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					Table 1.              Characteristics of Standard and Nonstandard Work Arrangements


                                                                       Dimension of Work Arrangements

Type of Work                        Who is the           Who is the        Assumption Assumption                     Who directs   Hours of
Arrangement                          de jure              de facto         of continued of continued                    work?       Work
                                    employer?            employer?         employment employment
                                                                             by de jure  by de facto
                                                                            employer?    employer?


Standard                          Organization A       Organization A            Yes                Yes          Organization A    Full-time

Part-time                         Organization A       Organization A        Sometimes          Sometimes        Organization A    Part-time

On-call/day labor                 Organization A       Organization A             No                 No          Organization A    FT or PT

Temporary help                      THA agency         Organization A        Sometimes               No          Organization A    FT or PT
 agency

Contract companya                     Contract         Organization A            Yes                 No               Contract     FT or PT
                                      company                                                                         company

Independent contracting,                 Self              Client(s)             Yes                 No                 Self       FT or PT
  self-employment


a
    Contract company employees may have a standard work arrangement with their de jure employer
     (the contract company), but from the point of view of Organization A their work arrangements are nonstandard.
Table 2.                           Bad Job Characteristics, by Sex and Race




Race Groupb                                                           Male      Female           Total

White                Percent low wages                                13.5         23.4          18.1
                     Percent no health insurance                      36.3         49.3          42.3
                     Percent no pension                               46.3         52.0          48.9

                     Number of bad job characteristics                0.95         1.22          1.07

Black                Percent low wages                                23.3         34.1          29.0
                     Percent no health insurance                      43.5         45.6          44.6
                     Percent no pension                               50.0         50.4          50.2

                     Number of bad job characteristics                1.25         1.30          1.27

Hispanic             Percent low wages                                29.3         36.1          32.1
                     Percent no health insurance                      53.8         54.7          54.2
                     Percent no pension                               70.4         66.5          66.8

                     Number of bad job characteristics                1.47         1.56          1.51

Other                Percent low wages                                21.5         24.2          22.8
                     Percent no health insurance                      40.1         51.5          45.4
                     Percent no pension                               54.1         60.8          57.2

                     Number of bad job characteristics                1.21         1.29          1.25

Total                Percent low wages                                16.1         25.7          20.6
                     Percent no health insurance                      38.7         49.3          43.6
                     Percent no pension                               49.1         53.1          51.0

                     Number of bad job characteristics                1.03         1.26          1.14
a
    p-value of sex difference > .05; all other sex differences are significant at p < .01
b
    All race comparisons are significant at p < .01 except:
           Low wages: Males B-O, Females W-O, B-H, Total B-H (.031)
           No Health Insurance: Males W-0 (.026), B-O, Females E-O, H-O, Total W-O (.014), B-O
           No Pension: Males B-O (.038), Females W-B, Total W-B
           # BJCs: Males B-O, Females W-B (.038), W-O, B-O Total B-O
a


a




a




a


a




a
Table 3.                                              Type of Work Arrangement and Employment Insecurity,
                                                               Unionization and Complexity, by Sex

Type of Work                                Percent                      Percent                     Percent          Mean Complexitya
    Arrangement                          Distributiona             Uncertain Jobsa              Unionizeda
                                        Male     Female            Male     Female             Male   Female           Male      Female

Regular Full-time                          73.2         64.6            [5.4          5.4]           21.1      18.3      .002       .124

       Permanent                           69.2         61.1            0.0            0.0           21.0      18.6     -.0004      .125

       Contingent                            3.9          3.5        100.0          100.0            22.5      14.3      [.045     .108]

Regular Part-time                            7.7        21.9           15.8           11.8           [8.6      8.2]      -.365     -.164

On-call and day labor                        1.4          1.7          47.9           37.5           27.3      10.8      -.459     -.022

Temporary help agency                        0.8          1.1          78.2           76.0           [3.3      2.2]      -.581     -.253

Contract company                             1.7          0.9         [17.0          14.8]           16.2       4.1      [.004     .060]

Indep. Contractor (WS)                      [0.9         0.9]         [20.9          24.8]           [5.9      3.2]      .409      -.041

Indep. Contractor (SE)                       7.6          3.9           7.0           10.8           N/A       N/A       .299       .116

Other self-employed                          6.7          5.0           6.3           10.5           N/A       N/A       .458       .152

Total                                     100.0        100.0            7.9            8.8           16.8      14.0      .020       .053

a
    All sex differences are significant at p < .01, except for those in brackets for which p > .05
Table 4.                              Bad Job Characteristics, by Type of Work Arrangement and Sex

                                           Percent Low           Percent No Health             Percent No            Mean Number Bad
                                                       a                          a                        a
                                              Wages                   Insurance                Pensions             Job Characteristicsa

Work Arrangement                        Males      Females        Males      Females        Males      Females       Males          Females

Regular Full-time                        11.2         16.0         29.0         33.1         [41.3       40.3]        0.82           0.87

       Permanent                         11.0         15.6         28.4         32.4         [40.5       39.5]        0.81           0.86

       Contingent                        15.9         22.0         38.9         44.4         [54.2       54.1]        [1.08          1.22]

Regular Part-time                        52.6         48.6         83.5         81.5         88.0        79.1         2.21           2.11

On-call and day labor                    [31.1        40.7]        70.9         88.5         81.4        81.8         1.81           2.09

Temporary help agency                    [44.2        35.2]        97.2         93.5         [96.9       98.3]        [2.39          2.27]

Contract company                         16.0         31.2         49.9         66.7         65.7        73.3         1.31           1.70

Indep. Contractor (WS)                   14.0         29.9         68.3         90.2         78.2        91.5         1.61           2.09

Indep. Contractor (SE)                   16.2         34.2         61.0         75.2         [62.7       64.6]        1.38           1.72

Other self-employed                      23.4         45.2         47.3         63.6         54.3        62.9         1.23           1.71

Total                                    16.1         25.7         38.7         49.3         49.1        53.1         1.03           1.26

a
    All sex differences are significant at p < .01, except for those in brackets (p > .05). For underlined values, .01 < p < .05.
Table 5.                     Negative Binomial Regressions of Number of Bad Job Characteristics on
                                  Work Arrangements and Other Explanatory Variables, by Sex

                                                                                                           Z of Sex
                                           Males                                Females                   Difference

                           Pct.        Z        Pct.       Z       Pct.        Z        Pct.     Z        Z       Z
Work Arrangement          Change               Change             Change               Change           Model 1 Model 2


 [Standard]
 Regular contingent          49.7    10.32         26.0    4.72     64.9     11.74       42.5    7.13     1.67    1.76
 Regular part-time          117.4    22.27         75.8   15.15    126.8     32.14       87.1   22.99     0.98    1.35
 On-call and day labor       82.1    13.23         56.0    9.19    135.2     21.45       98.4   16.51     4.25    3.76
 Temporary help agency      138.8    17.67         89.6   11.41    142.4     19.25      103.4   13.89     0.22    0.93
 Contract company            52.0     9.48         39.1    7.25     92.0     11.34       71.3    9.24     3.22    2.82
 Indep. Contractor (WS)     128.5    14.84         90.9   11.32    155.5     18.03      106.5   13.08     1.47    0.99
 Indep. Contractor (SE)      91.8    24.89         54.0   14.91    118.6     24.88       68.0   15.45     3.19    1.97
 Self-employed, other        72.9    19.35         39.8   10.62    108.1     24.85       62.0   15.05     4.53    3.29

Employment Insecurity      -------   -------     15.1   6.82       -------   -------      8.5   4.00    -------    2.28
Unions                     -------   -------    -54.5 -18.55       -------   -------    -51.6 -15.86    -------    0.99
Occupational Complexity    -------   -------    -17.5 -5.37        -------   -------    -12.8 -4.70     -------   -1.02

Race/Ethnicity
 [White]
 Black                       12.0      3.13         9.1    2.39        3.2     0.95       3.3    0.98    -1.66    -1.10
 Hispanic                              3.23         6.9    1.71        2.6     0.64       3.0    0.72    -1.75    -0.65
 Other                         9.3     1.89         7.9    1.62       -1.2    -0.27      -1.4   -0.31    -1.53    -1.37

Born Outside the U.S.        22.5      6.11        13.8    3.81      16.6      4.57      11.4    3.19    -1.05    -0.43

Family Status
 [Married, Spouse Emp]
 Single                        9.1     3.40         5.4    2.04       -0.6    -0.28      -4.0   -1.87    -2.77    -2.77
 Married, Spouse Unemp.       -4.5    -1.81        -3.9   -1.55        1.3     0.40      -1.8   -0.55     1.42     0.52
 Children                     -3.0    -1.29        -1.9   -0.81        5.7     2.68       6.4    3.01     2.73     2.59

Education
 [High School]
 Less than High School       18.0   5.93          9.4      3.16      16.1   4.89          6.0    1.87    -0.41    -0.74
 Some College                -2.5 -1.02           1.0      0.41      -8.4 -3.82          -3.2   -1.41    -1.85    -1.25
 Associate Degree           -15.1 -4.29          -8.9     -2.43     -19.5 -6.49         -12.1   -3.76    -1.05    -0.68
 BA Degree                  -27.8 -11.19        -17.8     -6.14     -27.6 -11.64        -13.2   -4.69     0.10     1.23
 Advanced Degree            -35.2 -11.80        -19.0     -4.76     -41.2 -12.62        -22.4   -5.34    -1.76    -0.66
 Attending School            -3.3 -0.76          -3.0     -0.69       1.5   0.36          2.3    0.54     0.80     0.87

 Age                          -5.9 -15.74          -4.2 -10.72        -4.5 -11.33        -3.5   -8.66     2.54     1.16
 Age-squared                   0.1 14.38            0.0   9.84         0.0   9.60         0.0    7.57    -2.54    -1.12
Table 5 (continued)

City Type and Region
 [Suburban]
 Urban                               8.8      3.31           8.1   3.03        1.7      0.65       2.4   0.95     -1.88    -1.48
 Rural                              13.5      5.44           7.5   3.04       15.5      6.39      11.5   4.78      0.55     1.11
 City type not identified            6.8      2.56           3.8   1.45        5.9      2.28       4.0   1.53     -0.24     0.03

  [Northeast]
  Midwest                             0.2     0.06          -1.2   -0.44        4.2     1.53       1.9   0.72      1.03     0.82
  South                               9.9     3.74           6.1    2.32        8.5     3.23       4.6   1.75     -0.36    -0.41
  West                                5.3     1.95           3.2    1.18        3.1     1.14       2.5   0.92     -0.56    -0.18

Occupation
 [Managerial]
 Professional                     -------   -------         10.3    2.22    -------   -------      3.9    0.93   -------   -0.99
 Technical                        -------   -------         -6.0   -0.84    -------   -------     -8.2   -1.28   -------   -0.23
 Sales                            -------   -------          9.9    2.35    -------   -------     14.4    3.13   -------    0.68
 Clerical                         -------   -------          0.9    0.16    -------   -------      3.3    0.81   -------    0.34
 Private Household                -------   -------         15.6    0.39    -------   -------     24.7    1.57   -------    0.19
 Protective Services              -------   -------         20.8    2.47    -------   -------     12.2    0.96   -------   -0.51
 Service Occs (Other)             -------   -------         19.4    3.40    -------   -------     27.6    4.98   -------    0.93
 Craft                            -------   -------          3.8    0.94    -------   -------      8.8    1.08   -------    0.54
 Machine Operatives               -------   -------          8.6    1.35    -------   -------     20.2    2.75   -------    1.13
 Transport Operatives             -------   -------         15.1    2.38    -------   -------      9.8    0.86   -------   -0.38
 Laborers                         -------   -------          2.4    0.38    -------   -------     17.0    1.85   -------    1.28
 Farm and Forestry                -------   -------         32.9    3.24    -------   -------     16.8    1.54   -------   -0.96

Industry
  [Manufacturing]
  Agric., Forest, Fish            -------   -------         22.8    2.52    -------   -------     36.9    3.36   -------    0.87
  Mining                          -------   -------         -8.2   -0.78    -------   -------    -26.2   -1.29   -------   -0.84
  Construction                    -------   -------         39.6    8.28    -------   -------     16.4    1.95   -------   -2.07
  Transportation                  -------   -------          7.1    1.44    -------   -------      0.7    0.12   -------   -0.78
  Wholesale Trade                 -------   -------         13.1    2.31    -------   -------     14.8    2.01   -------    0.17
  Retail Trade                    -------   -------         43.8    9.33    -------   -------     35.9    7.08   -------   -0.97
  Finance, Real Estate            -------   -------         16.8    2.89    -------   -------     -2.0   -0.38   -------   -2.31
  Private Households              -------   -------         20.8    0.80    -------   -------     18.0    1.29   -------   -0.09
  Business, Repair Serv.          -------   -------         42.0    8.76    -------   -------     23.3    4.16   -------   -2.19
  Personal Services               -------   -------         40.2    5.61    -------   -------     34.5    5.64   -------   -0.51
  Entertainment, Recreat.         -------   -------         42.3    4.92    -------   -------     39.2    4.52   -------   -0.21
  Professional Services           -------   -------         25.8    5.48    -------   -------     15.8    3.53   -------   -1.40
  Public Administration           -------   -------        -37.9   -5.62    -------   -------    -23.2   -3.50   -------    1.87

p-value of Alpha test         .                       .                    .                    0.9709
psuedo R Square                   0.0952                  0.1295            0.1052              0.1351


p-values for 2-tailed Z tests: 1.64 (.10), 1.96 (.05), 2.58 (.01), 3.29 (.001)
p-values for 1-tailed Z tests: 1.28 (.10), 1.64 (.05), 2.33 (.01), 3.09 (.001)
Table 6.                                         Logistic Regressions of Bad Job Components on

                                                Work Arrangements and Other Determinants, by Sexa



                                           Low Wage           No Health Insurance          No Pension
Work Arrangement
                                     Males        Females      Males      Females       Males     Females

    [Standard]

    Regular contingent               1.44*         1.42*       1.10       1.29          1.01       1.70***

    Regular part-time                3.58***       3.20***     6.10***    6.49***       4.41***    4.64***

    On-call and day laborer          2.18***       2.89***     3.54***    12.89***      3.48***    6.77***

    Temporary help agency            3.01***       2.07***     27.53***   19.10***     11.92***    33.20***

    Contract company                 1.36          1.74**      1.92***    3.38***       1.99***    3.66***

    Indep. contractor; W & S         1.64*         2.12***     5.28***    12.79***      6.38***    14.63***

    Indep. contractor; self-empl.    2.36***       3.07***     3.02***    4.38***       1.82***    2.08***

    Self-employed, other             2.84***       4.35***     1.79***    2.40***       1.47***    1.79***


    Employment insecurity                1.21      1.32**      1.96***    2.06***       2.79***    1.84***

    Unions                           -.34***       -.33***     -.24***    -.31***       -.21***        -.21***

    Job Complexity                   -.61***       -.65***     -.58***     -.82**       -.71***    -.83**



a
    Equation controls for variables included in second set of columns (Model 2) reported in Table 5.

***: p < .001; **: p < .01; *: p < .05
Table 7.                            OLS Regressions of (log) Wages, and Logistic Regressions

                                               of High Wages, on Work Arrangements and

                                                      Other Determinants, by Sexa



Work Arrangement
                                           Pct. Change                           High Wages
                                           (log) Wages

                                       Males           Females           Males           Females

    [Standard]

    Regular contingent                  -2.0              1.2              .86             1.41

    Regular part-time                 -17.7***          -11.9***          -.49***             .86

    On-call and day laborer            -6.2*           -12.0***            .88                .82

    Temporary help agency             -14.8***           -6.9             -.68                .99

    Contract company                    4.3               0.2            1.37*             1.76**

    Indep contractor-W&S                1.3               1.4              .97             1.56*

    Indep contractor-Self-emp          -4.1*            -12.8***          1.06             1.93***

    Self-employed, other               -9.8***          -19.7***          1.03             1.50***


R2 (adjusted)                           .253              .253




a
    Equation controls for variables included in second set of columns (Model 2) reported in Table 5.

***: p < .001; **: p < .01; *: p < .05 (one-tailed z tests)
Appendix Table A.              Means and Standard Deviations of Explanatory Variables, by Sex

                                     Males                Females
                                                                               P-Value of Sex
                                Mean       Std. Dev.   Mean      Std. Dev.       Difference
Work Arrangement

 [Regular Full-time]                .751                  .665                     .000
   Standard                         .694                  .620                     .000
   Contingent                       .037                  .034                     .278
 Regular part-time                  .076                  .215                     .000
 On-call and day labor              .013                  .015                     .043
 Temporary help agency              .009                  .012                     .000
 Contract company                   .018                  .009                     .063
 Indep. Contractor (WS)             .008                  .008                     .000
 Indep. Contractor (SE)             .065                  .033                     .838
 Other self-employed                .059                  .044                     .000

Employment Insecurity               .076                  .084                     .008
Unions/Collective Bargaining        .177                  .144                     .000
Occupational Complexity             .011        .852      .052        .777         .003

Race/Ethnicity

 [White]                            .787                  .780                     .242
 Black                              .092                  .120                     .000
 Hispanic                           .093                  .073                     .000
 Other                              .028                  .028                     .745

Born Outside the U.S.               .112                  .095                     .000

Family Status

 [Married, Spouse Employed]         .458                  .515                     .000
 Married, Spouse Unemployed         .207                  .085                     .000
 Single                             .335                  .400                     .000

 Children                           .411                  .430                     .001

Education

 [High School]                      .322                  .340                     .001
 Less than High School              .121                  .082                     .000
 Some College                       .209                  .234                     .000
 Associate Degree                   .079                  .097                     .000
 BA Degree                          .174                  .170                     .419
 Advanced Degree                    .096                  .078                     .000

 Attending School                   .040                  .046                     .024

Age                             38.9214     12.3432    38.8698    12.0982          .472
Appendix Table A (continued)

City Type and Region

 [Suburban]                          .406          .399   .531
 Urban                               .219          .228   .102
 Rural                               .218          .218   .424
 City type not identified            .157          .156   .899

 [Northeast]                         .187          .182   .703
 Midwest                             .249          .242   .571
 South                               .343          .370   .006
 West                                .221          .206   .022

Occupation

 [Managerial]                        .149          .134   .000
 Professional                        .128          .167   .000
 Technical                           .028          .038   .001
 Sales                               .112          .114   .567
 Clerical                            .063          .266   .000
 Private Household                   .000          .013   .000
 Protective Services                 .029          .008   .000
 Service Occupations (other)         .066          .153   .000
 Craft                               .190          .024   .000
 Machine Operatives                  .072          .052   .000
 Transport Operatives                .068          .008   .000
 Laborers                            .059          .015   .000
 Farm and Forestry                   .037          .009   .000

Industry

 [Manufacturing]                     .222          .118   .000
 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing      .035          .013   .000
 Mining                              .010          .002   .000
 Construction                        .093          .013   .000
 Transportation                      .095          .050   .000
 Wholesale Trade                     .052          .026   .000
 Retail Trade                        .151          .173   .000
 Finance, Real Estate                .050          .085   .000
 Private Households                  .001          .016   .000
 Business, Repair Services           .068          .040   .000
 Personal Services                   .018          .031   .000
 Entertainment, Recreational         .013          .013   .942
 Professional Services               .138          .372   .000
 Public Administration               .055          .049   .057

Note: means and standard deviations are weighted

				
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