Election Results and Platforms Country isoa3 Year Party Afghanistan AFG 1969 Afghanistan AFG 1988 Afghanistan AFG 2005 Hizb-e-Islam Afghanistan AFG 2010 Albania ALB 1991 Albania ALB 1992 Albania ALB 1996 Albania ALB 1997 Albania ALB 2001 Albania ALB 2005 Albania ALB 2009 Algeria DZA 1991 al-Jabha al-Islamiyya li'l-Inqadh (Islamic Salvation Front) Algeria DZA 1991 Harakat al-Mujtama‘ al-Islami (Hamas) Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Algeria DZA 1991 Movement) Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Algeria DZA 1997 Movement) Algeria DZA 1997 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for the Society of Peace, Hims) Algeria DZA 2002 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform - El-Islah) Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Algeria DZA 2002 Movement) Algeria DZA 2002 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for the Society of Peace, Hims) Algeria DZA 2007 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform - El-Islah) Harakat al-Nahda al-Islamiyya (Islamic Renaissance Algeria DZA 2007 Movement) Algeria DZA 2007 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for the Society of Peace, Hims) Azerbaijan AZE 1995 Azerbaijan AZE 2000 Azerbaijan AZE 2005 Bahrain BHR 1973 Bahrain BHR 2002 Islamic societies (not parties, but candidate affiliations) Bahrain BHR 2006 Jam'iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society) Bahrain BHR 2006 Jam'iyyat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) (Shi'a) Jam'iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Bahrain BHR 2006 Tribune Society) Jam'iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Bahrain BHR 2006 Reconciliation Society) (Shi'a) Page 1 Election Results and Platforms Bahrain BHR 2010 Jam'iyya al-Asala al-Islamiyya (Original Islamic Society) Bahrain BHR 2010 Jam'iyyat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Society) (Shi'a) Jam'iyyat al-Minbar al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Bahrain BHR 2010 Tribune Society) Jam'iyyat al-Wifaq al-Watani al-Islami (National Islamic Bahrain BHR 2010 Reconciliation Society) (Shi'a) Bangladesh BGD 1973 Bangladesh BGD 1979 Muslim League & Islamic Democratic League (IDL-R) Bangladesh BGD 1986 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh) Bangladesh BGD 1988 Bangladesh BGD 1991 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) Bangladesh BGD 1991 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh) Bangladesh BGD 1996 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) Bangladesh BGD 1996 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh) Bangladesh BGD 2001 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) Bangladesh BGD 2001 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh) Bangladesh BGD 2008 Islami Oikkya Jote (Islamic Unity Front) Bangladesh BGD 2008 Jamaat-e-Islami (Bangladesh) BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina 1996 BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina 1998 BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina 2000 BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina 2002 BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina 2006 BIH Bosnia-Herzegovina 2010 Brunei BRN . Burkina Faso BFA 1970 Burkina Faso BFA 1978 Burkina Faso BFA 1992 Burkina Faso BFA 1997 Burkina Faso BFA 2002 Burkina Faso BFA 2007 Chad TCD 1969 Chad TCD 1990 Chad TCD 1997 Chad TCD 2002 Comoros COM 1978 Comoros COM 1982 Comoros COM 1987 Comoros COM 1992 Comoros COM 1993 Comoros COM 1996 Front National pour la Justice (National Front for Justice Page 2 Election Results and Platforms Comoros COM 2004 Comoros COM 2009 Djibouti DJI 1982 Djibouti DJI 1987 Djibouti DJI 1992 Djibouti DJI 1997 Djibouti DJI 2003 Djibouti DJI 2008 Egypt EGY 1976 Egypt EGY 1979 Egypt EGY 1984 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) with Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid (New Wafd Egypt EGY 1987 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) with Hizb al-'Amal (Labour Party) Egypt EGY 1990 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) Egypt EGY 1995 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) Egypt EGY 2000 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) Egypt EGY 2005 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brotherhood) Eritrea ERI . Ethiopia ETH 1973 Ethiopia ETH 1987 Ethiopia ETH 1995 Ethiopia ETH 2000 Ethiopia ETH 2005 Gambia GMB 1972 Gambia GMB 1977 Gambia GMB 1982 Gambia GMB 1987 Gambia GMB 1992 Gambia GMB 1997 Gambia GMB 2002 Gambia GMB 2007 Guinea GIN 1968 Guinea GIN 1974 Guinea GIN 1980 Guinea GIN 1995 Guinea GIN 2002 GNB Guinea-Bissau 1977 GNB Guinea-Bissau 1989 GNB Guinea-Bissau 1994 GNB Guinea-Bissau 1999 GNB Guinea-Bissau 2004 GNB Guinea-Bissau 2008 Indonesia IDN 1971 Nahdatul Ulama (Revival of the Ulama) Indonesia IDN 1971 Partai Muslimin Indonesia (Muslim Party of Indonesia) Page 3 Election Results and Platforms Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (Indonesian Indonesia IDN 1971 Nahdlatul Community Party) Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia (Indonesia Islamic Union Indonesia IDN 1971 Party) Indonesia IDN 1971 Perti (Islamic Educators Association) Indonesia IDN 1977 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia IDN 1982 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia IDN 1987 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia IDN 1992 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia IDN 1997 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia IDN 1999 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) Indonesia IDN 1999 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) Indonesia IDN 1999 Partai Keadilan (Justice Party) Indonesia IDN 1999 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (Indonesian Indonesia IDN 1999 Nahdlatul Community Party) Indonesia IDN 1999 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia IDN 2004 Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) Indonesia IDN 2004 Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR) (Reform Star Party) Indonesia IDN 2004 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) Indonesia IDN 2004 Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party) Indonesia IDN 2004 Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (Indonesian Indonesia IDN 2004 Nahdlatul Community Party) Indonesia IDN 2004 Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development Party) Indonesia Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) (National Mandate Party) IDN 2009 Indonesia IDN 2009 Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR) (Reform Star Party) Indonesia IDN 2009 Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) (Crescent Star Party) Indonesia Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Prosperous Justice Party) IDN 2009 Indonesia Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) (National Awakening Party) IDN 2009 Indonesia Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama (PKNU) (Ulema National IDN 2009 Awakening Party) Indonesia IDN 2009 Partai Matahari Bangsa (PMB) (National Sun Party) Indonesia Partai Persatuan Nahdlatul Ummah Indonesia (PPNUI) IDN 2009 (Indonesian Nahdlatul Community Party) Indonesia Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) (United Development IDN 2009 Party) Page 4 Election Results and Platforms Iraq IRQ 2005 al-Ittihad al-'Iraqi al-Muwahhad (United Iraqi Alliance) Iraq IRQ 2005 Jabhat al-Tawafiq al-'Iraqiyya (Iraqi Accord Front) Iraq IRQ 2005 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) Iraq IRQ 2010 Iraqi National Movement (INM, Al-Iraqiya Coalition) Iraq IRQ 2010 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) Iraq IRQ 2010 Kurdish Islamic Party Iraq IRQ 2010 Sadrist Movement Jordan JOR 1989 Jama'at al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin (Society of Muslim Brothers) & allied independents Jordan JOR 1993 Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF) Jordan JOR 1997 Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF) Jordan JOR 2003 Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF) Jordan JOR 2007 Jabhat al-'Amal al-Islami (Islamic Action Front - IAF) Jordan JOR 2010 Kazakhstan KAZ 1994 Kazakhstan KAZ 1995 Kazakhstan KAZ 1999 Kazakhstan KAZ 2004 Kazakhstan KAZ 2007 Kirgizstan KGZ 2000 Kirgizstan KGZ 2005 Kirgizstan KGZ 2007 Kirgizstan KGZ 2010 Kuwait KWT 1971 Kuwait KWT 1975 Kuwait KWT 1981 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) Kuwait KWT 1981 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 1985 Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) Kuwait KWT 1985 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 1985 Independents Kuwait KWT 1990 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Kuwait KWT 1992 Movement) Kuwait KWT 1992 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Sha'bi (Popular Islamic Association) Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Kuwait KWT 1996 Movement) Kuwait KWT 1996 Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) Kuwait KWT 1996 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 1996 Independents Kuwait KWT 1999 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) Kuwait KWT 1999 Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) Page 5 Election Results and Platforms Kuwait KWT 1999 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 1999 Independents Kuwait KWT 2003 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) Kuwait KWT 2003 Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) Kuwait KWT 2003 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 2003 Independents Kuwait KWT 2006 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) Kuwait KWT 2006 Al-Harakat al-Salafiyya (Salafi Movement) Kuwait KWT 2006 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 2006 Independents Kuwait KWT 2008 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) Kuwait KWT 2008 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 2008 Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) Kuwait KWT 2008 Independent Sunni Islamists Kuwait KWT 2009 Al-Haraka al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (Islamic Constitutional Movement) Kuwait KWT 2009 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-Salafi (Salafi Islamic Association) Kuwait KWT 2009 Hizb al-Umma (Umma Party) Kuwait KWT 2009 Independent Sunni Islamists Lebanon LBN 1968 Lebanon LBN 1972 Lebanon LBN 1992 al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) Lebanon LBN 1992 Hizbullah (Party of God) Jami'at al-Mashari' al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya (The Association Lebanon LBN 1992 of Islamic Charitable Projects) Lebanon LBN 1996 al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya (The Islamic Society) Lebanon LBN 1996 Hizbullah (Party of God) Jami'at al-Mashari' al-Khayriyya al-Islamiyya (The Association Lebanon LBN 1996 of Islamic Charitable Projects) Lebanon LBN 2000 Hizbullah (Party of God) Lebanon LBN 2005 Hizbullah (Party of God) Lebanon LBN 2009 Hizbullah (Party of God) Libya LBY . Malaysia MYS 1969 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party) Malaysia MYS 1974 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of the Barisan N Malaysia MYS 1978 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party) Malaysia MYS 1982 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party) Malaysia MYS 1986 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party) Malaysia MYS 1990 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party) Page 6 Election Results and Platforms Malaysia MYS 1995 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party) Malaysia MYS 1999 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of Barisan Altern Malaysia MYS 2004 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of Barisan Altern Malaysia MYS 2008 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia – PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), as part of Barisan Altern Maldives MDV 1989 Maldives MDV 1994 Maldives MDV 1999 Maldives MDV 2005 Maldives MDV 2009 Adhaalath Paatee (Justice Party) Maldives MDV 2009 Islamik Dimokretik Paatee (Islamic Democratic Party) Mali MLI 1979 Mali MLI 1982 Mali MLI 1985 Mali MLI 1988 Mali MLI 1992 Mali MLI 1997 Mali MLI 2002 Mali MLI 2007 Mauritania MRT 1971 Mauritania MRT 1976 Mauritania MRT 1992 Mauritania MRT 1996 Mauritania MRT 2001 Mauritania MRT 2006 Morocco MAR 1993 Mouvement Populaire Démocratique et Constitutionnel (Constitutional and Democratic Popular Morocco MAR 1997 Movement) Morocco MAR 2002 Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party) Morocco MAR 2007 Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party) Niger NER 1970 Niger NER 1989 Niger NER 1993 Niger NER 1995 Niger NER 1996 Niger NER 1999 Niger NER 2004 Niger NER 2009 Nigeria NGA 1979 Nigeria NGA 1983 Nigeria NGA 1992 Nigeria NGA 1999 Nigeria NGA 2003 Page 7 Election Results and Platforms Nigeria NGA 2007 Oman OMN 1991 Oman OMN 1994 Oman OMN 1997 Oman OMN 2000 Oman OMN 2003 Oman OMN 2007 Pakistan PAK 1970 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) Pakistan PAK 1970 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Pakistan PAK 1970 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam/ Jamaat-e-ahl-e-hadith Pakistan PAK 1970 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Pakistan Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) as part of the Pakistan National Pakistan PAK 1977 Alliance Pakistan PAK 1985 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) Pakistan PAK 1988 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) Pakistan PAK 1988 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Pakistan PAK 1988 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam (JUI-F) Pakistan PAK 1990 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) Pakistan PAK 1990 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Pakistan PAK 1993 Islamic Jamhoori Mahaz Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) as part of the Pakistan Islamic Pakistan PAK 1993 Front Pakistan PAK 1993 Mutahida Deeni Mahaz Pakistan PAK 1997 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) Pakistan PAK 1997 Jamaat-e-Ulema-e-Islam Pakistan PAK 2002 Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan PAK 2008 Jamaat-e-Islami (Pakistan) Pakistan PAK 2008 Jamaat-e-Ulama-e-Islam (Fazl) Palestine PSE 1996 Independents Palestine PSE 2006 Hamas . 1978 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen . 1986 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen Qatar QAT . Saudi Arabia SAU . Senegal SEN 1968 Senegal SEN 1973 Senegal SEN 1978 Senegal SEN 1983 Senegal SEN 1988 Senegal SEN 1993 Senegal SEN 1998 Senegal SEN 2001 Senegal SEN 2007 Sierra Leone SLE 1973 Page 8 Election Results and Platforms Sierra Leone SLE 1977 Sierra Leone SLE 1982 Sierra Leone SLE 1986 Sierra Leone SLE 1996 Sierra Leone SLE 2002 Sierra Leone SLE 2007 Somalia SOM 1969 Somalia SOM 1979 Somalia SOM 1984 Somalia SOM 2004 Sudan SDN 1968 Hizb al-Umma, Imam (Nation Party, Imam) Sudan SDN 1968 Hizb al-Umma, Janub (Nation Party, South) Sudan SDN 1968 Hizb al-Umma, Sadiq (Nation Party, Sadiq) Sudan SDN 1978 Sudan SDN 1980 Sudan SDN 1982 Sudan SDN 1986 National Islamic Front Sudan SDN 1986 New National Umma Party Sudan SDN 1996 Sudan SDN 2000 Sudan SDN 2005 Sudan SDN 2010 Hizb al-Mu'tamar al-Watani al-Sudani (National Congress Party of Sudan) Sudan SDN 2010 Hizb al-Umma al-Qaumi al-Sudan (National Umma Party - Sudan) Sudan SDN 2010 al-Mu'tamar al-Sha`bi (Popular Congress) Syria SYR 1973 Muslim Brotherhood Syria SYR 1977 Syria SYR 1981 Syria SYR 1986 Syria SYR 1990 Syria SYR 1994 Syria SYR 1998 Syria SYR 2003 Syria SYR 2007 Tajikistan TJK 1995 Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRPT) Tajikistan TJK 2000 Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRPT) Tajikistan TJK 2005 Hizbi Nahzati Islomi Tojikiston (Party of the Islamic Front of Tajikistan, also known as Tajikistan TJK 2010 Tanzania TZA 1970 Tanzania TZA 1975 Tanzania TZA 1980 Tanzania TZA 1985 Tanzania TZA 1990 Tanzania TZA 1995 Tanzania TZA 2000 Page 9 Election Results and Platforms Tanzania TZA 2005 Tunisia TUN 1969 Tunisia TUN 1974 Tunisia TUN 1979 Tunisia TUN 1981 Tunisia TUN 1986 Tunisia TUN 1989 Independents linked to Ennahda Tunisia TUN 1994 Tunisia TUN 1999 Tunisia TUN 2004 Tunisia TUN 2009 Turkey TUR 1969 Turkey TUR 1973 Milli Selâmet Partisi (National Salvation Party) Turkey TUR 1977 Milli Selâmet Partisi (National Salvation Party) Turkey TUR 1983 Turkey TUR 1987 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) Turkey TUR 1991 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) Turkey TUR 1995 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) Turkey TUR 1999 Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party) Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development Turkey TUR 2002 Party) Turkey TUR 2002 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development Turkey TUR 2007 Party) Turkey TUR 2007 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) TurkmenistanTKM 1994 TurkmenistanTKM 1999 TurkmenistanTKM 2004 TurkmenistanTKM 2009 ARE United Arab Emirates 2006 Uzbekistan UZB 1994 Uzbekistan UZB 1999 Uzbekistan UZB 2005 Uzbekistan UZB 2009 Tajammu' al-Yamani li'l-Islah (Yemeni Congregation for Yemen YEM 1993 Reform) Tajammu' al-Yamani li'l-Islah (Yemeni Congregation for Yemen YEM 1997 Reform) Tajammu' al-Yamani li'l-Islah (Yemeni Congregation for Yemen YEM 2003 Reform) Yemen (Arab Republic) YEM 1988 Independents linked to Muslim Brotherhood Page 10 Election Results and Platforms Q1. Does Q2. Does Q3a. Does Q3b. Q3c. the party the party the party Strong/wea Adjudicatio Q4a. Shari'a Q4b. Islamic morality Q4c. Economy 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 ociety of Peace, Hims) al Reform - El-Islah) ociety of Peace, Hims) 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 2 0 1 0 Page 11 Election Results and Platforms 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 Page 12 Election Results and Platforms th Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid (New Wafd Party) 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 Page 13 Election Results and Platforms velopment Party) velopment Party) velopment Party) velopment Party) velopment Party) 0 1 0 0 0 1 velopment Party) velopment Party) Page 14 Election Results and Platforms 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 stitutional Movement) Page 15 Election Results and Platforms stitutional Movement) 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 stitutional Movement) 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 stitutional Movement) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 mic Party), as part of the Barisan Nasional Page 16 Election Results and Platforms 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Page 17 Election Results and Platforms 0 2 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 Page 18 Election Results and Platforms ongress Party of Sudan) a Party - Sudan) 0 1 0 0 1 1 Page 19 Election Results and Platforms 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 Page 20 Election Results and Platforms Q4e. Political Q4f. structure Q4h. Q4i. National Q4j. Palestine/Israel Q4d. Democracy/ liberalization Justice Q4g. Social welfarePan Islamism Defense Security and Q4k. Nationalism/ National Un 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Page 21 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Page 22 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Page 23 Election Results and Platforms 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Page 24 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Page 25 Election Results and Platforms 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Page 26 Election Results and Platforms 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Page 27 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Page 28 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Page 29 Election Results and Platforms 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Page 30 Election Results and Platforms Q5. Where Q6. How Q7. Does Q8a.Is jihad Q8b. In Q9. What is Q10. Does Q11. Does does the does the the party mentioned? what the party's the party the party 2 0 2 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 Page 31 Election Results and Platforms 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 1 1 2 0 0 2 0 Page 32 Election Results and Platforms 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 2 2 2 Page 33 Election Results and Platforms 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 Page 34 Election Results and Platforms 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 2 1 2 2 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 Page 35 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 Page 36 Election Results and Platforms 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Page 37 Election Results and Platforms 2 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 0 2 0 2 0 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 2 1 0 Page 38 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Page 39 Election Results and Platforms 2 0 1 0 2 1 2 2 0 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 2 1 0 Page 40 Election Results and Platforms Q12. Is the Q13. Is the party party total seats pctvotes seatswon pctseats Coalition 249 40 16.06% 2 1 231 48.00% 188 81.39% 0 0 231 5.30% 0 0.00% 2 2 231 2.20% 0 0.00% 380 8.72% 34 8.95% 380 14.80% 69 18.16% 381 381 0.6% 1 0.26% 381 7.1% 38 9.97% 2 2 389 389 3.40% 5 1.29% 1 2 389 9.68% 52 13.37% 30 40 19 47.50% 40 5 12.50% 40 0 0.00% 40 7 17.50% 40 17 42.50% 1 Page 41 Election Results and Platforms 40 3 7.50% 40 40 2 5.00% 40 18 45.00% 300 -- 20 6.67% 1 300 4.61% 10 3.33% 300 300 0.79% 1 0.33% 1 0 300 12.10% 18 6.00% 300 1.09% 1 0.33% 1 1 300 8.62% 3 1.00% 300 0.67% 2 0.67% 1 1 300 4.28% 17 5.67% 300 0 0.00% 1 2 300 2 0.67% 43 3 6.98% Page 42 Election Results and Platforms 24 448 15.12% 58 12.95% 1 2 2 448 17.50% 57 12.72% 1 2 2 434 13 3.00% 0 0 432 17 3.94% 1 1 432 88 20.37% 360 360 5.40% 24 6.67% Page 43 Election Results and Platforms 360 18.70% 58 16.11% 360 2.39% 10 2.78% 360 0.70% 2 0.56% 360 29.29% 99 27.50% 364 25.54% 94 25.82% 400 15.95% 61 15.25% 400 14.90% 62 15.50% 425 22.66% 89 20.94% 500 7.31% 35 7.00% 500 1.80% 14 2.80% 2 2 500 1.36% 7 1.40% 500 17.44% 51 10.20% 500 0.60% 3 0.60% 500 10.68% 58 11.60% 550 6.44% 53 9.64% 550 2.44% 14 2.55% 550 2.62% 11 2.00% 550 7.34% 45 8.18% 550 10.56% 52 9.45% 550 0.80% 0 0.00% 550 8.15% 58 10.55% 6.01 42 560 7.50% 560 1.21 0 0.00% 560 1.79 0 0.00% 7.88 59 560 10.54% 4.94 26 560 4.64% 1.47 0 560 0.00% 560 0.40 0 0.00% 0.14 0 560 0.00% 5.32 39 560 6.96% Page 44 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 275 41.19% 128 46.55% 1 1 2 275 15.09% 44 16.00% 1 1 275 1.29% 5 1.82% 325 92 28.31% 325 3 0.92% 325 3 0.92% 325 40 12.31% 2 1 80 33 41.25% 2 1 80 16 20.00% 80 12 15.00% 1 0 2 104 10.40% 17 16.35% 0 2 110 6 5.45% 50 5 10.00% 50 50 4 8.00% 50 50 2 12.00% 50 50 14.5 29.00% 1 0 50 6.5 13.00% 50 50 50 50 14 28.00% 50 3 6.00% 50 1 2.00% Page 45 Election Results and Platforms 50 2 4.00% 50 14 28.00% 50 2 4.00% 50 1 2.00% 1 2 50 3 6.00% 50 15 30.00% 50 6 12.00% 50 2 4.00% 50 2 4.00% 50 11 22.00% 0 2 50 3 6.00% 1 0 50 4 8.00% 50 50 10 20.00% 50 1 2.00% 50 2 4.00% 50 0.00% 50 8 16.00% 27 3 11.11% 1 0 27 8 29.63% 27 1 3.70% 27 1 3.70% 1 0 27 10 37.04% 27 0 0.00% 0 1 27 8 29.63% 1 0 1 27 14 51.85% 1 27 13 48.15% 1 104 23.80% 12 11.54% 154 14 9.09% 1 154 15.50% 5 3.25% 154 14.46% 5 3.25% 177 15.50% 1 0.56% 180 7 3.89% Page 46 Election Results and Platforms 192 7 3.65% 2 2 193 42 21.76% 1 2 2 219 24.10% 7 3.20% 1 0 0 222 23 10.36% 1 77 0.90 0 0.00% 77 0.13 0 0.00% 222 325 4.14% 9 2.77% 2 2 325 42 12.92% 0 0 335 46 13.73% Page 47 Election Results and Platforms 0 0 300 6.00% 4 1.33% 300 4.00% 7 2.33% 300 0 0.00% 300 7 2.33% 200 9 4.50% 1 207 10 4.83% 1 1 217 7 3.23% 1 217 1 0.46% 217 7 3.23% 217 3.00% 8 3.69% 1 217 6 2.76% 217 4 1.84% 217 3 1.38% 217 2 0.92% 217 217 2 0.92% 1 1 272 11.30% 45 16.54% 338 338 6 1.78% 88 4 4.55% 0 0 132 44.45% 74 56.06% Page 48 Election Results and Platforms 218 18 20 9.17% 218 2.4 30 13.76% 218 21.2 36 16.51% 260 51 19.62% 260 100 38.46% 446 446 446 63 0 0.00% 63 2 3.17% 2 2 63 9.15% 2 3.17% 63 8.20% 2 3.17% Page 49 Election Results and Platforms 141 12 0 0.00% 214 450 2 1 450 11.80% 48 10.67% 450 8.60% 24 5.33% 400 450 7.16% 0 0.00% 2 1 450 16.88% 62 13.78% 550 21.33% 158 28.73% 2 2 550 15.48% 111 20.18% 2 2 550 34.17% 361 65.64% 2 1 550 2.49% 0 0.00% 2 2 550 46.52% 341 62.00% 2 1 550 2.34% 0 0.00% 150 2 2 301 62 20.60% 2 0 301 63 20.93% 301 22.55% 46 15.28% 128 32 25.00% Page 50 Election Results and Platforms totalvotes turnout registeredvoters notes Source for confirmation ipu.org 1,547,000 ipu.org 6,078,250 12,977,336 49.37% Katzman 2005 http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/67158.pdf no 4,265,347 ipu.org 2,500,000 2,500,000 98.92% ipu.org 2,500,000 2,500,000 100.00% ipu.org 2,500,000 2,500,000 89.08% ipu.org 2,500,000 2,500,000 72.56% ipu.org 1,323,900 2,500,000 52.96% ipu.org 49.23% ipu.org 3084946 50.77 ipu.org wiki 1991 election missing from ipu.org wiki 1991 election missing from ipu.org wiki 1991 election missing from ipu.org 10,496,352 16,767,309 65.60% ipu.org FIS banned. number of seats excludes 8 reserved for oversea 10,496,352 16,767,309 65.60% ipu.org FIS banned. number of seats excludes 8 reserved for oversea 7,420,867 17,951,127 46.17% ipu.org 7,420,867 17,951,127 46.17% ipu.org chronicle calls these moderate islamist parties. Effective vote 7,420,867 17,951,127 46.17% ipu.org chronicle calls these moderate islamist parties. Effective vote 7,420,867 17,951,127 46.17% ipu.org 5,700,632 18,760,400 35.51% wiki 17th may 5,700,632 18,760,400 35.51% 3,556,277 4,132,800 86.05% ipu.org 2,883,819 4,241,550 68.00% ipu.org 1,891,977 4,675,572 40.47% ipu.org 19,456 24,883 78.40% ipu.org no parties allowed. dissolved after 2 years. 30 elective seats 650,000 53.00% ipu.org Boycott by opposition shi'a parties b/c king's 40 member app 295,686 72.00% Wiki & ipu.orgsalafist – allied with al menbar. One seat was won by a slafist 295,686 72.00% 295,686 72.00% Wiki & ipu.orgsunni – affiliated with Muslim Brotherhood 295,686 72.00% Wiki & ipu.orgshia. won every seat it contested Page 51 Election Results and Platforms 318,668 67.00% Sameer Khalfan on Gulf/2000, http://www.electionguide.org/election.php 318,668 boycott 67.00% Sameer Khalfan and http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511 318,668 67.00% Sameer Khalfan and http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511 318,668 67.00% Sameer Khalfan and http://www.electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511 18,851,808 35,205,642 57% ipu.org 15,200,000 38,000,000 40.00% ipu.org Moslem League headed a two party coalition with IDL-R that 47,880,000 48,000,000 ipu.org Boycott by Jamaat-i-Islami along with two other leading oppo 269,434 62,289,556 52.00% Kabir 2006 32,390,569 62,289,556 52.00% ipu.org Chronicle unclear as to what it means by voters (I entered as 461,517 56,000,000 74.00% Kabir 2006 41,440,000 56,000,000 74.00% feb and june elections in 1996 74,660,443 75.00% Kabir 2006 55,905,518 74,660,443 75.00% 81,058,698 86.29% ipu.org 81,058,698 86.29% ipu.org 2,396,000 2,900,000 82.62% ipu.org 2,750,000 70% ipu.org 1,597,805 2,508,349 64% ipu.org 1,228,923 2,343,075 55.44% ipu.org 2,755,207 54.80% ipu.org 3,132,231 56.49% ipu.org ipu.org 1112883 2,395,226 48.70% ipu.org 1,161,824 2,887,550 40.24% ipu.org 1,215,419 3,564,510 35.24% ipu.org 2,111,978 4,985,352 44.53% ipu.org 1724064 2913219 64.00% ipu.org 2233228 4466354 56.43% ipu.org 1,583,422 1,664,848 95.10% ipu.org 3,000,000 56.00% ipu.org 3,200,000 48.50% ipu.org 2185646 4171169 52.40% ipu.org 200939 263317 76.30% ipu.org non-party elections ipu.org non-party elections. Ipu.org has no results 340,000 65% ipu.org only one political party ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org 20.00% ipu.org Page 52 Election Results and Platforms 225,000 65.00% ipu.org ipu: "Officials said more than 65 per cent of the 225 000 regi 79,380 85,995 92.30% ipu.org only one political party 89,475 100,881 88.69% ipu.org only one political party 71,827 151,066 48.44% ipu.org 165,942 56.82% ipu.org 178,799 48.00% ipu.org 151,490 72.61% ipu.org 9,564,482 39.77% ipu.org single party elections 11,000,000 ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org 5,146,565 12,339,418 43.10% ipu describes new wafd as 'centre-right' ipu.org and Library of Congress Country Study on Egypt: http://lcweb2.loc.g 6,824,908 14,324,162 50.45% ipu.org & LoC Alliance with the Socialist Labour Party and Socialist Liberal P 6,902,982 16,326,229 44.42% ipu.org 57 independents elected. Al Wafd, Socialist Liberal and Socia 9,812,942 20,987,453 47.99% ipu.org MB contested 150 constituencies. 112 independents won sea 24,602,241 25% ipu.org excluding 10 presidential appontments and 2 undecided seat 8,488,358 31,253,417 28.13% ipu.org 12 seats remained undecided due to security concerns – I've ipu.org 7,300,000 ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org 15,700,000 83.35% ipu.org single party marxist state ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org 20252000 90.00% ipu.org 27372888 82.60% ipu.org 136,521 76.10% ipu.org 216,234 81.90% ipu.org 166,102 ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org or ifes 80.20% ipu.org 400,000 55.80% ipu.org 444,061 69.32% ipu.org 167817 56.38% ipu.org Opposition boycott, 33 uncontested seats not included in tur 628160 41.70% IFES 5 unopposed seats not included in turnout figures. Ipu states ipu.org single party elections, no turnout data on ipu.org 2,436,487 99.80% ipu.org single party elections 2,506,298 95.69% ipu.org single party elections 3,049,262 61.91% ipu.org multiparty elections. ipu describes "generally satisfactory con 4458831 71.61% ipu.org 169,940 ipu.org single party elections 214,400 223,592 95.89% ipu.org single party elections. Turnout calculated from votes for the 396,938 45.00% ipu.org 503,007 80.00% idea.int 605018 74.37% ipu.org 593739 82.00% 54,699,509 58,179,245 94.00% 54,699,509 58,179,245 94.00% ipu.org Page 53 Election Results and Platforms 54,699,509 58,179,245 94.00% 54,699,509 58,179,245 94.00% ipu.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_legislative_election,_1971 54,699,509 58,179,245 94.00% ipu.org 63,998,344 70,662,155 90.56% ipu.org 100 appointed members excluded 74,930,875 82,132,263 91.23% ipu.org 96 appointed members excluded 94,000,000 93% ipu.org 100 appointed members excluded. Approximate voter figure 97,789,534 105,565,697 91% ipu.org 100 appointed members excluded 110,938,069 124,740,987 89% ipu.org 75 appointed members excluded from totals. Megawati barr 106,586,630 118,217,393 93% ipu.org 106,586,630 118,217,393 93% ipu.org 106,586,630 118,217,393 93% ipu.org 106,586,630 118,217,393 93% ipu.org Gus Dur, secular govt, moderate 106,586,630 118,217,393 93% ipu.org 106,586,630 118,217,393 93% ipu.org 113,658,386 148,000,373 84% ipu.org 113,658,384 148,000,370 84% ipu.org 113,658,384 148,000,371 84% ipu.org 113,658,385 148,000,372 84% ipu.org 113,658,387 148,000,374 84% ipu.org 113,658,383 148,000,369 84% ipu.org silence of 5 main islamist parties on Islamic law during runup 6254580 171265442 70.99 ipu.org IPU: Some Islamic parties - such as the PKS, the PAN and the 1264333 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 1864752 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 8206955 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 5146122 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 1527593 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 414750 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 146779 171265442 70.99 ipu.org 5533215 171265442 70.99 ipu.org Page 54 Election Results and Platforms 12,191,133 15,568,702 80% ipu.org ipu.org has number of candidates fielded by party 12,191,133 15,568,702 80% ipu.org 12,191,133 15,568,702 80% ipu.org 18,900,000 62% ipu.org 18,900,000 62% ipu.org 18,900,000 62% ipu.org 18,900,000 62% Part of Iraqi National Alliance ipu.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadrist_Movement 877,475 63.00% ipu.org MB won 20 seats, 12-14 seats to independent Islamic candid 804,000 1,501,229 54.68% ipu.org 36 IAF candidates ran – CEIP report 2006 1,480,000 47.45% ipu.org Islamist opposition boycott, “protesting the one-person, one 1,342,999 2,325,496 57.75% ipu.org Political arm of the MB. 6 seats reserved for women. no wom 54.00% IAF fielded 22 candidates IAF Boycott 73.52% ipu.org 8,860,897 80.73% ipu.org 8,411,757 63.00% ipu.org 53.00% ipu.org IPU: "Almost nine of Kazakhstan's 15 million population were 8,891,561 68.41% ipu.org 2,505,763 60.50% ipu.org turnout was 64% in first round, 57% in second round 58.00% ipu.org candidates as independents. turnout was 57% in first round, 1650698 71.93% ipu.org 2,852,751 56.59% ipu.org 40,649 ipu.org no turnout data on ipu.org 30,863 52,994 58.20% ipu.org 41,698 90.00% ipu.org, Layne voter turnout is approximate. IPU: “shia muslims achieved lim 41,698 90.00% ipu.org 56,745 84.58% Brown, ipu.org 47,745 56,745 84.58% ipu.org 47,745 56,745 Brown 84.58% ipu.org, Layne,“Islamic fundamentalist candidates suffered somewhat of a s 62.00% ipu.org opposition boycott, turnout figure claimed by govt. NB: elect 81,440 Tetrault 85.00% Tetrault (199x), ipu.orghas 7 of the independent candidates cross-listed wit 81,440 Tetrault 85.00% Tetrault (199x), ipu.orghas 7 of the independent candidates cross-listed wit 107,000 80.00% ipu.org 107,000 80.00% ipu.org 107,000 80.00% ipu.org 107,000 80.00% ipu.org IPU describes this group as including "Shi'ite, Sunni, Muslim f 112,883 83.00% Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of Democracy 112,883 83.00% Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database. ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of DemocracyTurnout from Journ Page 55 Election Results and Platforms 112,883 Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database 83.00% ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of Democracy 112,883 IPU describes this group as "Islamist", giving 83.00% ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database, Journal of Democracy them 20 seats. S 136,000 Brown 2008 Brown states that HADAS won 2 seats itself, though it effecti 136,000 Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database 136,000 Seat total from Kuwait Politics Database. Abdullah Akash is in ipu.org, Kuwait Politics Database 136,000 ipu.org no details on ipu of how to apportion the 21 Islamists among 340,248 91.92% ipu.org, Brown 2008, Kuwait Politics Database 340,248 91.92% Kuwait Politics Database 340,248 91.92% Kuwait Politics Database 310,879 340,248 2008 91.92% ipu.org, Brownobservers estimated turnout at 65%. IPU gives 21 seats to th 214,886 361,684 el 2008 59.41% ipu.org, el Najjar Najjar's figures are used over IPU's per advice of Michael H 214,886 361,684 el 2008 59.41% ipu.org, el Najjar Najjar's figures are used over IPU's per advice of Michael H 361,684 el 2008 59.41% ipu.org, el Najjar Najjar's figures are used over IPU's per advice of Michael H 384790 59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database 384790 59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database 384790 59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database 384790 calculated as a residual from the 11 seats allocated to Sunni I 59 ipu.org, Kuwait political database 57.80% ipu.org 1,321,346 no 1994 available ipu.org. El Khazen's turnout data taken fr 52.50% ipu.org, El Khazenturnout data onat: http://ddc.aub.edu.lb/projects/pspa/e 1,822,890 24.48% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362 1,822,890 (this article also mentions how Hizbullah deliberately left som 24.48% ipu.org and http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/stable/pdfplus/3992 1,822,890 24.48% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362 1,137,040 2,577,257 44.11% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362 1,137,040 2,577,257 44.11% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362 1,137,040 2,577,257 44.11% ipu.org and http://www.meforum.org/article/362 2,700,000 51.00% ipu.org 1,380,369 3,002,028 46.47% ipu.org 3000000 50 ipu, wiki ipu.org no direct elections West Malaysia only - Polling suspended in East Malaysia afte 72.80% Drummond and Hawkins 1970 PAS Noor 2004, ipu.orgexpelled from National Front in 1977, held 9 seats at diss 3,473,430 5,059,689 68.65% ipu.org PAS put up 88 candidates. voters cast no ballots in 9 constitu 4,165,697 6,081,628 75.40% ipu.org 4,625,272 6,791,446 74.39% ipu.org PAS put up 98 candidates. Hizbul Muslim is part of UMNO co 8,000,000 70.00% ipu.org approximate turnout figure. PAS fielded 30 candidates Page 56 Election Results and Platforms 9,012,370 71.81% ipu.org 9,700,000 71.00% (2000) ipu.org, Weiss Alternative front: Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS), People's Ju 7,104,597 73.92% Alternative front: ipu, Moten and Mokhtar (2006) Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS), People's Ju 10,922,139 72.74% ipu.org, IFES 90,084 68.68% ipu.org political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group 109,072 ipu.org political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group 128000 77.40% ipu.org political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group 157027 71.29% ipu.org political parties are banned, but there is an islamist group 1487 209000 78.87% ipu.org, wiki First elections since political parties were legalized 214 209000 78.87% ipu.org, wiki First elections since political parties were legalized 3,283,985 97.00% ipu.org single party elections 3,591,716 96.14% ipu.org single party elections ipu.org single party elections, no turnout data on ipu.org 3,701,006 97.80% ipu.org single party elections 4,780,416 21.09% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties 5,254,299 21.57% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties 30.17% Center (http://www.cartercenter.org/news/documents/doc ipu.org, Carterconstitutional ban on religious parties 6267363 32.19% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties 534,994 95.60% single party state 1961-78 http://africanelections.tripod.com/mr.html no turnout data. http://africanelections.tripod.com/mr.html 1,174,087 38.90% http://africanelections.tripod.com/mr.html ipu.org Islamist parties not allowed by regime - Party of Democratic 1028630 54.00% ipu.org Islamist parties not allowed by regime - Party of Democratic 1073287 73.42% ipu.org Islamist parties not allowed by regime - Party of Democratic 6,222,218 7,153,211 62.75% ipu.org ipu identifies no Islamists. Also no Islamists in 1984, 1977, an 6,371,630 12,790,631 58.30% ipu.org put up 140 candidates. IPU calls them “moderate” 5,936,370 13,884,467 51.61% ipu.org 55 of 91 consituencies contested – Ben-Layashi from MERIA 15,510,505 37.00% PJD runs in all constituencies according to Ben-Layashi from M 1,924,977 96.80% ipu.org single party elections 3,508,274 95.00% ipu.org single party elections 4,000,000 56.00% ipu.org approximate turnout 4,376,031 34.90% ipu.org 39.17% ipu.org 4587684 30.00% The Polity IV country report for Niger describes ipu.org, http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/Niger2007.pdf a low turnou 5278598 44.67% ipu.org 6059961 51.27% ipu.org 48,000,000 32.00% African elections database puts turnout ipu.org, http://africanelections.tripod.com/ng.html at approximately 72% 25,400,000 65,300,000 38.90% ipu.org 25.00% ipu.org only 2 parties allowed 57938945 41.00% ipu.org only 2 parties allowed 60823022 50.00% ipu.org Page 57 Election Results and Platforms 58.33% ipu.org IPU has no official turnout data, but does cite the Nigerian El ipu.org restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics ipu.org restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics ipu.org restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics ipu.org restricted suffrage for consultative council - no ipu statistics 262,000 74.00% universal suffrage for consultative council - but no ipu ipu.org, http://www.pogar.org/countries/theme.asp?cid=13&th=3 statist 338,683 62.70% ipu.org universal suffrage for consultative council 56,941,500 63.00% Nasr (1995) 56,941,500 63.00% Nasr (1995) 56,941,500 63.00% Nasr (1995) 56,941,500 63.00% Nasr (1995) 17,000,000 31,000,000 elections in march, martial law in July. Nasr states that the Ja 54.84% ipu.org, Nasr (1995) 52.93% non-party elections ipu.org, Khan (2004), Nasr (1995) under zia. ipu says Islamists lost out. Kha 19,598,609 46,194,417 43.00% ipu.org Jamaat given 26 seats to contest, winning 7 19,598,609 46,194,417 43.00% ipu.org, Khan (2004) 19,598,609 46,194,417 43.00% ipu.org, Khan (2004) 21,163,911 47,065,330 44.97% 8 seats ipu.org, Khan (2004) for Jamaat itselfout of 18 seats given to contest by IJI 21,163,911 47,065,330 44.97% ipu.org, Khan (2004) 55,000,000 41.00% ipu.org voter turnout is approximate. Khan (2004) gives 40.5% 55,000,000 41.00% ipu.org voter turnout is approximate. Khan (2004) gives 40.5% 55,000,000 41.00% ipu.org voter turnout is approximate. Khan (2004) gives 40.5% 19,361,917 55,068,024 35.42% boycott 19,361,917 55,068,024 35.42% 207 muslim ipu, wiki, elections.com.pk seats and 10 non-muslim seats directly elected. 2 72,000,000 42.00% excluding 60 seats of Pakistan ipu.org and Election Commission reserved for women, 10 for minorities. Re 80,910,318 44.00% ipu.org boycott 80,910,318 44.00% ipu.org IPU mistakenly lists the MMA as running. Only the JUI(F) ran, 715,966 1,028,280 71.66% http://www.elections.ps/template.aspx?id=54 Central Elections Commission Palestin 1,011,992 1,332,396 74.64% www.elections.ps 654685 91.27% ipu.org 817253 88.78% ipu.org ipu.org No electoral system. Parties are banned. ipu.org consultative council appointed by king 1,306,791 93.00% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 1,327,572 ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. No turnout data on ip 1,566,250 62.24% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 1,928,257 56.00% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 1,932,265 57.87% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 2,650,000 40.74% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 3,164,827 39.20% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 2808253 67.00% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. 5004096 34.75% ipu.org constitutional ban on religious parties. ipu.org No turnout data on ipu Page 58 Election Results and Platforms 686,810 ipu.org No turnout data on ipu ipu.org No turnout data on ipu 2,000,000 ipu.org only one official party. No turnout data on ipu.org 1,500,000 50.06% ipu.org 2342547 83.00% ipu.org 1984106 75.80% ipu.org 879,554 ipu.org dominated by ruling socialist party. no turnout data on ipu 3,985,838 ipu.org dominated by ruling socialist party. no turnout data on ipu 4,220,466 99.86% ipu.org dominated by ruling socialist party ipu.org selection by clans 1,825,510 3,049,813 59.86% ipu.org 1,825,510 3,049,813 59.86% ipu.org 1,825,510 3,049,813 59.86% ipu.org ipu.org Only one legal party. no turnout data on ipu.org ipu.org Only one legal party. no turnout data on ipu.org ipu.org Only one legal party. no turnout data on ipu.org 6,000,000 ipu.org No turnout data on ipu 6,000,000 ipu.org No turnout data on ipu 5,525,280 10,000,000 55.25% ipu.org parties banned 12000000 ipu.org No turnout data on ipu ipu.org appointment, not election 323 ipu.org 1 ipu.org 4 ipu.org 3,300,000 ipu.org Boycott ipu.org no opposition. No turnout data on ipu ipu.org no opposition. No turnout data on ipu ipu.org no opposition. No turnout data on ipu 3,264,616 6,576,907 49.64% ipu.org no opposition 3,693,656 6,037,885 61.17% ipu.org no opposition 5,501,940 6,691,323 82.20% ipu.org no opposition 4556475 7181206 63.00% ipu.org no opposition 7805994 56.00% ipu.org no opposition 2,684,000 84.00% ipu.org Opposition (including Islamist) boycott 2,622,533 2,873,145 93.73% ipu.org 2,831,724 3,134,666 92.59% ipu.org Opposition parties protested election irregularities, calling fo 3,621,174 90.84% ipu.org ipu.org One party state until 1992. no turnout data on ipu.org 5,577,569 81.71% ipu.org One party state until 1992. 6,604,408 84.70% ipu.org One party state until 1992. ipu.org One party state until 1992. no turnout data on ipu.org ipu.org One party state until 1992. no turnout data on ipu.org ipu.org Ban on religious organizations in politics. No turnout data on 10880484 ipu.org Ban on religious organizations in politics. No turnout data on Page 59 Election Results and Platforms 15705223 72.52% ipu.org Ban on religious organizations in politics 1,443,347 94.70% ipu.org No opposition allowed prior to 1987 1,623,743 96.80% ipu.org No opposition allowed prior to 1987 1,800,144 81.40% ipu.org No opposition allowed prior to 1987 2,321,031 84.50% ipu.org No opposition allowed prior to 1987 2,622,482 82.94% ipu.org No opposition allowed prior to 1987 2,711,925 76.46% ipu.org Opposition parties and independents linked to an-Nahda run 2,976,366 95.47% ipu.org Ennahda banned in 1992, religious parties not allowed 3387542 92.00% ipu.org Ennahda banned in 1992, religious parties not allowed 4609237 91.45% ipu.org Ennahda banned in 1992, religious parties not allowed 4974707 89.4 ipu.org 14,788,552 64.30% ipu.org 10,723,658 16,798,164 66.80% ipu.org national salvation party founded 1972 – no prior Islamic orie 14,785,814 21,000,000 70.41% ipu.org approximate electorate 17,328,735 19,740,500 92.20% ipu.org coup in 1980 23,971,679 26,376,926 93.27% ipu.org 24,416,700 29,979,123 83.90% ipu.org 28,040,392 34,068,304 85.16% ipu.org 31,051,199 37,506,817 87.00% ipu.org 30,650,285 41,452,823 76.94% ipu.org NB electoral laws restricting parties in parliament to those w 30,650,285 41,452,823 76.94% www.belgenet.net, ipu.org 34,822,907 42,571,284 84.26% ipu.org 34,822,907 42,571,284 84.26% www.belgenet.net, ipu.org 2,013,423 99.77% ipu.org 2200000 98.90% ipu.org 1915000 76.88% ipu.org 2763993 30 ipu.org govt claims 93.87% turnout, opposition parties say closer to 3 ipu.org No Political parties. electorate of 0.8% of population selected 94.00% ipu.org Islamist groups banned by regime 12703488 93.00% ipu.org Islamist groups banned by regime 14332736 85.10% ipu.org Islamist groups banned by regime 17215700 87.8 ipu.org 2,700,000 90.00% ipu.org approximate electorate and voter figures 2,827,261 4,637,728 60.96% ipu.org 5,912,394 8,035,721 75.98% ipu.org 1,113,000 ipu.org IPU says one fourth of seats won by candidates “sympathetic Page 60 Election Results and Platforms nts/organization/67158.pdf no parties - independents only. Ipu.org for turnout excludes 8 reserved for overseas algerians excludes 8 reserved for overseas algerians e islamist parties. Effective votes are less than the number of voters (from turnout) e islamist parties. Effective votes are less than the number of voters (from turnout) after 2 years. 30 elective seats – 14 appointed arties b/c king's 40 member appointed shura council has equal legislative rights. 98.4% support for consitutional changes in referendum. U r. One seat was won by a slafist independent Brotherhood Page 61 Election Results and Platforms electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1511, ipu.org ide.org/election.php?ID=1511 ide.org/election.php?ID=1511 o party coalition with IDL-R that was “extreme rightist”. Electorate figures are labelled “approximate.” Note that 30 additional womens se ong with two other leading opposition groups. t means by voters (I entered as registered voters). Jamaat pledged support to BNP, which was 5 seats short of a majority Page 62 Election Results and Platforms 65 per cent of the 225 000 registered voters went to the polls" our Party and Socialist Liberal Party. LoC suggests turnout closer to 25% Wafd, Socialist Liberal and Socialist labor parties boycotted the poll, though many members ran as independent. IPU doesn't mention MB cies. 112 independents won seats, 99 of them joined the ruling NDP. Assuming MB candidates didn't, that leaves a max of 13 ontments and 2 undecided seats for alexandria. arrests of mb and violence by police. Ipu.org has no turnout data (nor IFES). Turnout figur due to security concerns – I've excluded them from the total number. MB officially banned, but allowed to back independents. They cam tested seats not included in turnout ed in turnout figures. Ipu states turnout as approximately 38% out data on ipu.org ribes "generally satisfactory conditions" for polling, despite boycott of one of the opposition groups. t calculated from votes for the single political party (PAIGC) divided by registered electors. Actual turnout may have been higher due to sp Page 63 Election Results and Platforms esian_legislative_election,_1971 uded. Approximate voter figures ded from totals. Megawati barred from running ies on Islamic law during runup to elections. Error in ipu voting numbers ch as the PKS, the PAN and the PKB - adopted more moderate positions to attract voters. However, that strategy reportedly caused intern Page 64 Election Results and Platforms ates fielded by party to independent Islamic candidates allied to MB. Although parties were banned, MB could nominate candidates due to legal status as a ch protesting the one-person, one-vote formula.” These 12 seats won by IAF candidates (as independents) and their leftist allies. principle slo ts reserved for women. no women won, so a special commission appointed them. Islamists contested 30 seats an's 15 million population were eligible to elect deputies and more than 53 per cent cast votes." OSCE recorded improved voting conditio d, 57% in second round urnout was 57% in first round, 59% in second round IPU: “shia muslims achieved limited results”. The Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait also go by the name of "Islamic Society for Social Reform dates suffered somewhat of a setback” - no figures in ipu gure claimed by govt. NB: election in June, Iraqi invasion in August dent candidates cross-listed with both Hadas and the Salafis, which we have split evenly between the two parties to determine the seats w dent candidates cross-listed with both Hadas and the Salafis, which we have split evenly between the two parties to determine the seats w cluding "Shi'ite, Sunni, Muslim fundamentalists, Islamic Deputies" s Database. Turnout from Journal of Democracy Election Watch no. 4 1999, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/election Page 65 Election Results and Platforms lamist", giving them 20 seats. Seats allocated to other Islamists are subtracted from this number n 2 seats itself, though it effectively controlled 2 more through close allies. s Database. Abdullah Akash is included in the Tajammu number per the recommendation of Michael Herb. portion the 21 Islamists among the different parties.Approximate voter figures. at 65%. IPU gives 21 seats to the Islamist bloc, from which 6 are subtracted for the Islamic constitutional Movement (per Brown 2008, ma er IPU's per advice of Michael Herb er IPU's per advice of Michael Herb er IPU's per advice of Michael Herb the 11 seats allocated to Sunni Islamists by the IPU Khazen's turnout data taken from lliya Harik, 'Mann Yahkurn Lubnan' (Beirut: Dar al-Nahar lil-Nashr, 1972) w Hizbullah deliberately left some seats open in order to broker alliances with other parties) uspended in East Malaysia after May 13 race riots. PAS contested 61 seats. ont in 1977, held 9 seats at dissolution of parliament in 1978. The number of seats won is the PAS component of the National Front. ers cast no ballots in 9 constituencies where candidates ran unopposed bul Muslim is part of UMNO coalition, won 1 seat AS fielded 30 candidates Page 66 Election Results and Platforms y of Malaysia (PAS), People's Justice Party (PKR),and Democratic Action Party (DAP). PAS got 27 seats. Majority in Kelantan and Trangganu y of Malaysia (PAS), People's Justice Party (PKR). PAS got 6 seats ut there is an islamist group ut there is an islamist group ut there is an islamist group ut there is an islamist group arties were legalized arties were legalized out data on ipu.org y regime - Party of Democratic Convergence not allowed. No turnout data on ipu.org y regime - Party of Democratic Convergence not allowed y regime - Party of Democratic Convergence not allowed o no Islamists in 1984, 1977, and 1970. The proto-PJD was denied participation. lls them “moderate” ted – Ben-Layashi from MERIA 2007 according to Ben-Layashi from MERIA 2007 or Niger describes a low turnout of less than 30% ts turnout at approximately 72% Page 67 Election Results and Platforms ta, but does cite the Nigerian Election Commission as claiming that over 35 million of 60 million eligible voters cast their votes ative council - no ipu statistics ative council - no ipu statistics ative council - no ipu statistics ative council - no ipu statistics ative council - but no ipu statistics. UN POGAR: "Out of 800,000 Omanis eligible to vote, 262,000 registered to vote, and 74% of those, or 1 w in July. Nasr states that the Jamaat won 9 of the PNA's 36 seats. This election was widely thought to have been rigged. ipu says Islamists lost out. Khan notes that the Jamaat-e-Islami was the only party allowed to participate as a political organization in the est, winning 7 18 seats given to contest by IJI, 3% of vote Khan (2004) gives 40.5% Khan (2004) gives 40.5% Khan (2004) gives 40.5% muslim seats directly elected. 20 women's seats indirectly electedelections.com.pk is produced by 2 pakistani websites covering elections or women, 10 for minorities. Restrictions on Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, violence during elections, restrictions on rallies. EU observer as running. Only the JUI(F) ran, the JI boycotted the election over the judges issue and Musharraf's reelection as president plate.aspx?id=54 s parties. No turnout data on ipu Page 68 Election Results and Platforms nout data on ipu.org party. no turnout data on ipu party. no turnout data on ipu out data on ipu.org out data on ipu.org out data on ipu.org election irregularities, calling for elections to be invalidated. OSCE challenged turnout percentage o turnout data on ipu.org o turnout data on ipu.org o turnout data on ipu.org s in politics. No turnout data on ipu.org s in politics. No turnout data on ipu.org Page 69 Election Results and Platforms endents linked to an-Nahda run but win no seats; source for percent of votes: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/democracy/1994_hrp_report gious parties not allowed gious parties not allowed gious parties not allowed ded 1972 – no prior Islamic oriented groups? arties in parliament to those with >9% of vote pposition parties say closer to 30% http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insightb/articles/eav121508b.shtml e of 0.8% of population selected by rulers won by candidates “sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood” Page 70 Election Results and Platforms nsitutional changes in referendum. Unknown coherence among candidates Page 71 Election Results and Platforms ” Note that 30 additional womens seats are elected by the parliament – not directly. s short of a majority Page 72 Election Results and Platforms ependent. IPU doesn't mention MB (journalistic sources on net mention boycott) that leaves a max of 13 urnout data (nor IFES). Turnout figure from IDEA ("Building Democracy in Egypt" 2003) and Blaydes (2006) wed to back independents. They campaigned under the slogan “Islam is the answer.” govt cracked down on MB in 3 rd round after initial st nout may have been higher due to spoiled or blank ballots. Page 73 Election Results and Platforms hat strategy reportedly caused internal divisions among the PKS. Other Islamic parties which had won seats in the 2004 elections - the PPP Page 74 Election Results and Platforms candidates due to legal status as a charity ts) and their leftist allies. principle slogan: “Islam is the solution” E recorded improved voting conditions, but still falling short of international standards. e of "Islamic Society for Social Reform" two parties to determine the seats won by each party. Approximate turnout figure from ipu.org. two parties to determine the seats won by each party. Approximate turnout figure from ipu.org. rnals/journal_of_democracy/election_watch/v010/index.html Page 75 Election Results and Platforms nal Movement (per Brown 2008, matches Kuwait Politcs Database) and two each for the two Salafi movements. mponent of the National Front. Page 76 Election Results and Platforms . Majority in Kelantan and Trangganu Page 77 Election Results and Platforms le voters cast their votes stered to vote, and 74% of those, or 194,000, actually voted." o have been rigged. pate as a political organization in the elections. pakistani websites covering elections (pakcyber.com and paktribune, an internet daily) ns, restrictions on rallies. EU observers called them “seriously flawed” b/c of access to state resources (media) and Musharraf's expanded p eelection as president Page 78 Election Results and Platforms Page 79 Election Results and Platforms u/ERC/democracy/1994_hrp_report/94hrp_report_nea/Tunisia.html Page 80 Election Results and Platforms Page 81 Election Results and Platforms Page 82 Election Results and Platforms wn on MB in 3 rd round after initial strong showing Page 83 Election Results and Platforms n seats in the 2004 elections - the PPP and Crescent Moon and Star Party (PBB, 11 seats) - were reportedly losing ground. PDI-P leader Me Page 84 Election Results and Platforms Page 85 Election Results and Platforms Page 86 Election Results and Platforms Page 87 Election Results and Platforms (media) and Musharraf's expanded powers. Commonwealth accepted vote as credible, but not the campaign. HRCP denounced “electora Page 88 Election Results and Platforms Page 89 Election Results and Platforms Page 90 Election Results and Platforms Page 91 Election Results and Platforms Page 92 Election Results and Platforms Page 93 Election Results and Platforms tedly losing ground. PDI-P leader Megawati held talks with the PPP while the PD engaged with the PKB. Pre-election polls indicated that o Page 94 Election Results and Platforms Page 95 Election Results and Platforms Page 96 Election Results and Platforms Page 97 Election Results and Platforms 5/8/07 4:25pmStatistical Data for 2002 election at ecp.gov.pk/content/Stat.html ampaign. HRCP denounced “electoral malpractice” Page 98 Election Results and Platforms Page 99 Election Results and Platforms Page 100 Election Results and Platforms Page 101 Election Results and Platforms Page 102 Election Results and Platforms Page 103 Election Results and Platforms KB. Pre-election polls indicated that only the PD would secure over 25 per cent of the votes nationwide. Page 104 Election Results and Platforms Page 105 Election Results and Platforms Page 106 Election Results and Platforms Page 107 Election Results and Platforms t ecp.gov.pk/content/Stat.html Page 108 1.Does the party call for a violent revolution against the state? l 0 = No (including non-mention) l 1 = Yes 2.Does the party support democracy? Do they define democracy? l -1 = Opposition to democracy l 0 = No mention of democracy l 1 = Secular democracy. Statement of support for democracy and a secular polity. l 2 = Islamic democracy. Statement of support for democracy with explicit reference to Islamic principles ( 3.Does the party require the implementation of the shari'a? What is their definition of the shari'a? Who will adjudica l 3a. Implementation of the shari'a 0 = No (including non-mention) 1 = Yes l 3b. Definition/ view of the implementation of the shari'a 0 = No details 1 = Weak form. No law which goes against the sharia, or some other statement which acknowledges th 2 = Strong form. Quran and Sunnah as the only source of law l 3c. Adjudication 0 = No mention 1 = Consensus, discussion and collective decision making 2 = Other. Singular authority such as a grand mufti or commission 4.What are the top three issues in the party platform? l A series of dummy variables capturing which categories are present in the top 3 issues state in a platform 5.Where does the party stand on women's rights and the implementation of Islamic family law? l 0 = No mention l 1 = Full legal equality for women l 2 = A distinct women's role in family and society 6.How does the party propose to treat minorities? l 0 = No mention l 1 = Full legal equality for minorities l 2 = “separate but equal” style of inclusion with reference to some Islamic criteria 7.Does the party platform propose any welfare programs such as pensions, poverty relief, and medical care for those l 0 = None l 1 = Limited set of programs which are not central. l 2 = Extensive set of programs which are important to the platform. 8.Is jihad mentioned? In what context? How is jihad defined? l If Jihad is mentioned at all 0 = No 1 = Yes l Context in which it is used 0 = non-violent usage 1 = self-defense only 2 = with reference to a specific circumstance, such as in Palestine or the historic struggle against colon 3 = combating external enemies more generally 9.What is the party's position on the Israel/ Palestine conflict? l 0 = not mentioned l 1 = general support for Muslim freedom movements l 2 = explicit support for Palestinian independence 10.Does the party mention an anti-corruption stance in its platform? l 0 = No l 1 = Yes, but only briefly. l 2 = Yes, it is important to the platform. 11.Does the party platform propose banning interest based banking? l 0 = No l 1 = No, but Islamic banking is supported. l 2 = Yes. 12.Is the party platform accepting of a free market economy? l 0 = not mentioned l 1 = price controls and active government role in distribution l 2 = support for market based competition as organizing principle of economic activity 13.Is the party platform encouraging towards foreign investment? l 0 = not mentioned l 1 = Opposes foreign investment, proposing some measure of autarkic self-reliance. l 2 = Engaging in global economy nce to Islamic principles (e.g. shura) in agreement with democratic state structures. hari'a? Who will adjudicated disputes over the meaning of the shari'a? ent which acknowledges the Sharia as a guiding framework for legislation. issues state in a platform nd medical care for those in need? oric struggle against colonial powers 1. Does the party call for a violent 2. Does the party revolution support democracy? No. of against the Do they define Country Year Party Pages state? democracy? Democracy is not mentioned. Shura appears in reference to getting rid of despotism through eradicating the political and economic monopoly. (p. 95) Running industrial institutions through an Islamic approach of shura, mutual respect and responsibility. (p. Algeria 101) 1991 al-Jabha al-Islamiyya li'l-Inqadh (Islamic Salvation Front) No. A combination between democracy and shura, what they called "shura- democracy" principle Algeria 1991 Harakat al-Mujtama‘ al-IslamiNo. (Hamas) (p. 124) Not mentioned. "shura should be considered as the way and the system of Algeria 1991 Harakat al-Nahda al-IslamiyyaNo. governance. (p. 142) (Islamic Renaissance Movement) Setting up a political democratic system based on pluralism Algeria and freedom. 2007 Harakat al-Islah al-Watani (Movement for National Reform) (p. 1, 9) of power and recognizing the majo No. Acknowledging peaceful transition Yes. "Promoting democracy" is one of the main premises of the platform (p. 2). Increased citizen participation mentioned several Algeria times. 2007 Harakat Mujtama' al-Salim (Movement for "Peaceful change" (p. Hamas) No: slogan is the Society of Peace, 1) "Jamaat-e-Islami wants to bring about a total change in government through democratic processes." (5) Every individual and party has the right to express and mobilise opinion in accordance with the principle of democracy and law." Bangladesh 1991 Jamaat-e-Islami 18 No (6) Yes: building Bangladesh as a "truly Islamic and democratic welfare state." Some details on that. Doesn't define democracy, but constitutional changes still have a competitive electoral system with guarantees of free speech and Bangladesh 1996 Jamaat-e-Islami 46 No fundamental rights. Yes: but with Quran and Sunnah as the Bangladesh 2001 Jamaat-e-Islami 19 No only source of law. Yes. Although the objective is an Islamic welfare state, "Jamaat believes that only government of the people elected through adult franchise can bring these reforms." The JI defines itself as a "a modern and democratic Islamic political party ... working to establish a liberal parliamentary Bangladesh 2008 Jamaat-e-Islami 22 No system of democracy" "the basis for the reform in Egypt is to establish a comprehensive and sound democratic ruling system. (p. 306) To establish the democracy, certain means have to be adopted: 1) Reconsideration of the There is Constitution with a nothing view to change the mentioned political system from about a violent totalitarian to a multi- revolution. party democratic Instead, "the system; 2) "the basis for the abolishment of laws reform in and anti democratic Egypt is to practices, e.g. the establish a annulment of comprehensiv Emergency laws, the e and sound revocation of bad democratic reputation laws and al-Ikhwan al- ruling system. the freedom to Muslimeen (p. 306 & see establish political (Muslim also question parties without Egypt 1987 Brotherhood) 2) getting permission Yes. The reform will not be achieved but through the application of democracy which we believe in, abide by its principles, and call other political and parties and groups to uphold to it as a national contract/pact (Ar. mithaq). The principles of this mithaq are: 1) the people is the source of No. authority, 2) State Committed to Authority alternation uphold to the through election, 3) state The freedom of belief republican and religious practice, democratic 4) the freedom of constitutional expression, 5) the al-Ikhwan al- parliamentary freedom of Muslimeen political establishing political (Muslim system. (p. parties, etc. (p. 169- Egypt 1995 Brotherhood) 169) 171). Yes: "the system of al-Ikhwan al- shura, or election of Muslimeen the head of state." (p. (Muslim 10) On political Egypt 2000 Brotherhood) pluralism (pp. 18-19). No. "We proclaim once again our refusal to employ violence, opposing, in al-Ikhwan al- Muslimeen Yes. They support the (Muslim democratic process Egypt 2005 Brotherhood) 43 No and a civil state. Yes. Democracy is defined in a section on characteristics of the party entitled "Demokrat" (pp. 34- 36). There is talk of accountability, remaining true to the law, and democracy as a principle and value that is at once political, economic and legal which provides a framework for political power, management, and the decision-making process. Later, in the party’s national agenda platform, developing democratization in terms of clean, honest, free and fair elections is included as a plank, as well as rights for a free press Indonesia 1998 Partai Keadilan (PK) No. (p. 96; 100). Universal al-Ittihad al-'Iraqi Yes. They describe a al-Muwahhad secular and (United Iraqi constitutional Iraq 2005 Alliance) 4 No democracy. The Front seeks pluralism within one united Iraq. (p. 1) It highlights in its political program the need to establish a political democratic system to help guarantee the freedom of expression and the press and the civil societies. (item #11 in the political Iraq 2005 Jabhat al-Tawafuq al-'Iraqiyya program section, p. revolution or resistance against the s No There is no mention for a violent3) Yes. "Promoting values and culture of moderation, tolerance, coexistence Iraq and human rights" 2005 Yekgirtuy Islami Kurdistan (Kurdistan Islamic Union) 3 No Not mentioned. There is the affirmation on the right of all citizens of religion and of free expressions. These rights cannot be prevented under the justifications of exceptional laws, Jama'at al-Ikhwan emergency laws. All al-Muslimin laws that contradict (Society of Muslim Not these rights are to be Jordan 1989 Brothers) mentioned abolished. (p. 3) Yes. Working for the abolishment and the amendment of some constitutional rules with a view to enhance democracy. Some of these regulations include the dissolution of the parliament only in case of dire necessity, the non-legality of bringing any one before court unless there is first a resolution from the parliament with an absolute majority, etc. (p.4) The more focus, however, was on the concept of shura, e.g. taking administrative decisions based on the shura and not on individual basis (p. 8), Jabhat al-'Amal al- working to generalize Islami (Islamic the shura Jordan 1993 Action Front - IAF) No. parliamentary Exerting efforts to create a sound environment that helps achieve the hopes of the people of freedom, shura and democracy. Acknowledging that democratic practices are defective and the lack the integrity of election process, and the unjust distribution of parliament seats, etc. (p. 1) The Ummah is the source of power/legislation. Establishing a constitutional court is Jabhat al-'Amal al- a step toward the real Islami (Islamic advancement of Jordan 2003 Action Front - IAF) No. democracy. (p. 2) Constitutional reforms are needed to enhance democracy. One of the basic constitutional reforms is to activate the principle that the ummah is the source of power/legislation. (p.1) Some of the other reform regulations include preventing the government from issuing temporary regulations, dissolution of the parliament only after No. There is a the end of its need for a constitutional term, Jabhat al-'Amal al- peaceful and the issuance of a Islami (Islamic gradual new election law. (p. Jordan 2007 Action Front - IAF) reform. (p. 1) 1) "Democracy" is not mentioned in the whole platform. However it is stated that authoritarian government has to be abolished and people should be given the right to participate in running the affairs of the country. (p. 87) A majoritarian parliamentary government should be Kuwait No. instituted. (p. 89) 1992 Al-Tajammau` al-Islami al-Sha`bi It calls for the establishment of a parliamentary government chosen b Kuwait Not mentioned. 2003 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-SalafiNo. It calls for the establishment of a modern civic society that correspon In previous years, the Movement introduced a project to organize the political sphere through a party system basis, with a view to "develop the democratic process and public engagement". (p. 5) According to the Movement, the Ummah Council should be elected according to democratic public choice. The government should be chosen on a majoritarian parliamentary basis. Kuwait 2008 Al-Harakat al-Dusturiyya al-Islamiyya (p. 8) No. It calls for respecting the constitution and denies any unconstitutiona The word "democracy" itself is not mentioned. However some democratic manifestations were apparent in the platform but used within Islamic references. EX. The platform refers to the enhancement of freedom, and the parliamentary process and the public engagement in making the political decision. Kuwait (p. of 2008 Al-Tajammu' al-Islami al-SalafiPeaceful transition 1) power through election. The want to "abolish political sectarianism" Lebanon 1992 Hizbullah 7 No (254) They want to abolish the allocation of seats on confessional lines and introduce proportional representation instead as that would constitute "real Lebanon 1996 Hizbullah 7 No representation" (256), Abolishing political sectarianism to allow for "better Lebanon 2000 Hizbullah 8 No representation" (265) Lebanon 2005 Hizbullah 1 No Not mentioned. Yes. They want more checks and balances against a dominant executive, freedoms of expression and information. Detention without Malaysia 1999 PAS 39 No trial will be abolished. Yes. Democracy is defined as a parliamentary democracy, with a free press and free Malaysia 2004 Barisan Alternatif (BA, which includes PAS) No. and fair elections. Yes. Democracy is defined on the first page of the party manifesto as something that guarantees the people choosing their government (p. 1). Democracy must support the spirit of the law, achieve justice, and be bolstered by free, fair, and clean elections (p. 1). The party manifesto also calls for the formation of “watchdog” agencies to monitor various government operations, and a free Malaysia 2008 PAS No. press (p. 7, 31). Yes. The party considers democracy one of the basic elements of its platform. The party defines democracy as the process of accepting democratic principles that include the recognition of the multi-party system, peaceful transition of power, constitutional reform, guaranteeing freedom and human rights, civil society development, etc. (pp. 17-23) The party will try to democratize the Hizb al-'Adala wa'l- media so that all Tanmiyya (Justice political and civil and Development organization will make Party) use of them. (p. 20, Morocco 2002 47) No, the party calls for peaceful transition of power through election. The Yes: repeated mention of "augmenting the participation of the media in democratic development and opening and the preservation of the national identity" (p. 1), "consolidate participatory development" and "reinforce democratic Morocco development" (p. 3). 2007 Parti de la Justice et du Développement (Justice and Development Party) No Yes. They identify prerequisites for a stable democracy as the acceptance of majority rule (and thus an Islamic state), government by freely elected representatives (not the army or bureaucracy), and a Pakistan 1969 Jamaat-e-Islami 42 No fair and honest media. Yes. They want to establish an "Islamic Islamic Democratic State" Democratic aimed at a "just social Pakistan 1988 Alliance 17 No order. " (1) The party intends to make Pakistan a "true Pakistan 2002 MMA 1 No Islamic welfare state" "The Palestinian People are still in the process of National Liberation and have the right to use all Yes. The party means describes a including government with armed struggle separate branches, to achieve this the rule of law, and Palestine 2006 Hamas 6 goal." rights for its citizens. Yes. The support the "democratization process" of the country and seek to "Achieve the missions thru legal representative of the Tajikistan 2002 Hizbi Nahzati Islami Tajikistan No. 9 country" (1) Yes, it supports Free Democracy (Hur Demokrasi) and "Milli Gorus has the determination of introducing a democratic state which is most suitable to our national specifities and national character. P. Turkey Salvation Party)44. 1973 Milli Selâmet Partisi (NationalNO Does not make any arguments against democracy, yet the term(s) democracy or democratic are rarely in the platform p. 15, . In all those instances, however, the concept is used to critique the understanding of democracy (i.e. 'guided democracy since 1946, p.15), (laws relating to the unification of curriculum/ education(al) (1924) are anti-democratic p. 90) or when the platform calls for an autonomous and democratic university system pp. 106-108. It seems like in order to describe the kind of regime the party proposes the term Turkey 1991 Refah Partisi (Welfare Party) NO Adil Duzen (Just/Fair Yes. It describes democracy as primacy of people's will over any other power. Further it describes the parliament as an institute where the will of people realizes/is reflected. Finally the platform states that Turkey could be incorporated into modern democratic world only through application of democracy in full and Turkey 1999 Fazilet Partisi (Virtue Party) NO effectively p.6. Yes. The arty is described as a conservative democratic organization. Democracy is defined with reference to people's free will (free and fair elections), rule of law and Turkey pluralism. P.3 of Part 2002 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development Party) I) NO Yes. It describes democracy as "individuals turning the right to rule, with their free will, into a common people's will through consent." p.27 The program calls for establishment of a full democracy based upon human rights, freedoms and rule of Turkey 2002 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) NO law. p.27 Yes, Democracy is defined as a political regime where sovereignity belongs to the nation. Pluralism is underlined as a precondition of Turkey NO democracy. P.10. 2007 Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi – AKP (Justice and Development Party) Turkey 2007 Saadet Partisi (Felicity Party) NO Not dicussed Resisting dictatorship with all its forms and replacing it with a democratic republican system. (p. 10) Developing the military institution to perform its task in development along with protecting the democratic system No. The rule of based on the peaceful the peaceful transition of powers. transition is a (p. 23) The media translation for discourse should be the Islamic directed to enhance principle that the shurite democracy the people has (note the term) the right to efforts. This will Tajammu' al- choose their happen through Yamani li'l-Islah leaders informing the people (Yemeni through free of all relevant Congregation for elections. (p. information and news. Yemen 1993 Reform). 11) (p. 34) Yes, it defines democracy as shura: meaning "participation in Tajammu' al- government and the Yamani li'l-Islah people's right to (Yemeni decide on their affairs Congregation for and choose their Yemen 1997 Reform). 18 No rulers" 3.Does the party require the implementation of the shari'a? What is their definition of the shari'a? 4.What are the Who will adjudicated top three issues 5.Where does the party stand on women's 6.How does the party disputes over the in the party rights and the implementation of Islamic propose to treat meaning of the shari'a? platform? family law? minorities? Politics means siyasa Ending shar`iyyah, i.e. ruling despotism and based on shura and the establishing rulings of Islam. (p. 95) shura and Political legislations have equality through Reform the Algerian family on the lines of to be subject to the political and the Shari`a. (Subtitles in p. 111). Giving rulings of shari`a. Islam is economic mothers maternity grants through the the theological reform, social solidarity institutions. (p. 112) Taking framework and establishing the care of women through enhancing their ideological precept for Islamic hisba behavioral and faith level, and increasing the political work in all system, and their political and civilizational awareness, walks of life. (p. 92) social welfare etc. (p. 112) Not mentioned. Developing the family law to cope with the progress of the society, however within The establishment of an the framework of its values. Liberating Islamic system of Political and women from the traditions that have governance based on constitutional nothing to do with Islam, especially the shura, equality, justice reform habit of depriving her of inheritance. and freedom. Working (including the Increasing the grant given to the toward the application of application of housewives. Increasing the level of her the shari`a and the the Shari`a), participation in public life, politically, abolition of the laws that economic socially and economically, and reviewing are against its texts and reform and the laws that deprives women their rights. objectives. (p. 125) social reform (p. 133) Not mentioned. One of the goals is to establish an Islamic state that applies the rulings of Islam. The declaration of the supremacy of Allah's shari`a. The power/authority is in the hands of people but practiced within the limits of shari`ah. Relations with non- Muslims are subject to the rulings of shari`a first Political reform, Not mentioned. Caring for the women, and then subject to the economic their education and their guidance as long interest of the state. (p. reform, and the as protecting her from exploitation. (p. 142-3) social reform 144) Not mentioned. Stressing the critical role of women in the society. Providing her with her legal rights through enacting laws and legislations. Not mentioned. Stressing Having a complete program for women the national identity with Democratic development that include her role in the Not mentioned. its three aspects: Islam, political reform, house as a mother and as wife and her role Getting rid of tribalism Arabism and Amazigism. free economy, in the society as a co-worker. Encouraging and holding to national (p. 10) social welfare women to join the political life. (p. 34-36) unity. (p. 45) No mention, though the introduction "Our objective is the characterizes the construction of a "Preserve Islam Algerian people as: modern state according from being _ "Algeria is a land of to the principles of Islam [terni], the state Islam and Arabness. [dans le cadre des from _ The Algerian people, of principes de l’islam], of [s'effondrer], the Amazigh origin, are an democratic choice, and country from integral part of the of the republican being Greater Maghrib, of system." (p. 2) "Create dismembered, the Arab-Muslim the institution of the and society from world, and of the Grand Mufti of Algeria" being _ African region (item #45, p. 6). [déchirée]." (p. 1) (item #38, p. 6) [espace]." (p. 1) "The state will guarantee the rights of all citizens irrespective of race, color or "Special laws related to marriage, divorce, religion" (6) "All non- and inheritance will be enacted to protect Muslims will be given "The Quran and Sunnah the rights of women guaranteed in the the liberty to perform shall be the source of all Quran and Sunnah." (9) The platform's their religious rituals laws" (8). No formal Shari'a approach to "Safeguarding the rights of freely and without any statement of who will Islamic morals women" is presented within the context of interference from interpret Islamic law. Social welfare the status guaranteed by Islam (19) outside" (13) Platform suggests that the govt would have to meet the basic needs of the people before introducing hadood punishments such as amputation, stoning. Three phases: first is to introduce the precepts so that we can love God; second establish an atmosphere where the precepts can be followed; third Implementation promulgate laws and of the Shari'a punishments. No details Anti-corruption In favor of women's education. Abolish on adjudication over Elimination of dowry. Employment and participation in implementation of interest-based public life, but "within the bounds of equal rights as per Sharia. economy 'shariah'" (43). Muslims. Laws based only on Rights of women and their dignity to be Quran and Sunnah. No Implementation upheld - in accordance with Islam. No suggestion of how to of the Shari'a dowry payments or honor killings (or instiutionalize Sharia Anti-corruption attacks). Women's employment and equal rights to based legal system. Islamic morals education to be supported. Muslims. No. "Jamaat will continue to resist all attempts and efforts designed against the country and against the principles of Quran and Sunnah. As a primary step to establish an Islamic welfare state, the existing laws of the Full legal equality: country will be suitably "Equal opportunities amended and necessary for people from all administrative reforms religions and ethnic will be carried out." The background shall be word sharia does not guaranteed." appear, while Quran and Additionally, sunnah are mentioned protection of the once each. However, ethnic minority there are numerous Some support of women's rights, including Chittagong Hill People references to expanding equal pay and maternity leave. However, is mentioned. the role of religion in Self sufficiency the major statement on women's rights is: However, the platform public and private life, National "In order to ensure women’s rights and includes a proposal for including the Defense dignity, employment shall be provided a strong blasphemy establishment of salat Poverty according to their aptitude and law to counter anti- (daily prayers). Alleviation competence. " religious publications The application of the Shari`a is a religious obligation and national necessity. There is no space to agree or to object to this principle. Every Muslim has to respond to Allah's Command and apply the shari`a immediately. Acknowledging that the matter would take time but at least immediate declaration of the principle is needed. (p. 308) The concept of shari`a goes beyond the question of hudud, or the civil and the criminal laws. It covers also media, education, economics, constitutional system, Democratic etc. (p. 308-9) The system; the shari`a laws are not application of drafted only by the state the Shari`a; law-makers, but it is a (Islamic) moral Copts are citizens in complementary task that values Not mentioned the Islamic state No specific vision was given. It is mentioned, however, that though acknowledging that the Qur'an and the Sunnah constitute the Woman is half of the society. Her civil and Copts are partners in Constitution to govern criminal and financial status are not less both the land and the Muslims…the nation has than man. All her financial transactions are destiny. Their freedom to have a written valid with no need to father's, husband's of religious expression Constitution that it or brother's permission. She has the right should be respected. agrees upon. This Political reform, to participate in election, to be part of the National unity and Constitution should be judiciary reform parliamentary councils, to hold any brotherhood spirit based on the shari`ah and economic government position (with the exception should be maintained. texts.(130) reform of the Caliphate or the like), etc. (181) (pp. 181-2) "As the Texts guarantee to non- Muslims the freedom of opinion, in addition to the freedom of religion, they reject all Yes: "Decree shari'a as constraint on Jews and the essential foundation Christians to make of the activities of the them obey the laws of Islamic state and Islamic shari'a. They society." (p. 12) On allow them to live in interpretation: with conformity with the regard to shura/election, laws that they believe "many Texts have not "In general, women are not inferior beings in, to marry in been utilized, or have to men." Women have right to participate accordance with their been incorrectly in elections, in unions, in government laws, and these interpreted" (p. 10); positions , including judicial posts, except marriages are elsewhere, "From this Grand Imam. "Penal and civil responsibility recognized by the effort and that of many Decreeing Islam rests with the man," though women don't Islamic state, Islamic scholars, who devoted as foundation of need men's approval for financial society, parenthood their lives and their state and transactions. "We have clarified that the being established by studies to commenting society; working superiority of the husband over the wife is this marriage on the Qur'an and to realize the limited to problems common to the rendering inheritance clarifying the sunna and unity of Islamic woman and the man, and that it is a legitimate." (p. 9) No the laws that it _ states, with Arab superiority of affection, of compassion, need for non-Muslims [renferme], was born the states at their and of consultation with regard to the to observe Islamic wealth of ideas called head (pp. 12- responsibilities that the husband carries." rules on eating and 'Islamic law.'" (p. 8) 13). (p. 23) drinking, but they The shari'a to be applied, Mixed. Women are to be given special but no individual may protections so that they can meet their claim religious authority family duties while retaining their beyond enjoining good Moral reform economic, social and cultural rights. and forbidding evil - based on Islamic Women can work, but within the limits of Equality and non- which belongs to all. values. keeping their 'honor and dignity.' discrimination. Although minorities are not explicitly mentioned, all people are considered equal under the law (p. 41). The party’s basic principles--“prinsip dasar”, include support for national unity and respect for pluralism “in a Justice and As described in the party’s basic principles-- proportional manner” prosperity for all “prinsip dasar”, women are to be afforded (p. 42). The national (political, legal, the same rights as men (p. 41). The agenda platform economic, national agenda platform includes a section on the social), and the section on women and describes support economy notes that all development of for developing women in the context of people should have a strong civil developing civil society and mentions equality and fairness in society specifics such as improvements in economic opportunity (masyarakat education, woman and infant health, irregardless of race, No, there is no mention madani) (pp. 2, family economy and legal protection (p. ethnicity or religion (p. of shari'a. 8; 48-49). 100). Islamic family law is not discussed. 94). 1. A united Iraq - land and people - with full national sovereignty. 2. A timetable Full legal equality. for the They oppose withdrawal of discrimination on the the grounds of sects, multinational religions, or They want an Iraq that forces from Iraq. ethnicities. They want "Iraq that respects the 3. A to preserve the rights Islamic identity of the constitutional, "The woman: Supporting the woman's of ethnic and religious Iraqi people" and declare pluralistic, participation in the political, economic and minorities and protect that "The state religion is democratic and social life, encouraging her creativity and them from Islam." They do not federally united preserving her dignity." This is listed under marginalization and mention the shari'a. Iraq. Public Services. discrimination. There is no mention for There was no the application of the reference for the word shari`ah in the Front minority. However the platform. The only platform stresses the reference for the shari`a Iraqi national unity and was in the context of identity and discards women rights and the all forms of ethnic or need to guarantee their sectarian disputes. rights as dictated by the Respecting the fabric Islamic Shari`a. (p. 7) of the Iraqi society and Another reference for enhancing the spirit of the word "shar`i [not tolerance, shari`a]" was in the The Front would work for the enacting of brotherhood and context of collecting the laws and regulations that would guarantee citizenship are Zakah through economic women their rights as dictated by Shari`a. essential in the Front and shar`i institutions. Women would be given the opportunity to political program. (p. The word shar`i in this Freeing the participate in the political and civil 2) The Front calls to context may indicate country from the activities. Supporting the civil societies reconsider the Ba`th two meanings: according occupation, that focus on women's issues within the 'eradication' law to to the Islamic Shari`a or National Unity framework of the Islamic and Arabic ensure that its collected by legal and solidarity, values. Enacting laws that maintain the application will not institutions. Both the dignity of the women and prohibit its result in any sectarian meaning can be applied reconsideration exploitation. (p. 7) As for the Question on exploitation. (p. 2. and maybe both were of the Family Laws, there was no clear or explicit Item #8 in the political meant. (p. 5) constitution reference to it in the platform. program) Somewhat contradictory, as they mention both the cultural rights of 1. Settling the nations in Iraq border of (Turkmen, Assyrians, Kurdistan Chaldeans), but 2. Compensating actually prioritize the victims of individual rights. genocide They mention preventing gender "Equity in citizenship, 3. Security and discrimination in employment and rights and No stability in Iraq. confronting violence against women. responsibilities." Also, The application of the shari`ah is one of the basis for the establishment of the MB, along with freeing the Muslim world from occupation. Islam is the Not mentioned. One of only source of the state's duties is to legislation. The party Equality and integration between men and guarantee the presence in the The application women. Woman has the right to own freedom of worship parliament is one of the of the shari`a, property, to work and to join ranks to and religion for all means to apply the the issue of achieve progress in the society within the citizens. Scientific shari`ah, justice, and freedom, and framework of Islam. Her participation freedom and freedom equality among the the jihad to free should not have priority over her duty of expressions have to people. (p. 1) the Muslim land towards her home and her family. (p. 11) be guaranteed. (p. 2) Yes. IAF works for the application of the shari`a through its main agenda Not mentioned. which raises the slogan However in one "Islam is the Solution". occasion, the platform (p. 2, 4) The Front Cooperation with women organizations calls for the annulment managed to entertain and institutions, both in the government of parliamentary seats the phrase 'according to and in the civil society to encourage that were designated the shari`ah" in various women to take its role, away from the on tribal basis, so as to laws in the previous The application foreign customs and values, in building the be in accordance with parliament sessions. (p. of the shari`a, community and help achieve its the Constitution. (p. 5) 3) For this platform, they the integrity of advancements in all walks of life. (p. 11) It also demands are encouraging the electoral Enacting laws that would help women get provided equal job contracts in accordance system, and the their legal and religious rights. Encouraging opportunities for all with the shari'a and free conflict between the participation of women in the public citizens, regardless of of usurious interests. (p. Palestine and sphere, in political activism and in the their opinions or 15) Israel. development field. (p. 14) religions. (p. 6) Cooperation with women organizations and institutions, both in the government and in the civil society to encourage the women to take its role, away from the foreign customs and values, in building the community and help achieve its advancements in all walks of life. (p. 6) Enacting laws that would help women get their legal and religious rights. Encouraging the participation of women in the public The application of the sphere, in political activism and in the shari`a is a religious development field. Educating women of obligation and a basic their rights such as rights to work, goal for the party. The The application education, husband selection, inheritance party vision stems from of the shari`a, rights, etc. Stressing the significance of the the ultimate goals of the the political woman's role as a mother and child-raiser shari`a in protecting the reform, and the to confront the westernization projects. life, the intellect, the conflict Stressing the role of the voluntary women freedom, the property between civil societies to help building the society and the honor of the Palestine and and expressing the women's aspirations. human being. (p. 1-2) Israel. (p. 7) Not mentioned. Affirming the legal rights of women through the activation of legislations that complete the legislative framework of women's rights. Encouraging the participation of women in the public Not mentioned. sphere, in political activism and in the (compare with the development field. Educating women of previous years their rights such as rights to work, to platforms!) The party education, to husband selection, to vision stems from the inheritance, etc. Stressing the significance ultimate goals of the of the woman's role as a mother and child- shari`a in protecting the Political reform, raiser to confront the westernization life, the intellect, the economic projects. stressing the role of the voluntary freedom, the property reform, and the women civil societies to help building the and the honor of the Palestinian- society and expressing the women's human being. (p. 2) Israeli conflict. aspirations. (p. 4-5) Not mentioned. The party requires the application of the Shari`ah. It requires to amend the second item in the Constitution to make the Shari`ah the Main Source of legislation. All anti- shari`ah current legislation should be amended according to the Shari`ah, however through a well planned program. The administrative authority has to abide by the shari`ah when making administrative decisions Not mentioned. It or issuing any procedural states, however, regulations. Kuwait Kuwaiti media has to should avoid the miss- deepen the national application of the unity. (102) Final shari`ah in some Arab The application solution should be and Islamic countries. of the Shari`ah. attempted for those "The application of the National who do not have shari`ah" should not be Security. Kuwaiti nationality (i.e. only a banner that is Administrative non-identified raised only for political reform. Not mentioned. nationality groups) One of the basic principles of the platform is the application of the shari`a. It is considered the main point of reference in all fields of legislations, be political or economic, etc. The party demands the amendment of the second article in the constitution to the effect The application that the shari`ah of Shari`a, becomes the ONLY political reform source of legislation. The (the separation legislative, between the administrative, and royal family and Not mentioned. executive bodies should the executive However it stresses be committed to this administration, the rights for those article and work reforming the living in Kuwait for accordingly. (p. 1) The electoral system, long time and were platform stresses the etc), human not naturalized yet. reference to shari`a in all rights (stressing The party discussed its various sections, the rights of the their position in details quoting qur'anic or 'without suggesting different prophetic references. nationality steps of how to The party also calls for category') Not mentioned. accommodate them. In the platform long introduction, the Movement counts among its earlier contributions through which it called upon the executive authority to adopt the laws prepared by the Higher Consultative Committee with regard to the application of the Shari`a. The Movement also supported and As put by the participated in drafting a platform, first to The platform does not indicate any specific number of Islamic- maintain the way of how to handle women issues or related laws, i.e. the laws Kuwaiti identity family laws. It only states that women on zakah, Laws and the issues occupied and still occupies a No reference for pertaining to Islamic Islamization of significant position on its agenda. It certain minorities banking, etc. (p. 4) the laws, introduced the laws for the civil rights of were made. The Under the section secondly, to women in order to guarantee women their movement calls for a regarding the Movement respect the rights in work and life. The Movement government that development project, constitution and introduced a number of law drafts with a works for the item 3 argues for the to respect view to empower the Kuwaiti women in all enhancement of need to make use of the freedoms, and fields. The movement established a special national unity and do efforts of various thirdly, office in its administrative organization not allow any sectarian institutions, e.g. the development of that are dedicated to women issues. (pp. 5- or group favoritism. Higher Council for the country. 6, 10, 12) (pp. 5, 6, 9, 13) The question of women's rights is among the priorities of the party. It calls for giving the woman all the rights given to her by the Shari`a. Also there are other rights that Yes. It calls for the the woman should be guaranteed: being application of shari`a in just to the sons and daughters of a Kuwaiti all fields of life. The The application women who got married to non-Kuwaitis, application of shari`a, of Shari`a, equal rights in the job market, giving social though referred to it political reform, and housing services and bonuses for the without details, is the and the safety women who are responsible for raising number one issue in the and security of their kids, protecting her and maintaing party agenda. (p.1) the country. their dignity, etc. (p. 3-4) Not mentioned. 1. Resistence to the Israeli The implementation of occupation. the sharia is not 2. Electoral mentioned, but the reform. mission of the party (and 3. this platform) are "Harmonization" described as part of "the between media Islamic project" and freedoms and Religious practice is to following from legal Lebanon's Arab- be free and the responsibility under Muslim cultural Abrahamic faiths Islam (247). identity. Women are not mentioned. respected. 1. Resistence to the Israeli occupation. 2. Abolishing the confessional While equal rights for all are mentioned political (256), the platform also states that "[t]he structure. woman’s role is based on her being the 3. Pro-poor other half that raises and is effective Freedom of religious economic in all the political, educational, social, practice and belief is No mention of shari'a. development. cultural and economical life." (258) supported (259). 1. Resistence to the occupation. 2. Maintaining good relations with Syria 3. "developmental- Introductory statement uses "his/her" as service oriented the pronoun to refer to individual "All people are equal No mention of socio-economic Lebanese. Supports the participation of in rights and duties" implementing shari'a. program" (263) women in public life (265). (265). 1. Safeguard Lebanon's independence and end the occupation of the shib'a farms 2. Help the UN investigation into Hariri's death. 3. Preserve the special No mention of relationship with implementing shari'a. Syria Not mentioned. Not mentioned. Freedom of religion and opnness towards ethnic diversity. They intend to "[e]nforce strictly laws "Healthy cultural 1. Checking the regarding the rights, interests and dignity elements from outside power of the of women and abolish laws and will be accepted, executive. regulations that discriminate against subject to our own 2. Eliminating women." Equal pay for women and social and ethical There is no suggestion corruption, extended maternity leave are also values." The pro- that the shari'a will be cronyism, and mentioned. No specifically Islamic aspect bumiputra policies of implemented, but under nepotism. to family law is mentioned, though the the NEP are to be religion and culture 3. A transparent family is to be the "fundamental unit" of a reformed, but more as there is a proposal to regulatory "just and democratic society ... built upon an anti-corruption "[e]stablish a framework for the fundamental spiritual and ethical measure than to Commission for Shari’ah corporate values that are part of the teachings of eliminate Law at the Federal level." governance. Islam and other religions." discrimination. Minorities are to be treated with respect. There is to be freedom of religion and no forcing of culture. The manifesto calls for the creation of an The manifesto calls for “Institute of Relations reforming shari'a law vis- Between Religions and a-vis women's rights Ethnicities” to improve except for regulations on The manifesto calls for reforming shari'a mutual understanding, tithing and the law vis-a-vis women's rights except for respect, and care. management of shari'a regulations on tithing and the Minorities should courts. Although not management of shari'a courts. They also enjoy equal access to explicitly referring to propose improving women's rights, government programs shari'a, the manifesto increasing the representation of women in such as microcredit proposes the creation of the labor force to 30%, removing lending. The uniform family law for discrimination against women in the indigenous shall be all. Shari'a is not defined, workforce, and more day care for the protected from and the manner for children of working mothers. In terms of development projects adjudicating disputes is Justice, peace, family law, there is a call for the creation that threaten their not mentioned. and prosperity. of uniform family law for all. livelihood and land. Because of the history of threats to national integration due to tensions stemming from a politics of ethnicity and manipulation of religion, the manifesto calls for: (A) mutual respect and understanding between religions and their followers; (B) creation of a “Negotiation Council” for non-Muslims to ascertain and protect their rights and responsibilities; and (C) the creation of a “Dialogue Council” to strengthen agreement There is no explicit mention of women’s and encourage Benevolent rights or Islamic family law. The manifesto national integration of service, justice, does call for a number of programs/laws all groups (p. 36). and clean to facilitate women at work (e.g. There is also mention No, there is no mention government (p. guaranteed maternity leave, work-at- of helping reduce the of shari'a. 1). home concessions, etc.) (p. 26). gap between rich and Yes. According to the party platform, all the country reform projects have to be based on Marji`iyyah Islamicyyah, The party calls for the betterment of i.e. Islamic references, women's conditions through the and in harmony with the fulfillment of social justice and striking a cultural values of the balance of rights between man and country. Adopting the woman. The party has a reservations on marji`iyyah islamiyyah the ways that previous governments had does not mean at all to dealt with women and family issues. These practice monopoly or governments based their ideology on throw any doubts about international agreements and charters the religiosity of the which in many instances contradicted with Moroccan society. (p. 6) Islam. The party calls for an active Islamization of the cooperative woman. The party calls for the constitution should be ending of women illiteracy, providing her It is not clear but the put into action. There with her legal and legitimate rights, platform calls for a has to be a clear text in especially those relevant to her family national dialogue the constitution that the fortune, reforming the divorce system and between the country's shari`ah is the sublime reviewing the present law that allows different groups, source of legislation for polygamy. The party will work on fighting especially, those of the all the laws and The application all forms of women exploitation and will southern regions. (p. whatever contradicts of Shari`ah in all attempt to guarantee her political and 14) A national projects this source has to be fields of life, professional rights. The party will also has to be launched to voided. Economic Democratic propose a law to grant her son from a non- liberate the occupied policies and legislation reform, and Moroccan husband the Moroccan islands of Ceuta and have to be reviewed to social welfare nationality. (pp. 29-31) Melilla,. (p. 14) 1. Improve role of Ministry of Islamic Affairs. 2. Consolidate Family Law so that it [the Promote family] recovers its role in social stability national culture and development. Improve conditions of for full women and children, and people who are participation in left unprovided for [les catégories the efforts of démunies]." Promote women's literacy, development girls' education, women's health and that and reform. 3. of the family, "support the integration of Modernization women in the workforce [la vie active] so and media that they may participate in economic upgrading [mise development. Grant justice to working à niveau women [la femme active] by abolishing all mediatique]. (p. employment discrimination." Oppose Not mentioned. 1) violence against women. Not mentioned. 1. "Pakistan is and has to be an Islamic polity" (4) 2. to "preserve the integrity and Separate solidarity of representation for non- "The Holy Quran and Pakistan" (4) Muslims (12), which Sunnah should be 3. "the granting includes Qaidianis (13). explicitly declared as of maximum They intend to "amend the current family "All their legal and civil chief source of law. " autonomy to laws to bring them into conformity [with rights will be (11) every region" (5) the shari'a]" preserved." (33) 1. "Supremacy of the Holy quran and sunnah in Pakistan" 2. "Provision of acceptable Yes. Constitutional economic amendments will be opportunities on "Equal rights and equal enacted to make the the basis of protection under the "Holy Quran and sunnah equality for all law for every citizen of the supreme law of sectors of Pakistan." (5) Pakistan" and wider society" All the constitutional changes will "bring the 3. "Provision of and legal rights of entire legal order in inexpensive minorities will be conformity with Islam" justice for all safeguarded and the (7). members of state will be fully The Federal Shari'at society without "Women will be given full opportunity to responsible for the Court will be empowered discrimination participate in the family and all walks of protection of life, to "issue interim orders on the basis of life. The personal, family, social, economic liberty, honour and and provide relief to the colour, race or and political rights of the women will be human rights of aggrieved persons" (7). sex." (4) fully protected." (17) minorities." (18) 1. "To revive fear of God, affection to the Prophet (PBUH) and service to people with particular emphasis on government officials and cabinet members" 2. "To make Pakistan a true Islamic welfare state to ensure justice to people and eradicate corruption whatsoever" 3. "To ensure provision of bread, clothes, shelter, education, jobs and marriage The party aims to "protect rights of Sharia is not mentioned expenses to all women guaranteed by Islam and in this brief outline. citizens" restoration of their honour and prestige" Not mentioned. 1. "Islam is our Reference." 2. "Palestine is Arab and Muslim "Palestinian family Laws are to be derived The party states that Land." from and conform to the Shari'ah law" "Islam is our Reference" 3. "Palestinians "Women's rights will be guaranteed so "The rights of and that "The Islamic are one nation that they can contribute to the building of minorities are to be Law will be the source of regardless of society, socially, economically and protected on the basis Palestinian Legislation" location." politically." of good citizenship" Nothing in platform, but constitution of No suggestion of implementing any Islamic party states that Political laws, and limited mention of women "Defending of peace Independence of altogether: "Increase of political and stability, national Tajikistan cultural knowledge of civilians, particularly consolidation and Socio-economic women and youths thru political gathering minorities development with their participation in political affairs brotherhood of the No. Islamic morals of the country" (4) work at the economic Women can and do country" is a goal (3) life. (For example as a nurse or Praises the tolerance gynecologist) In Islam both men and of the Millet (Millet women are given here is used with Not explicitly. Laicism is right/responsibility/obligation? To science reference to Ottoman described as tolerance to and religious practice (ilim ve ibadet). The past. Yet, it is never other's ideas and faith god (Cenab-I Hak) does not discriminate clear if it refers only to and the way secularism human beings as woman, man, black, ummet or Turkish had been officially white. P.35. In society Islam has allocated Muslims) in the history interpreted in Turkey is responsibilities to women which are towards other faiths. criticized. Pp. 51-53. compatible with her creation. It has never (p. 18). It is stated that Further, many issues deemed her obliged to compulsory work when in the medieval such as how trade and systems neither as in the west nor as in Europe freedom of business should be done the east. Our men may not like it now. I conscience was under and how women's rights am telling this as a joke. Let me explain oppression (mezalim) be understood are With great care that in a Muslim family the nation (our nation) explained referring to 1) Economic woman is not obliged to do any work. She (Milletimiz) stayed verses of Qur'an. pp. 35- development/ is not even obliged to take care of her kid. respectful to human 38. Further the party Industrial It is man's duty to do all house duties and rights and never calls for annulment of leap.2)Spiritual to earn income of the house. pp. 35-36. oppressed people the article 163 of the and Moral THEN REFERCES TO SURAT VERSES FROM from other faiths and Turkish Criminal Code revival /leap / QUR'AN (TO PROVE HOW SUBLIME THE races. So that, many which sanctions return to PLACE OF WOMEN IN ISLAM IS.) pp. 36- mid-European and propagating an Islamic traditional 38. We, ..... will create a samil system to Balkan nations could order (Sheria) and ancestral and prevent them from working at jobs which maintain their their manipulation/exploitatio religious values. are not compatible with their sex/gender national and spiritual n of religious sentiments. 3)reorganization and to protect their honor and wisdom values up to the date. pp.55-56. of state. (haysiyet ve seref)...will provide help to p.32. Economic development Not Specified. Yet, at and fair the section on legal distribution of reform the platform economic states that regardless resources, of their ethnic, administartive religious, lingual or and legal Praises the importance of the women in criminal background restructuring of the society. Calls for creating conditions no individual should be the system and for women such that their working will not tortured. P. 94. And Moral/ethical prevent them from carrying out their also calls for legalizing revival/return to familial duties. It critiques understandings education according to traditional of equality between genders which lead to each community's ethical the obliged working of women at (sect, or social group ) NO principles. unsuitable and hard jobs. pp. 96-97. worldview p. 90. 1) Making Turkey a leading Proposes a country. 2) government which Economic does not discriminate development 3) among its citizens Democratization Describes woman as the main pillar of along religious, ethnic NO . family and society. P. 8. and racial lines. P.5. The platform refers to cultural and faith wise 1) Economy . 2) differences as a wealth Restructuring of Party calls for implementation of all for the country and the state and measures possible to increase the proposes to take bureaucracy to women's participation, responsibility and measures for their increase rights. It also calls for taking necessary preservation and also efficiency. 3) measures to fight against discrimination their representation at Political and violence against women. P. 11 of Part the political realm. P. 3 NO liberalization V. of Part I) The platform does not have a special section on women. Women's problems are mentioned under the family section and Economic the major issue is described as the trade Development, off between women's need to work and Democratization their duties towards their families and (Human Rights kids. The party proposes to take necessary and Freedoms), measures to enable working women also Social/Economic to conduct their motherhood and family No equality. related duties. p. 39 Not Addressed Economy, Bureaucratic, legal political re- Proposes to take necessary measures to organization/libe fight against domestic violence and honor Interestingly enough NO ralization, killings againt the women. P. 97 not addressed. 1)Economic reconstruction (development, fair distribution of income, lessening the dependency on western capital (IMF, World Bank). 2) Moral and Spiritual revival. 3) Foreign Policy (Struggling against imperialist racism (post cold war - post 9/11 attack of the west (NATO) against Islam. Creation of solidarity among Muslim countries. Fighting against Zionist NO conspiracy. Not Specified Not Specified The application of shari`a in all life affairs and considering it the source of legislations. The constitution and laws should be amended according to its principles. (p. 18-19) Committing oneself to shari`a is an Islamic obligation. (p. 12) Shutting down the wine Special attention for women education. factory because it is Establishing special educational institution, against the shari`a of including colleges, for women. Adopting a Not mentioned. Allah. (p. 13) Codifying The democratic well planned policies to tackle the issue of Stressing only the the rules of the shari`a. political reform, sex-intermingling. (p. 31) Securing women national unity. (p. 10, (p. 21) Collecting the the application their rights as dictated by Islam, such as 13) Strengthening zakah and distributing it of the shari`a`, her rights to work, to receive educations, connections among according to the shari`a. and economic to own property and to get inheritance, the different tribes. (p. (p. 26) reform. etc. (p. 41) 41) 1. Islam as a belief and a life- governing law (Shari'ah) 2. Justice as a political endavour to be established through "Ensuring the supremacy "freedom, of the Islamic Shari'ah as equality and the basis for the shura" supremacy of law. 3. Liberty Accepting shura and through Islam, popular free choice as to be Families are recognized as the "first social the principle for the "entrenched in institution" and the source of good legitimacy of authority the person's individuals. Women are mentioned only in and its acceptance. " inner being" the context of mothers and housewives. Not mentioned. 7.Does the party platform propose any welfare programs such as 8.Is jihad mentioned? 9.What is the party's pensions, poverty relief, and medical In what context? How position on the Israel/ care for those in need? is jihad defined? Palestine conflict? Taking care of the young people till maturity age. (p. 111) Creating more job opportunities to stop the growth of immigration. Reconsidering the housing policy. Granting mother maternity funds. Reconsideration of family grants especially for the low income. Increasing pensions so as to meet the price increase and economic situation. Offering pensions for the Mentioned only in disables in line with their social status. reference to colonial (111-113) time. (p. 118) Not mentioned. The issue of Palestine is an Establishing national fund for housing Arab Islamic issue. to help the low income. Increasing Therefore we will work to the grant given to the housewives (p. liberate Palestine as a 133). Developing a national medical whole and not giving away program to improve medication any inch of it. (p. 136) process. (p. 131) Not mentioned. Israel is not mentioned. Increasing the monthly allowance for each child to 500 dinars. Improving the students' situation and increasing their monthly scholarships. Providing medications to all members of the society. Taking care of the orphans and the widows and the seniors or people with disabilities in case there are no one taking care of them. Securing work, housing, medication, and childhood and maternity rights. (p. 144) Not mentioned. Not mentioned. The party has a welfare program for children, women, youth and in different fields as well such as housing, medical care, etc. Providing Supporting the Palestinian social care program of two levels: people in its struggle to protective level and medication level. regain its full right and to (p. 27) Facilitating housing options establish his independent through special funds. (p. 34) Not mentioned. state. (p. 53) "Continue to consider the Palestinian question as the central cause of the Arab- Muslim nation, provide it with the necessary aid for all plans for the recovery of the Palestinian lands, especially Jerusalem, the return of the refugees, and the creation of an independent Palestinian Yes, pp. 4-6. No state." (item #53, p. 7) Not specifically mentioned, but "moral and material assistance will be given to "The spirit of jihad will the struggle for the be isntilled into the independence of the "The state will take responsibility to people and the armed Muslim people."(22) meet the basic needs of citizens" (13). forces so that they will However, friendly relations Several social security programs be ready to sacrifice with all countries is an (including medicare for the poor) are their lives to preserve objective. Non- described (18), as well as access to the sovereignty and interference in internal medical facilities and medicien at fair independence of affairs of others also prices (19). Bangladesh. " (10) mentioned. Not specifically mentioned, but support is extended to the freedom struggles of Muslims elsewhere. Jihad to be However, friendly relations emphasised as the with all countries is an spirit of the defence objective. Non- Poverty relief, unemployment forces, and of sacrifice interference in internal insurance and medical care for the for the nation amongst affairs of others also poor are mentioned. the general populace. mentioned. No mention, and no Food, clothing, employment, health language in favor of care, housing and education will be Jihad as the ideology Muslim freedom struggles guaranteed by the state. of national defense. (as per 1996). No. Previous mentions of jihad as the spirit of Not mentioned in this national defense have platform, though the party been replaced with the website prominently Repeated mention of different intention "to inculcate features a response to the welfare programs under many moral values in the most recent (Jan 09) different subheadings of the platform. defence forces " violence in Gaza. Support fully the Palestinians. "Amid the various international Under the title "treatment of the daily- conflicts and challenges, life problems,” the platform our conflict with the proposes: subsidizing basic Jihad is only Zionist enemy is the most commodities, obliging the business mentioned in dangerous threat. Calling establishments to provide housing for reference to the for the freezing of Camp their employees; the no-cost medical Palestinians and the David agreement and the services in the state hospitals; local Lebanese in their jihad complete boycott of Israel. manufacturing of medicine. (312-313) against Israel. (p. 316) (p. 316) Jihad is mentioned in reference to Israel. The Jihad is mentioned in only way to end the Zionist reference to Israel. The colonial entity is to only way to end the perform Jihad to remove Zionist colonial entity the Zionist entity and to Noting specific. The party calls for is to perform Jihad to regain the land. All fighting poverty, providing good remove the Zionist negotiations have to be housing, balanced food, medical and entity and to regain stopped and naturalization educational services. (p. 179) the land. (p. 184) has to be ceased. (p. 184) Not mentioned, though Bosnia/Herzegovina and Chechnya are mentioned as examples of human No No rights abuses (p. 24). Zakat for those who deserve it. Accommodation (with state services) for all. Basic education. Universal Supporting Palestinian healthcare. Securing pensions for the resistence by all possible poor. Jihad not mentioned. means There are numerous places where social justice is noted as a value and goal but no explicit programs are mentioned. The national agenda platform includes a section on the economy which calls for the provision of fair and equal economic opportunities for all, including the There is no mention of poor (p. 94). jihad. No mention. Not mentioned. They do mention the safety and stability of the region, the They have a health care proposal and principle of a policy for the families of martyrs noninterference in the and victims of Sadaam's regime. Not affairs of other countries, central to the platform, and not much and being a good neighbor of a welfare program. No in the region. Not mentioned. The Front calls for the continuous endless work through all legal national and In addition to the economic reform international channels and fighting administrative and to force the financial corruption, the Front calls occupation powers to for a number of social welfare set a timing table for programs: improvement of its withdrawal. (p. 3) government-aided food items Also The Front made assigned for Iraqis, since it is the main the distinction source of provision for many Iraqis, between the national establishing a funding institution to legitimate resistance support the poor, collecting the zakah which is the right of Not mentioned. However, and redistributing it among those who any people under item no. 2 in the political deserve it, permitting the small occupation and program in the businesses to get no-interest loans, terrorism that sneaks international sphere, the solving the problem of housing from outside the Front stresses its full through the establishment of gigantic country to sabotage solidarity with the just and housing projects to meet the needs of the country's security legitimate Islamic and the people, etc and safety. (p. 2) Arabic issues. (p. 3) They mention an existent food ration program, as well as ideas for an improved health service as well as health insurance. No. Not mentioned. Supporting the Palestinian jihad with all means that would help in the military confrontation with the Zionist enemy. (p. 13) Palestine is a sacred and Muslim land. It is It calls for the childhood protection, Jihad is mentioned in Islamically forbidden to the care for the orphans, and the reference to Israel and give up one inch of its land encouragement of marriage and against any foreign whatever the justifications helping out solving its economic enemy that occupies or the pressures. All problems. Every citizen has he right to the Muslim world. initiatives and agreements, housing, food and marriage. Social (p.1) Jordan must work be American, Israeli or solidarity is a duty that the state has to recognize the Arab, are to fail because to carry upon its shoulders. Seniors or mujahidin government they do not meet the real persons with disabilities has to be in Afghanistan. (p. 17) expectations of the Muslim taken care of. Providing medications Giving support to the Ummah. United Nations for citizens has to be secured. (p. 11- Arab jihadi resolutions are rejected. 12) movements. (p. 16) (pp. 13-15) The platform proposes a detailed agenda of the goals it hoped to achieve society welfare. It includes fighting poverty through just Palestine from the sea to distribution of wealth and economic the river is a Muslim land. and legislative reform, encouraging (p. B/13). No one can make the program of "productive families", any concessions for any increasing the number of orphanages, part of the land of establishing a special funding society Palestine. All agreements to help young people get married, with Israel are null and increasing the labor and development void, including Gaza- funds with a view to create more job Jericho agreement. opportunities, developing the social Recognition of Israel is a solidarity institutions to secure recognition of a usurpation citizens' rights in housing, food and of the Muslim land in medication, taking care of the senior Jihad is mentioned in Palestine. Establishing citizens or those who are having reference to Israel. diplomatic or economic disabilities, etc. pp. 11-13) In addition "Jihad is the way to relations with Israel is a to the items mentioned in these free Palestine". surrender to the American pages, the platform focuses on Supporting the hegemony and a clear society welfare in almost all of the mujahids in their concession of the rights of sections that deal directly with the struggle to free the Ummah. Naturalization society activities, e.g. in education, Palestine is a religious policies are to be health, youth, agriculture, etc. obligation (B/14) confronted. (p. B/ 12-16) The platform proposes a set of procedures that it hoped to achieve society welfare. It includes fighting poverty through just distribution of wealth and economic and legislative Palestine from the sea to reform, encouraging the program of the river is a Muslim land. "productive families", increasing the (p. 17).No one can make number of orphanages, establishing a any concessions for any special funding society to help young Jihad is mentioned in part of the land of people get married, increasing labor reference to Israel. Palestine. All agreements and development funds with a view Jordan has the longest with Israel are null and to create more job opportunities, borders with the void. Recognition of Israel taking care of the senior citizens or Zionist enemy, is a recognition of a those who are having disabilities, therefore it usurpation of the Muslim Providing houses for low income encounters the land in Palestine. employees, providing health judization threat that Establishing diplomatic or insurance and medications for all threatens the Arabic economic relations with citizens etc. pp. 6-9) In addition to the and the Islamic Israel is a surrender to the items mentioned in these pages, the presence in the Arab American hegemony and a platform focuses on society welfare in land, from the Nile to clear concession of the almost all of the sections that deal Euphrates. (p. 15) rights of the Ummah. directly with the society activities, e.g. Jihad is the way to Naturalization policies are in education, health, youth, liberate Palestine. (p. to be confronted. (p. 17- agriculture, etc. 17) 19) The platform proposes a set of procedures that it hoped to achieve society welfare. It includes fighting poverty through just distribution of wealth and economic and legislative reform, encouraging the program of "productive families", increasing the Palestine from the sea to number of orphanages, establishing a the river is a Muslim land. special funding society to help young (p. 11).No one can make people get married, increasing the any concessions for any labor and development funds with a part of the land of view to create more job Palestine. All agreements opportunities, taking care of the with Israel are null and senior citizens or those who are void. Recognition of Israel having disabilities, providing houses is a recognition of a for low income employees, providing usurpation of the Muslim health insurance and medications for land in Palestine. all citizens etc. establishing maternity Establishing diplomatic or centers, etc. (pp. 4-7) In addition to economic relations with the items mentioned in these pages, Israel is a surrender to the the platform focuses on society Jihad is mentioned in American hegemony and a welfare in almost all of the sections reference to Palestine. clear concession of the that deal directly with the society "Jihad and resistance rights of the Ummah. activities, e.g. in education, health, are the way to liberate Naturalization policies are youth, agriculture, etc. Palestine.. to be confronted. (p. 12) The platform does not have a section for welfare programs but it refers to some welfare activities under the section of "Solving the Housing Problem". It states that the young people should be given the right of "housing care", if they are appointed Not mentioned. The in the public service sector, through government has to interact giving them loans, doubling the rent with Muslims' concerns all aid, etc. (100) Not mentioned. over the world. (p. 98) There is no specific details about the social program. However, in the platform section on the development of service sector and public utilities, the platform refers to the need to Not mentioned. The party solve the housing problems, providing calls for solidarity with health and service well-fare program, Arab and Islamic countries along with other educational in their legitimate rights programs for distant regions. (p. 2) Not mentioned. and just causes. The Movement will introduce a number of legislations and regulations that would aim at protecting the people's rights in terms of social welfare so as to cope with the economic changes and the rise of living expenses. (P. 10) Not mentioned. Not mentioned. The party proposes various social welfare program in various realms of life. In the area of work and man force, the platform focuses on the urgent need to raise the income of the individuals through a "social safety network", especially during the transition period or privatization. In the area of Housing, building new cities in the south an north of Kuwait, lowering the prices of real estate, and increasing the housing bonus in one's salary. In the field of debts, driving a plan to minimize or cancel people's debts and establishing a debt funding institution to help those in need., etc. (pp.3-4) Not mentioned. Not mentioned. "a daily jihadi and political path" of "Lebanon’s liberation from the Zionist Palestine is not mentioned, occupation and from but solidarity with the the oppressors’ Palestinians is implied in Social security, healthcare, and influence and the primacy of resistence pensions for all. following." (249) to Israel and Zionism. The platform's policies are introduced in light of "the Public health centers and clinics are to The platform opens magnitude of the perils be built all over the country but with a Koranic excerpt [from] Zionist terrorism" particularly in remote and poor areas. referring to God being (254). The first point in the Support for social welfare includes with "those who platform is resistence to pensions. (258) strive" God (254). the Israeli occupation. Refuses citizenship to Palestinians as part of Expand social security, healthcare, Resistence to Israeli insisting on their right of and pensions to cover all (266-7). occupation is jihad. return (263). The economic program is to concentrate on poverty relief and basic service provision. Not mentioned. No mention of Palestine. The existing public healthcare system is to be maintained and not privatized. Social services for the poor are a priority, and pension levels will be raised. Jihad is not mentioned Not mentioned. The manifesto calls for an across-the- board reduction in the cost of living (utilities, tolls, etc.) and the creation of an employment center. The government microcredit lending program should be expanded, and free health care provided for the There is no mention of poor. jihad. No mention. There is mention of helping reduce the gap between rich and poor, and a call for implementation of a minimum wage (p. 11, 22). There is a call for free health care for chilren and mothers (p. 20). The manifesto also proposes welfare programs for the poor, single mothers, and orphans, as well as the creation of more low- There is no mention of income housing (p. 24). jihad. No mention. The platform includes a plan for social welfare and development in its last two sections: Justice and The party offers its Development. (pp. 24 ff) Under the unconditional support in motto "Health for All", the platform the issues relevant to the proposes a basic coverage for health Arab and Islamic World, services all over the country and calls especially in the issue of for an increase in the funding Palestine, as it is a central assigned for the health sector. (for issue for Muslims.(p. 13) details p. 26) Under the subsection The party calls for the "Fighting Poverty", the party proposes material and moral the establishment of a fund out of support of the Intifada, zakah and endowment to help and for suspending all financing small projects for the poor forms of public and secret people so as to help them earn their naturalization (with bread. A certain percentage of the Israel). The Security public income should be assigned for Council should form an poor-aid programs. The party international task force to Encourages the foundation of charity protect the Palestinian organizations and proposes special people and refugees. The regulations for handicapped. (p. 27) In party calls for exerting another subsection, the party calls for efforts to bring about an "Suitable Housing for All". The international support to government should look for different impose sanctions on the ways to subsidize family and law Zionist entity to force it income housing. The government respect the resolutions of should reconsider the illegal ways of the international distributing real estate, giving priority Not mentioned. organizations. (p. 15) Yes, including quantitative targets for reduction in infant mortality, increased education rates, etc. (pp. 1- 3) No Not mentioned. Not mentioned speficially, Welfare supports for the but "[t]he oppressed unemployed, pensioners, orphans and muslim communities others to be funded through zakat. throughout the world will Medical care for all irrespective of be the objects of special ability to pay. Not mentioned. concern." (35) "Full support to the Afghan jehad" (4). Note that support for the Kashmiri resistence is mentioned but not described as a jihad. "We will develop a collective spirit of "Full support to the Yes, low cost housing, and a national Jehad in the nation to independence of Palestine health policy that includes rural lay down their own life and Jerusalem from Israeli health service delivery. for a just cause" (20). occupation" (19). "To extend moral, political and diplomatic help and Yes, basic needs such as "bread, support to all suppressed clothes, shelter, education, jobs and with particular emphasis marriage expenses" will be provided on Kashmiris, Palestinians, for all. Not mentioned. Afghans and Chechnyans." Yes, including the building of health Supports the right of care centers. Not mentioned. return. Yes, but without much information: "Providing main necessities of life including place, food and health for the people" and "Healthy family system protection" (2) Not mentioned. Not mentioned. Yes, but not specified clearly. About pensions to women, widows and orphans see the end of the Question Against Israel. Critical of 5. NO Zionism. fervently agains Israel (treats it as a threat) and Zionism. Often times anti- semitic. P.10, 11,14, 21, 67, 69. The platform supports the creation of an Yes, it promises universal healthcare independent Plestenian for women (p.97), universal state and promises to healthcare and other kinds of support provide support to that to the disabled and needy (p. 93) NO end. P. 167 Yes it does without specifying. P.6, p. Later the platform proposes increasing the budget of Social Solidarity and Cooperation Fund which will help the needy. Pp. 8-9 NO Not mentioned Not specified. But several times help to needy (handicapped etc. is mentioned without giving specifics.) NO No reference to the issue. The party proposes Yes. Yet they are not clearly establishment of an identified. In the section on family it is independent Palestinian proposed to help needy families. state (its capital city being P.39. In the sections on social security Jerusalem) and also that and health the party proposes to Turkey should pressure on provide basic needs (education, Israel so that the latter healthcare etc) to every citizen. Pp.36- obeys UN resolutions. P. 38,. NO 44 Yes, the platform calls for universal healthcare (p.80, 89), and support to all needy groups, individuals (those groups and individuals are very precisely and in detail described (also what will be done) pp. 90-102, 104- 110.. NO NO NO. Yet, a crusade like attack against Muslims (globally) is underlined along with the necessity to fight against this attack. (word such as Gaza which connote a holy Not specified. But struggle are employed. repeatedly Israel's hidden, "Gazaniz mubarek malignant plots are olsun." ("May your addressed and also the Yes. For underdeveloped regions (p. sacred struggle be need to be aware of those 32.), for the handicapped and other blessed.") P.1 (Section and fight against them. P. needy people (p.33). III). 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26 Reconsidering wages and salaries so as to meet the living standards. Guaranteeing the employees' rights of Not mentioned. Giving medical care. (p. 25) providing financial and moral medication at a low price. (p. 37) Risk support to all Arab and supporting the jihad of the compensations should be allotted to Islamic countries that Palestinians against the employers in the field of power, suffer annihilation and Zionist occupiers. Working sewage and water. (p. 38) Caring for oppression, such as for the establishment of a orphans, the disables, and the old Bosnia and Palestinian state on the people. (p. 41) Herzegovina. (p. 45) Palestinian land. (p. 44) "Provision of welfare services which would secure, to all members of society, their right to medical care, education, security, shelter and livelihood, and in doing so realising an "Zionist endeavours" are honorable standard of living on the cited as a key challenge in basis of securing due rights and the current period of fulfilling obligations. " Not mentioned. civilizational conflict." 10.Does the party mention an anti- 11.Does the party platform corruption stance in its propose banning interest 12.Is the party platform accepting of a platform? based banking? free market economy? Changing marketing policy to achieve market decentralization and to encounter the black market practices. Reconsideration of pricing policies. Not mentioned. Encouragement of market Reforming the trade Establishing Islamic banks competitions. Designing an policy to end monopoly, and saving funds free of all international trade policy that usury and bribery. (p. 96, types of usurious provides economic independence and 103) transactions. (p. 106) protection. (pp. 102-104) Not mentioned. However it is stated, " the loss of trust between the people Not mentioned. and the rulers is due to Establishing local saving despotism, institutions to collect embezzlement, and savings and to run projects authority exploitation". (p. in the light of the guidance 124) of shari`a. (p. 128) Not mentioned. Legitimate Trade is encouraged with all Fair and just distribution its types. The government should not of jobs and fighting interfere in pricing the commodities. bureaucracy, favoritism Usury is prohibited in all its (p. 143) Guarantee freedom of jointly- and bribery. (p. 145) types and forms. (143) owned ownership. (p. 143) Yes. Establishing an economic system that combines between free market and the state duty of observing the economic process. (p. 1) Algeria did a good job in liberating its economy from Not mentioned. One of the state hegemony and now heading the challenges of the in the privatization process. (p. 8) country is the bribery and Encouraging the private sector through corruption phenomenon a reconsideration of taxes, tariff and to evade paying taxes or consumption fees. (p. 14) Allowing the to gain easy money private sector to take part in policy- through monopoly and making and in drafting laws relevant to usury, therefore we , the economic projects. (p. 16) Encouraging party followers, need to investors to establish partnership rebuild a new just businesses and financing institutions economic system. (p. 11- with a view to increase resources. (p. 12) No. 17) Yes, even in the subtitle of the platform, "Together to No, but it does "encourage fight against corruption the creation of Islamic and build the country" (p. banks and banking 1) products" (item #16, p. 4) No Yes. In addition to promoting Islamic morality, an Ant- Yes. "Banks, investments Corruption department and other financial will be established. Those institutions will be made found guilty of corruption interest-free and the No. "Equal distribution of wealth" is will be given "exemplary economy will be the main goal, as is preventing punishment" to serve as a reorganized on the basis of capitalists from exploiting the poor and deterrent. (11) Islamic principles." (14) needy. (14) 13.1 says yes, but many other measures are heavily redistributive and one of the key points (made repeatedly) is the elimination of an Yes. Repeatedly. Yes. interest-based capitalist economy No. Proposed industrial expansion is to be implemented in a planned way. Yes. Repeatedly. Usury to be abolished Limitations on trade. Yes, with a prominent defense of the two JI ministers of the previous government who were prosectued by the Anti- Corruption Commission. In its own subsection of the platform, corruption is described as "the single No. (Interest rates are most harmful obstacle to mentioned several times in No. Key food items such as rice, milk development and the context of using them and lentils are to be provided at prosperity" as a policy tool) subsidised prices. Yes, it calls for: the reconsideration of laws relating to corruption and illegal money-earning laws; the prohibition of receiving gifts or moral or financial benefits for people who work in the government; the disclosure of state monitoring reports, esp. . Not mentioned. But it calls those of the Central upon the government to Auditing Organization and set up non-Riba banks and Yes, by calling upon the government to the Administrative to establish another entity encourage the national investments, Monitoring Authority. (p. to be responsible to collect and offering facilities such as tariff and 310) Zakah. (p. 315) custom exemptions. (p. 314) Yes. It asserts the freedom of economic ventures, the role of the individual and One of the economic the honoring of multi-property reform principles is to businesses. It encourages privatization fight non-legal wealth through a well-studied privatization acquisition. (p. 174) program. It encourages exports and Penalties have to be works for opening new markets. It doubled. on economic and holds to the significance of cooperation financial corruption with the rest of the world and agree to crimes. These crimes the agreement of free trade and is would include usurping committed to the open policy state money or lands, non- principles provided that it does not payment of taxes, and entail any form of subjugation or bribery. (p. 176) Not mentioned. domination by others. (p. 173-5) Maybe - discusses colonial introduction of "usurious No banking system" (p. 11). Not mentioned. Yes - the spread of corruption is highlighted No. Many proposals describe extensive as a big problem. Ban on usury is proposed. control and involvment of the state. Yes, the economy section of the national agenda platform calls for an efficient, clean and Yes, as indicated in the economy transparent government section of the national agenda that discourages platform, but emphasis is placed on an corruption and collusion economy that is oriented towards the (p. 95). No. ideal of fairness and equality (p. 94-95). Yes, administrative reform and integrity are Not mentioned. The focus is on important for fighting establishing basics such as electricity, bribery and corruption. No. fuel, communications etc. At the outset of the platform, the Front makes one of its main goal to fight administrative and financial corruption through the reactivation of the financial monitoring administration, giving the public integrity administration more power to go after the corrupt individuals, Encouraging national industries following the standard through necessary regulations to international regulations increase production as well as in tender and bids improving the quality. Maintaining the transactions, drafting new government-run factories and regulations for developing their operational appointments in the organization through the participation government based on of the private sector and allowing the qualifications and not on labor force to join in as partners and favoritism, etc. Not mentioned. not as employees. Yes. They propose "Developing the private sector and entrepreneurship, supporting businessmen and free trade, and facilitating internal and external investment. This sector needs to be organized by law, protected from Yes. They want to root out corruption and exhausting red tapes, corruption through the and opened to every citizen without courts. Not mentioned. any discrimination and monopoly." Bribery and favoritism are to be fought. (p. 3) Examining the huge debts that the country suffers from and identifying the people responsible for this and bring them to court Developing the private sector along for punishment. (p. 5) with the public one. Encouraging Abolishing all the private investment and protection of concessions that were a personal property. Regulating the result of office process of export and import in a way exploitation and holding that serves the interests of the those responsible for this country. Protecting the local accountable and bringing Usury has to be prohibited production and only exporting in case them to justice. (p. 8) in all its forms. (p. 8) of the lack of local alternatives. (p. 6) Yes. figting administrative and financial corruption is mentioned. (p.1) In the earlier parliament, the proposal of the non-legal earning was drafted and it Privatization policies have to be was in its final stages regulated so as to encourage the before the dissolution of private sector to join the government the parliament. Also a Yes. It encourages the in carrying the burden. P. B/9). parliamentary reconsideration of finance Updating the custom laws and investigation committee laws in such a way that reconsideration of the tariffs. was formed to examine a would guarantee its Modernizing the law of ministry of number of administrative purification of usury. (p. 5) Trade to encourage investments and to and financial corruptions Adopting an agricultural protect business ventures. The that were attributed to a loan system as an participation of private sectors in number of ministers for alternative to the usurious making of the economic policies and the first time. (p. 3) system. (p. B/ 3) economic legislations. (p. B/9) Fighting bribery and favoritism and all other The reconsideration of types of corruption. (p.3) finance laws so as to purify Disclosing to the public all it from usury and make it information that have to agree with the shari`a rules. do with corruption and p. 2) Adopting an the corrupts and bring agricultural loan system as those corrupt people an alternative to the before civil courts. (p. 17) usurious system. (p. 10) Not mentioned. Fighting the financial and administrative corruption. The reconsideration of (p. 10) Disclosing to the finance laws so as to purify public all information that it from usury and make it have to do with agree with the shari`a rules. corruption and the (p. 2) Adopting an corrupts and bring those agricultural loan system as corrupt people before civil an alternative to the A governmental follow up to control courts. (p. 11) usurious system. (p. 7) the production prices. 8) The people's assembly should use his constitutional right to encounter the corruption in the government system. (89) Issuing a law on the state-council-level Not mentioned. Introducing new for administrative amendments in the public sector laws, monitoring. Putting the public service laws, national bank laws, framework for a new etc. with a view to enhancing the administrative policy production performance. Privatizing philosophy to fight some public sector services so as to corruption, and lead to a better quality service. favoritism. (90) The same Encouraging investment in various also applies to the sectors like pertol, food, agricultural, economic sector. (94) Not mentioned. medical, aviation, etc. It calls for the establishment of economic ventures so as to enable Kuwait to be a developed economic country within the coming 20 years. It is implied that the Arab Also the Kuwaiti investments outside economy should get rid of the country should be developed and usurious transactions since directed toward the more stable it is against the Islamic eastern markets. It encourages the principles and the Arab private sector to participate in projects societies are waiting to that are related to vital fields such as Yes, especially in the reorganize their economic education, transportation and health. administrative life according to Islamic The private sector participation should institutions. teachings. (p.1) be on the basis of B.O.T. The party takes a strong position against corruption in the government and other public institutions. It calls for the establishment of an anti-corruption government institution to encounter all administrative and financial corruption. The Accounting administration should be empowered to play its role in this process. The movement will work also to issue Not clear. The movement calls for the legislations that would encouragement of the private sector. force those in power, be (p.11) It also encourages hardwork to in the legislative or the boost the national economy and good executive administration, use of the natural wealth and to provide their financial resources through a strategic vision record and how they with a view to make Kuwait an collected their wealth. economic and trade world center. (p. (see pp. 6, 9, 10, 12,13) Not mentioned. 10) The party stands against corruption and considers it one of the main causes of the Kuwaiti problems. It does not state that. But the party One way of encountering calls for economic reform through the the corruption is to establishment of a higher authority reform the political that plan for the country economy. It process so as to be able to also stresses the need for a new vision nominate the good honest for the stock market and the and trusty individuals and establishment of a capital market hence fighting anti- authority to create trust and credibility corruption. Also, it is in the financial transactions. The party through the application of Yes it does. It considers also endorses the issuing of shari`a since its main this interest one of the privatization legislations and the objective is to achieve the main reason for the minimizing of the government role and people welfare and to aggravation of the debt interference in the economic activities fight corruption. (p. 1) problem. (p. 2) and the business ventures. (p. 2) No, but meritocracy is presented as an No. A market economy is a "western alternative to sectarian mode of production" being pushed by favoritism. No - not mentioned. Israel and backed by the US (248) The platform points to "the state's responsibilities to the citizens" and the No No role of the public sector (257). Yes. Opening Quranic quote is about corruption, though only one line on corruption is in the There is a commitment to the principle platform proper. No - not mentioned. of fair competition. (264) No No - not mentioned. Not mentioned. The financial system is to be reformed so as not to "conflict with Islamic values," while investment Yes, corruption, cronyism and credit facilities are to and nepotism on the part be oriented towards Without specifically mentioning the of the political elite are productive sectors rather market, the economic policies repeatedly mentioned. than speculation. described are market oriented Yes, anti-corruption is included as an important part of the manifesto. No. Yes. Yes, anti-corruption is a major part of the Although this is not mentioned, there manifesto (cf. pp. 1, 3, 7, is nothing to suggest the party opposes 8, 10, 14). No. it. The party has a strong stand against corruption. Fighting corruption and bribe is one of the greatest national priorities. Anti-corruption and bribe disclosure Not clearly stated. The culture should be spread party works against all among he people. The different forms of usurious party calls for the transactions. It seeks to establishment of a find out alternatives for national independent these transactions. The committee to create an party will work for educational awareness illegalizing the production against corruption, and selling of wine for favoritism, bribe, etc. (p. Muslims. It will work to 11) National dialogue bring to life the law drafts among cultural of banning bars and the organizations need to be like. These law drafts were The platform accepts the free market organized with a view to deposited in the parliament economy. It confirms the protection of creating a code of ethics records but not discussed economic freedom, the sacredness of to fight corruption. (p. 12) till now. The party will property, and the support of open door Increasing the citizens' propose the reviewing of policy. It encourages free trade, as long awareness of their rights the laws of small loans so as it does not harm the public interest. to expose administrative as to promote providing no- It encourage the private sector . (p. 34, corruption and how they interest laws for small 32) The party encourages investment ask for their rights The businesses for the un- and responds to what this entails of responsibilities of the employed. (pp.8, 25) administrative and legal reform. (p. 35) Yes: "Go from 79th place to 40th place in the corruption rankings." (p. Yes, in passing: "Encourage the private 3) Not mentioned. sector to promote development." (p. 3) Yes. Corruption will be countered through the Yes, as they consider inculcation of properly interest to be prohibited in Islamic morals. Islam (26) No specific mention. Yes. It targets the federal The emphasis is on redistribution and bureaucracy and their welfare, including encouraging "extravagent "cooperative farming" and establishing expenditures" (15). No. "fair price shops" (13). Yes, corruption will be The focus is on provision of basic eradicated. No. goods. The party "will apply the policy "where from did you get this"; to achieve this goal control systems will be set up to monitor the activities of civil servants and others." No Not mentioned. No. Under economic Yes. Under economic programs, programs, "Development "Stressing on economic development of banking and monitory and open market system … depending Not mentioned. system" (1) on private ownership" (1) Yes (p. 23). Corruption (bribery and iltimascilik) is linked to degeneration of (traditional/national) order of morals. The remedy is sought at establisment of a government compatible with Milli Gorus (National(its) Need to look up pp. 152- Outlook/Vision) pp.23-24. 155 Yes but under state control. Yes, very subtly. The platform proposes the Yes. Struggle agains creation of a non-interest corruption and bribery are credit system (as a tool, identified as major goals. means of development) Yes, yet also calls for the guidance and P.173 p.127. intervention of state. NO. Not mentioned. The Yes. Propagates a free market platform repeatedly economy which is based upon the emphasizes the primacy of principle of competition and which market forces. Yet, the does not allow exploitation.p.15 interest issue is not Supports privatization of stated owned Not Mentioned addressed. businesses. P.17. Yes. The solution proposed against corruption is liberalization of the state and bureaucracy and increased transparency . P. 5. of Part V) No Yes NO. Not mentioned. The party takes a critical position towards rentier economic model and exploitation (global) through high interests (regarding foreign debt) p.3. The platform identifies interest and rentier economic model as the most important tools of Yes. It is stated that neo-colonialism. p. 7. The corruption and bribery party is also critical of high had reached an extreme share of interest payments point and the platform in the state budget and proposes (A) recuperation proposes to save resources of moral and spiritual by decreasing the amount values (B) making state allocated for interest Yes. Yet it is also highly critical of neo- expenditures transparent. payments. pp. 18-19, 21. liberal policies which are pointed as (C ) Reforming the Yet, banning interest based causing increased poverty and economic system. Pp30- banking categorically is not discrepancy among income groups and 31. addressed. countries. Yes, the policies proposed to fight against corruption are addressed at pages 157-158. NO Yes Not Specified. Yet interest (based) economy is identified as a major Not specified. Only once problem (the issue is the term corruption is discussed while analyzing used and no detail the past five years of AKP Yes. Yet the party calls for increased analysis or remedies are and its 'destructive' control on interest based economic addressed. P. 34. policies).p.15 model. Encouraging exports and facilitating its process and offering export subsidization to be able to compete. (p. Holding accountable all 27) Protecting private ownership and those get involved in forbidding seizing unless in dire need. bribery and corruption. (p. (p. 27) Adopting the principle of free 28) Monitoring payments Getting rid of the usurious trade and forbidding monopoly and and fighting the transactions and replacing setting a special policy for import and administrative and it with Islamic banking export. (p. 28) Going ahead with the financial corruption. (p. 38 services. (p. 27) privatization process. (p. 30) Yes. Administrative corruption is to be tackled through the promotion of a market economy with a limited role for the state, as well as "a programme that is based on Islamic Yes. The party avows "[r]espect for principles and values and private ownership" and puts forward a mobilises the people's limited role for the state (chiefly spiritual energies and infrastructure" and setting the social powers" No conditions for free competition. 13.Is the party platform encouraging towards foreign investment? Encouraging the establishment of Arab and Islamic joint market. Reconsideration of the policy of public ownership to protect it from falling into the hands of foreigners. (p. 102) Encouraging the Algerians and other Muslims abroad to invest their money in an effort to improve the national economy. Such an endeavor is part of the jihad with wealth. (p. 105) Not mentioned. Making use of the wealth of the Algerian expatriates through introducing new investment forms like musharkah or mudarabah, i.e. types of partnership. Encouraging national investments, then the Arabic and then the foreign, however within the limits of clear and precise laws.(p. 142) Joining international institutions to guarantee the incoming of foreign investment. Giving foreign investors priority in the strategic industries like agriculture. (p. 14) Encouraging commercial banks and national finance institutions to attract foreign investment. (p. 17) Yes: item #21, page 4 Unclear. Investment is not mentioned. The platform is receptive to increased trade with Muslim countries, but not others. No No. Emphasis is on autarkic self- reliance. "Foreign investment shall be encouraged by bringing reforms to the Board of Investment and amending the relevant rules and regulations without marginalising the interests of the nation." While the platform explicitly encourages foreign investment, there is also a consistent emphasis on self- sufficiency in the national interest, e.g. "National interest shall be given the highest priority in awarding contracts to foreign companies", and a desire for a strong resistence against "neo- colonial domination." Stressing Arab investment. Encouraging other foreign investment provided that it does not result in subjugation to others and to be real investment. (p. 314-315) Encouraging Arab investments first, then the Islamic and then from the rest of the world . (p. 175-76) Not mentioned. Economic self-sufficiency is a priority. Yes, the economy section of the national agenda platform encourages foreign direct investment (p. 95). Not mentioned. Yes. The platform calls for foreign investment to develop the industrial sector, on the condition that this should not be on the expense of the national interest or economy. Yes. Not mentioned. Only Arab and Islamic investment is mentioned to develop heavy industries, especially weapon industry.. (p. 7) The focus was on Arab investment and the establishment of Arab Market and Arab economic integration to encounter the Jewish conspiracy of controlling the region's economy. (p. B/9) Encouraging Arab investments with a hope to achieve integration in various fields. Introducing legislations that would help coping with the world economic corporations. Encouraging investments but with monitoring the foreign investment in order to prevent it from controlling the national economy and to protect the national industries. (p. 12-13) Encouraging Arab investment. Monitoring the foreign investors to avoid their control over the national economy. (p. 19) Not mentioned. The opposite however is mentioned. Making strategic use of the Kuwaiti foreign investments so as to contribute to the advancement of the Kuwaiti economics and to be a significant asset in the state budget and its public reserve for the coming generations. The party indicates that the foreign investment should be organized in a way that makes the foreign investor make use of the local industries and provide job opportunities for the indigenous people. (p.2) Yes, it encourages foreign investment. (p. 11) Not mentioned. Not mentioned. No mention of foreign investment. Local production is to be protected (263). No direct mention, but foreign intervention in any form is to be rejected. Speculative investment of the sort associated with the 1997-98 economic crisis is not welcome. Yes, the manifesto encourages cooperation between foreign and domestic producers and consumers. Although this is not mentioned, there is nothing to suggest the party opposes it. The platform encourages the foreign investment. It calls for adopting a diplomatic and media agenda that would attract the foreign investments. Providing incentives and facilities to international companies to invest in Morocco to help enhance the Moroccan small businesses. Foreign investment should be done in coordination with the national investment to make the best use of investment for the benefit of the national economy. Joint investment with Islamic institutions should be also organized. Encouraging Moroccan expatriate to invest in Morocco should be also planned. (p. 39) Not mentioned. Not mentioned. No. Self-reliance is mentioned. The party wants to "To get the country and people rid of influence of imperialistic forces and their local agents" Not mentioned. Yes. Under economic programs, "Encouragement of internal and external investors" (1) Critical of foreign investments in the country. Critical also of dependence on foreign industrial product, deems that as an obstacle to dependence. (pp. 21- 22) Not sympathetic to foreign (western) investment or intervention/participation/cooperation in Turkish economy. Against European integration and European common Market (pp. 59-62), calls for self- reliance for a sustainable and strong developmentalist policy. Also critical of IMF (p.26). The platform proposes to take measures to encourage the inflow of foreign investments and full integration with the world economy.P.19 The platform discusses the ways of attracting more and constructive foreign investment. P3 of Part IV. Very critical of Foreign capitalist exploitation and dominance (IMF, World bank) on Turkish economy. Yet the investment issue is not clearly explained. But overall not very sympathetic to western capitals entrance to Turkey. Supports foreign investment and proposes to take measures to encourage it. Pp.205-206. Not very friendly towards IMF or western capital. Calls for increased cooperation among Muslim economies. Encouraging domestic and foreign investments to work in the field of agriculture, etc. (p. 27) Encouraging foreign investment as an alternative to seeking loans. (p. 26-27) Stressing cooperation with Arab and neighboring investors. (p. 28, 44) Not mentioned.
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