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									Chapter 14


              Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“Prison program”

  any  formal, structured activity
   that takes prisoners out of
   their cells and sets them to
   instrumental tasks

                         Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
 Benefits of institutional programs
 help manage time
 improve inmates‟ lives
 improve liklihood of parole
 reduce inmate boredom, tension, hostility
 maintain safety and security of prison
 produce goods & services
 keep prison functional and operating
 offer incentives for good inmate behavior
 keep prison time from becoming „dead time‟

                                Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
5 types of prison programs
rehabilitative programs     recreational programs
  increase likelihood         provide organized
  inmates will lead a         social, physical, &
 crime-free life upon         intellectual leisure
        release                    activities
 medical programs
                                industrial programs
 provide medical
services to inmates            production of sellable
                                 goods & services
                                 outside prison, in
    maintenance programs           “free” market
       provide services
    essential to upkeep &
     operation of prison

                                     Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
Factors limiting potential prison
 security
   need to minimize ability of inmates to obtain
    weapons or contraband
   also limits potential effectiveness of some
    programs (eg, group therapy) which require
    meaningful inmate interaction
 principle   of least eligibility
     prisoners can’t have it ‘better’ than citizens
     eg, elimination of inmate Pell grants (college)
 classification
     risk of escape, violence, future criminality

                                       Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
a  process by which prisoners are assigned
  to types of custody (ie, specific prisons, as
  well as the level of supervision within a
  prison), and treatment programs
 classification determines:
    which prison inmate is sent to
    housing assignment
    work assignment
    availability of treatment programs
    amount of good time available (eg,     Colorado)

                                    Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
  conflicting concerns in
  classification process

  offender             testing &
                      diagnostics     offender
   RISK                    to
     factors:                             factors:
age                                 batteries of tests
offense severity                    psychiatric eval‟s
prior prison record                 counseling
                                    = diagnostic tool to
= management tool                     identify inmate
to „group‟ inmates                   treatment needs
                                       Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
   new “objective”
   classification sytems

  predictive               alternative
   models                  which seek             based
    use statistical         to remove            models
    techniques to           subjective          use explicitly
       identify                                 defined legal
    classification          judgments            variables as
        factors            by classifier        classification
•risk of escape
•risk of misconduct                        •offense
•risk of future crime                      •various criminal
1. each factor is assigned points.
2. total points defines security level
                                           Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
   rehabilitative programs

 psychological                religious

                 to reform              substance
behavioral       offender‟s
                  behavior                abuse

       social                      &
                              Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th

    in general terms, all forms of
     “treatment of the mind,” i.e., in which
     therapy address the individual‟s
     thoughts and emotions; in the prison
     setting, these therapies are coercive
     in nature.
     most   experts agree that mental
       abnormalities play an insignificant role
       in criminality of most offenders.

                                   Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“coercive therapy”

  treatment   in which the therapist
    determines the need for (and the
    goals of) treatment processes,
    whether or not the client agrees

                           Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
group treatment

 therapy for which the setting is a
  group of individuals who are seen
  as having the same or similar
  problems or needs; designed to
  be highly interactive, often
  confrontational, as members of
  the group comprise essential
  elements of the therapy

                         Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
     types of group therapy
     used in prison

      reality                       transactional
     therapy                           analysis
                      focusing on

   therapy                            cognitive
(a technique)                       skill building
                                      Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“reality therapy”

 treatment  emphasizing an
   offender‟s personal responsibility
   for actions and the very real
   consequences of their actions -
   for themselves and others
    aim:get individual to behave more

                           Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th

    a treatment technique, usually used in
     a group, that vividly brings offender
     face to face with consequences of the
     crimes for victim & society
     group members encouraged to confront
      each other’s rationalizations and
     aim: get offenders to give up
      manipulative rationalizations and accept
      responsibility for harms they caused

                                 Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
   treatment focusing on how a person
    interacts with others, focusing on
    patterns that indicate personal
    focus   is on roles people play; 3 ego states
       parent: judging and controlling
       adult: mature, realistic, and ethical
       child: playful, dependent, naughty
    aim: help offenders realize their problems
      stem from approaching world as an angry
      Parent or weak Child, rather than as a
      responsible Adult
                                       Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“cognitive skill

   a form of behavior therapy focusing on
    changing the thinking & reasoning
    patterns that accompany criminal
    also called “cognitive restructuring
    belief is that offenders develop antisocial
     patterns of reasoning that make them
     believe criminal behavior makes sense
    aim: to teach offenders new ways to
     think about themselves and their actions

                                  Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
 treatment that induces new behaviors through
  reinforcements (rewards & punishments), role
  modeling, etc.
   belief: crime is not so much a product of the
    makeup of the individual as it is his/her responses
    to problems in the environment
   belief: behavior is learned
   aim: change person’s behavior (not person’s mind
    or emotions) by manipulating payoffs
   target of behavior change: not criminality, but
    problem behaviors surrounding criminal lifestyle--
    verbal manipulation, rationalization, anger control,
    frustration, deficient social skills
                                     Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“token economy”

    a type of behavior therapy that uses
     payments (such as tokens) to
     reinforce desirable behaviors in an
     institutional environment
     certainbenefits (eg, TV, privileges, free
      time) must be ‘purchased’ with tokens
     offender receives tokens as rewards for
      appropriate behavior and task

                                 Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“social therapy”                               definition
“milieu therapy” / “positive peer culture”

 treatment    that attempts to make the
    institutional environment supportive of
    prosocial attitudes & behaviors
      beliefs:
         offenders learn lawbreaking values & behaviors in
            social settings from peers to whom they attach
         true change occurs when offenders take
            responsibility for social climate in which they live
      aims:
         develop prosocial environment within prison to
            help offender develop noncriminal ways of coping
         make prison operations more democratic
         develop inmate culture that promotes law-abiding
            lifestyle            
                                               Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
social therapy (con‟d)
 requirements:
   institutional practices = democratic, ≠
   programs must focus on treatment, not
   humanitarian concerns > institutional routines
   flexibility > rigidity

                                    Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“vocational                                       definition
 prison programming designed to teach
  inmates cognitive & vocational skills to
  help them find & keep employment on
   education
      >200,000 inmates participate
      ABE (Adult Basic Education)
      GED (General Equivalency Diploma)
      college: Pell grants no longer available to
   vocational     training
      irrelevant skills; obsolete equipment
      inmates lack skills to get & keep job
           punctuality, accountability, deference to supervisors,
             cordiality to co-workers, how to find a job, do interview
                                                  Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“civil disabilities”

  legalrestrictions that prevent released
   felons from voting, holding elective office,
   engaging in certain professions &
   occupations, & associating with known
     6,000 occupations are licensed in  1 states
     barred occupations include (in some states):
        nurse, barber, beautician, real estate, chauffeur,
           cashier, insurance salesman, stenographer,
           worker where alcoholic beverages are sold

                                           Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
     prison industry programs

   contract                 public works
labor system                  & ways
 lease system   teach job     system
  piece price    produce
                 goods &
  account                       state use
                                Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“contract labor”                definition

    the type of system under which
     inmates‟ labor was sold on a
     contractual basis to private
     employers, who provided the
     machinery and raw materials, with
     which inmates made salable
     products, either inside or outside of
     the institution, to be sold on the open

                                Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“piece price”                     definition

    a contract labor system under which
     a contractor provided raw materials
     and agreed to purchase goods (made
     by prison inmates) at a pre-
     established price
     tended   to be extremely exploitative, as
       inmates often worked in sweatshops,
       returning to prison at night

                                  Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“lease system”
 another  contract labor system which is a
  variation on the piece price system in
  which the contractor maintained the
  prisoners (often outside of the institution),
  providing them with food and clothing, in
  addition to providing the raw materials for
  the work performed.
   inmates  were often required to work 12 to 16
    hours at a stretch.
   In some southern states, prisoners were
    leased to agricultural producers to perform
    field labor.
                                    Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“public account”

   a labor system under which a prison
    bought machinery and raw materials
    with which prison inmates
    manufactured a salable product
    1909: Oklahoma led the way, in twine
    Minnesota, Wisconsin followed
    Okla. defrayed 2/3 cost of prison
    corruption ended the practice

                               Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“state use”                    definition

    a labor system under which goods
     and services produced by prison
     labor inside the institution are
     purchased exclusively by state
     agencies and tax-supported
     institutions; such goods never enter
     the „free market‟
     currently, the most common form of
      prison industry
     eg, California

                               Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
“public works & ways”

    a labor system under which prison
     inmates work on public construction
     and maintenance projects (eg, filling
     potholes, building & repairing
     buildings & bridges, working in the
     community on various projects), for
     which the institution receives a fee

                               Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
evolution of prison industry
 private       use of inmate labor vanishes: 1885-1940
        exploitative
        reminiscent of plantation slavery
   labor movement: laws restrict sale of prison goods
        1929: Hawes-Cooper Act
           bans prison-made goods from interstate commerce
        by 1940: all states ban imports of prison goods
        WWII: FDR demands prison goods for war effort
        Truman revokes FDR order
   1973 report: few inmates have productive work
    - National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals

                                                        Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
prison industry (cond)
 1979:   support for prison labor returns
   Congress lifts restrictions on sale of prison
   Free Venture program (LEAA)- funds 7 states
  develop industries with following requirements:
      full work week for inmates
      wages based on productivity
      productivity standards from private sector
      industry-not prison-staff to hire & fire
      self-sufficient or profitable operations
      postrelease job placement mechanism
 1994:   16 states in Free Venture program
                                   Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
substance abuse programs
 crime-drug    abuse link is strong!
     50-80% arrestees test positive for drugs
     50-75% of them need drug treatment
 1993: 1.1 mill. offenders in drug/alcoh trtmt
 treatment difficult; high “failure” rate
 elements of successful treatment programs
   occur in phases (residential phase = 6-12 mo.)
   participants earn privileges in therapeutic
   use multiple treatment modalities
   residential staff & community officials closely
    coordinate plans for release
   treatment continues after release (group
    therapy, drug testing)
                                      Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
 „Prison Blues®‟ sportswear: Eastern
 Oregon Correctional Institution

     produced by inmates for the general public
     inmates earn prevailing industry wage
     Prison Blues® managed by Unigroup Corp.
85% of wage deducted for:
• victim restitution            15% of wage available for:
• child support                 • canteen
• incarceration costs           • voluntary family support
• court costs                   • savings (available at release)
• taxes

              “MADE ON THE INSIDE
          logo of Prison Blues®

                                                  Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
    Prison maintenance programs

              fire          clerical,
             dept.          records

electrical           maintain                   mail
plumbing              prison            janitorial

          food              laundry
                                  Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th
   prison recreation programs

    sports                 hobby

 weight       reform
training     offender           journalism

     music                drama

                           Clear & Cole, American Corrections, 6th

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