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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt Children Alma mater Occupation Religion Signature Military service Service/ branch Years of service Rank Commands Battles/wars Awards United States Army 1898 Colonel 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment (Rough Riders) Spanish-American War (Battle of San Juan Hill) Nobel Peace Prize (1906), Medal of Honor Alice, Ted, Kermit, Ethel, Archie, Quentin Columbia Law School - dropped out; Harvard College Statesman, author, historian, conservationist, civil servant Dutch Reformed

26th President of the United States In office September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909 Vice President None [1]

Charles W. Fairbanks

Preceded by Succeeded by

William McKinley William Howard Taft

25th Vice President of the United States In office March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901 President Preceded by Succeeded by William McKinley Garret Hobart Charles W. Fairbanks

33rd Governor of New York In office January 1, 1899 – December 31, 1900 Lieutenant Preceded by Succeeded by Timothy L. Woodruff Frank S. Black Benjamin B. Odell, Jr.

Assistant Secretary of the Navy In office 1897 – 1898 President Born Died Political party Spouse William McKinley October 27, 1858(1858-10-27) New York, New York January 6, 1919 (aged 60) Oyster Bay, New York Republican (1897–1912) Progressive Party (1912–1916) (1) Alice Hathaway Lee (married 1880, died 1884) (2) Edith Kermit Carow (married 1886)

Theodore Roosevelt[2] (pronounced /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/;[3] October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), also known as T.R., and to the public (but never to friends and intimates) as Teddy, was the 26th President of the United States. A leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Party, he was a Governor of New York and a professional historian, naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier. He is most famous for his personality: his energy, his vast range of interests and achievements, his model of masculinity, and his "cowboy" image. Originating from a story from one of Roosevelt’s hunting expeditions, teddy bears are named after him. As Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Roosevelt prepared for and advocated war with Spain in 1898. He organized and helped command the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment—the Rough Riders—during the Spanish-American War. Returning to New York as a war hero, he was elected governor. An avid writer, his 35 books include works on outdoor life, natural history, the American frontier, political history, naval history, and his autobiography.[4] In 1901, as Vice President, the 42-year-old Roosevelt succeeded President William McKinley after McKinley’s assassination by anarchist Leon Czolgosz. As of 2009, he remains the youngest person to become President.[5] He was a Progressive reformer who sought to move the


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dominant Republican Party into the Progressive camp. He distrusted wealthy businessmen and dissolved forty monopolistic corporations as a "trust buster". He was clear, however, to show that he did not disagree with trusts and capitalism in principle, but was only against corrupt, illegal practices. His "Square Deal" promised a fair shake for both the average citizen (through regulation of railroad rates and pure food and drugs) and the businessmen. He was the first U.S. president to call for universal health care and national health insurance.[6][7] As an outdoorsman, he promoted the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources. After 1906 he attacked big business and suggested the courts were biased against labor unions. In 1910, he broke with his friend and anointed successor William Howard Taft, but lost the Republican nomination to Taft and ran in the 1912 election on his own one-time Bull Moose ticket. He beat Taft in the popular vote and pulled so many Progressives out of the Republican Party that Democrat Woodrow Wilson won in 1912, and the conservative faction took control of the Republican Party for the next two decades. Roosevelt negotiated for the U.S. to take control of the Panama Canal and its construction in 1904; he felt the Canal’s completion was his most important and historically significant international achievement. He was the first American to be awarded the Nobel Prize, winning its Peace Prize in 1906, for negotiating the peace in the Russo-Japanese War, an interesting irony considering his promotion of national warfare as a useful tool. Historian Thomas Bailey, who disagreed with Roosevelt’s policies, nevertheless concluded, "Roosevelt was a great personality, a great activist, a great preacher of the moralities, a great controversialist, a great showman. He dominated his era as he dominated conversations....the masses loved him; he proved to be a great popular idol and a great vote getter."[8] His image stands alongside Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln on Mount Rushmore. Roosevelt has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents. Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt were fifth cousins but were close and Theodore gave away his orphaned niece, Eleanor Roosevelt, in marriage to "cousin Franklin" in 1905. [9]

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt at age 11 younger siblings—his brother Elliott (the father of future First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt), and his sister Corinne (grandmother of newspaper columnists Joseph and Stewart Alsop). The Roosevelts had been in New York since the mid-17th century. Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family; by the 19th century, the family had grown in wealth, power and influence from the profits of several businesses including hardware and plate-glass importing. The family was strongly Democratic in its political affiliation until the mid-1850s, then joined the new Republican Party. Theodore’s father, known in the family as "Thee", was a New York City philanthropist, merchant, and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son. He was a prominent supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Union effort during the American Civil War. His mother Mittie Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Roswell, Georgia and had quiet Confederate sympathies. Mittie’s brother, Theodore’s uncle, James Dunwoody Bulloch, was a United States Navy officer who became a Confederate admiral and naval procurement agent in Britain. Another uncle, Irvine Bulloch, was a midshipman on the Confederate raider CSS Alabama; both remained in England after the war.[11] From his grandparents’ home, the young Roosevelt witnessed Abraham Lincoln’s funeral procession when it came through New York. Sickly and asthmatic as a youngster, Roosevelt had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much of his early childhood, and had frequent ailments. Despite his illnesses, he was a hyperactive and often mischievous boy. His lifelong interest in zoology was formed at age seven upon seeing a dead seal at a local market. After obtaining the seal’s head, the young

Childhood, education and personal life
Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street,[10] in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City, the second of four children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1878) and Mittie Bulloch (1835–1884). He had an elder sister Anna, nicknamed "Bamie" as a child and "Bye" as an adult for being always on the go, and two


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Roosevelt and two of his cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Learning the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with many animals that he killed or caught, studied, and prepared for display. At age nine, he codified his observation of insects with a paper titled "The Natural History of Insects".[12] Roosevelt described his childhood experiences in a 1903 letter writing: As far as I can remember they were absolutely commonplace. I was a rather sickly, rather timid little boy, very fond of desultory reading and of natural history, and not excelling in any form of sport. Owing to my asthma I was not able to go to school, and I was nervous and self-conscious, so that as far as I can remember my belief is that I was rather below than above my average playmate in point of leadership; though as I had an imaginative temperament this sometimes made up for my other short-comings. Altogether, while, thanks to my father and mother, I had a very happy childhood I am inclined to look back at it with some wonder that I should have come out of it as well as I have! It was not until after I was sixteen that I began to show any prowess, or even ordinary capacity; up to that time, except making collections of natural history, reading a good deal in certain narrowly limited fields and indulging in the usual scribbling of the small boy who does not excel in sport, I cannot remember that I did anything that even lifted me up to the average." [13] To combat his poor physical condition, his father encouraged the young Roosevelt to take up exercise. To deal with bullies, Roosevelt started boxing lessons.[14] Two trips abroad had a permanent impact: family tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and of the Middle East 1872 to 1873. Theodore, Sr. had a tremendous influence on his son. Of him Roosevelt wrote, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness."[15] In a 1900 letter, Roosevelt said of his father, I was fortunate enough in having a father whom I have always been able to regard as an ideal man. It sounds a little like cant to say what I am going to say, but he really did combine the strength and courage and will and energy of the strongest man with the tenderness, cleanness and purity of a woman. I was a sickly and timid boy. He not only took great and untiring care of me—some of my earliest

Theodore Roosevelt
remembrances are of nights when he would walk up and down with me for an hour at a time in his arms when I was a wretched mite suffering acutely with asthma— but he also most wisely refused to coddle me, and made me feel that I must force myself to hold my own with other boys and prepare to do the rough work of the world. I cannot say that he ever put it into words, but he certainly gave me the feeling that I was always to be both decent and manly, and that if I were manly nobody would laugh at my being decent. In all my childhood he never laid hand on me but once, but I always knew perfectly well that in case it became necessary he would not have the slightest hesitancy in doing so again, and alike from my love and respect, and in a certain sense, my fear of him, I would have hated and dreaded beyond measure to have him know that I had been guilty of a lie, or of cruelty, or of bullying, or of uncleanness or of cowardice. Gradually I grew to have the feeling on my own account, and not merely on his." [16] Roosevelt’s sister, Corinne, later wrote, "He told me frequently that he never took any serious step or made any vital decision for his country without thinking first what position his father would have taken."[17] Young "Teedie", as he was nicknamed as a child, (the nickname "Teddy" was from his first wife, Alice Hathaway Lee, and he later harbored an intense dislike for it due to her untimely death) was mostly home schooled by tutors and his parents. A leading biographer says: "The most obvious drawback to the home schooling Roosevelt received was uneven coverage of the various areas of human knowledge." He was solid in geography (thanks to his careful observations on all his travels) and very well read in history, strong in biology, French and German, but deficient in mathematics, Latin and Greek.[18] He matriculated at Harvard College in 1876. His father’s death in 1878 was a tremendous blow, but Roosevelt redoubled his activities. He did well in science, philosophy and rhetoric courses but fared poorly in Latin and Greek. He studied biology with great interest and indeed was already an accomplished naturalist and published ornithologist. He had a photographic memory and developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorizing every detail.[19] He was an eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his life, sought out the company of the smartest people. He could multitask in extraordinary fashion, dictating letters to one secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new book. As a young Sunday school teacher at Christ Church, Roosevelt was once reprimanded for rewarding a young man $1 who showed up to his class with a black eye for fighting a bully. The bully had supposedly pinched his sister and the young man was standing up for her.


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Roosevelt thought this to be honorable, however the church deemed it too flagrant of support of fighting.[20] While at Harvard, Roosevelt was active in rowing, boxing, the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and was a member of the Porcellian Club. He also edited a student magazine. He was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship, losing to C.S. Hanks. In later years, pondering his largely home-based early education and his college experience in his autobiography, Roosevelt expressed mixed feelings about the its value in preparing him for public service, writing: All this individual morality I was taught by the books I read at home and the books I studied at Harvard. But there was almost no teaching of the need for collective action, and of the fact that in addition to, not as a substitute for, individual responsibility, there is a collective responsibility....The teaching which I received was genuinely democratic in one way. It was not so democratic in another. I grew into manhood thoroughly imbued with the feeling that a man must be respected for what he made of himself. But I had also, consciously or unconsciously, been taught that socially and industrially pretty much the whole duty of the man lay in thus making the best of himself; that he should be honest in his dealings with others and charitable in the old-fashioned way to the unfortunate; but that it was no part of his business to join with others in trying to make things better for the many by curbing the abnormal and excessive development of individualism in a few. Now I do not mean that this training was by any means all bad. On the contrary, the insistence upon individual responsibility was, and is, and always will be, a prime necessity.... But such teaching, if not corrected by other teaching, means acquiescence in a riot of lawless business individualism which would be quite as destructive to real civilization as the lawless military individualism of the Dark Ages. I left college and entered the big world owing more than I can express to the training I had received, especially in my own home; but with much else also to learn if I were to become really fitted to do my part in the work that lay ahead for the generation of Americans to which I belonged." [21] Upon graduating, Roosevelt underwent a physical examination and his doctor advised him that due to serious heart problems, he should find a desk job and avoid strenuous activity. He chose to embrace strenuous life instead.[22] He graduated Phi Beta Kappa (22nd of 177) from Harvard in 1880, and entered Columbia Law School. When offered a chance to run for New York Assemblyman in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his new goal of entering public life.[23]

Theodore Roosevelt

First book published - The Naval War of 1812
While at Harvard, Roosevelt began a systematic study of the role played by the nascent US Navy in the War of 1812, largely completing two chapters of a book he would publish after graduation. [24] He would later recall that in the middle of Mathematics classes at Harvard, his mind would wander from his lessons to the accomplishments of the infant US Navy[25]. Reading through literature on the subject, Roosevelt found both American and British accounts heavily biased and that there had been no systematic study of the tactics employed in the war. Although a challenge for a young man with no formal military or naval education, but helped in part by his two former Confederate naval officer Bulloch uncles, he did his own research using original source materials and official US Navy records. Unlike previous American and British books that ignored quantifiable facts to push a specific agenda, Roosevelt’s carefully researched book was akin to today’s modern doctoral dissertations, complete with carefully researched drawings depicting individual and combined ship maneuvers, charts depicting the differences in iron throw weights of cannon shot between American and British forces, and analyses of the differences between British and American leadership down to the ship-to-ship level. It is today considered one of the first modern American historical works. Published after Roosevelt’s graduation from Harvard, "The Naval War of 1812" was immediately accepted by reviewers who praised the book’s scholarship and style. The newly established Naval War College adopted it for study, and the Department of the Navy ordered a copy placed in the libraries of every capital ship in the Fleet. This book would help establish Roosevelt’s reputation as a serious historian.[26] Roosevelt brought out a subsequent edition including questions and answers from both scholars and critics. One modern naval historian wrote: "Roosevelt’s study of the War of 1812 influenced all subsequent scholarship on the naval aspects of the War of 1812 and continues to be reprinted. More than a classic, it remains, after 120 years, a standard study of the war."[27]

First marriage and response to catastropic loss
Alice Hathaway Lee (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884 in Manhattan, New York) was the first wife of Theodore Roosevelt and mother of their child, Alice. Roosevelt’s wife, Alice died of an undiagnosed (since it was camouflaged by her pregnancy) case of kidney failure called, in those days, Bright’s disease at 2 pm two days after Alice Lee was born. Theodore Roosevelt’s mother had died of typhoid fever in the same house, on the same day, at 3 am, some eleven hours earlier. After the near simultaneous deaths of his mother and wife, Roosevelt left his daughter in the care


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Theodore Roosevelt

Roosevelt as NY State Assemblyman, 1883 photo of his sister, Anna "Bamie/Bye" in New York City. In his diary he wrote a large X on the page and wrote "the light has gone out of my life." (See diary photo). A short time later, Roosevelt wrote a tribute to his wife published privately indicating that: She was beautiful in face and form, and lovelier still in spirit; As a flower she grew, and as a fair young flower she died. Her life had been always in the sunshine; there had never come to her a single sorrow; and none ever knew her who did not love and revere her for the bright, sunny temper and her saintly unselfishness. Fair, pure, and joyous as a maiden; loving , tender, and happy. As a young wife; when she had just become a mother, when her life seemed to be just begun, and when the years seemed so bright before her—then, by a strange and terrible fate, death came to her. And when my heart’s dearest died, the light went from my life forever.[28] To the immense disappointment of his wife’s namesake and daughter, Alice, he would not speak of his wife publicly or privately for the rest of his life and made no mention of her in his autobiography. As late as 1919 when Roosevelt was working with Joseph Bucklin Bishop

Diary Entry Feb 14, 1884 on a biography which included a collection of his letters, Roosevelt made no mention of either his first marriage nor the circumstances of his second marriage which took place in London. [29] A letter written at that time to a young female friend of Roosevelt’s sister Corinne, who had lost a loved one, demonstrated Roosevelt’s method of dealing with catastrophic loss. After his death, in her memoirs, his sister Corinne described this letter as "full of a certain quality — what perhaps I might call call a righteous ruthlessness specially characteristic of Theodore Roosevelt," because he had written, "I hate to think of her suffering; but the only thing for her to do now is to treat it as past, the event as finished and out of her life; to dwell on it, and above all to keep talking of it with any one, would be both weak and morbid. She should try not to think of it; this she cannot wholly avoid, but she CAN avoid speaking of it. She should show a brave and cheerful front to the world, whatever she feels; and henceforth she should never speak one word of the matter to any one. In the long future, when the memory is too dead to throb, she may, if she wishes, speak of it once more, but if wise and brave, she will not speak of it now." [30] Roosevelt would later indicate that this was his only method of dealing with a such a debilitating loss, indicating to a grieving friend, "There is nothing more foolish


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and cowardly than to be beaten down by a sorrow which nothing we can do will change." [31] or, in the words of his biographer, Edmund Morris, "Like a lion obsessively trying to drag a spear from its flank, Roosevelt set about dislodging Alice Lee from his soul. Nostalgia, a weakness to which he was abnormally vulnerable, could be indulged if it was pleasant, but if painful it must be suppressed, ’until the memory is too dead to throb.’" [32]

Theodore Roosevelt

Early political career
Roosevelt was a Republican activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than any other New York state legislator. Already a major player in state politics, he attended the Republican National Convention in 1884 and fought alongside the Mugwump reformers; they lost to the Stalwart faction that nominated James G. Blaine. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in supporting Democrat Grover Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, he debated with his friend Henry Cabot Lodge the pros and cons of staying loyal. When asked by a reporter whether he would support Blaine, he replied, "That question I decline to answer. It is a subject I do not care to talk about."[33] Upon leaving the convention, he complained "off the record" to a reporter about Blaine’s nomination. But, in probably the most crucial moment of his young political career, he resisted the very instinct to bolt from the Party that would overwhelm his political sense in 1912. In an account of the Convention, another reporter quoted him as saying that he would give "hearty support to any decent Democrat." He would later take great (and to some historical critics such as Henry Pringle, rather disingenuous) pains to distance himself from his own earlier comment, indicating that while he made it, it had not been made "for publication."[34] Leaving the convention, his idealism quite disillusioned by party politics, Roosevelt indicated that he had no further aspiration but to retire to his ranch in the wild Badlands of the Dakota Territory that he had purchased the previous year while on a buffalo hunting expedition.

Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo. Tolstoy to keep himself awake. When he ran out of his own books, he read a dime store western that one of the thieves was carrying."[35] While working on a tough project aimed at hunting down a group of relentless horse thieves, Roosevelt came across the famous Deadwood Sheriff, Seth Bullock. The two would remain friends for life.[36] After the uniquely severe U.S. winter of 1886-1887 wiped out his herd of cattle and his $60,000 investment (together with those of his competitors), he returned to the East, where in 1885 he had built Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York. It would be his home and estate until his death. Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City in 1886 as "The Cowboy of the Dakotas"; he came in third.

Life in Badlands
Roosevelt built a second ranch, which he named Elk Horn, thirty-five miles (56 km) north of the boomtown of Medora, North Dakota. On the banks of the Little Missouri, Roosevelt learned to ride western style, rope, and hunt. He rebuilt his life and began writing about frontier life for Eastern magazines. As a deputy sheriff, Roosevelt hunted down three outlaws who stole his river boat and were escaping north with it up the Little Missouri. Capturing them, he decided against hanging them (apparently yielding to established law procedures in place of vigilante justice), and sending his foreman back by boat, he took the thieves back overland for trial in Dickinson, guarding them forty hours without sleep and reading

Second marriage
Following the election, he went to London in 1886 and married his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow.[37] They honeymooned in Europe, and Roosevelt led a party to the summit of Mont Blanc, a feat which resulted in his induction into the British Royal Society.[38] They had five children: Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch "Archie", and Quentin.[39]

Roosevelt’s definitive 1882 book The Naval War of 1812 was the standard work on the topic for two generations and is still extensively quoted. Roosevelt undertook


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extensive and original research, computing British and American man-of-war broadside throw weights.[40] However, his biographies Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888) are considered hastily-written and superficial.[41] His four-volume history of the frontier titled The Winning of the West (1889–1896) had a notable impact on historiography, as it presented a highly original version of the frontier thesis elaborated upon by his friend Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893. Roosevelt argued the frontier conditions created a new race: the American people that replaced the "scattered savage tribes, whose life was but a few degrees less meaningless, squalid, and ferocious than that of the wild beasts with whom they held joint ownership." He believed, "the conquest and settlement by the whites of the Indian lands was necessary to the greatness of the race and to the well-being of civilized mankind." His many articles in upscale magazines provided a much-needed income. He was later chosen president of the American Historical Association.

Theodore Roosevelt
dishonorably discharged the entire 167 member regiment due to their accused "conspiracy of silence". Further investigations in the 1970s found that the black infantrymen were not at fault, and the Nixon Administration reversed all of the dishonorable discharges.[42] On the other hand, Roosevelt felt that the equality for the black race would come through progress from one generation to the next.[43] For this, he was lauded by liberal whites, and was received as the usher of a new era in the black community.[44] William McGill, a black preacher in Tennessee, wrote: "The administration of President Roosevelt is to the Negro what the heart is to the body. It has pumped life blood into every artery of the Negro in this country."[45] Pope Leo XIII remarked approvingly of TR’s determination “to seek equality of treatment of all the races.”[46] Roosevelt wrote to a friend that, regarding the difficult issue of race relations, “the only wise and honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat each black man and each white man strictly on his merits as a man.”[47] Additionally, Roosevelt risked outrage (and perhaps physical harm) while speaking to a heavily-armed crowd in Butte, Montana during his 1903 Western tour: “I fought beside colored troops at Santiago [Cuba], and I hold that if a man is good enough to be put up and shot at then he is good enough for me to do what I can to get him a square deal.”[48] Perhaps his attitude is best understood in comparison to those of others in his time, who accused him of “mingling and mongrelization” of the white race; notably Benjamin Tillman, Senator of South Carolina, who commented on Roosevelt’s dining with Booker T. Washington: “The action of President Roosevelt in entertaining that nigger will necessitate our killing a thousand niggers in the South before they learn their place again.”[49]

Views on race
In The Winning of the West (1889–1896), Roosevelt’s frontier thesis stressed a racial struggle between "civilization" (white, especially Germanic peoples) and supposed savagery (of people of color, i.e., Native American Indians). Excerpts: 1. "The settler and pioneer have at bottom had justice on their side; this great continent could not have been kept as nothing but a game preserve for squalid savages." 2. "The most ultimately righteous of all wars is a war with savages." 3. "American and Indian, Boer and Zulu, Cossack and Tartar, New Zealander and Maori, – in each case the victor, horrible though many of his deeds are, has laid deep the foundations for the future greatness of a mighty people." 4. " is of incalculable importance that America, Australia, and Siberia should pass out of the hands of their red, black, and yellow aboriginal owners, and become the heritage of the dominant world races." 5. "The world would have halted had it not been for the Teutonic conquests in alien lands; but the victories of Moslem over Christian have always proved a curse in the end. Nothing but sheer evil has come from the victories of Turk and Tartar." On August 13 and 14, 1906, Brownsville, Texas was the site of what has come to be known as the Brownsville Affair. Racial tensions were high between white townsfolk and black infantrymen stationed at Fort Brown. On the night of August 13, one white bartender was killed and a white police officer was wounded by rifle shots in the street. Townsfolk, including the mayor, accused the infantrymen as the murderers. Without a chance to defend themselves in a hearing, President Roosevelt

Return to public life

New York State Assemblyman 1881 In the 1888 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned in the Midwest for Benjamin Harrison. President


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Harrison appointed Roosevelt to the United States Civil Service Commission, where he served until 1895.[50] In his term, Roosevelt vigorously fought the spoilsmen and demanded enforcement of civil service laws. One biographer described Roosevelt’s assault on the spoils system indicating that, The very citadel of spoils politics, the hitherto impregnable fortress that had existed unshaken since it was erected on the foundation laid by Andrew Jackson, was tottering to its fall under the assaults of this audacious and irrepressible young man...Whatever may have been the feelings of the (fellow Republican party) President (Harrison) — and there is little doubt that he had no idea when he appointed Roosevelt that he would prove to be so veritable a bull in a china shop—he refused to remove him and stood by him firmly till the end of his term. [51] . During this same time, the New York Sun described Roosevelt as "irrepressible, belligerent, and enthusiastic" [52] In spite of Roosevelt’s support for Harrison’s reelection bid in the presidential election of 1892, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland (a Bourbon Democrat), reappointed him to the same post. [53] Roosevelt became president of the board of New York City Police Commissioners in 1895. During his two years in this post, Roosevelt radically reformed the police department. The police force was reputed as one of the most corrupt in America. The NYPD’s history division records that Roosevelt was "an iron-willed leader of unimpeachable honesty, (who) brought a reforming zeal to the New York City Police Commission in 1895."[54] Roosevelt and his fellow commissioners established new disciplinary rules, created a bicycle squad to police New York’s traffic problems, and standardized the use of pistols by officers.[55] Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms and annual physical exams, appointed 1,600 new recruits based on their physical and mental qualifications and not on political affiliation, established meritorious service medals, and closed corrupt police hostelries. During his tenure, a Municipal Lodging House was established by the Board of Charities, and Roosevelt required officers to register with the Board. He also had telephones installed in station houses. Always an energetic man, he made a habit of walking officers’ beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure they were on duty.[56] He became caught up in public disagreements with Commissioner Parker, who sought to negate or delay the promotion of many officers put forward by Roosevelt. As Governor of New York State before becoming Vice President in March 1901, Roosevelt signed an act replacing the Police Commissioners with a single Police Commissioner.

Theodore Roosevelt

Assistant Secretary of the Navy
Roosevelt had always been fascinated by naval history. Urged by Roosevelt’s close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, President William McKinley appointed a delighted Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897. (Because of the inactivity of Secretary of the Navy John D. Long at the time, this basically gave Roosevelt control over the department.) Roosevelt was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the SpanishAmerican War[57] and was an enthusiastic proponent of testing the U.S. military in battle, at one point stating "I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one".[58][59]

War in Cuba

Col. Theodore Roosevelt Upon the 1898 Declaration of War launching the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt resigned from the Navy Department. With the aid of U.S. Army Colonel Leonard Wood, Roosevelt found volunteers from cowboys from the Western territories to Ivy League friends from New York, forming the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. The newspapers called them the "Rough Riders." Originally Roosevelt held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and served under Colonel Wood. In Roosevelt’s own account, The Rough Riders, "after General Young was


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struck down with the fever, and Wood took charge of the brigade. This left me in command of the regiment, of which I was very glad, for such experience as we had had is a quick teacher."[60] Accordingly, Wood was promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteer Forces, Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel and given command of the Regiment.[60] Under his leadership, the Rough Riders became famous for dual charges up Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898 (the battle was named after the latter "hill," which was the shoulder of a ridge known as San Juan Heights). Out of all the Rough Riders, Roosevelt was the only one with a horse, and used it to ride back and forth between rifle pits at the forefront of the advance up Kettle Hill; an advance which he urged in absence of any orders from superiors. However, he was forced to walk up the last part of Kettle Hill on foot, due to barbed wire entanglement and after his horse, Little Texas, became tired.

Theodore Roosevelt

Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing San Juan Hill For his actions, Roosevelt was nominated for the Medal of Honor which was subsequently disapproved. As historian John Gable wrote, "In later years Roosevelt would describe the Battle of San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898, as ’the great day of my life’ and ’my crowded hour.’.... (but) Malaria and other diseases now killed more troops than had died in battle. TR and other officers demanded that the soldiers be returned home. The famous "round robin letter," and a stronger letter by Roosevelt, were leaked to the press by the commanding general, enraging Secretary of War, Russell Alger and President McKinley. TR believed that it was this incident that cost him the Medal of Honor."[61] In September 1997, Congressman Rick Lazio, representing the 2nd District of New York, sent two award recommendations to the U.S. Army Military Awards Branch. These recommendations, addressed to Brigadier General Earl Simms, the Army’s Adjutant General, and Master Sergeant Gary Soots, Chief of Authorizations,

Congressional Medal of Honor would prove successful in garnering the much sought after award.[62] Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions.[63] The medal is currently on display in the Roosevelt Room of the White House.[64] He was the first and, as of 2008, the only President of the United States to be awarded with America’s highest military honor, and the only person in history to receive both his nation’s highest honor for military valor and the world’s foremost prize for peace.[65] His oldest son, Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., would also posthumously be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions at Normandy on June 6, 1944.[66] After his return to civilian life, Roosevelt preferred to be known as "Colonel Roosevelt" or "The Colonel." As a moniker, "Teddy" remained much more popular with


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the general public; however, political friends and others working closely with Roosevelt customarily addressed him by his rank.

Theodore Roosevelt
saying that would later be universally associated with him: "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far."

Governor and Vice-President

Presidency 1901-1909 Post-presidency
African safari

Roosevelt standing next to a dead elephant during a safari In March 1909, shortly after the end of his second term, Roosevelt left New York for a safari in east and central Africa. Roosevelt’s party landed in Mombasa, British East Africa (now Kenya), traveled to the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) before following the Nile up to Khartoum in modern Sudan. Financed by Andrew Carnegie and by his own proposed writings, Roosevelt’s party hunted for specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and for the American Museum of Natural History in New York. The group included scientists from the Smithsonian and was led by the legendary hunter-tracker R.J. Cunninghame and was joined from time to time by Frederick Selous, the famous big game hunter and explorer. Among other items, Roosevelt brought with him four tons of salt for preserving animal hides, a lucky rabbit’s foot given to him by boxer John L. Sullivan, an elephant-rifle donated by a group of 56 admiring Britons, and the famous Pigskin Library, a collection of classics bound in pig leather and transported in a single reinforced trunk. All told, Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped over 11,397 animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants. 512 of the animals were big game animals, including six rare white rhinos. 262 of these were consumed by the expedition. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped to Washington; the quantity was so large that it took years to mount them all, and the Smithsonian was able to share many duplicate animals with other museums.

Chicago newspaper sees cowboy-TR campaigning for governor On leaving the Army, Roosevelt was elected governor of New York in 1898 as a Republican. He made such a concerted effort to root out corruption and "machine politics" that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election, against the wishes of McKinley’s manager, Senator Mark Hanna. Roosevelt was a powerful campaign asset for the Republican ticket, which defeated William Jennings Bryan in a landslide based on restoration of prosperity at home and a successful war and new prestige abroad. Bryan stumped for Free Silver again, but McKinley’s promise of prosperity through the gold standard, high tariffs, and the restoration of business confidence enlarged his margin of victory. Bryan had strongly supported the war against Spain, but denounced the annexation of the Philippines as imperialism that would spoil America’s innocence. Roosevelt countered with many speeches that argued it was best for the Filipinos to have stability, and the Americans to have a proud place in the world. Roosevelt’s six months as Vice President (March to September 1901) were uneventful.[67] On September 2, 1901, at the Minnesota State Fair, Roosevelt first used in a public speech a


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Regarding the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, and all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned."[68] However, although the safari was ostensibly conducted in the name of science, there was another, quite large element to it as well. In addition to many native peoples and local leaders, interaction with renowned professional hunters and land owning families made the safari as much a political and social event, as it was a hunting excursion. Roosevelt wrote a detailed account of the adventure in the book African Game Trails, where he describes the excitement of the chase, the people he met, and the flora and fauna he collected in the name of science.

Theodore Roosevelt

Republican Party rift
Roosevelt certified William Howard Taft to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908, when Roosevelt pushed through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency. Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan. Taft had a different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and preferred that judges rather than administrators or politicians make the basic decisions about fairness. Taft usually proved a less adroit politician than Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made Roosevelt so formidable. When Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk severe tensions inside the Republican Party—pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against merchants and consumers—he stopped talking about the issue. Taft ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, and then cutting deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The resulting PayneAldrich tariff of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming this on Senator Nelson Aldrich and big business, Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever. Again he had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was building inside the Party, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe, so as to allow Taft to be his own man.[69] Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in his rhetoric. However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched 90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation, U.S. Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally approved. Consequently, Taft lost the support of antitrust reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric), of big business (which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated by his protégé. The left wing of the Republican Party began agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive

1909 cartoon: TR hands his policies to the care of Taft while William Loeb, Jr. carries the "Big Stick" Republican League (precursor to the Progressive Party (United States, 1924)) to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level and to replace Taft at the national level. More trouble came when Taft fired Gifford Pinchot, a leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot alleged that Taft’s Secretary of Interior Richard Ballinger was in league with big timber interests. Conservationists sided with Pinchot, and Taft alienated yet another vocal constituency. Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the federal courts, which deeply upset Taft. Roosevelt was attacking both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or Taft.) In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to power, and Taft’s reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In 1911, Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt announced.

Election of 1912
Republican primaries
Late in 1911, Roosevelt finally broke with Taft and LaFollette and announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination. But Roosevelt had delayed too long, and Taft had already won the support of most party leaders in the country. Because of LaFollette’s


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Theodore Roosevelt
organization that would field complete tickets at the presidential and state level. It was popularly known as the "Bull Moose Party," which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I’m as fit as a bull moose."[70] At the convention Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord." Roosevelt’s platform echoed his 1907–08 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the selfish interests.[71] “ To destroy this invisible Government, to dis” solve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day." - 1912 Progressive Party Platform, attributed to him[72] and quoted again in his autobiography[73] where he continues "’This country belongs to the people. Its resources, its business, its laws, its institutions, should be utilized, maintained, or altered in whatever manner will best promote the general interest.’ This assertion is explicit. ... Mr. Wilson must know that every monopoly in the United States opposes the Progressive party. ... I challenge him ... to name the monopoly that did support the Progressive party, whether ... the Sugar Trust, the Steel Trust, the Harvester Trust, the Standard Oil Trust, the Tobacco Trust, or any other. ... Ours was the only programme to which they objected, and they supported either Mr. Wilson or Mr. Taft...

The battle between Taft and Roosevelt bitterly split the Republican Party; Taft’s people dominated the party until 1936. nervous breakdown on the campaign trail before Roosevelt’s entry, most of LaFollette’s supporters went over to Roosevelt, the new progressive Republican candidate. Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried nine of the states with preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft only one. The 1912 Primaries represented the first extensive use of the Presidential Primary, a reform achievement of the progressive movement. However, these primary elections, while demonstrating Roosevelt’s popularity with the electorate, were in no ways as important as primaries became later in the century. Firstly, there were fewer states where the common voter was given a forum to express himself, such as a primary. Many more states selected convention delegates either at party conventions, or in caucuses, which were not as open as caucuses later became. While Roosevelt was popular with the public, most professional Republican politicians were supporting Taft, and they proved difficult to upset in non-primary states.

Assassination attempt

Formation of the Bull Moose Party
At the Republican Convention in Chicago, despite being the incumbent, Taft’s victory was not immediately assured. But after two weeks, Roosevelt, realizing he would not be able to win the nomination outright, asked his followers to leave the convention hall. They moved to the Auditorium Theatre, and then Roosevelt, along with key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party, structuring it as a permanent

The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace While Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 14, 1912, a saloonkeeper named John


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Theodore Roosevelt
More importantly, he pulled so many progressives out of the Republican party that it took on a much more conservative cast for the next generation.

1913–1914 South American Expedition

X-Ray of Roosevelt’s ribcage showing the bullet at lower left Schrank shot him, but the bullet lodged in his chest only after penetrating both his steel eyeglass case and passing through a thick (50 pages) single-folded copy of the speech he was carrying in his jacket.[74] Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, correctly concluded that since he wasn’t coughing blood the bullet had not completely penetrated the chest wall to his lung, and so declined suggestions he go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt.[75] He spoke for ninety minutes. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don’t know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose."[76] Afterwards, probes and X-ray showed that the bullet had traversed three inches (76 mm) of tissue and lodged in Roosevelt’s chest muscle but did not penetrate the pleura, and it would be more dangerous to attempt to remove the bullet than to leave it in place. Roosevelt carried it with him for the rest of his life.[77] Due to the bullet wound, Roosevelt was taken off the campaign trail in the final weeks of the race (which ended election day, November 5). Though the other two campaigners stopped their own campaigns in the week Roosevelt was in the hospital, they resumed it once he was released. The overall effect of the shooting was uncertain. Roosevelt for many reasons failed to move enough Republicans in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft’s 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson’s 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had 88 electoral votes to Taft’s 8 electoral votes. (This meant that Taft became the only incumbent President in history to actually come in third place in an attempt to be re-elected.) But Pennsylvania was Roosevelt’s only Eastern state; in the Midwest he carried Michigan, Minnesota and South Dakota; in the West, California and Washington; he did not win any Southern states. Although he lost, he won more votes than former presidents Martin Van Buren and Millard Fillmore who also ran again and also lost.

The initial party. From left to right (seated): Father Zahm, Rondon, Kermit, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt. Roosevelt’s popular book Through the Brazilian Wilderness describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon. The book describes all of the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas and exotic flora, fauna and wild life experienced on the expedition. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he convinced Roosevelt to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the expedition, Roosevelt received support from the American Museum of Natural History, promising to bring back many new animal specimens. Once in South America, a new far more ambitious goal was added: to find the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the River of Doubt, and trace it north to the Madeira and thence to the Amazon River. It was later renamed Rio Roosevelt (Rio Teodoro today, 640 km long) in honor of the former President. Roosevelt’s crew consisted of his 24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Cândido Rondon, a naturalist sent by the American Museum of Natural History named George K. Cherrie, Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and sixteen highly skilled paddlers (called camaradas in Portuguese). The initial expedition started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of the rainy season. The trip down the River of Doubt started on February 27, 1914. During the trip down the river, Roosevelt contracted malaria and a serious infection resulting from a minor leg wound. These illnesses so weakened Roosevelt that, by six weeks into the expedition, he had to be attended


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Theodore Roosevelt

Political positions
In an 1894 article on immigration, Roosevelt said, "We must Americanize in every way, in speech, in political ideas and principles, and in their way of looking at relations between church and state. We welcome the German and the Irishman who becomes an American. We have no use for the German or Irishman who remains such... He must revere only our flag, not only must it come first, but no other flag should even come second."[80] Roosevelt, wearing sun helmet, barely survived an expedition in 1913 into the Amazonian rain forest to trace the River of Doubt later named the Rio Roosevelt. day and night by the expedition’s physician, Dr. Cajazeira, and his son, Kermit. By this time, Roosevelt considered his own condition a threat to the survival of the others. At one point, Kermit had to talk him out of his wish to be left behind so as not to slow down the expedition, now with only a few weeks rations left. Roosevelt was having chest pains when he tried to walk, his temperature soared to 103 °F (39 °C), and at times he was delirious. He had lost over fifty pounds (20 kg). Without the constant support of his son, Kermit, Dr. Cajazeira, and the continued leadership of Colonel Rondon, Roosevelt would likely have perished. Despite his concern for Roosevelt, Rondon had been slowing down the pace of the expedition by his dedication to his own mapmaking and other geographical goals that demanded regular stops to fix the expedition’s position via sunbased survey. Upon his return to New York, friends and family were startled by Roosevelt’s physical appearance and fatigue. Roosevelt wrote to a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might not have really known just how accurate that analysis would prove to be, because the effects of the South America expedition had so greatly weakened him that they significantly contributed to his declining health. For the rest of his life, he would be plagued by flareups of malaria and leg inflammations so severe that they would require hospitalization.[78][79] When Roosevelt had recovered enough of his strength, he found that he had a new battle on his hands. In professional circles, there was doubt about his claims of having discovered and navigated a completely uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long. Roosevelt would have to defend himself and win international recognition of the expedition’s newly-named Rio Roosevelt. Toward this end, Roosevelt went to Washington, D.C., and spoke at a standing-room-only convention to defend his claims. His official report and its defense silenced the critics, and he was able to triumphantly return to his home in Oyster Bay.

Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt introduced the phrase "Square Deal" to describe his Progressive views in a speech delivered after leaving the office of the Presidency in August 1910. So many of the specifics outlined in the address anticipate Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal that TR could hardly have been disappointed in the work of his kinsman, had he lived to witness it: — "Practical equality of opportunity for all citizens, when we achieve it, will have two great results. First, every man will have a fair chance to make of himself all that in him lies; to reach the highest point to which his capacities, unassisted by special privilege of his own and unhampered by the special privilege of others, can carry him, and to get for himself and his family substantially what he has earned. Second, equality of opportunity means that the commonwealth will get from every citizen the highest service of which he is capable. No man who carries the burden of the special privileges of another can give to the commonwealth that service to which it is fairly entitled. — I stand for the square deal. But when I say that I am for the square deal, I mean not merely that I stand for fair play under the present rules of the game, but that I stand for having those rules changed so as to work for a more substantial equality of opportunity and of reward for equally good service... When I say I want a square deal for the poor man, I do not mean that I want a square deal for the man who remains poor because he has not got the energy to work for himself. If a man who has had a chance will not make good, then he has got to quit... Now, this means that our government, National and State, must be freed from the sinister influence or control of special interests. Exactly as the special interests of cotton and slavery threatened our political integrity before the Civil War, so now the great special business interests too often control and corrupt the men and methods of government for their own profit. We must drive the special interests out of politics... For


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every special interest is entitled to justice, but not one is entitled to a vote in Congress, to a voice on the bench, or to representation in any public office. The Constitution guarantees protection to property, and we must make that promise good. But it does not give the right of suffrage to any corporation. The true friend of property, the true conservative, is he who insists that property shall be the servant and not the master of the commonwealth; who insists that the creature of man’s making shall be the servant and not the master of the man who made it. The citizens of the United States must effectively control the mighty commercial forces which they have themselves called into being." [81]

Theodore Roosevelt
— Of all the questions which can come before this nation, short of the actual preservation of its existence in a great war, there is none which compares in importance with the great central task of leaving this land even a better land for our descendants than it is for us, and training them into a better race to inhabit the land and pass it on. Conservation is a great moral issue, for it involves the patriotic duty of insuring the safety and continuance of the nation. Let me add that the health and vitality of our people are at least as well worth conserving as their forests, waters, lands, and minerals, and in this great work the national government must bear most important part."[81]

In a speech that TR gave at Osawatomie, Kansas, on August 31, 1910, he outlined his views on conservation of the lands of the United States: — "Conservation means development as much as it does protection. I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us. I ask nothing of the nation except that it so behave as each farmer here behaves with reference to his own children. That farmer is a poor creature who skins the land and leaves it worthless to his children. The farmer is a good farmer who, having enabled the land to support himself and to provide for the education of his children, leaves it to them a little better than he found it himself. I believe the same thing of a nation. — Moreover, I believe that the natural resources must be used for the benefit of all our people, and not monopolized for the benefit of the few, and here again is another case in which I am accused of taking a revolutionary attitude. People forget now that one hundred years ago there were public men of good character who advocated the nation selling its public lands in great quantities, so that the nation could get the most money out of it, and giving it to the men who could cultivate it for their own uses. We took the proper democratic ground that the land should be granted in small sections to the men who were actually to till it and live on it. Now, with the water-power, with the forests, with the mines, we are brought face to face with the fact that there are many people who will go with us in conserving the resources only if they are to be allowed to exploit them for their benefit. That is the one of the fundamental reasons why the special interests should be driven out of politics.

Corporate Regulations
In the Eighth Annual Message to Congress (1908), TR mentioned the need for federal government to regulate interstate corporations using the Interstate Commerce Clause, also mentioning how these corporations fought federal control by appealing to states’ rights: — "Of course there are many sincere men who now believe in unrestricted individualism in business, just as there were formerly many sincere men who believed in slavery -- that is, in the unrestricted right of an individual to own another individual. These men do not by themselves have great weight, however. The effective fight against adequate government control and supervision of individual, and especially of corporate, wealth engaged in interstate business is chiefly done under cover; and especially under cover of an appeal to States’ rights.... The chief reason, among the many sound and compelling reasons, that led to the formation of the National Government was the absolute need that the Union, and not the several States, should deal with interstate and foreign commerce; and the power to deal with interstate commerce was granted absolutely and plenarily to the central government... The proposal to make the National Government supreme over, and therefore to give it complete control over, the railroads and other instruments of interstate commerce is merely a proposal to carry out to the letter one of the prime purposes, if not the prime purpose, for which the Constitution was founded. It does not represent centralization. It represents merely the acknowledgement of the patent fact that centralization has already come in business... — I believe that the more far-sighted corporations are themselves coming to recognize the unwisdom of the violent hostility they have displayed during the last few years to regulation and control by the National Government of combinations


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[monopolies] engaged in interstate business. The truth is that we who believe in this movement of asserting and exercising a genuine control, in the public interest, over these great corporations have to contend against two sets of enemies, who, though nominally opposed to one another, are really allies in preventing a proper solution of the problem. There are, first, the big corporation men, and the extreme individualists among business men, who genuinely believe in utterly unregulated business -- that is, in the reign of plutocracy; and, second, the men who, being blind to the economic movements of the day, believe in a movement of repression rather than of regulation of corporations, and who denounce both the power of the railroads and the exercise of the Federal power which alone can really control the railroads." [82]

Theodore Roosevelt
1918. Roosevelt was popular enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his health was broken by 1918, because of the lingering malaria. His son Quentin, a daring pilot with the American forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918. Quentin was his youngest son and probably his favorite. It is said the death of his son distressed him so much that Roosevelt never recovered from his loss.[84]

Despite his weakened condition and slow recovery from his South America expedition, Roosevelt continued to write with passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system. As an editor of Outlook magazine, he had weekly access to a large, educated national audience. In all, Roosevelt wrote about 18 books (each in several editions), including his Autobiography, Rough Riders and History of the Naval War of 1812, ranching, explorations, and wildlife. His most ambitious book was the 4 volume narrative The Winning of the West, which attempted to connect the origin of a new "race" of Americans (i.e. what he considered the present population of the United States to be) to the frontier conditions their ancestors endured in throughout the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries.

Roosevelt’s Grave in Youngs Memorial Cemetery Oyster Bay, New York Despite his debilitating diseases, Roosevelt remained active to the end of his life. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen, the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt’s jingoism."[85] Roosevelt was considering a third Presidential campaign in 1920, and was believed to have been the frontrunner for the Republican nomination until he was laid low by illness. His family and supporters threw their support to Roosevelt’s old military companion, General Leonard Wood, who was ultimately defeated by Warren G. Harding.[86] On January 6, 1919, Roosevelt died in his sleep at Oyster Bay of a coronary embolism, preceded by a 2 1/2-month illness described as inflammatory rheumatism,[87] and was buried in nearby Youngs Memorial Cemetery.[88] Upon receiving word of his death, his son

Later years and death
See also: Roosevelt’s World War I volunteers Roosevelt angrily complained about the foreign policy of President Wilson, calling it "weak." This caused him to develop an intense dislike for Woodrow Wilson. When World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly supported the Allies of World War I and demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. In 1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes and repeatedly denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans who Roosevelt said were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America’s by supporting neutrality. He insisted one had to be 100% American, not a "hyphenated American" who juggled multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Wilson refused.[83] Roosevelt’s attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the off-year elections of


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Theodore Roosevelt
Roosevelt intensely disliked being called "Teddy," and was quick to point out this fact to those who used the nickname, though it would become widely used by newspapers during his political career. He attended the Madison Square Presbyterian Church until the age of 16. Later in life, when Roosevelt lived at Oyster Bay he attended Christ Church of Oyster Bay with his wife. While in Washington he attended services at Grace Reformed Church.[91] As President he firmly believed in the separation of church and state and thought it unwise to have In God We Trust on currency, because he thought it sacrilegious to put the name of the Deity on something so common as money.[92] He was also a Freemason, and regularly attended the Matinecock Lodge’s meetings. He once said that "One of the things that so greatly attracted me to Masonry that I hailed the chance of becoming a Mason was that it really did act up to what we, as a government, are pledged to – namely to treat each man on his merit as a man."[93] Roosevelt also joined the Sons of the American Revolution and signed their Congressional charter.[94] Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an 1899 speech, "the strenuous life." To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing, tennis, hiking, rowing, polo, and horseback riding. As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina, leaving him blind in that eye (a fact not made public until many years later). Thereafter, he practiced jujutsu and continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter.[95][96]

Twenty-six steps leading to Roosevelt’s grave, commemorating his service as 26th President Archie telegraphed his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead."[89] Woodrow Wilson’s vice president at the time Thomas R. Marshall said of his death "Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight."[90]

Character and beliefs

Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt’s estate He was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper’s Weekly, in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood.[97] Roosevelt was also an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Roosevelt is often considered the most well read of any American politician.[98]

Roosevelt Family in 1903 with Quentin on the left, TR, Ted, Jr., "Archie", Alice, Kermit, Edith, and Ethel


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Theodore Roosevelt


1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt’s multiple roles from 1899 to 1910 the Mount Rushmore Memorial, designed in 1927. The United States Navy named two ships for Roosevelt: the USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a submarine that was in commission from 1961 to 1982; and the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), an aircraft carrier that has been on active duty in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986. The Roosevelt Memorial Association (later the Theodore Roosevelt Association) or "TRA", was founded in 1920 to preserve Roosevelt’s legacy. The Association preserved TR’s birthplace, "Sagamore Hill" home, papers, and video film. Among the schools, neighborhoods, and streets named in Roosevelt’s honor are Roosevelt High School in Seattle, Washington, the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood, the district’s main arterial, Roosevelt Way N.E., and Roosevelt Middle School in Eugene, Oregon. Overall, historians credit Roosevelt for changing the nation’s political system by permanently placing the presidency at center stage and making character as important as the issues. His notable accomplishments include trust-busting and conservationism. However, he has been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". Even so, history and legend have been kind to him. His friend, historian Henry Adams, proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter – the quality that mediaeval theology assigned to God – he was pure act." Historians typically rank Roosevelt among the top five presidents.[99][100] The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles is named after him as well as the Roosevelt Hotel in New York city.

Roosevelt’s face on Mount Rushmore For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt’s commanders recommended him for the Medal of Honor, but his subsequent telegrams to the War Department complaining about the delays in returning American troops from Cuba doomed his chances. In the late 1990s, Roosevelt’s supporters again took up the flag on his behalf and overcame opposition from elements within the U.S. Army and the National Archives. On January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor posthumously for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt’s eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the Battle of Normandy in 1944. The Roosevelts thus became one of only two father-son pairs to receive this honor.

Popular culture
Roosevelt’s 1901 saying "Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick" is still being occasionally quoted by politicians and columnists in different countries – not only in English but also in translation to various other languages. For example, following the Second Lebanon War of August 2006, opponents of Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert accused him of "Speaking loudly and carrying a small stick".

1910 cartoon shows Roosevelt’s multiple roles to 1898 Roosevelt’s legacy includes several other important commemorations. Roosevelt was included with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln at


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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt impersonator Joe Wiegand performs Monday evening, Oct. 27, 2008 in the East Room of the White House, during a celebration of Roosevelt’s 150th birthday. The well-known Nicaraguan poet Rubén Darío published in 1905 a poem entitled A Roosevelt (To Roosevelt)[101] which was included in Cantos de Vida y Esperanza (Songs of Life and Hope) As a charismatic President often considered larger than life, Roosevelt has appeared in numerous fiction books, television shows, films, and other media of popular culture. Character actor Frank Albertson portrayed Roosevelt in the 1956 episode entitled "Rough Rider" of the CBS western television series My Friend Flicka. The story line has the ebullient Roosevelt trying to stop a range war in Wyoming. Roosevelt was played by Robin Williams in the box office hit Night at the Museum (2006) and its upcoming sequel Night at the Museum 2: Battle of the Smithsonian. Filmmaker John Milius also directed two films in which Roosevelt was a central character: The Wind and the Lion (1975) in which he was played by Brian Keith; and Rough Riders (1997) in which he was played by Tom Berenger. Keith’s performance is widely considered to be the definitive screen depiction of Roosevelt. He has also been portrayed by such actors as Sidney Blackmer, Robert Vaughn, Karl Swenson, James Whitmore, David Doyle, James Gammon, and Ed Metzger. In total, he has been portrayed on film or television sixtyeight times. [102] Roosevelt’s lasting popular legacy, however, is the stuffed toy bears—teddy bears—named after him following an incident on a hunting trip in 1902. Roosevelt famously refused to kill a captured black bear simply for the sake of making a kill. Bears and later bear cubs became closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons thereafter.[103] On June 26, 2006, Roosevelt, once again, made the cover of TIME magazine with the lead story, "The Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The 20th Century Express": "At home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President, the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future."[104]

"Drawing the Line in Mississippi," referring to Roosevelt’s sparing the bear, by Clifford Berryman, 1902. The Washington Post political cartoon that spawned the Teddy bear name. On October 27, 2008, the White House hosted a 150th Theodore Roosevelt Birthday Celebration featuring a speech by historian, John Milton Cooper and a portrayal of Roosevelt by popular Roosevelt impersonator Joe Weigand [105] The Washington Nationals major league baseball team has a fan tradition called the Presidents Race. In it four caricatures of presidents Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Theodore Roosevelt race against each other. A running gag has been Theodore Roosevelt’s inability to win a single Presidents Race. Roosevelt, referred to therein as "T.R." or "Rovevelt", was a recurring character in Don Rosa’s The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck. Making his first appearance in The Buckaroo of the Badlands as a rancher who taught Scrooge the glory and value of hard work and square deals, he much later returned in The Invader of Fort Duckburg and The Sharpie of the Culebra Cut, then as the President of the U.S.

Theodore Roosevelt was one of the first presidents whose voice was recorded for posterity. Several of his recorded speeches survive.[106] A 4.6-minute voice recording, which preserves Roosevelt’s lower timbre ranges particularly well for its time, is among those available from the Michigan State University libraries. (This is the 1912 recording of The Right of the People to Rule, recorded by Edison at Carnegie Hall). In what some consider the best example of Roosevelt’s animated oratorical style, an audio clip sponsored by the Authentic History Center includes his defense[107] of the


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Progressive Party in 1912 wherein he proclaims it the "party of the people" in contrast with the other major parties.

Theodore Roosevelt TR_CD_to_HTML571.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. ; An audio recording in which Roosevelt pronounces his own last name distinctly. To listen at the correct speed, slow the recording down by 20%. Retrieved on July 12, 2007. "How to Pronounce Theodore Roosevelt". Theodore_Roosevelt. Retrieved on 2007-06-10. Gable Ph.D., Dr. John Allen. "Theodore Roosevelt: A Selected Annotated Bibliography". Bibliography. Theodore Roosevelt Association. biblioworks.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. John F. Kennedy is the youngest person to be elected President. Roosevelt was not elected until 1904, when he was 46. National Health Care, Chris Farrell, It’s Time to Cure Health Care, BusinessWeek Bailey, Thomas A. (1966). Presidential Greatness. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts. pp. 308. [1] White House Roosevelt, Theodore An Autobiography, 1913, The MacMillan Company, "On October 27, 1858, I was born at No. 28 East Twentieth Street, New York City..." Pringle (1931) p. 11 "TR’s Legacy—The Environment". Retrieved March 6, 2006. Bishop, Joseph Bucklin,(1920)"Theodore Roosevelt and His Time Shown in His Own Letters - Book I,p. 2 Thayer, William Roscoe (1919). Theodore Roosevelt: An Intimate Biography, Chapter I, p. 20. Roosevelt, Theodore (1913). Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, Chapter I, p. 13. Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time pg 2, [2] "The Film & More: Program Transcript Part One". Retrieved March 9, 2006. Brands T. R. p. 49–50 Brands p. 62 Thayer, William Roscoe (November 2000). "Origins and Youth". Theodore Roosevelt; an Intimate Biography. Nalanda Digital Library. resources/english/etext-project/Biography/roosevelt/ index.htm. Retrieved on 22 November 2008. Autobiography, pg 40 Morris, Edmund, (1979) The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, pg 67, ISBN 0-698-10783-7, New York, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan (First Edition) Brands, pp 123–29 Autobiography, pg 35 Morris, Rise of, pg 565 volume1_number1_Apr02/

Play video Collection of video clips of Roosevelt [4]

Play video

Parade for the school children of San Francisco, down Van Ness Avenue • Roosevelt goes for a ride in Arch Hoxsey’s plane in October 1910 – the first flight by a (then-former) U.S. president


[6] [7] [8] [9] [10]

Electoral history See also
• Roosevelt family • Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia 1940 compendium of Roosevelt’s key writings, sayings and conversations • List of U.S. political appointments that crossed party lines • List of Medal of Honor recipients for the SpanishAmerican War • William Allen White

[11] [12] [13] [14]

Notes and references
[1] Until the ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1967, there was no provision for filling a mid-term vacancy in the office of Vice President. Find Law for Legal Professionals - U.S. Constitution: TwentyFifth Amendment - Annotations Sanford, Elias Benjamin (1916). "Origin and History of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America". S.S. Scranton Company. p. 162. books?id=SjYAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA163&lpg=PA163. Retrieved on 2009-03-20. His last name is, according to the man himself, "pronounced as if it was spelled ’Rosavelt.’ That is in three syllables. The first syllable as if it was ’Rose.’" Hart, Albert B.; Herbert R. Ferleger (1989). "Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia" (CD-ROM). Theodore Roosevelt Association. 534–535.

[15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]


[21] [22]


[23] [24] [25] [26]


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Theodore Roosevelt



[29] [30]

[31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39]

[40] [41] [42]

[43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51]

article_crawford_roosevelt_1812.doc.htm ,The [52] Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time Book I, pg Lasting Influence of Theodore Roosevelt’s Naval 51, [4] War of 1812 by Michael J. Crawford, U.S. Naval [53] Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time pg 53, [5] Historical Center [54] Andrews, William, "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order - 1845 to 1870", - New York City volume1_number1_Apr02/ Police Department History Site. Retrieved August article_crawford_roosevelt_1812.doc.htm 28, 2006. Miller, Nathan, (1992) Theodore Roosevelt - A Life, pg [55] Editors, "Leadership of the City of New York Police 158, ISBN-13: 9780688132200, ISBN 0688132200, Department 1845–1901", - The New York City New York, Quill/William Morrow Police Department Museum. Retrieved August 28, Bishop, Joseph Bucklin,(1920)"Theodore Roosevelt 2006. and His Time Shown in His Own Letters - Book I,p. 33-35 [56] Brands ch 11 [57] Brands ch 12 Robinson Roosevelt, Corinne, 1921, My Brother [58] "April 16, 1897: T. Roosevelt Appointed Assistant Theodore Roosevelt, Kessinger Publishing (March 2003), ISBN-10: 0766143813, pg 240-241, (online Secretary of the Navy". Crucible of Empire - Timeline. URL: PBS Online. books?id=9SxK0Z056kwC&pg=PA241&lpg=PA241&dq=%22Theodore+Roosevelt%22+%22to+throb%22&source=bl&ots=l5kDPUXfZ Retrieved on 2007-07-26. ) [59] "Transcript For "Crucible Of Empire"". Crucible of Empire - Timeline. PBS Online. index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=17 crucible/Transcript.txt. Retrieved on 2007-07-26. Morris, Rise of, pg 232. [60] ^ Roosevelt, Theodore (1898). The Rough Riders, Morris, Rise of, pg 267. Chapter III, p. 52. "Theodore Roosevelt, A Biography, by Henry [61] Pringle", pg 61 theodore_roosevelt.htm Hagedorn, Herman (1921). Roosevelt in the Bad Lands. [62] Soots Letter New York: Houghton-Mifflin. pp. 379. [63] Brands ch 13 Morris, Rise of, 241–245, 247–250 [64] Rucker, Philip (March 21, 2009). "Obama’s Turnabout On Thayer, Chapter V, pp. 4, 6. Vets Highlights Budgeting Nuances". The Washington Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910 Edition, Topic: Post. A02. Theodore Roosevelt content/article/2009/03/20/ Although Roosevelt’s father was also named AR2009032003236.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved on Theodore Roosevelt, he died while the future 2009-03-23. president was still childless and unmarried, so the [65] "Medal of Honor". Life of Theodore Roosevelt. Theodore future President Roosevelt took the suffix of Sr. Roosevelt Association. and subsequently named his son Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Because Roosevelt was still alive medalofhonor.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-25. when his grandson and namesake was born, his [66] Center of Military History grandson was named Theodore Roosevelt III, and [67] Brands ch 14–15 the president’s son retained the Jr. after his [68] O’Toole, Patricia (2005) When Trumpets Call, p. 67, father’s death. Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-684-86477-0 See The Naval War of 1812, via Project Gutenberg. [69] Thayer, Chapter XXI, p. 10. Pringle (1931) p 116 [70] Carl M. Cannon, The Pursuit of Happiness in Times of "Discharged Without Honor: The Brownsville War, Rowman & Littlefield: 2003, p. 142. ISBN Raid." History’s Mysteries. The History Channel. 0742525929. 2000. [71] Thayer, Chapter XXII, pp. 25–31. Morris, Theodore Rex, 2001, 52-54 [72] Patricia OToole (2006-06-25). "The War of 1912". Time Theodore Rex, 54 Magazine. Theodore Rex, 2001, 200 article/0,9171,1207791-2,00.html. Retrieved on Robinson, My Brother, 47, 2/15/1903 2008-08-08. TR to Albion W. Tourgee, 11/08/1901, Letters, vol. [73] Roosevelt, Theodore. An Autobiography: XV. The 3, 190-191 Peace of Righteousness, Appendix B, NEW YORK: Theodore Rex, Edmund Morris, 2001, 233 MACMILLAN, 1913. Theodore Rex, Edmund Morris, 2001, 55 [74] Wisconsin Historical Society Thayer, ch. VI, pp. 1–2. [75] Medical History of American Presidents Bishop, Theodore Roosevelt and His Time Book I, pg [76] Excerpt from the Detroit Free Press, at 51, [3]


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Theodore Roosevelt

[77] Roosevelt Timeline [101] [78] Hanson, David C. (2005). "Theodore Roosevelt: Lion Rub%C3%A9n_Dar%C3%ADo in the White House". Retrieved March 6, 2006. [102] Theodore Roosevelt page on IMDB [79] Thayer, Chapter XXIII, pp. 4–7. [103] "History of the Teddy Bear". Retrieved March 7, [80] Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The ’70s. New 2006. [104] ""The Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The York, New York: Basic Books. p. 267. ISBN 0465041957. 20th Century Express"". Time. 2006. [81] ^ Page = 141-142. [82] DiNunzio, Mario (1994). Theodore Roosevelt: An American Mind. New York, New York: Penguin Books 0,9171,1207820,00.html. Retrieved on 2006-03-26. USA. p. 135. ISBN 0 14 02.4520 0. [105] 10/20081027-3.html [83] Brands 781–4; Cramer, C.H. Newton D. Baker (1961) [106] Vincent Voice Library at Michigan State 110–113 University. Retrieved September 23, 2007. [84] Dalton, (2002)p 507 [107] Roosevelt, Theodore (1913). Youngman, Elmer H. ed. [85] Larson, Keith (2006). "Theodore Roosevelt". Progressive Principles. New York: Progressive National Retrieved March 6, 2006. [86] Pietrusza, David. 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents Service. p. 215. (2007). pp. 55-71 (on Roosevelt’s propsective books?id=qLYJAAAAIAAJ&jtp=215. Retrieved on April 14, candidacy), 167-175 (on Wood and his support by 2009. TR’s family) Primary sources [87] Pinals, Robert S (February 2008). "Theodore Roosevelt’s inflammatory rheumatism". J Clin Rheumatol 14 (1): • Auchincloss, Louis, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, The Rough 41–4. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e3181639ad0. PMID Riders and an Autobiography (Library of America, 2004) 18431099. ISBN 978-1-93108265-5 [88] "Business to Stop in Silent Tribute; Stock • Auchincloss, Louis, ed. Theodore Roosevelt, Letters and Exchanges and Courts Will Suspend for Day at 1 Speeches (Library of America, 2004) ISBN o’clock This Afternoon; Church Bells will Toll," New 978-1-93108266-2 York Times. January 8, 1919; • Brands, H.W. ed. The Selected Letters of Theodore [ Roosevelt. (2001) pdf?res=9403E3D81231E433A2575AC0A9679C946896D6CF• Edwards, Adolph (1907) ( – Scholar search), The Roosevelt "Bury Roosevelt with Simple Rites as Nation Panic of 1907, Anitrock Pub. Co, Grieves; Government’s Representatives and Old books/pdf/ Friends Pay Last Tribute at His Bier," New York The_Roosevelt_Panic_of_1907.pdf?id=R3koAAAAYAAJ&output=pdf&sig=AC Times. January 9, 1919. • Harbaugh, William ed. The Writings Of Theodore [89] Dalton, (2002) p. 507 Roosevelt (1967). A one-volume selection of [90] Manners, William. TR and Will: A Friendship that Roosevelt’s speeches and essays. Split the Republican Party. New York: Harcourt, • Hart, Albert Bushnell and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, Brace & World, Inc., 1969. eds. Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia (1941), Roosevelt’s [91] "The Religious Affiliation of Theodore Roosevelt opinions on many issues; online version at [6] U.S. President". Retrieved March 7, 2006. • Morison, Elting E., John Morton Blum, and Alfred D. [92] Reynolds, Ralph C. (1999). "In God We Trust: All Chandler, Jr., eds., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, 8 Others Pay Cash". Retrieved March 7, 2006. vols. (1951–1954). Very large, annotated edition of [93] Matinecock Masonic Historical Society. "History". letters from TR. Retrieved March 12, 2006. • Roosevelt, Theodore (1999). Theodore Roosevelt: An [94] The Origins of the SAR Accessed 26 December 2008 Autobiography. online at [95] Thayer, Chapter XVII, pp. 22–24. • Roosevelt, Theodore. The Works of Theodore Roosevelt [96] Shaw, K.B. & Maiden, David (2006). "Theodore (National edition, 20 vol. 1926); 18,000 pages Roosevelt". Retrieved March 7, 2006. containing most of TR’s speeches, books and essays, [97] Amberger, J Christoph, Secret History of the Sword but not his letters; a CD-ROM edition is available; Adventures in Ancient Martial Arts 1998, ISBN some of TR’s books are available online through 1-892515-04-0. Project Bartleby [98] David H. Burton, The Learned Presidency 1988, p 12. • Theodore Roosevelt books and speeches on Project [99] The Rector and Visitors of the University of Gutenberg Virginia (2005). "Biography: Impact and Legacy". • Roosevelt, Theodore, The Naval War of 1812 Or the Retrieved March 7, 2006. History of the United States Navy during the Last War with [100] "Legacy". Retrieved March 7, 2006. Great Britain to Which Is Appended an Account of the


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Battle of New Orleans (1882) (New York: The Modern Library, 1999). ISBN 0-375-75419-9.

Theodore Roosevelt
• Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900–1912. (1954) general survey of era; online • Mowry, George E. Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement. (2001) focus on 1912 • O’Toole, Patricia. When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt after the White House. (2005). 494 pp. • Powell, Jim. Bully Boy: The Truth About Theodore Roosevelt’s Legacy (Crown Forum, 2006). Examines TR policies from conservative/libertarian perspective. ISBN 0307237222 • Pringle, Henry F. Theodore Roosevelt (1932; 2nd ed. 1956), full scholarly biography • Putnam, Carleton Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography, Volume I: The Formative Years (1958), only volume published, to age 28. • Renehan, Edward J. The Lion’s Pride: Theodore Roosevelt and His Family in Peace and War. (Oxford University Press, 1998), examines TR and his family during the World War I period • Strock, James M. Theodore Roosevelt on Leadership. Random House, 2003. • Watts, Sarah. Rough Rider in the White House: Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Desire. 2003. 289 pp.

Secondary sources
• Blum, John Morton The Republican Roosevelt. (1954). Series of essays that examine how TR did politics • Brands, H.W. T.R.: The Last Romantic (1998, reprinted 2001), full biography • Chace, James. 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, and Debs The Election That Changed the Country. (2004). 323 pp. • Cooper, John Milton The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt. (1983) a dual scholarly biography • Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. (2002), full scholarly biography • Fehn, Bruce. "Theodore Roosevelt and American Masculinity." Magazine of History (2005) 19(2): 52–59. Issn: 0882-228x Fulltext online at Ebsco. Provides a lesson plan on TR as the historical figure who most exemplifies the quality of masculinity. • Gluck, Sherwin. "T.R.’s Summer White House, Oyster Bay." (1999) Chronicles the events of TR’s presidency during the summers of his two terms. • Goldman, Eric F. Rendezvous with Destiny: A History of Modern American Reform. (1952) ISBN 1566633699 • Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. (1991), standard history of his domestic and foreign policy as president • Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. (1963), full scholarly biography • Keller, Morton, ed., Theodore Roosevelt: A Profile (1967) excerpts from TR and from historians. • Kohn, Edward. "Crossing the Rubicon: Theodore Roosevelt, Henry Cabot Lodge, and the 1884 Republican National Convention." Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 2006 5(1): 18–45. Issn: 1537-7814 Fulltext: in History Cooperative • Millard, Candice. River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt’s Darkest Journey. (2005) • McCullough, David. Mornings on Horseback, The Story of an Extraordinary Family. a Vanished Way of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt. (2001) popular biography to 1884 • Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568. • Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390. • Morris, Edmund The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, to 1901 (1979); vol 2: Theodore Rex 1901–1909. (2001); Pulitzer prize for Volume 1. Biography.

Foreign policy
• Beale Howard K. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power. (1956). standard history of his foreign policy • Holmes, James R. Theodore Roosevelt and World Order: Police Power in International Relations. 2006. 328 pp. • Marks III, Frederick W. Velvet on Iron: The Diplomacy of Theodore Roosevelt (1979) • David McCullough. The Path between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914 (1977). • Ricard, Serge. "The Roosevelt Corollary." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(1): 17–26. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ingenta • Tilchin, William N. and Neu, Charles E., ed. Artists of Power: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Their Enduring Impact on U.S. Foreign Policy. Praeger, 2006. 196 pp. • Tilchin, William N. Theodore Roosevelt and the British Empire: A Study in Presidential Statecraft (1997)

Further reading
• Testi, Arnaldo (1995). "The Gender of Reform Politics: Theodore Roosevelt and the Culture of Masculinity," Journal of American History, Vol. 81, No. 4, pp. 1509–1533.


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Theodore Roosevelt
• Congressional Medal of Honor’s entry on Theodore Roosevelt; including citation and pictures • Medal of Honor Recipients on Film • White House biography • Family and Descendants of Theodore Roosevelt • Ron Schuler’s Parlour Tricks: Teddy • Theodore Roosevelt Links • Theodore Roosevelt Quotes, Pictures and Biography at • Theodore Roosevelt cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library. • On Theodore Roosevelt’s progressive vision from the Roosevelt Institution, a student think tank inspired in part by Theodore Roosevelt. • Boone and Crockett Club, founded by Theodore Roosevelt • How to pronounce Theodore Roosevelt • Yesterday’s News blog 1901 newspaper account of Roosevelt’s "Big Stick" speech at the Minnesota State Fair • Archive of Theodore Roosevelt Pictures • still of Theodore Roosevelt going on first aeroplane flight • different view of Theodore Roosevelt & Arch Hoxsey in Wright aeroplane St Louis October 1910 • Works by or about Theodore Roosevelt in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Theodore Roosevelt at Find A Grave Retrieved on 2008-07-03 • "Roosevelt, Theodore". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. Roosevelt, Theodore, Jr.

External links
• Theodore Roosevelt Association - Founded in 1920 by Roosevelt’s friends and admirers to preserve his legacy. Extensive online resources and bibliography • Extensive essay on Theodore Roosevelt and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs • Theodore Roosevelt: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress • NY Times Headline, January 6, 1919, Theodore Roosevelt Dies Suddenly at Oyster Bay Home; Nation Shocked, Pays Tribute to Former President; Our Flag on All Seas and in All Lands at Half Mast • "The Early Years: The Challenge of Public Order 1845 to 1870", by William Andrews, New York City Police Department History Site • "Leadership of the City of New York Police Department 1845–1901", - The New York City Police Department Museum • PBS "American Experience" Theodore Roosevelt • My Brother Theodore Roosevelt, 1921 By Corinne Roosevelt Robinson, a bestseller with a woman’s and sister’s point of view on TR. Full text and Full text Search, Free to Read and Search. • Almanac of Theodore Roosevelt • Downloadable audio recordings of Roosevelt in MP3 format • Audio clips of Roosevelt’s speeches • Roosevelt podcasts Audio Recording of Roosevelt’s Progressive Party Acceptance Speech, "Progressive Covenant with the People" with text included. • Quotes • Theodore Roosevelt Works - Bartleby’s Online Books • Presidential Biography by Stanley L. Klos • Works by Theodore Roosevelt at Project Gutenberg • Works by/about Theodore Roosevelt at Internet Archive • Index of T. Roosevelt Etexts • Detailed biography of Theodore Roosevelt from the 1911 version of Encyclopedia Britannica • Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Address • State of the Union addresses for 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, and 1908 • Nobel Peace Prize 1906: Theodore Roosevelt • Theodore Roosevelt Papers at the Library of Congress • Theodore Roosevelt: His Life & Times on Film (LOC) • Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site • Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site • Sagamore Hill National Historic Site • Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Site: Birthplace of the Modern Presidency, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan •’s entry on Theodore Roosevelt

Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH 26th President of the United States October 27, 1858 New York City January 6, 1919 Oyster Bay, New York


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Political offices Preceded by Frank S. Black Vacant Title last held by Garret Augustus Hobart Preceded by William McKinley Party political offices Preceded by Garret Hobart Preceded by William McKinley New political party Honorary titles Preceded by Grover Cleveland Oldest U.S. President still living June 24, 1908 – March 4, 1909 Governor of New York 1899-1900 Vice President of the United States March 4, 1901-September 14, 1901 President of the United States September 14, 1901-March 4, 1909

Theodore Roosevelt

Succeeded by Benjamin B. Odell, Jr. Vacant Title next held by Charles W. Fairbanks Succeeded by William Howard Taft

Republican Party vice presidential candidate Succeeded by 1900 Charles W. Fairbanks Republican Party presidential candidate 1904 Progressive Party presidential candidate 1912 Succeeded by William Howard Taft Party disbanded

Succeeded by William Howard Taft

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