NP Movement Passives, Raising: When NPs are not in their theta positions. Locality restriction on theta roles • Leave agent i • Adrian left • Jo left her pencil • *it left (where it is an expletive) • Must be in same clause • *[I want Bradleyi [that left]] • *Johni thinks [that left] Locality Condition on Theta Roles • Theta roles must be assigned within the clause same clause as the predicate that assigns them. A Problem • [Johni is likely [ to leave]]. • John is the subject of is likely. • Is it theta marked by is likely???? – NO! (cf. it is like that John left) • It is theta marked by leave!!! • But it isn’t in the same clause! Yikes! is likely – [[That John will leave]j is likely ] – It is likely [that John will leave]j Proposition j No theta role on the subject of it is likely [CP that john will leave ] ‘is likely’ In the wrong place! • John is likely to leave • John is theta marked by leave, but appears in the subject position of is likely, in violation of the locality constraint. • The NP [John] is displaced from its theta position. CP C’ John gets its theta role C TP in the specifier of the Ø lower TP, but moves to T’ the specifier of the T AP higher TP. is A’ A CP likely C’ This is called Raising C TP Ø John T’ to VP leave WHY??? • Well one thing we can observe, is the EPP holds. (the requirement that every sentence have a subject). The NP John moves to satisfy this requirement. • This doesn’t account for examples like – *John is likely [that left]. Case Theory • Case is a licenser. In order for the sentence to be grammatical, an NP must get case – Nominative case is assigned in the specifier of finite TP (note: FINITE) – Accusative case is assigned as the sister to the verb. • These are the only two places you can get case The Case Filter • The case filter (a constraint that filters trees) – All NPs must be in case positions (spec,TP or sister to V) CP C’ Finite: so can assign C TP nominative case to John Ø T’ moves to get case in this T AP position is A’ A CP Non-Finite: NOT a likely C’ case assigner C TP Ø John T’ to VP can’t get case here leave Raising vs. PRO • John is likely to leave • John is eager to leave – John gets a theta role from leave – John also gets a theta role from is eager! (agent) – Violation of Theta Criterion??? • John is eager [PRO to leave] Summary of Raising • Some NPs appear to be displaced from their theta assigners. • This is caused by raising. • Motivated by Case • non-finite Infl can’t assign case • NP moves to specifier of finite INFL • Not all NP V [ ___ to leave] constructions are raising. Some involve PRO. it depends upon the theta properties of the main verb. Passives • Active [The linguist] kissed [the kitten] Agent theme • Passive The kitten was kissed (by the linguist) Theme (agent) • Active has agent and patient. • Passive requires only a theme which is the subject Passive Morphology • The difference between passives and actives comes from the morphology. The addition of the passive morpheme seems to suppress the agent. kiss kiss+en (kissed) agent theme theme Passive Morphology • The other thing the passive morphology does is suppress the verb’s ability to assign accusative case V’ V’ V NP V+en NP Acc Acc An Active CP assigned nom C TP case by finite T Ø NP T’ agent T VP V’ assigned acc case V NP by verb theme A passive CP Moves to this C TP position Ø T’ T VP underlyingly empty due to passive morpheme V’ cannot be assigned V+en NP accusative case theme Passives: A summary • The passive morpheme • Suppresses agent theta role • Suppresses V’s ability to assign accusative case • The theme NP can’t get case from the passive verb, so it moves (to the specifier of TP, where it can get nominative case.) NP Movement • With both raising and passives, you are moving NPs, and in both situations you do this to get case on a caseless NP. • This transformation is called “NP movement” • The filter that forces NP movement is the case filter.