and
                                                            stability of the region, the
They have a health care proposal and                        principle of
a policy for the families of martyrs                        noninterference in the
and victims of Sadaam's regime. Not                         affairs of other countries,
central to the platform, and not much                       and being a good neighbor
of a welfare program.                 No                    in the region.
                                            Not mentioned. The
                                            Front calls for the
                                            continuous endless
                                            work through all legal
                                            national and
In addition to the economic reform          international channels
and fighting administrative and             to force the
financial corruption, the Front calls       occupation powers to
for a number of social welfare              set a timing table for
programs: improvement of                    its withdrawal. (p. 3)
government-aided food items                 Also The Front made
assigned for Iraqis, since it is the main   the distinction
source of provision for many Iraqis,        between the national
establishing a funding institution to       legitimate resistance
support the poor, collecting the zakah      which is the right of    Not mentioned. However,
and redistributing it among those who       any people under         item no. 2 in the political
deserve it, permitting the small            occupation and           program in the
businesses to get no-interest loans,        terrorism that sneaks    international sphere, the
solving the problem of housing              from outside the         Front stresses its full
through the establishment of gigantic       country to sabotage      solidarity with the just and
housing projects to meet the needs of       the country's security   legitimate Islamic and
the people, etc                             and safety. (p. 2)       Arabic issues. (p. 3)




They mention an existent food ration
program, as well as ideas for an
improved health service as well as
health insurance.                    No.                             Not mentioned.
                                                                    Supporting the Palestinian
                                                                    jihad with all means that
                                                                    would help in the military
                                                                    confrontation with the
                                                                    Zionist enemy. (p. 13)
                                                                    Palestine is a sacred and
                                                                    Muslim land. It is
It calls for the childhood protection,    Jihad is mentioned in     Islamically forbidden to
the care for the orphans, and the         reference to Israel and   give up one inch of its land
encouragement of marriage and             against any foreign       whatever the justifications
helping out solving its economic          enemy that occupies       or the pressures. All
problems. Every citizen has he right to   the Muslim world.         initiatives and agreements,
housing, food and marriage. Social        (p.1) Jordan must work    be American, Israeli or
solidarity is a duty that the state has   to recognize the          Arab, are to fail because
to carry upon its shoulders. Seniors or   mujahidin government      they do not meet the real
persons with disabilities has to be       in Afghanistan. (p. 17)   expectations of the Muslim
taken care of. Providing medications      Giving support to the     Ummah. United Nations
for citizens has to be secured. (p. 11-   Arab jihadi               resolutions are rejected.
12)                                       movements. (p. 16)        (pp. 13-15)
The platform proposes a detailed
agenda of the goals it hoped to
achieve society welfare. It includes
fighting poverty through just                                        Palestine from the sea to
distribution of wealth and economic                                  the river is a Muslim land.
and legislative reform, encouraging                                  (p. B/13). No one can make
the program of "productive families",                                any concessions for any
increasing the number of orphanages,                                 part of the land of
establishing a special funding society                               Palestine. All agreements
to help young people get married,                                    with Israel are null and
increasing the labor and development                                 void, including Gaza-
funds with a view to create more job                                 Jericho agreement.
opportunities, developing the social                                 Recognition of Israel is a
solidarity institutions to secure                                    recognition of a usurpation
citizens' rights in housing, food and                                of the Muslim land in
medication, taking care of the senior       Jihad is mentioned in Palestine. Establishing
citizens or those who are having            reference to Israel.     diplomatic or economic
disabilities, etc. pp. 11-13) In addition   "Jihad is the way to     relations with Israel is a
to the items mentioned in these             free Palestine".         surrender to the American
pages, the platform focuses on              Supporting the           hegemony and a clear
society welfare in almost all of the        mujahids in their        concession of the rights of
sections that deal directly with the        struggle to free         the Ummah. Naturalization
society activities, e.g. in education,      Palestine is a religious policies are to be
health, youth, agriculture, etc.            obligation (B/14)        confronted. (p. B/ 12-16)
The platform proposes a set of
procedures that it hoped to achieve
society welfare. It includes fighting
poverty through just distribution of
wealth and economic and legislative                                  Palestine from the sea to
reform, encouraging the program of                                   the river is a Muslim land.
"productive families", increasing the                                (p. 17).No one can make
number of orphanages, establishing a                                 any concessions for any
special funding society to help young        Jihad is mentioned in part of the land of
people get married, increasing labor         reference to Israel.    Palestine. All agreements
and development funds with a view            Jordan has the longest with Israel are null and
to create more job opportunities,            borders with the        void. Recognition of Israel
taking care of the senior citizens or        Zionist enemy,          is a recognition of a
those who are having disabilities,           therefore it            usurpation of the Muslim
Providing houses for low income              encounters the          land in Palestine.
employees, providing health                  judization threat that Establishing diplomatic or
insurance and medications for all            threatens the Arabic economic relations with
citizens etc. pp. 6-9) In addition to the    and the Islamic         Israel is a surrender to the
items mentioned in these pages, the          presence in the Arab American hegemony and a
platform focuses on society welfare in       land, from the Nile to clear concession of the
almost all of the sections that deal         Euphrates. (p. 15)      rights of the Ummah.
directly with the society activities, e.g.   Jihad is the way to     Naturalization policies are
in education, health, youth,                 liberate Palestine. (p. to be confronted. (p. 17-
agriculture, etc.                            17)                     19)
The platform proposes a set of
procedures that it hoped to achieve
society welfare. It includes fighting
poverty through just distribution of
wealth and economic and legislative
reform, encouraging the program of
"productive families", increasing the                              Palestine from the sea to
number of orphanages, establishing a                               the river is a Muslim land.
special funding society to help young                              (p. 11).No one can make
people get married, increasing the                                 any concessions for any
labor and development funds with a                                 part of the land of
view to create more job                                            Palestine. All agreements
opportunities, taking care of the                                  with Israel are null and
senior citizens or those who are                                   void. Recognition of Israel
having disabilities, providing houses                              is a recognition of a
for low income employees, providing                                usurpation of the Muslim
health insurance and medications for                               land in Palestine.
all citizens etc. establishing maternity                           Establishing diplomatic or
centers, etc. (pp. 4-7) In addition to                             economic relations with
the items mentioned in these pages,                                Israel is a surrender to the
the platform focuses on society            Jihad is mentioned in American hegemony and a
welfare in almost all of the sections      reference to Palestine. clear concession of the
that deal directly with the society        "Jihad and resistance rights of the Ummah.
activities, e.g. in education, health,     are the way to liberate Naturalization policies are
youth, agriculture, etc.                   Palestine..             to be confronted. (p. 12)
The platform does not have a section
for welfare programs but it refers to
some welfare activities under the
section of "Solving the Housing
Problem". It states that the young
people should be given the right of
"housing care", if they are appointed                  Not mentioned. The
in the public service sector, through                  government has to interact
giving them loans, doubling the rent                   with Muslims' concerns all
aid, etc. (100)                       Not mentioned.   over the world. (p. 98)
There is no specific details about the
social program. However, in the
platform section on the development
of service sector and public utilities,
the platform refers to the need to                       Not mentioned. The party
solve the housing problems, providing                    calls for solidarity with
health and service well-fare program,                    Arab and Islamic countries
along with other educational                             in their legitimate rights
programs for distant regions. (p. 2)    Not mentioned.   and just causes.
The Movement will introduce a
number of legislations and regulations
that would aim at protecting the
people's rights in terms of social
welfare so as to cope with the
economic changes and the rise of
living expenses. (P. 10)               Not mentioned.   Not mentioned.
The party proposes various social
welfare program in various realms of
life. In the area of work and man
force, the platform focuses on the
urgent need to raise the income of
the individuals through a "social
safety network", especially during the
transition period or privatization. In
the area of Housing, building new
cities in the south an north of Kuwait,
lowering the prices of real estate, and
increasing the housing bonus in one's
salary. In the field of debts, driving a
plan to minimize or cancel people's
debts and establishing a debt funding
institution to help those in need., etc.
(pp.3-4)                                 Not mentioned.        Not mentioned.




                                       "a daily jihadi and
                                       political path" of
                                       "Lebanon’s liberation
                                       from the Zionist        Palestine is not mentioned,
                                       occupation and from     but solidarity with the
                                       the oppressors’         Palestinians is implied in
Social security, healthcare, and       influence and           the primacy of resistence
pensions for all.                      following." (249)       to Israel and Zionism.




                                                                The platform's policies are
                                                                introduced in light of "the
Public health centers and clinics are to The platform opens     magnitude of the perils
be built all over the country but        with a Koranic excerpt [from] Zionist terrorism"
particularly in remote and poor areas. referring to God being (254). The first point in the
Support for social welfare includes      with "those who        platform is resistence to
pensions. (258)                          strive" God (254).     the Israeli occupation.
                                                              Refuses citizenship to
                                                              Palestinians as part of
Expand social security, healthcare,   Resistence to Israeli   insisting on their right of
and pensions to cover all (266-7).    occupation is jihad.    return (263).




The economic program is to
concentrate on poverty relief and
basic service provision.              Not mentioned.          No mention of Palestine.




The existing public healthcare system
is to be maintained and not
privatized. Social services for the poor
are a priority, and pension levels will
be raised.                               Jihad is not mentioned Not mentioned.
The manifesto calls for an across-the-
board reduction in the cost of living
(utilities, tolls, etc.) and the creation
of an employment center. The
government microcredit lending
program should be expanded, and
free health care provided for the         There is no mention of
poor.                                     jihad.                 No mention.
There is mention of helping reduce
the gap between rich and poor, and a
call for implementation of a minimum
wage (p. 11, 22). There is a call for
free health care for chilren and
mothers (p. 20). The manifesto also
proposes welfare programs for the
poor, single mothers, and orphans, as
well as the creation of more low-     There is no mention of
income housing (p. 24).               jihad.                 No mention.
The platform includes a plan for social
welfare and development in its last
two sections: Justice and                                  The party offers its
Development. (pp. 24 ff) Under the                         unconditional support in
motto "Health for All", the platform                       the issues relevant to the
proposes a basic coverage for health                       Arab and Islamic World,
services all over the country and calls                    especially in the issue of
for an increase in the funding                             Palestine, as it is a central
assigned for the health sector. (for                       issue for Muslims.(p. 13)
details p. 26) Under the subsection                        The party calls for the
"Fighting Poverty", the party proposes                     material and moral
the establishment of a fund out of                         support of the Intifada,
zakah and endowment to help                                and for suspending all
financing small projects for the poor                      forms of public and secret
people so as to help them earn their                       naturalization (with
bread. A certain percentage of the                         Israel). The Security
public income should be assigned for                       Council should form an
poor-aid programs. The party                               international task force to
Encourages the foundation of charity                       protect the Palestinian
organizations and proposes special                         people and refugees. The
regulations for handicapped. (p. 27) In                    party calls for exerting
another subsection, the party calls for                    efforts to bring about an
"Suitable Housing for All". The                            international support to
government should look for different                       impose sanctions on the
ways to subsidize family and law                           Zionist entity to force it
income housing. The government                             respect the resolutions of
should reconsider the illegal ways of                      the international
distributing real estate, giving priority Not mentioned.   organizations. (p. 15)




Yes, including quantitative targets for
reduction in infant mortality,
increased education rates, etc. (pp. 1-
3)                                      No                 Not mentioned.
                                                                Not mentioned speficially,
Welfare supports for the                                        but "[t]he oppressed
unemployed, pensioners, orphans and                             muslim communities
others to be funded through zakat.                              throughout the world will
Medical care for all irrespective of                            be the objects of special
ability to pay.                      Not mentioned.             concern." (35)




                                      "Full support to the
                                      Afghan jehad" (4).
                                      Note that support for
                                      the Kashmiri
                                      resistence is
                                      mentioned but not
                                      described as a jihad.
                                      "We will develop a
                                      collective spirit of      "Full support to the
Yes, low cost housing, and a national Jehad in the nation to    independence of Palestine
health policy that includes rural     lay down their own life   and Jerusalem from Israeli
health service delivery.              for a just cause" (20).   occupation" (19).
                                                         "To extend moral, political
                                                         and diplomatic help and
Yes, basic needs such as "bread,                         support to all suppressed
clothes, shelter, education, jobs and                    with particular emphasis
marriage expenses" will be provided                      on Kashmiris, Palestinians,
for all.                                Not mentioned.   Afghans and Chechnyans."




Yes, including the building of health                    Supports the right of
care centers.                           Not mentioned.   return.
Yes, but without much information:
"Providing main necessities of life
including place, food and health for
the people"
and "Healthy family system
protection" (2)                         Not mentioned.   Not mentioned.




Yes, but not specified clearly. About
pensions to women, widows and
orphans see the end of the Question                      Against Israel. Critical of
5.                                      NO               Zionism.
                                           fervently agains Israel
                                           (treats it as a threat) and
                                           Zionism. Often times anti-
                                           semitic. P.10, 11,14, 21,
                                           67, 69. The platform
                                           supports the creation of an
Yes, it promises universal healthcare      independent Plestenian
for women (p.97), universal                state and promises to
healthcare and other kinds of support      provide support to that
to the disabled and needy (p. 93)     NO   end. P. 167
Yes it does without specifying. P.6, p.
Later the platform proposes
increasing the budget of Social
Solidarity and Cooperation Fund
which will help the needy. Pp. 8-9      NO   Not mentioned




Not specified. But several times help
to needy (handicapped etc. is
mentioned without giving specifics.)    NO   No reference to the issue.
                                                The party proposes
Yes. Yet they are not clearly                   establishment of an
identified. In the section on family it is      independent Palestinian
proposed to help needy families.                state (its capital city being
P.39. In the sections on social security        Jerusalem) and also that
and health the party proposes to                Turkey should pressure on
provide basic needs (education,                 Israel so that the latter
healthcare etc) to every citizen. Pp.36-        obeys UN resolutions. P.
38,.                                       NO   44


Yes, the platform calls for universal
healthcare (p.80, 89), and support to
all needy groups, individuals (those
groups and individuals are very
precisely and in detail described (also
what will be done) pp. 90-102, 104-
110..                                   NO      NO
                                      NO. Yet, a crusade like
                                      attack against Muslims
                                      (globally) is
                                      underlined along with
                                      the necessity to fight
                                      against this attack.
                                      (word such as Gaza
                                      which connote a holy      Not specified. But
                                      struggle are employed.    repeatedly Israel's hidden,
                                      "Gazaniz mubarek          malignant plots are
                                      olsun." ("May your        addressed and also the
Yes. For underdeveloped regions (p.   sacred struggle be        need to be aware of those
32.), for the handicapped and other   blessed.") P.1 (Section   and fight against them. P.
needy people (p.33).                  III).                     20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26
Reconsidering wages and salaries so
as to meet the living standards.
Guaranteeing the employees' rights of     Not mentioned. Giving
medical care. (p. 25) providing           financial and moral
medication at a low price. (p. 37) Risk   support to all Arab and   supporting the jihad of the
compensations should be allotted to       Islamic countries that    Palestinians against the
employers in the field of power,          suffer annihilation and   Zionist occupiers. Working
sewage and water. (p. 38) Caring for      oppression, such as       for the establishment of a
orphans, the disables, and the old        Bosnia and                Palestinian state on the
people. (p. 41)                           Herzegovina. (p. 45)      Palestinian land. (p. 44)




"Provision of welfare services which
would secure, to all members of
society, their right to medical care,
education, security, shelter and
livelihood, and in doing so realising an                            "Zionist endeavours" are
honorable standard of living on the                                 cited as a key challenge in
basis of securing due rights and                                    the current period of
fulfilling obligations. "                Not mentioned.             civilizational conflict."
10.Does the party
mention an anti-               11.Does the party platform
corruption stance in its       propose banning interest 12.Is the party platform accepting of a
platform?                      based banking?             free market economy?




                                                      Changing marketing policy to achieve
                                                      market decentralization and to
                                                      encounter the black market practices.
                                                      Reconsideration of pricing policies.
Not mentioned.                                        Encouragement of market
Reforming the trade        Establishing Islamic banks competitions. Designing an
policy to end monopoly, and saving funds free of all international trade policy that
usury and bribery. (p. 96, types of usurious          provides economic independence and
103)                       transactions. (p. 106)     protection. (pp. 102-104)




Not mentioned. However
it is stated, " the loss of
trust between the people       Not mentioned.
and the rulers is due to       Establishing local saving
despotism,                     institutions to collect
embezzlement, and              savings and to run projects
authority exploitation". (p.   in the light of the guidance
124)                           of shari`a. (p. 128)         Not mentioned.
                                                            Legitimate Trade is encouraged with all
Fair and just distribution                                  its types. The government should not
of jobs and fighting                                        interfere in pricing the commodities.
bureaucracy, favoritism      Usury is prohibited in all its (p. 143) Guarantee freedom of jointly-
and bribery. (p. 145)        types and forms. (143)         owned ownership. (p. 143)


                                                          Yes. Establishing an economic system
                                                          that combines between free market
                                                          and the state duty of observing the
                                                          economic process. (p. 1) Algeria did a
                                                          good job in liberating its economy from
Not mentioned. One of                                     the state hegemony and now heading
the challenges of the                                     in the privatization process. (p. 8)
country is the bribery and                                Encouraging the private sector through
corruption phenomenon                                     a reconsideration of taxes, tariff and
to evade paying taxes or                                  consumption fees. (p. 14) Allowing the
to gain easy money                                        private sector to take part in policy-
through monopoly and                                      making and in drafting laws relevant to
usury, therefore we , the                                 economic projects. (p. 16) Encouraging
party followers, need to                                  investors to establish partnership
rebuild a new just                                        businesses and financing institutions
economic system. (p. 11-                                  with a view to increase resources. (p.
12)                        No.                            17)
Yes, even in the subtitle of
the platform, "Together to     No, but it does "encourage
fight against corruption       the creation of Islamic
and build the country" (p.     banks and banking
1)                             products" (item #16, p. 4) No




Yes. In addition to
promoting Islamic
morality, an Ant-              Yes. "Banks, investments
Corruption department          and other financial
will be established. Those     institutions will be made
found guilty of corruption     interest-free and the         No. "Equal distribution of wealth" is
will be given "exemplary       economy will be               the main goal, as is preventing
punishment" to serve as a      reorganized on the basis of   capitalists from exploiting the poor and
deterrent. (11)                Islamic principles." (14)     needy. (14)
                                           13.1 says yes, but many other
                                           measures are heavily redistributive and
                                           one of the key points (made
                                           repeatedly) is the elimination of an
Yes. Repeatedly.   Yes.                    interest-based capitalist economy




                                           No. Proposed industrial expansion is to
                                           be implemented in a planned way.
Yes. Repeatedly.   Usury to be abolished   Limitations on trade.
Yes, with a prominent
defense of the two JI
ministers of the previous
government who were
prosectued by the Anti-
Corruption Commission.
In its own subsection of
the platform, corruption is
described as "the single      No. (Interest rates are
most harmful obstacle to      mentioned several times in No. Key food items such as rice, milk
development and               the context of using them and lentils are to be provided at
prosperity"                   as a policy tool)          subsidised prices.
Yes, it calls for: the
reconsideration of laws
relating to corruption and
illegal money-earning
laws; the prohibition of
receiving gifts or moral or
financial benefits for
people who work in the
government; the
disclosure of state
monitoring reports, esp. .    Not mentioned. But it calls
those of the Central          upon the government to
Auditing Organization and     set up non-Riba banks and      Yes, by calling upon the government to
the Administrative            to establish another entity    encourage the national investments,
Monitoring Authority. (p.     to be responsible to collect   and offering facilities such as tariff and
310)                          Zakah. (p. 315)                custom exemptions. (p. 314)
                                            Yes. It asserts the freedom of economic
                                            ventures, the role of the individual and
One of the economic                         the honoring of multi-property
reform principles is to                     businesses. It encourages privatization
fight non-legal wealth                      through a well-studied privatization
acquisition. (p. 174)                       program. It encourages exports and
Penalties have to be                        works for opening new markets. It
doubled. on economic and                    holds to the significance of cooperation
financial corruption                        with the rest of the world and agree to
crimes. These crimes                        the agreement of free trade and is
would include usurping                      committed to the open policy
state money or lands, non-                  principles provided that it does not
payment of taxes, and                       entail any form of subjugation or
bribery. (p. 176)          Not mentioned.   domination by others. (p. 173-5)
                            Maybe - discusses colonial
                            introduction of "usurious
No                          banking system" (p. 11).   Not mentioned.




Yes - the spread of
corruption is highlighted                               No. Many proposals describe extensive
as a big problem.           Ban on usury is proposed.   control and involvment of the state.
Yes, the economy section
of the national agenda
platform calls for an
efficient, clean and             Yes, as indicated in the economy
transparent government           section of the national agenda
that discourages                 platform, but emphasis is placed on an
corruption and collusion         economy that is oriented towards the
(p. 95).                 No.     ideal of fairness and equality (p. 94-95).




Yes, administrative reform
and integrity are                Not mentioned. The focus is on
important for fighting           establishing basics such as electricity,
bribery and corruption.    No.   fuel, communications etc.
At the outset of the
platform, the Front makes
one of its main goal to
fight administrative and
financial corruption
through the reactivation
of the financial monitoring
administration, giving the
public integrity
administration more
power to go after the
corrupt individuals,                         Encouraging national industries
following the standard                       through necessary regulations to
international regulations                    increase production as well as
in tender and bids                           improving the quality. Maintaining the
transactions, drafting new                   government-run factories and
regulations for                              developing their operational
appointments in the                          organization through the participation
government based on                          of the private sector and allowing the
qualifications and not on                    labor force to join in as partners and
favoritism, etc.            Not mentioned.   not as employees.




                                             Yes. They propose "Developing the
                                             private sector and entrepreneurship,
                                             supporting businessmen and free
                                             trade, and facilitating internal and
                                             external investment. This sector needs
                                             to be organized by law, protected from
Yes. They want to root out                   corruption and exhausting red tapes,
corruption through the                       and opened to every citizen without
courts.                    Not mentioned.    any discrimination and monopoly."
Bribery and favoritism are
to be fought. (p. 3)
Examining the huge debts
that the country suffers
from and identifying the
people responsible for this
and bring them to court                                Developing the private sector along
for punishment. (p. 5)                                 with the public one. Encouraging
Abolishing all the                                     private investment and protection of
concessions that were a                                personal property. Regulating the
result of office                                       process of export and import in a way
exploitation and holding                               that serves the interests of the
those responsible for this                             country. Protecting the local
accountable and bringing Usury has to be prohibited    production and only exporting in case
them to justice. (p. 8)     in all its forms. (p. 8)   of the lack of local alternatives. (p. 6)
Yes. figting administrative
and financial corruption is
mentioned. (p.1) In the
earlier parliament, the
proposal of the non-legal
earning was drafted and it                                  Privatization policies have to be
was in its final stages                                     regulated so as to encourage the
before the dissolution of                                   private sector to join the government
the parliament. Also a        Yes. It encourages the        in carrying the burden. P. B/9).
parliamentary                 reconsideration of finance Updating the custom laws and
investigation committee       laws in such a way that       reconsideration of the tariffs.
was formed to examine a       would guarantee its           Modernizing the law of ministry of
number of administrative      purification of usury. (p. 5) Trade to encourage investments and to
and financial corruptions     Adopting an agricultural      protect business ventures. The
that were attributed to a     loan system as an             participation of private sectors in
number of ministers for       alternative to the usurious making of the economic policies and
the first time. (p. 3)        system. (p. B/ 3)             economic legislations. (p. B/9)
Fighting bribery and
favoritism and all other       The reconsideration of
types of corruption. (p.3)     finance laws so as to purify
Disclosing to the public all   it from usury and make it
information that have to       agree with the shari`a rules.
do with corruption and         p. 2) Adopting an
the corrupts and bring         agricultural loan system as
those corrupt people           an alternative to the
before civil courts. (p. 17)   usurious system. (p. 10)      Not mentioned.
Fighting the financial and
administrative corruption.    The reconsideration of
(p. 10) Disclosing to the     finance laws so as to purify
public all information that   it from usury and make it
have to do with               agree with the shari`a rules.
corruption and the            (p. 2) Adopting an
corrupts and bring those      agricultural loan system as
corrupt people before civil   an alternative to the         A governmental follow up to control
courts. (p. 11)               usurious system. (p. 7)       the production prices. 8)
The people's assembly
should use his
constitutional right to
encounter the corruption
in the government
system. (89) Issuing a law
on the state-council-level                  Not mentioned. Introducing new
for administrative                          amendments in the public sector laws,
monitoring. Putting the                     public service laws, national bank laws,
framework for a new                         etc. with a view to enhancing the
administrative policy                       production performance. Privatizing
philosophy to fight                         some public sector services so as to
corruption, and                             lead to a better quality service.
favoritism. (90) The same                   Encouraging investment in various
also applies to the                         sectors like pertol, food, agricultural,
economic sector. (94)      Not mentioned.   medical, aviation, etc.
                                                     It calls for the establishment of
                                                     economic ventures so as to enable
                                                     Kuwait to be a developed economic
                                                     country within the coming 20 years.
                         It is implied that the Arab Also the Kuwaiti investments outside
                         economy should get rid of the country should be developed and
                         usurious transactions since directed toward the more stable
                         it is against the Islamic   eastern markets. It encourages the
                         principles and the Arab     private sector to participate in projects
                         societies are waiting to    that are related to vital fields such as
Yes, especially in the   reorganize their economic education, transportation and health.
administrative           life according to Islamic   The private sector participation should
institutions.            teachings. (p.1)            be on the basis of B.O.T.
The party takes a strong
position against
corruption in the
government and other
public institutions. It calls
for the establishment of
an anti-corruption
government institution to
encounter all
administrative and
financial corruption. The
Accounting administration
should be empowered to
play its role in this
process. The movement
will work also to issue                        Not clear. The movement calls for the
legislations that would                        encouragement of the private sector.
force those in power, be                       (p.11) It also encourages hardwork to
in the legislative or the                      boost the national economy and good
executive administration,                      use of the natural wealth and
to provide their financial                     resources through a strategic vision
record and how they                            with a view to make Kuwait an
collected their wealth.                        economic and trade world center. (p.
(see pp. 6, 9, 10, 12,13)     Not mentioned.   10)
The party stands against
corruption and considers
it one of the main causes
of the Kuwaiti problems.                                  It does not state that. But the party
One way of encountering                                   calls for economic reform through the
the corruption is to                                      establishment of a higher authority
reform the political                                      that plan for the country economy. It
process so as to be able to                               also stresses the need for a new vision
nominate the good honest                                  for the stock market and the
and trusty individuals and                                establishment of a capital market
hence fighting anti-                                      authority to create trust and credibility
corruption. Also, it is                                   in the financial transactions. The party
through the application of    Yes it does. It considers   also endorses the issuing of
shari`a since its main        this interest one of the    privatization legislations and the
objective is to achieve the   main reason for the         minimizing of the government role and
people welfare and to         aggravation of the debt     interference in the economic activities
fight corruption. (p. 1)      problem. (p. 2)             and the business ventures. (p. 2)




No, but meritocracy is
presented as an                                           No. A market economy is a "western
alternative to sectarian                                  mode of production" being pushed by
favoritism.                   No - not mentioned.         Israel and backed by the US (248)




                                                          The platform points to "the state's
                                                          responsibilities to the citizens" and the
No                            No                          role of the public sector (257).
Yes. Opening Quranic
quote is about corruption,
though only one line on
corruption is in the                                     There is a commitment to the principle
platform proper.           No - not mentioned.           of fair competition. (264)




No                         No - not mentioned.           Not mentioned.




                           The financial system is to
                           be reformed so as not to
                           "conflict with Islamic
                           values," while investment
Yes, corruption, cronyism and credit facilities are to
and nepotism on the part be oriented towards             Without specifically mentioning the
of the political elite are productive sectors rather     market, the economic policies
repeatedly mentioned.      than speculation.             described are market oriented
Yes, anti-corruption is
included as an important
part of the manifesto.     No.   Yes.
Yes, anti-corruption is a
major part of the                   Although this is not mentioned, there
manifesto (cf. pp. 1, 3, 7,         is nothing to suggest the party opposes
8, 10, 14).                   No.   it.
The party has a strong
stand against corruption.
Fighting corruption and
bribe is one of the
greatest national
priorities. Anti-corruption
and bribe disclosure           Not clearly stated. The
culture should be spread       party works against all
among he people. The           different forms of usurious
party calls for the            transactions. It seeks to
establishment of a             find out alternatives for
national independent           these transactions. The
committee to create an         party will work for
educational awareness          illegalizing the production
against corruption,            and selling of wine for
favoritism, bribe, etc. (p.    Muslims. It will work to
11) National dialogue          bring to life the law drafts
among cultural                 of banning bars and the
organizations need to be       like. These law drafts were The platform accepts the free market
organized with a view to       deposited in the parliament economy. It confirms the protection of
creating a code of ethics      records but not discussed economic freedom, the sacredness of
to fight corruption. (p. 12)   till now. The party will     property, and the support of open door
Increasing the citizens'       propose the reviewing of policy. It encourages free trade, as long
awareness of their rights      the laws of small loans so as it does not harm the public interest.
to expose administrative       as to promote providing no- It encourage the private sector . (p. 34,
corruption and how they        interest laws for small      32) The party encourages investment
ask for their rights The       businesses for the un-       and responds to what this entails of
responsibilities of the        employed. (pp.8, 25)         administrative and legal reform. (p. 35)




Yes: "Go from 79th place
to 40th place in the
corruption rankings." (p.                                   Yes, in passing: "Encourage the private
3)                             Not mentioned.               sector to promote development." (p. 3)
Yes. Corruption will be
countered through the      Yes, as they consider
inculcation of properly    interest to be prohibited in
Islamic morals.            Islam (26)                   No specific mention.




Yes. It targets the federal                            The emphasis is on redistribution and
bureaucracy and their                                  welfare, including encouraging
"extravagent                                           "cooperative farming" and establishing
expenditures" (15).         No.                        "fair price shops" (13).
Yes, corruption will be           The focus is on provision of basic
eradicated.                 No.   goods.




The party "will apply the
policy "where from did
you get this"; to achieve
this goal control systems
will be set up to monitor
the activities of civil
servants and others."       No    Not mentioned.
                          No. Under economic          Yes. Under economic programs,
                          programs, "Development      "Stressing on economic development
                          of banking and monitory     and open market system … depending
Not mentioned.            system" (1)                 on private ownership" (1)




Yes (p. 23). Corruption
(bribery and iltimascilik)
is linked to degeneration
of (traditional/national)
order of morals. The
remedy is sought at
establisment of a
government compatible
with Milli Gorus
(National(its)             Need to look up pp. 152-
Outlook/Vision) pp.23-24. 155                         Yes but under state control.
                           Yes, very subtly. The
                           platform proposes the
Yes. Struggle agains       creation of a non-interest
corruption and bribery are credit system (as a tool,
identified as major goals. means of development)        Yes, yet also calls for the guidance and
P.173                      p.127.                       intervention of state.
                            NO. Not mentioned. The      Yes. Propagates a free market
                            platform repeatedly         economy which is based upon the
                            emphasizes the primacy of   principle of competition and which
                            market forces. Yet, the     does not allow exploitation.p.15
                            interest issue is not       Supports privatization of stated owned
Not Mentioned               addressed.                  businesses. P.17.




Yes. The solution
proposed against
corruption is liberalization
of the state and
bureaucracy and
increased transparency .
P. 5. of Part V)             No                         Yes
                          NO. Not mentioned. The
                          party takes a critical
                          position towards rentier
                          economic model and
                          exploitation (global)
                          through high interests
                          (regarding foreign debt)
                          p.3. The platform identifies
                          interest and rentier
                          economic model as the
                          most important tools of
Yes. It is stated that    neo-colonialism. p. 7. The
corruption and bribery    party is also critical of high
had reached an extreme share of interest payments
point and the platform    in the state budget and
proposes (A) recuperation proposes to save resources
of moral and spiritual    by decreasing the amount
values (B) making state   allocated for interest           Yes. Yet it is also highly critical of neo-
expenditures transparent. payments. pp. 18-19, 21.         liberal policies which are pointed as
(C ) Reforming the        Yet, banning interest based      causing increased poverty and
economic system. Pp30- banking categorically is not        discrepancy among income groups and
31.                       addressed.                       countries.




Yes, the policies proposed
to fight against corruption
are addressed at pages
157-158.                    NO                             Yes
                           Not Specified. Yet interest
                           (based) economy is
                           identified as a major
Not specified. Only once   problem (the issue is
the term corruption is     discussed while analyzing
used and no detail         the past five years of AKP    Yes. Yet the party calls for increased
analysis or remedies are   and its 'destructive'         control on interest based economic
addressed. P. 34.          policies).p.15                model.
                                                        Encouraging exports and facilitating its
                                                        process and offering export
                                                        subsidization to be able to compete. (p.
Holding accountable all                                 27) Protecting private ownership and
those get involved in                                   forbidding seizing unless in dire need.
bribery and corruption. (p.                             (p. 27) Adopting the principle of free
28) Monitoring payments Getting rid of the usurious trade and forbidding monopoly and
and fighting the             transactions and replacing setting a special policy for import and
administrative and           it with Islamic banking    export. (p. 28) Going ahead with the
financial corruption. (p. 38 services. (p. 27)          privatization process. (p. 30)




Yes. Administrative
corruption is to be tackled
through the promotion of
a market economy with a
limited role for the state,
as well as "a programme
that is based on Islamic                                Yes. The party avows "[r]espect for
principles and values and                               private ownership" and puts forward a
mobilises the people's                                  limited role for the state (chiefly
spiritual energies and                                  infrastructure" and setting the
social powers"              No                          conditions for free competition.
13.Is the party platform encouraging
towards foreign investment?




Encouraging the establishment of Arab
and Islamic joint market.
Reconsideration of the policy of public
ownership to protect it from falling into
the hands of foreigners. (p. 102)
Encouraging the Algerians and other
Muslims abroad to invest their money
in an effort to improve the national
economy. Such an endeavor is part of
the jihad with wealth. (p. 105)




Not mentioned. Making use of the
wealth of the Algerian expatriates
through introducing new investment
forms like musharkah or mudarabah,
i.e. types of partnership.
Encouraging national investments, then
the Arabic and then the foreign,
however within the limits of clear and
precise laws.(p. 142)




Joining international institutions to
guarantee the incoming of foreign
investment. Giving foreign investors
priority in the strategic industries like
agriculture. (p. 14) Encouraging
commercial banks and national finance
institutions to attract foreign
investment. (p. 17)
Yes: item #21, page 4




Unclear. Investment is not mentioned.
The platform is receptive to increased
trade with Muslim countries, but not
others.
No




No. Emphasis is on autarkic self-
reliance.
"Foreign investment shall be
encouraged by bringing reforms to the
Board of Investment and amending the
relevant rules and regulations without
marginalising the interests of the
nation."
While the platform explicitly
encourages foreign investment, there
is also a consistent emphasis on self-
sufficiency in the national interest, e.g.
"National interest shall be given the
highest priority in awarding contracts
to foreign companies", and a desire for
a strong resistence against "neo-
colonial domination."
Stressing Arab investment. Encouraging
other foreign investment provided that
it does not result in subjugation to
others and to be real investment. (p.
314-315)
Encouraging Arab investments first,
then the Islamic and then from the rest
of the world . (p. 175-76)
Not mentioned.




Economic self-sufficiency is a priority.
Yes, the economy section of the
national agenda platform encourages
foreign direct investment (p. 95).




Not mentioned.
Yes. The platform calls for foreign
investment to develop the industrial
sector, on the condition that this
should not be on the expense of the
national interest or economy.




Yes.
Not mentioned. Only Arab and Islamic
investment is mentioned to develop
heavy industries, especially weapon
industry.. (p. 7)
The focus was on Arab investment and
the establishment of Arab Market and
Arab economic integration to
encounter the Jewish conspiracy of
controlling the region's economy. (p.
B/9)
Encouraging Arab investments with a
hope to achieve integration in various
fields. Introducing legislations that
would help coping with the world
economic corporations. Encouraging
investments but with monitoring the
foreign investment in order to prevent
it from controlling the national
economy and to protect the national
industries. (p. 12-13)
Encouraging Arab investment.
Monitoring the foreign investors to
avoid their control over the national
economy. (p. 19)
Not mentioned. The opposite however
is mentioned. Making strategic use of
the Kuwaiti foreign investments so as
to contribute to the advancement of
the Kuwaiti economics and to be a
significant asset in the state budget and
its public reserve for the coming
generations.
The party indicates that the foreign
investment should be organized in a
way that makes the foreign investor
make use of the local industries and
provide job opportunities for the
indigenous people. (p.2)
Yes, it encourages foreign investment.
(p. 11)
Not mentioned.




Not mentioned.




No mention of foreign investment.
Local production is to be protected
(263).




No direct mention, but foreign
intervention in any form is to be
rejected.




Speculative investment of the sort
associated with the 1997-98 economic
crisis is not welcome.
Yes, the manifesto encourages
cooperation between foreign and
domestic producers and consumers.
Although this is not mentioned, there is
nothing to suggest the party opposes it.
The platform encourages the foreign
investment. It calls for adopting a
diplomatic and media agenda that
would attract the foreign investments.
Providing incentives and facilities to
international companies to invest in
Morocco to help enhance the
Moroccan small businesses. Foreign
investment should be done in
coordination with the national
investment to make the best use of
investment for the benefit of the
national economy. Joint investment
with Islamic institutions should be also
organized. Encouraging Moroccan
expatriate to invest in Morocco should
be also planned. (p. 39)




Not mentioned.
Not mentioned.




No. Self-reliance is mentioned.
The party wants to "To get the country
and people rid of influence of
imperialistic forces and their local
agents"




Not mentioned.
Yes. Under economic programs,
"Encouragement of internal and
external investors" (1)




Critical of foreign investments in the
country. Critical also of dependence on
foreign industrial product, deems that
as an obstacle to dependence. (pp. 21-
22)
Not sympathetic to foreign (western)
investment or
intervention/participation/cooperation
in Turkish economy. Against European
integration and European common
Market (pp. 59-62), calls for self-
reliance for a sustainable and strong
developmentalist policy. Also critical of
IMF (p.26).
The platform proposes to take
measures to encourage the inflow of
foreign investments and full integration
with the world economy.P.19




The platform discusses the ways of
attracting more and constructive
foreign investment. P3 of Part IV.
Very critical of Foreign capitalist
exploitation and dominance (IMF,
World bank) on Turkish economy. Yet
the investment issue is not clearly
explained. But overall not very
sympathetic to western capitals
entrance to Turkey.




Supports foreign investment and
proposes to take measures to
encourage it. Pp.205-206.
Not very friendly towards IMF or
western capital. Calls for increased
cooperation among Muslim economies.
Encouraging domestic and foreign
investments to work in the field of
agriculture, etc. (p. 27) Encouraging
foreign investment as an alternative to
seeking loans. (p. 26-27) Stressing
cooperation with Arab and neighboring
investors. (p. 28, 44)




Not mentioned.

								
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