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									Chapter Six

 Emotional Development
    and Attachment
Explanations of emotional development: Genetic-
maturational, cognitive, and learning.


 Genetic-maturational, cognitive, and
  learning may each may be important for
  different aspects of emotional
  development.
Explanations of emotional development: Genetic-
maturational, cognitive, and learning.


 Genetic-Maturational explanations:
      1.) Twin studies: MZ twins are more similar than
       DZ twins in when they begin to smile and how
       often they smile (sociability); same for fear of
       strangers and general fearfulness (behavioral
       inhibition)
      2.) Smiling occurs at 46 weeks conceptual age,
       regardless of when baby is born. I.e., premies
       smile 6 weeks after they should have been born.
Explanations of emotional development: Genetic-
maturational, cognitive, and learning.


 Genetic-Maturational explanations:
      3.) Stranger distress occurs at same age in all
       cultures regardless of childrearing practices.
       Separation Protest (infant's distress at being
       separated from mother, from ~6 mos. to 39
       mos.) also occurs in all cultures at about the
       same time.
      4.) Performance anxiety occurs around 18-24
       mos. Concerned about being evaluated.
       (Shame, embarrassment would be typical
       emotions.)
Explanations of emotional development: Genetic-
maturational, cognitive, and learning.

 Cognitive perspective:
    1.) Infants acquire mental representations (=
     schemata) and become better able to assimilate
     new events to schemata they already have. (This is
     a Piagetian meaning of assimilation.)
       'Confronting a novel event causes buildup of
         tension; the infant responds with cognitive effort to
         master the meaning of the event; when the infant
         is successful, tension is released and he smiles.'
         (p. 216)
       = Smile of assimilation;
       reflects intrinsic motivation as central to cognitive
         development.
Explanations of emotional development: Genetic-
maturational, cognitive, and learning.


 Cognitive perspective:
      2.) Context effects in fear of stranger (see
       above) can be explained by increasing
       cognitive sophistication. E.g., how close
       the mother is, whether the stranger is
       smiling or sober.
Explanations of emotional development: Genetic-
maturational, cognitive, and learning.

 Functionalist perspective:
    1.) Combines aspects of the cognitive and learning
     explanations into a unified theory.
    2.) Emotions are linked to goals. For example, how
     would emotions like hope, joy, frustration, anger,
     and fear be linked to goals?
        Some goals are innate: Baby wanting to be
         near mother; love, sex, rock n’ roll
        Some goals are learned: Wanting a new car
    3.) Emotions are also linked to establishing and
     maintaining social relationships. (Be able to give
     some examples where we use emotional
     information in social relationships.)
      Perspectives on emotional
               development

   Learning perspective:
      1.)Some parents may reinforce smiling more
       than others and some may be more effective
       in getting their children to control their
       emotions. (This competes with the genetic
       explanation for individual differences in
       fearfulness.)

      2.)Some fears can be learned by classical
       conditioning, operant conditioning, or social
       referencing (social learning) (e.g., seeing that
       mom is afraid of a bee).
       Early Emotional Development:
               Carroll Izard
 Timetable of emotional facial expressions:
      Birth: Startle, disgust, distress, 'rudimentary smile' --
       i.e., reflexive smile, not responsive to external events.
      4-6 weeks: True smile in response to social situations.
      2-1/2-3 mos.: anger, interest, surprise, sadness
      7 mos.: fear
      6-8 mos.: shyness
      12-36 mos.: pride, guilt, embarrassment, contempt, etc.-
       -the 'social emotions.' These require greater cognitive
       sophistication and a sense of self.
Early Emotional Development:
Alan Sroufe
 1.) Dates emergence of emotions later
  than Izard because he is unwilling to
  consider baby as having real emotions
  until baby is capable of cognitive
  appraisals
    How does anger differ from distress?
Early Emotional Development:
Alan Sroufe
 2.) Differentiation (later emotions evolve out of earlier
   emotions; emotions become more differentiated;
     babies start out with distress—a global negative
      emotion;
     this differentiates into other negative emotions like
      anger, defiance, and rage.
     Wariness at 4–5 mos. differentiates into:
           stranger distress (9–11 mos),
           anxiety and fear (12–17 mos),
           shame (18–35 mos)
           guilt (36–54 mos) (Some say guilt develops later).
Early emotional Development:
Alan Sroufe
 3.) Emotions become more psychologically (cognitively)
  based with age. E.g., distress versus anger: Distress has
  no cognitive component; newborns are distressed if they
  feel pain, but they don't direct anger at a specific person
  inflicting the pain until later in the first year. Fear does not
  develop until 7 months of age; requires cognitive ability to
  differentiate between familiar versus unfamiliar people.
 4.) Emotions are more contextually sensitive with age.
  With age, infants respond emotionally to the meaning of
  the situation; e.g., laughter in response to tickling versus
  laughter when mom makes a funny face.
             Early Emotional Development



 Two types of emotions:
     Primary emotions (i.e., startle, distress,
      happiness, fear, )
     Secondary emotions (i.e., shame, pride, guilt)
      require more cognitive sophistication.


 There are gender differences in emotional
 expressiveness: Girls > Boys
       The Beginnings of Specific Emotions
            Smiling and Laughter

 Smiling and laughter are the first expressions of
  pleasure
 Smiling:
  Reflex smiling: Birth to 3-4 weeks. Spontaneous, not
  in response to any stimulus.
 Weeks 3-8: Smile in response to external elicitors--
  bouncing, faces, especially faces. (Could it be an
  evolved bias?)
 Special smile toward mother at 10 mos., the
  Duchenne Smile; face 'lights up with pleasure,
  including wrinkles around the eyes.
      The Beginnings of Specific Emotions:
           Smiling and Laughter

 Girls smile more than boys' could be evolved
  bias to greater social interest; this results in
  more social interaction for girls.
 Smiling is central to infant social interaction,
  playing, pleasurable socializing
 Figure 6.2: laughter in infancy is increasingly
  caused by social (making faces) and visual
  stimuli (jack-in-the-box); less by tactile (e.g.,
  tickling); 3-5-year-olds: 'acting silly'
    Laughter at stimuli (percent)         What Makes Children Laugh?

                                    35                      Social

                                    30
                                                                      Visual
                                    25

                                    20
                                                                        Tactile
                                    15

                                    10                                    Auditory
                                     5

                                     0
                                         4-6              7-9                        10-12

                                                    Age (in months)
Fig. 6-2
        The Beginnings of Specific Emotions:
                       Fear

 Wariness (3 mos.): distress in response to events they can't
  assimilate; strangers are objects of interest and wariness, but
  not immediate negative reaction.



 Fear (9 mos.): negative reaction to event with specific
  meaning, such as a stranger; implies greater cognitive
  sophistication than with wariness. what to express under
  what circumstances.
        The Beginnings of Specific Emotions:
                       Fear
 Individual differences in fearfulness: Kagan: behaviorally
  inhibited children are shy, introverted; respond with fear and
  increased heart rates to mildly stressful situations. 'Fearful
  Temperament'
 Contextual Features: Less fear at home or in mother's lap
  than in lab or away from mom. Less fear if mom is not afraid
  and reacts positively. This is social referencing: getting
  emotional cues from others. If mom is happy, baby sees this
  expression and is less afraid.
 Stranger characteristics: Strange child less fearsome than
  adults or a midget; probably child-like facial features are the
  cue; also if stranger is smiley and positive, baby is less
  afraid.
                                  The Onset of Stranger Distress

                         14
                                           Compares
    Number of Children



                         12                faces

                         10                                    Shows
                                                               distress
                                                   Looks
                         8                         sober

                         6

                         4

                          2

                          0
                              2    3   4   5   6      7    8   9   10     11   12

                                               Age (in months)
Fig. 6-3
  The Beginnings of Specific Emotions: Fear


 Separation protest – a fear that is universal
  and peaks in Western infants at about 15
  months

 Separation anxiety sometimes reappears in
  other forms at later ages: e.g., day care, baby
  sitters,
                                           Separation Protest
                                100

                                                                 African Bushman
   who cried when mother left



                                 80
    Percentage of Children




                                 60


                                 40
                                                                      Antiguan
                                                                      (Guatemala)
                                 20            Guatemalan
                                               Indian            Israeli
                                                                 (kibbutzim)
                                  0
                                      5   10     15         20      25         30   35
                                                  Age (in months)

Fig. 6-5
   The Beginnings of Specific Emotions: Fear


 Infants use social referencing to know how to
  act in uncertain situations:
      Visual Cliff Study: Babies attend to mothers’
       emotional expressions to get information on what
       to do.
          An expression of fear means ―Stop.‖
    The Beginnings of Specific Emotions:
    Pride, Guilt, Jealousy, and Shame
 Pride, Guilt, Jealousy, and Shame: The
  Self-Conscious Emotions
 Emerge toward middle of second year
  (~18 mos.) Require a sense of self;
 Rouge test: Before this age, children
  show no embarrassment when seeing
  themselves in a mirror with rouge on
  their face
                  What’s That On My Nose?
            80

            70

            60                                    Lewis &
                                                  Brooks-
            50                                    Gunn’s study

            40
                                                  Amsterdam’s
            30                                    study

            20

            10

             0
                 9-12       15-18         21-24
                        Age (in months)

Fig. 6-10
    The Beginnings of Specific Emotions:
    Pride, Guilt, Jealousy, and Shame

   True guilt emerges only in middle childhood,
    around age 9 when children have a clear sense of
    personal responsibility:
      'I felt guilty because I didn't turn in my homework
       out of laziness.'
   Younger children will say they are guilty but
    seem not to understand that their own
    responsibility is critical:
      ―I felt guilty when my brother and I had
       boxing gloves on and I hit him too hard. . . .
       sometimes I don’t know by own strength.‖
            Younger children may say they feel guilty even if
             they had no control over what happened.
       The Beginnings of Specific Emotions:
       Pride, Guilt, Jealousy, and Shame

 Differentiating between pride and shame is
  linked to task performance and responses
  from others
      3-year olds: ―easy‖ and ―difficult‖: More pride if
       task is difficult; more shame if task is easy.
      Differentiating ―joy‖ vs. pride; ―sadness vs.
       shame‖;
         solving a not particularly difficult problem
          resulted in joy;
         solving a difficult problem produced pride.

         failing a difficult task resulted in sadness;

         failing an easy task resulted in shame.
           Pride (=orange), Shame (=green),
2.5
                and Task Difficulty

   2


 1.5


   1


 0.5


   0
                Easy                     Difficult
                       Task difficulty
Fig. 6-7
Regulating Emotions

 Starts with sucking thumb (pre-natally), then
  more active methods like turning away, self-
  distraction by 18 mos.
 Emotions more controlled and modulated as
  children move from infancy to toddlers
      This involves greater inhibitory control = effortful
       control with development of prefrontal cortex;
       textbook emphasizes learning, but much of this is
       maturational.
Regulating Emotions

 As children get older: Less frequent
  emotions, less intense, more
  conventionalized.
 Children learn emotional display rules
  (what to express under what
  circumstances) beginning at age 2 when
  they exaggerate or minimize emotion in
  response to others;
     9-10 years old, children can smile when
      unhappy.
The Development of Attachment


 Attachment is closely related to
  emotional development
      Forms in second half of first year

      Evidenced by separation protests

      Enhances parents’ effectiveness in later
       socialization of their children

      Evolves over first 2 years of life
The Development of Attachment
 Theories of attachment
     Psychoanalytic theory: attachment is linked to
      gratification of innate drives—basically the same as
      learning theory

     Learning theory:
        Traditionally, primary drive of hunger is reduced
         by primary reinforcer (food) and secondary
         reinforcer is one who feeds
The Development of Attachment
 Harlow’s experiment

         Harlow: monkeys are comforted by soft ―contact
          comfort‖, not feeding
              Harlow and Zimmerman's (1959) experiment on
               monkeys:
              Cloth surrogate preferred over wire-mesh surrogate;
              this implies that babies innately like the contact
               comfort provided by the soft terrycloth surrogate.
              Babies also form attachments to fathers even though
               the fathers don't feed them.
              Therefore, babies don't learn to like contact by being
               fed. It's there to start with.
              This destroyed both the psychoanalytic and learning
               views.
 The Development of Attachment

 Theories of attachment
      Cognitive developmental theory:
           Attachment depends on infants differentiating
            between mom and others and understanding that
            people continue to exist even when baby can't see
            them
                Piaget called this object permanence.
                These are cognitive achievements.
                Objection: But can this account for the intense
                 emotional reaction of separated infants?
           Increasing cognitive sophistication means physical
            proximity to attachment figures lessens in
            importance as children grow
           Increasing cognitive sophistication means that
            psychological contact maintained through words,
            smiles, and looks
      The Development of Attachment


 Theories of attachment

     Bowlby’s ethological theory:
        Infantattachment has roots in instinctual infant
         responses important for survival and protection:
         Crying, sucking, clinging.
        Attachment is an adaptation designed to protect
         the baby by keeping it close to mom.
             Adaptation = a mechanism designed by natural
              selection to perform a particular function.
       The Development of Attachment

 Theories of attachment

      Bowlby’s ethological theory:
           Based partly on animal’s imprinting process: A
            sensitive period for attaching to mom.
           Infants have innate ability to engage in social
            signaling (i.e., smiling and crying)
                These abilities play active role in formation of
                 attachment.
         Parents also have innate abilities to respond to their
          baby’s eliciting behaviors.
         Attachment is a quality of a relationship, not a trait of
          the baby. Babies may have different attachments with
          different people (e.g., mom vs. dad).
       The Development of Attachment

 Attachment

     Evolves in stages or steps
     Develops for those regularly interacted with such as
      fathers, siblings, and peers
     Father-child interaction affected by culture and type
      of society one lives in
     Mothers and fathers differences in play modes or
      styles continue as children grow
       The Development of Attachment

 Phases in Development of Attachment
     1.) Preattachment (0-2 mos.): Indiscriminate social
      responsiveness
     2.) Attachment in the making (2-7 mos.): Recognition
      of familiar people
     3.) Clear-cut attachment (7-24 mos.): Separation
      protest; wariness of strangers, intentional
      communication
     4.) Goal-corrected partnership (24 mos. on):
      Relationships more two-sided: Children understand
      parent's intentions, plans, goals, and needs.
             Fathers and Attachment



 1. Fathers can become attached to babies and
  engage in many of the same behaviors with
  babies.
 2. Fathers also care for child at higher levels than
  in the old days, but they are less involved than
  mothers in routine care.
             Fathers and Attachment


 3. Mother predominance in childcare is generally
  true, but there are examples of cultures where
  fathers play a larger role in care: the Aka in
  Africa; but this is not generally true of
  hunter-gatherer societies.
 4. Father tend to play more physically with
  children: rough and tumble play, etc. But it is not
  universal; children like it more than relatively
  sedentary play with mothers--more arousing.
        Assessing Attachment:
        Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Test:
        Table 6.4
      1. Mother, baby, and observer
      2. Mother and baby
      3. Stranger, mother and baby
      4. Stranger and baby
      5. Mother and baby
      6. Baby alone
      7. Stranger and baby
      8. Mother and baby
 Episodes #5 and #8 are Reunion Episodes
          The Nature and Quality of Attachment


 Early attachment formation is not uniform

      Many seem to form highly secure attachments
      Assessment is based on the Strange Situation and
       Ainsworth’s classifications
      Styles of caregiving are linked to attachment; sensitive
       care linked to secure attachments, and unavailable or
       rejecting linked to insecurity
      Deficient forms of parenting often result in
       approach/avoidance behavior in children
      The Nature and Quality of Attachment


   Tested at ~1 year of age (6 mos. to 2 yrs.), at a
    time when child uses mother as a SECURE
     BASE:
      Secure Base: the attachment object is seen by the
      child as a base from which to explore new things
      and a haven in times of distress.
   Four Classifications: A, B, C, and D
         The Nature and Quality of Attachment

 1.) Secure (B Babies) (60% OF U.S. SAMPLE):
      ACTIVELY SEEK PROXIMITY AND CONTACT AT
       REUNION;
      EXPLORE WHILE MOM IS AROUND, SEE HER AS A
       SECURE BASE;
      OFTEN DISTRESSED DURING SEPARATION, BUT
       CALM DOWN QUICKLY AT REUNION
 2.) Insecure-avoidant (A Babies); 20% :
      OFTEN DO NOT CRY MUCH AT SEPARATION; DO NOT
       SEEK
      PROXIMITY AND ACTIVELY AVOID THE MOTHER AT
       REUNION;
      DO NOT RESIST CONTACT IF MOTHER INITIATES IT;
      DO NOT CRY MUCH AT REUNION
         The Nature and Quality of Attachment

 3.) Insecure-resistant (C Babies); 10-15%:
      VERY UPSET AND DISTRESSED DURING SEPARATION;
      ACTIVELY SEEK PROXIMITY AND CONTACT AT
       REUNION RESIST CONTACT AT REUNION, OFTEN
       SHOWING ANGER;
      CONTINUE CRYING AT REUNION; THEY DO NOT CALM
       DOWN EASILY AT REUNION
 4.) Insecure-disorganized (D Babies):
      DISORIENTED, DAZED, REPETITIVE BEHAVIORS;
       Extreme Approach/Avoidance
Caregiving and attachment status

 1.) Secure attachment (B babies):
    associated with SENSITIVE CARE:
    Responsive and consistently available when
     baby is in genuine need.
    Mothers continually adjust behavior to infant so
     that there is INTERACTIVE SYNCHRONY, A
     SMOOTH-FLOWING DANCE;
    Mothers use exaggerated speech and facial
     expressions.
    Baby gets excited and averts gaze; mother doesn't
     intrude. Like a sine wave.
Dyadic Interaction during mother-
infant playful interaction
 Dyadic Interaction is like a sine wave:
  Baby becomes excited when looking at
  mom but turns away when too aroused.
Caregiving and attachment status


 2.) Insecure Avoidant attachment (A babies):
    UNAVAILABLE, REJECTING, UNRESPONSIVE TO
      BABY'S SIGNALS;
    mothers are intrusive rather than sensitive in dyadic
      interaction.

 3.) Insecure Resistant (C babies):
    INCONSISTENTLY AVAILABLE;
    mothers unresponsive or uninvolved in dyadic interaction
Caregiving and attachment status


 4.) Insecure Disorganized (D babies)
    associated with neglect or abuse.
    Approach/avoidant behavior is
     common;
    82% of abused infants had disorganized
     attachment vs. 19% of non-abused infants.
    Mothers often depressed;
    little mutual eye contact and mutual
     responsiveness;
    lots of gaze aversion.
The Internal Working Model

 Internal Working Model: A person's mental
  representation of himself as a child, his parents,
  and the nature of the interactions with the
  parents as he reconstructs and interprets their
  interaction.

 Hypothesis: The IWM tends to result in people
  recreating their relationships with their own
  children.
Recollections of relationship with
parents tends to predict
attachment with children.

 One study found this effect when based
  on recollections of women before their
  babies were born,
     This controls for the possibility that current
      relationship with the child would color
      perceptions of relationship with parents.
Temperament and attachment
classification
 Temperament: Some studies find association
  between difficult temperament and insecure
  attachment.
      Text suggests that if there is an effect it is the result
       of interactions with the context:
      Babies with difficult temperament whose mothers
       are isolated or have no social support are more
       likely to have insecure attachment;
      but temperament by itself is a poor predictor of
       insecurity of attachment.
      Moral: Good mothering beats difficult temperament.
Stability of Attachment
Classification
 Stability: Attachment is highly stable;
   One study: 100% of children secure at 12
    mos. were secure at 6 yrs; 66% for
    disorganized; but there are notable
    exceptions.
   Lowered stress (e.g., less marital tension)
    leads to increase in attachment security,
   More negative life events (job loss,
    divorce, illness, abuse) leads to decrease
     in attachment security.
       The Nature and Quality of Attachment:
            Cross-cultural variation

 Attachment studies show interesting
  comparisons between cultures:
     Box 6.3: Israeli and Japanese babies more likely to be
      Resistant (C) babies
        Israeli cared for by metapelet rather than parent; may
         not be so sensitive
        Japanese mothers are very close to baby, share bed,
         etc.
     German babies more likely be Avoidant (A) babies
Consequences of Attachment
Quality: Cognitive Development
 Cognitive Development:
    Age 2: Secure babies more enthusiastic, persistent,
     curious, exploratory; higher level symbolic play with
     mother
    Age 7: In task where mother encouraged them to
     read,
        securely attached children less distractible, paid
         more attention to mother, required less
         discipline.
        This is a Vygotsky-type study: Cognitive
         development occurs in a social context with
         adults.
Consequences of Attachment
Quality: Social Development
 Social Development: Age 1-3½: More
  positive emotions, more empathy, less
  aggressive, socially skilled, more friends.
 Follow-up at Age 11: children securely
  attached as babies were more confident,
  more socially competent, higher self-
  esteem;
Consequences of Attachment
Quality: Social Development
 Peer relations: Securely attached
  children spent more time with peers.
  Form friends with other secure children.
Consequences of Attachment
Quality: Social Development
 Peer relations: Securely attached
  children spent more time with peers.
  Form friends with other secure children.
 IWM is proposed as mechanism: 5-year-
  old Children who are insecurely attached
  are more likely to interpret an ambiguous
  event (bumping into another child) as
  done with hostile intent
Consequences of Attachment
Quality: Social Development
 Peer relations: Securely attached children spent
  more time with peers. Form friends with other
  secure children.
 IWM is proposed as mechanism: 5-year-old
  Children who are insecurely attached are more
  likely to interpret an ambiguous event (bumping
  into another child) as done with hostile intent
 Securely attached children also better at
  understanding emotions and regulating their
  emotions.
      They recall more positive emotional experiences,
       while insecurely attached children recall more
       negative experiences.
Consequences of Attachment
Quality: Social Development
 Children may have different attachment
  categories with different parents;
     Having a secure relationship with both
      parents shows the strongest relationships
      with positive outcomes.
Day Care and Attachment

 1999 census: 10 million children under
  the age of six spend substantial time
  being cared for by non-parents.
     50% of children under 5 spend many hours
      a week in some form of day care
     i.e., daycare provided by non-family
      member either in the child’s home or a day
      care facility.
        Who Is Caring For Our Preschoolers?
        5.1%           24%         Parents
15.4%                              Other relatives
                                   Other
                                   Child care
                                   centers
                                   Family-child
                                   care homes
                                   In-home care



                             25%
29.6%
                     0.9%
                                           Fig. 6-11
Day Care and Attachment

 1.) Children in daycare still are attached to their
  parents.
 2.) Amount of time in daycare affects nature of
  parent-child relationship
      negative correlation between time in day care and
       sensitivity of mother at 3, 6, and 15 mos.
      Children found to be somewhat less affectionate
       toward mothers.
 3.) Children who begin day care before age 1
  more likely to be insecurely attached.
High Quality Day Care may
Compensate for Negative Effects
on Attachment
 High quality daycare can compensate:
  Better outcomes if there is a secure
  attachment with daycare provider.
 Daycare quality affected by:
     1.) staff turnover: High turnover is a risk
      factor.
     2.) teacher training: Better trained teachers
      more likely to have secure attachment with
      children.
High Quality Day Care may
Compensate for Negative Effects
on Attachment
 Poor quality daycare associated with
  aggression and delinquency.
 High quality daycare associated with
  higher language and cognitive skills.
 Effects of quality of daycare may be
  found in kindergarten:
     Poor quality daycare associated with
      more destructiveness and less
      consideration of others.
The Nature and Quality of Attachment


 Quality of child care appears linked to
  social class of families using the services
         Low-income                        Are Child Care and Enrichment
         Affluent                          Programs Only for the Affluent?
                                                                      (b)
        (a)




                                                     Percent of schools offering extended-
                                  80                                                         80




                                                        day and enrichment programs
   Percent of 3- to 5-year-olds




                                  70                                                         70
     enrolled in preschool




                                  60                                                         60

                                  50                                                         50

                                  40                                                         40

                                  30                                                         30

                                  20                                                         20

                                  10                                                         10

                                   0                                                          0
                                       Families                                                   Neighborhoods
Fig. 6-12
ETHOLOGICAL THEORY OF
ATTACHMENT: JOHN BOWLBY

 A HYBRID THEORY:
     (1) BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
     (2) LEARNING
     (3) COGNITIVE SCHEMES
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 1.) ATTACHMENT AS AN ADAPTATION
     ADAPTATION = A BEHAVIOR OR
      MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURE DESIGNED BY
      NATURAL
      SELECTION IN ORDER TO PERFORM A
      PARTICULAR FUNCTION
     FUNCTION OF ATTACHMENT IS TO PROVIDE
      PROTECTION FOR HELPLESS
      INFANTS.
     ATTACHMENT IS AN ADAPTATION DESIGNED BY
      NATURAL SELECTION TO KEEP THE BABY
      CLOSE
      TO THE MOTHER AS A SOURCE OF
      PROTECTION; IT IS A PROXIMITY MAINTAINING
      SYSTEM
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 2.) ETHOLOGICAL IDEA OF 'NATURAL CLUE'
  = AN INNATE CONNECTION BETWEEN A
  STIMULUS AND AN AFFECTIVE
  (EVALUATIVE) RESPONSE
     STIMULUS           AFFECTIVE,
      EVALUATIVE RESPONSE
     S      R+     (CONTACT COMFORT,
      AFFECTIONATE TOUCHING, MUTUAL GAZING
      AND SMILING) SWEET TASTES
     S      R --   (MOTHER ABSENT; STRANGER
      PRESENT; BITTER TASTES)
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 Natural Clues:
     THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE
      STIMULUS AND THE AFFECTIVE
      RESPONSE IS INNATE, UNLEARNED;
     Bottom line: BABIES COME INTO THE
      WORLD WITH LIKES AND DISLIKES
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Biological Systems

 3.) MOTHER AND BABY ARE BIOLOGICALLY
 PROGRAMMED FOR SOCIAL INTERACTION
     a.) BABIES' BEHAVIORS FOR MAINTAINING
      CONTACT: CRYING, LOCOMOTION, "MOLDING
      TO MOTHER'S BODY";
     b.) FOR FACILITATING INTERACTION:
      APPEARANCE OF BABY, SMILING,
      VOCALIZING, MAKING EYE CONTACT
 SOCIAL INTERACTION IS INNATELY
 PLEASURABLE FOR MOTHER AND BABY
 (INVOLVES NATURAL CLUES)
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning

 1.) MOTHER AS SECURE BASE FOR
  EXPLORATION:
  THE SET POINT: Changes with Development and with
    the Situation
                        B

                        M
 MOTHER WITHIN SET POINT: BABY EXPLORES


                         B
            M
 MOTHER EXCEEDS SET POINT: ATTACHMENT
  BEHAVIORS TRIGGERED, EXPLORATION CEASES
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning

 DISCRETE SYSTEMS IDEA:
 ATTACHMENT SYSTEM INTERACTS WITH
  THE EXPLORATION SYSTEM, THE PLAY
  SYSTEM, AND OTHER SYSTEMS.
     IF SAFE, THEN PLAY, EXPLORE
     IF STRANGER IS PRESENT, THEN
      STOP PLAY, LOOK FOR MOTHER
     IF HUNGRY, STOP PLAY AND
      EXPLORATION, SEEK FOOD
DISCRETE SYSTEMS IDEA:
Evolutionary Psychology
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning
 2.) INTERNAL WORKING MODEL
 (IWM) OF MOTHER = A MODEL
 (SCHEMA) OF WHAT MOTHER IS LIKE
     a.) BUILT UP FROM EXPERIENCE
      (LEARNING)
     b.) EMPHASIS ON SENSITIVITY AND
      RESPONSIVITY
     c.) RESULTS IN A MODEL OF FUTURE
      RELATIONSHIPS;
     RESISTANT TO CHANGE
Ethological Theory of Attachment:
Cognition and Learning
 IWM FOR A (AVOIDANT) CHILD: PEOPLE
  ARE NOT AVAILABLE WHEN I NEED HELP
 IWM FOR B (SECURE) CHILD: PEOPLE WILL
  BE SENSITIVE AND RESPONSIVE
  WHEN I NEED HELP
 IWM FOR C (AMBIVALENT, RESISTANT)
  CHILD: PEOPLE ARE UNRELIABLE WHEN I
  NEED HELP;
     SOMETIMES THEY ARE RESPONSIVE,
      SOMETIMES NOT.
The End

								
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