Grants to Lower Mortgage Payments in Mississippi by yfc13850

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									Workforce and
Low-income Housing
in Mississippi:

     An Overview for
     Decision-makers
                                                  Author:

                                               Judith Phillips
                                              Research Analyst




The John C. Stennis Institute of Government
    Dr. W. Martin Wiseman, Director
     Mississippi State University


    January, 2008 Doc ID #200-012808
A copy of this study is available on the John C. Stennis Institute of Government’s website at: http://www.msgovt.org/ under Publications: Policy & Research.
                                           Additional copies of this report may be obtained by calling 662.325.3329
                                                     Funding for this study was not provided by any entity
                                                                                                Table of Contents




         Table of Contents....................................................................................................................................................... i
         Workforce Housing in Mississippi .......................................................................................................................... 3
         Creating Homeownership Opportunities for Low-income Working Families .................................................... 3
         Fair Market Rents and Housing Assistance from HUD......................................................................................... 5
         Issues with Mississippi Fair Market Rents and Rebuilding Coastal Mississippi............................................... 7
         The Need for Energy Efficiency in Housing ......................................................................................................... 10
         The Linkage between Energy Efficiency, the Economy, and Economic Development .................................. 11
         Recommendations .................................................................................................................................................. 14
         Appendix of Maps ................................................................................................................................................... 17


                                                                                                       TABLE OF FIGURES

Table 1: CDBG, HOME, ADDI and other Housing Directed Funds Received by Mississippi in 2007........................................................................................................4
Table 2: Hurricane Katrina Funding .........................................................................................................................................................................................................5
Table 3: Use of Homeownership Vouchers in Mississippi.........................................................................................................................................................................7
Table 4: Mississippi Fair Market Rent 2-Bedroom.....................................................................................................................................................................................9
Table 5: Louisiana Fair Market Rents 2-Bedroom.....................................................................................................................................................................................9
Table 6: Mississippi Fair Market Rents 3-Bedroom.................................................................................................................................................................................10
Table 7: Louisiana Fair Market Rents 3-Bedroom...................................................................................................................................................................................10
Table 8: 2005 Per Capita Residential Electricity Consumption Ranked by State....................................................................................................................................12
Table 9: 2005 Residential Price of Electricity per Million BTU: State Rankings.......................................................................................................................................12
Map 1: Fair Market Rent 3-bedroom unit ................................................................................................................................................................................................18
Map 2: 2004 to 2008 Percent Change in Fair Market Rent for 3-Bedroom Unit......................................................................................................................................19
Map 3: Net Dollar Change in Fair Market Rent from 2004 to 2008 .........................................................................................................................................................20
Map 4: Mississippi Housing Units by County 2000..................................................................................................................................................................................21
Map 5: Mississippi Total Housing Units by County 2006.........................................................................................................................................................................22
Map 6: Mississippi Change in the Number of Housing Units from 2000 to 2006.....................................................................................................................................23
Map 7: Mississippi Counties: Housing Units Per Person 2006................................................................................................................................................................24
Map 8: Mississippi Counties 2000: Owner Occupied Housing Vacancy Rates .......................................................................................................................................25
Map 9: Mississippi Counties 2000: Renter-Occupied Housing Vacancy Rates.......................................................................................................................................26
Map 10: Mississippi Counties 2005: Poverty Rate for all Age Groups ....................................................................................................................................................27
Map 11: Mississippi Counties: Change in Poverty Rate from 2000 to 2005 for all age groups ...............................................................................................................28




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                     ii
Workforce Housing in Mississippi
There exists critical need for workforce housing in the state of Mississippi, particularly in coastal counties impacted by
Hurricane Katrina. In 2006, there were 91,000 low income working families in the state of Mississippi with children under
the age pf 18; approximately 110,000 children in the state lived in crowded housing; and 221,000 children lived in
households where housing costs exceeded 30 percent of household income (meaning that these households are not likely
to have enough resources for food, clothing, and medical care).1

                                                       Mississippi Family Income Distribution 2006
                                              Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006 American Community Survey


           $200,000 or more                     13,140

      $150,000 to $199,999                         15,852

      $100,000 to $149,999                                                                      64,093

         $75,000 to $99,999                                                                                       83,682

         $50,000 to $74,999                                                                                                                                    141,174

         $35,000 to $49,999                                                                                                                  113,139

         $25,000 to $34,999                                                                                               92,466

         $15,000 to $24,999                                                                                                              108,581

         $10,000 to $14,999                                                     47,760

          Less than $10,000                                                                   62,101

                                  0              20,000             40,000            60,000             80,000            100,000               120,000   140,000   160,000



Creating Homeownership Opportunities for Low-income Working Families
A comprehensive, statewide strategy designed to create homeownership opportunities for lower-income working families
would create multiple economic stimulus benefits for the state of Mississippi and begin to address many of the socio-
economic issues that are endemic throughout the state. Stimulating homeownership among low-income households
generates new home construction and related employment in a variety of ways. In addition to increasing construction-
related employment, jobs are created in transportation, and by increased demand for household goods and services.
According to the Consumer Expenditure Survey, average homebuyers of all races who move into a new home spend an
additional $4,912 on furnishings and services during their first year of homeownership, thus impacting the local economy by
generating additional sales. Consideration of utilizing “Mississippi manufactured products and materials” would further
enhance the economic stimulus impact of a comprehensive program to build housing for residents of Mississippi.

Increased home construction and ownership benefits state and local government by increasing sales and residential
property tax revenues, transfer taxes, and fees paid for permits, approvals, and other impact fees. Home equity represents
the largest asset of most Americans and among households with incomes below $20,000, home equity accounts for about
72 percent of total household wealth. Nationally, low-income households spend 30 percent or more of their income on rent,
which adds nothing to their net worth. A shift to homeownership provides a savings mechanism for low-income families as
their mortgage payments amortize the loan resulting in the accrual of equity in the home, this is particularly true as housing
values appreciate in price over time.

The benefits of homeownership have been broadly investigated by economists, social scientists, and other academic
researchers. These findings provide empirical support for the public and social benefits that accrue to communities as an
outcome of homeownership. These benefits include:
   Appreciation of property values and improved residential maintenance in communities with high homeownership levels.2

1   Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006 American Community Survey.
2   Galster, G., “Empirical Evidence on Cross-Tenure Differences in Home Maintenance and Conditions” Land Economics, 59 (11983) #1: 107 – 113.


                                                                                                         3
     Greater community involvement by homeowners. These benefits include higher voter participation rates, greater
     involvement in community service organizations, and increased levels of church attendance.3
     Enhanced outcomes for children. Research has found correlations between improved cognitive stimulation, higher math
     and reading scores, reduced behavioral problems, higher lifetime incomes, and reductions in teenage pregnancy rates
     for children living in an owned home.4
     Home equity enables potential entrepreneurs to gain access to credit markets thereby enhancing small business start-
     ups.5
     The positive impact of new housing construction and homeownership on local schools, cities, and counties. Increases in
     the total base value of local properties provide additional ad valorem taxes to support essential educational and
     governmental services, and over the long term are crucial to building and sustaining community viability.

An excellent opportunity exists to create homeownership opportunities for working families by using the funds that
Mississippi receives from HUD under the Community Development Block Grant Program, the HOME grant and American
Dream Downpayment Assistance (ADDI) program and then to leverage these funds with additional grants from philanthropic
organizations and other Federal grants (i.e. U.S.D.A. Housing Preservation grants, Mutual Self-Help Housing grants, or
Single Family Home Ownership loans) and leveraging these grant funds with Section 8 Homeownership vouchers, creating
lease-purchase programs that utilize Low Income Housing Tax Credits and New Market Tax Credits to attract equity
investment into housing development, and by creating legislative and regulatory mechanisms to provide incentives for
employee assisted housing investment programs by business organizations. As demonstrated in Table 1 below, MDA has
available approximately $46.9 million in grant funds awarded as a grant to the state for the purpose of housing and
community development (this does not include additional Hurricane Katrina funds allocated to the state, see below).

Table 1: CDBG, HOME, ADDI and other Housing Directed Funds Received by Mississippi in 2007
                             MISSISSIPPI STATE PROGRAM                                        ADDI                                                                 $170,978
                                                                                              CDBG                                                               $30,536,195
                                                                                              ESG                                                                 $1,413,071
                                                                                              HOME                                                               $14,022,630
                                                                                              HOPWA                                                                $783,000
                                                                                              TOTAL                                                              $46,925,874
                             HATTIESBURG                                                      CDBG                                                                 $635,407
                                                                                              HOME                                                                 $336,819
                                                                                              TOTAL                                                                $972,226
                             GULFPORT                                                         ADDI                                                                   $14,809
                                                                                              CDBG                                                                 $783,598
                                                                                              HOME                                                                 $753,488
                                                                                              TOTAL                                                               $1,551,895
                             BILOXI                                                           CDBG                                                                 $496,637
                                                                                              TOTAL                                                                $496,637


Hurricane Katrina HUD and Community Development Block Grant Funds
There may be additional, unallocated Hurricane Katrina funds still remaining that are available to assist coastal counties to
fund comprehensive homeownership and single-family construction strategies. The first requirement for developing a plan
for this purpose is to identify the amount of funds that have been allocated to Mississippi, but have not yet been disbursed.
The most recent, comprehensive data that could be found (as of the date this report was published) regarding Hurricane
Katrina funds allocated to, and disbursed by, Mississippi is presented in Table 2, on the following page. This data was
reported in March of 2007; this information requires updating to determine the level of undisbursed funds that may be
available for integration into a comprehensive housing construction and homeownership strategy for coastal Mississippi
counties. The description of the purpose for which funds were awarded to Mississippi described in Table 2 are quoted from
the report of HUD’s Inspector General.




3 DiPasquale, D., and E. Glaeser, “Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?: Journal of Urban Economics, 45 (11999) #45:354 – 384.
4 Green, R., and M White, “Measuring the Benefits of Homeowning: Effects on Children,” Journal of Urban Economics, 41 (1997) #3: 441 – 461; Kane, T. “College Entry by Blacks since 1970: The Role of College Costs,
Family Background, and the Returns to Education,” Journal of Political Economy, 102 (1994) #5: 879 0 911.
5 HUD publication: “Economic Benefits of Increasing Minority Homeownership,” reference U. S. Census Bureau, Characteristics of Business Owners, U. S. GPO, Washington, D.C. September 1997.




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Table 2: Hurricane Katrina Funding
The following provides a snapshot of the HUD CDBG disaster funds appropriated to the five Gulf States and a summary
of the programs for Mississippi reported as of March 31, 2007 by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development, Office of the Inspector General.

Disaster Community Development Block Grant
   $16.6 billion authorized to five Gulf Coast States (disbursed $1.828 billion)
   Alabama $ 95,613,574 (disbursed $1.2 million)
   Florida $ 182,970,518 (disbursed $33,000)
   Louisiana $ 10,410,000,000 (disbursed $525.4 million)
   Mississippi $ 5,481,221,059 (disbursed $1.3 billion)
   Texas $ 503,194,849 (disbursed $1.3 million)

    Homeowner Grant Assistance Program (authorized $3.25 billion; disbursed $878.4 million)
        The purpose of the Homeowner Grant Assistance program is to provide a one-time grant payment (maximum $150,000) to eligible
        homeowners who had suffered flood damage to their primary residence as of August 29, 2005, from Hurricane Katrina. The
        Homeowner Assistance program is designed to provide compensation to those impacted by the hurricane. The State received
        18,465 homeowner applications, and paid 11,894 grants that averaged an award of $70 thousand per homeowner. Also noted -
        There is no requirement that the homeowner occupy the property after replacement/ rehabilitation work is completed. After certain
        deductions, the homeowner has complete discretion of the use of grant funds, as allowable by State and Federal law, as they work
        through their personal disaster recovery situation.

    Public Housing (authorized $100 million; disbursed $482,600)
        The purpose of this public housing program is to provide funding, in an amount up to $100 million, to the five housing authorities
        that suffered damages to their facilities on August 29, 2005, from Hurricane Katrina.
    Building Permit-Inspections (authorized $5 million; disbursed $205,500)
        The Mississippi Development Authority will establish a $5 million grant pool (for local governments in Hancock, Harrison, Pearl
        River, and Jackson Counties) for costs of additional permitting and building inspector officials for 1 year due to the significant
        amount of construction taking place on the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
    Gulf Coast Regional Infrastructure Program (authorized $31.5 million; disbursed $3.4 million)
        The purpose of the plan is to provide infrastructure (water, sewer, and storm water utility service) for long-term growth and
        recovery in Hancock, Harrison, George, Jackson, Pearl River, and Stone Counties.
    Privately Owned Utilities (authorized $440 million; disbursed $420 million)
        The Ratepayer and Wind Pool Mitigation Plan will help utility and gas companies defray excessive costs associated with damaged
        infrastructure, provide emergency response services, and help the Mississippi Windstorm Underwriting Association offset
        insurance premium increases.
    Economic Development (authorized $500 million; disbursed $0)
        The Economic Development Program is designed to assist local governments affected by Hurricane Katrina (Pearl River, Stone,
        George, Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson Counties) in providing infrastructure to support economic development (grants or loans
        to assist companies in creating or retaining jobs - $340 million, a community revitalization program to rebuild the downtown areas -
        $150 million, and $10 million for planning).
    Administrative Costs (authorized $169.2 million; disbursed $2.1 million)
        Up to 5 percent (or $169.2 million) of a State's allocation is authorized for planning and administrative activities.
    Restricted Balance (authorized $562.4 million; disbursed $0)
        Funds held in reserve.
    2nd Supplemental Funds (authorized $423 million; disbursed $0)
        Plans not yet approved.
Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of the Inspector, March 31, 2007



Fair Market Rents and Housing Assistance from HUD
Section 8(c) (1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 requires the Secretary to publish Fair Market Rents annually to be
effective on October 1 of each year. Fair Market Rents are used to determine the funding levels that are available for the
Housing Choice Voucher program, the Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy program, the project-based
voucher program, and any other programs requiring their use. Section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (the Act)
(42 U.S.C. 1437f) authorizes housing assistance to aid lower income families in renting decent, safe, and sanitary housing.
Housing assistance payments are limited by Fair Market Rents established by HUD for different areas. In the voucher
program, the Fair Market Rent is used to determine the

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``payment standard'' (the maximum monthly subsidy) for assisted families (see Section 982.503.) In general, the Fair Market
Rent for an area is the amount that would be needed to pay the gross rent (shelter rent plus utilities) of privately owned,
decent, safe, and sanitary rental housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities.

Section 8 Vouchers for Private Market Housing
A Section 8 rental subsidy is a federal payment to a landlord on behalf of an individual tenant. With a Section 8 voucher,
the government pays the difference between 30 percent of the tenant's household income and the set "fair market" rent
of the unit. The tenant obtains a voucher for a fixed amount of money based on the geographic area. If they decide to pay
more than 30% of their income for rent, they may rent from a landlord that charges more than the "fair market rent" for the
area. The money available for Section 8 vouchers does not come close to meeting the demand for subsidies. Applications
are taken only sporadically and, when the wait list is open, tenants can expect to wait a fair amount of time before actually
getting a voucher. Once approved for a voucher, the recipient has 60 days to find housing in the area that meets Section 8
program requirements, and for which the landlord is willing to accept Section 8. Sometimes it is possible to get an
extension on the 60 days, but tenants sometimes have to return the voucher unused if they cannot find a unit that meets the
requirements.

Section 8 Homeownership Vouchers
Instead of using a Section 8 voucher subsidy for rent, eligible families can use the voucher subsidy for homeownership.
The option to offer homeownership vouchers is a choice made by Public Housing Authorities as part of their voucher
program. No separate or additional funding specifically for the homeownership voucher program is available from HUD.
The Public Housing Authority (PHA) implements the homeownership voucher program by revising its Annual Plan and
administrative plan. The PHA will make the monthly homeownership assistance payment on behalf of the new homeowner,
the PHA may make the payment directly to the lender or directly to the family. The homeownership voucher program is
applicable to single family owned, cooperative, or condominiums. Similar to the rental voucher, the government pays the
difference between 30 percent of the household income and the set HUD Fair Market Rent. If the voucher recipient decides
to pay more than 30% of their income for the mortgage, they may do so assuming they have the income.

HUD minimum income requirements for Homeownership Vouchers:
  Non-disabled families – federal minimum wage multiplied by 2,000 hours (i.e. $10,300)
  Disabled families – Monthly Federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefit for individual living alone multiplied by
  12 (i.e. $552 x 12 = $6,624)
  Except for elderly and disabled families, welfare assistance may not be considered in determining if family meets
  requirements

Family Eligibility Requirements:
      First-time homeowner or cooperative member.
      No family member has owned or had ownership interest in their residence for at least three years.
      Except for cooperative members, no member of the family has any ownership interest in any residential property.
      Minimum income requirement. Except in the case of disabled families, the qualified annual income of the adult family
      members who will own the home must not be less than the Federal minimum hourly wage multiplied by 2,000 hours.
      For disabled families, the qualified annual income of the adult family members who will own the home must not be
      less than the monthly Federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefit for an individual living alone multiplied by
      12. The PHA may also establish a higher minimum income requirement for either or both types of families. Except in
      the case of an elderly or disabled family, welfare assistance is not counted in determining whether the family meets
      the minimum income requirement.
      Employment requirement. Except in the case of elderly and disabled families, one or more adults in the family who
      will own the home is currently employed on a full-time basis and has been continuously employed on a full-time basis
      (not less than an average of 30 hours a week) for at least one year before commencement of homeownership
      assistance.
      Additional PHA eligibility requirements. The family meets any other initial eligibility requirements set by the PHA.
      Homeownership counseling. The family must attend and satisfactorily complete the PHA's pre-assistance
      homeownership and housing counseling program.

HUD Downpayment Assistance Grants (ADDI)
The American Dream Downpayment Initiative (ADDI) is a federal program that helps first-time low-income homebuyers with
the largest hurdle to homeownership - downpayment and closing costs.




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Public Housing Policies
The historic failure of the U.S. Public Housing Policy cannot be fully discussed in this document. Although there have been
multiple initiatives to improve the quality of life for residents of public housing projects, including policies to support mixed-
income development and the use of housing choice vouchers, few of these initiatives have been widely adopted throughout
the U.S. or in Mississippi. The fiscal inefficiency of these policies includes the use of government and taxpayer funds in the
form of grants and tax incentives that first pay for the construction of public housing apartments and then subsequent
continuation of providing rental vouchers to subsidize the rental of these units that have already been substantially paid for
by grants and taxpayer funds. For example of the 14,326 public housing units in Mississippi, approximately 1,366 public
housing units have been occupied by the same persons for 10 to 20 years and 7 percent have been occupied by the same
persons for over 20 years6. During this period absolutely no benefit accrued to the occupants in the form of a higher quality
of life or an ownership interest that could provide low-income individuals with an equity interest in the property. In addition,
due to the poor quality of construction and lack of energy efficiency in public housing additional costs of energy are passed
onto the shoulders of other taxpayers and related expenditures on electricity and energy consumption leave the state,
creating a further drain of dollars from the local and state economy. For example, according to the U.S. Department of
Housing & Urban Development’s Energy Action and Multifamily Housing Plan (2005), HUD spends approximately $4 billion
(15% of its total budget) annually on energy costs.

During the period 2004 through 2007, the state of Mississippi has made limited use of the Section 8 Homeownership
Voucher Program (HVO).
Table 3: Use of Homeownership Vouchers in Mississippi
    Housing Authority Name                           HVO Prior            HVO 2004             HVO 2005 HVO 2006                       HVO 2007
    Meridian HA                                                      0                   0                  0                     0                      0
    Tennessee Valley RHA                                             0                  11                  6                     5                      2
    Mississippi Regional HA No. V                                    0                   0                  0                     3                      0
    Mississippi Regional HA No. VIII                                 0                   0                  2                     0                      2
    Mississippi Regional HA No. VII                                  0                   0                  6                     1                      4
    Mississippi Regional HA No. VI                                   0                   2                 12                     1                      0
    Jackson HA                                                       0                   0                  0                     0                      1
    North Delta Regional HA                                          0                   0                  1                     0                      0
    Total                                                            0                  13                 27                  10                        9
Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

Issues with Mississippi Fair Market Rents and Rebuilding Coastal Mississippi
The Stennis Institute’s July 2007 report7 on the impact of Hurricane Katrina identified issues and obstacles related to
rebuilding coastal Mississippi as follows:
One of the most significant problems faced by the Katrina impacted areas of coastal Mississippi is workforce, retirement (fixed-income) and lower-income housing.
With 290,000 persons in Mississippi classified as the “working poor” there may be little differentiation between workforce housing and low-income housing. Multiple
broad economic factors and issues that are geographically specific to coastal Mississippi have converged with national and regional issues to create obstacles to
rebuilding affordable residential housing. These factors include increasing costs of building materials, increased land costs and escalating property taxes, more
stringent building and elevation codes, increased insurance costs, and labor shortages coupled with escalating labor costs due to the paucity of workforce housing
and high demand.

Labor and Building Costs. Building costs have escalated worldwide, with increased demand for inputs creating upward pressure on the cost of construction inputs
such as cement and steel prices and increases in the price of oil and gas escalating transportation costs. Although lumber prices have remained stable or declined,
other building material inputs have increased; for example, at the end of the one-year period ending March 2007, inputs into single-family construction had increased
by 3 percent and inputs into multi-family construction had increased by 4 percent; as compared to the three years prior to March 2007 these construction inputs had
increased by 17 percent and 21.1 percent, respectively.8 Rising world steel prices have increased the price of steel scrap by 40 percent in 2007. In the U.S.,
construction labor costs have increased on average 4.2 percent per year during the seven year period from 2000 to 2007, with a slight easing of the increase in
construction labor costs to 3.8 percent from 2006 to 2007. From January 2006 to January 2007, construction costs in the U.S. increased 5.6 percent, as compared to
a 7.3 percent from 2005 to 2006.9 In addition to the escalation in residential building costs, other related construction costs have increased significantly in recent
years. For example, as populations move inward and away from formerly populated coastal areas, the undeveloped land in Hancock, Harrison, and Jackson and
adjacent counties requires the development of infrastructure such as streets and sewers. In these sectors of the construction industry inputs into heavy construction
have increased by 25.8 percent and inputs into highway and street construction have increased by 33.3 percent in the three year period prior to March 2007; asphalt
paving mixture inputs have increased 50.3 percent and cement has increased 34.3 percent during the same period.10

In areas that were impacted by Hurricane Katrina (i.e. coastal Mississippi and New Orleans) global and national increases in construction input costs are further
exacerbated due to expanding local construction demand where local market conditions and more severe localized shortages of supply understate national Producer
Price Index construction cost escalation and the cost increases stated within the previous paragraph. Within the context of a national housing market slowdown,
domestic construction material producers may reduce production to respond to national demand cycles – further reducing supply and escalating prices. The April 23,
2007 Reed Construction Data report by Jim Haughey stated that “construction material production in the U.S. is 2.5 percent below a year ago and shipments of

6 Source: HUD Report Mississippi Public Housing September 2006 to 2007.
7 The Impact of Hurricane Katrina: Coastal Mississippi Two Years Later, July 2007 http://www.msgovt.org/files/200_1230_Katrina_Economic_Impact_Two_Years_Later.pdf
8 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, based on Producer Price Index Series (seasonally adjusted) and Federal Reserve Board; Reed Construction Data.
9 Reed Construction Data, Alex Carrick RS Means Construction Cost Index, January 2007.


10   Ibid.


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construction materials and supplies are down 3.0 percent year to date.” These economic indicators portend increased material supply shortages coupled with
increased prices for construction inputs.

Further compounding the shortage of workforce housing in coastal Mississippi is the increased demand for construction labor to meet the rebuilding needs of the
coast, this demand has attracted a large construction workforce to the coast exacerbating the demand for housing and consequently escalating the cost of housing.
Another factor contributing to the escalation in the cost of housing in Hurricane impacted areas is the enactment of more stringent building codes and elevation
requirements (in many areas requirements of 15 to 20 feet) contributing further to the increased price of residential housing.

Insurance. Steeply escalating residential and commercial insurance costs act as a primary barrier to rebuilding coastal Mississippi. Residential insurance costs have
doubled or tripled, and many insurance companies are no longer writing insurance coverage for coastal areas of the United States. The Mississippi Windstorm
Underwriting Association (Wind Pool), requested a rate increase of 397 percent for wind coverage on private dwellings, according to the office of the Mississippi
Commissioner of Insurance. By providing state CDBG funds in the amount of $50 million to pay for a portion of the cost of reinsurance, the rate increase was reduced
to a 90 percent increase, but this provides only a short term solution to escalating insurance costs. Under the terms of this agreement, the premium for homeowner’s
wind coverage on a $100,000 dwelling will increase from $792 a year to $1,504 a year. From 2004 to 2006, the number of Wind Pool policies written in the six coastal
counties of Mississippi more than doubled from 14,796 to 30,962 and the insured value of these policies increased from $1.6 billion to $5.4 billion.11 Some insurance
companies are refusing to write insurance policies in high-risk hurricane coastal areas; in February 2007, State Farm Insurance announced that they would no longer
write any new business in the state of Mississippi; in April 2007, USAA which primarily insures military personnel and their families announced that it would restrict
new homeowner and renter insurance policies sold in Florida after its request to increase homeowner and condominium rental premiums by 40 percent was rejected
by Florida regulators. Without regulatory intervention, it may be anticipated that these trends will continue, with fewer insurers writing policies in risk prone coastal
areas and/or premium costs continuing to escalate.

High insurance costs are having a significant impact on the rebuilding of coastal Mississippi, high homeowners insurance costs act as a major barrier to residential
rebuilding and make the cost of homeownership increasingly prohibitive for former residents. High insurance costs and gaps in insurance coverage also act as an
obstacle to fully insure multi-family developments and the ability of investors to obtain funding. The lack of supply of workforce housing has placed upward pressure
on wages to compensate for these increased costs of living and working in coastal Mississippi, further contributing to the spiraling cost of living. The cost of insurance
and gaps in insurance coverage have acted as a major barrier to real estate development and the skyrocketing cost of commercial insurance has negatively
impacted the reopening of businesses damaged by Katrina. Prior to Katrina, wind pool insurance rates were $1,340 per $100,000 of coverage; post-Katrina these
rates escalated to $4,945 in October 2006, but were subsequently reduced to $3,243 per $100,000 in April 2006. In some cases, insurance costs coupled with the
escalating cost of living have driven established businesses to leave the area. The impact of increased insurance costs, the shortage and high cost of housing has
resulted in workforce shortages and/or the need to pay higher wages. These factors, coupled with the escalating cost of construction inputs has had a serious
negative impact on the small business infrastructure of coastal Mississippi, resulting in the closing of multiple small businesses formerly located within the smaller
coastal communities of Bay St. Louis, Waveland, Ocean Springs, and Pass Christian.

Escalating land costs, property values, and property taxes. Escalating building construction and insurance costs have impacted the rebuilding of coastal
communities, first by making the rebuilding of single family housing cost prohibitive and also by making high density, high-rise residential condominium and rental
apartment development the most financially feasible alternative in many geographic locations – particularly those low-lying, flood prone or high risk areas near the
coast. In many geographic areas, county and municipal governments are cash strapped. The high costs of Katrina recovery coupled with the loss of sales and
property tax revenues have devastated the budgets of local governments. In many cases, local government officials recognize that high-rise developments may be
the most financially feasible alternative to providing housing within their communities and as a result approve zoning for these projects despite strong local protest
and opposition by long-time community residents.

The proliferation of high-rise developments has the potential for negative impact on owners of small properties (i.e. single-family residential or small business) within
coastal communities. First, due to escalating property values, many residential and retail property owners are delaying rebuilding decisions; second, property
speculation has driven up the cost of property and in many cases property is held off the market or not redeveloped in anticipation of potential profit-making; third,
increased property valuation and appraisal may result in a significant increase in residential property taxes. Although legislation (H.B. 746 and H.B. 747 –Compretta)
was introduced during the 2006 Regular Session of the Mississippi Legislature to limit the escalation of property taxes, this legislation died in committee.

Further complicating the rebuilding of coastal Mississippi is the current national decline in the housing market. According to the July 2007 joint report by the U.S.
Census Bureau and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, June 2007 building permits for privately-owned housing units declined by 25.2 percent
from the prior year and housing completions had declined by 28.2 percent during the same time period. The significant softening of the housing market has impacted
the condominium market across southern coastal areas of the U.S. and significant market glut has been reported, particularly in the Florida condominium and
residential housing market. The collapse of both the condominium market in these coastal areas coupled with the unprecedented default in the sub-prime mortgage
market will create significant obstacles to financing new developments whether they are condominium or single-family housing.

Although there is significant demand for housing across coastal Mississippi in areas impacted by Hurricane Katrina, the glut of condominiums across the Florida
coast will impact demand for high-end condominium and rental units due to reduced unit costs within Florida and because of tightening financial markets which will
restrict lending and increase the cost of borrowing. The tightening of credit and lending in sub-prime markets and more stringent mortgage underwriting standards will
negatively impact the ability of lower- and middle-income markets to secure mortgages and will increase their cost of borrowing. The drying up of the CMBS financing
market may negatively impact the development of condominiums in the near future.

Increasing costs of building materials, increased labor costs and labor shortages, increased costs of insurance and coverage gaps, escalating financing costs and
more stringent loan underwriting standards, the loss of business infrastructure, and land speculation have resulted in significant delays in rebuilding single-family
housing and multifamily housing – this high risk, high cost, and challenging financial environment have all contributed to excruciating delays in rebuilding coast
Mississippi. In recent days, the virtual collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market and difficulties in the CMBS financing market have combined to create increased
obstacles for rebuilding coastal Mississippi. A comprehension strategic redevelopment financing plan is required by the state of Mississippi to assure the continued
recovery of coastal Mississippi. This will require better leveraging of all available incentives, tax credits and equity, grants and loans plus philanthropic funding
through public-private financing and investment mechanisms in consultation with national experts with the extensive expertise required to structure complex
investment vehicles.

It is difficult to understand why the HUD established Fair Market Rates for the coastal counties of Mississippi have not been
significantly increased, particularly when viewed within the context of increasing building costs, increasing insurance costs,
and building and zoning codes that have increased the cost of construction in the coastal counties of Mississippi, particularly
when compared to increases in Louisiana’s Fair Market Rents in Hurricane Katrina impacted areas. As demonstrated in

11   Mississippi Windstorm Underwriting Association Accounting Reports for Years Ending 2006 and 2004.




                                                                                                         8
Tables 4 through 7 on the following pages, Fair Market Rents in the Hurricane Katrina impacted counties of Mississippi do
not appear to have experienced a sufficient increase to be compatible with increased housing costs and reasonable rent
standards in these areas. For example, during the period 2004 to 2008 the 2-bedroom Fair Market Rents in Hancock and
Harrison increased only 17.98 percent and 12.39 percent in Jackson County (Table 4), as compared to a 49.77 percent
increase in New Orleans and a 41.68 percent increase in Baton Rouge during the same time period (Table 5). Further
investigation is required to determine whether Mississippi has aggressively pursued upward adjustments to these Fair
Market Rents, as is allowed under HUD guidelines or if additional work and effort may be required to assure that
unreasonably low Fair Market Rents do not continue to act as a barrier to rebuilding coastal Mississippi.

Table 4: Mississippi Fair Market Rent 2-Bedroom
               Mississippi HUD Fair Market Rent 2 Bedroom -                             Mississippi HUD Fair Market Rent 2 Bedroom - Change
                         Change from 2004 to 2008                                                        from 2004 to 2008
      Ranked by Counties receiving the largest percent increase from            Ranked by Counties receiving the largest percent increase from
                                 2004 to 2008                                                           2004 to 2008
                                                   Percent                                                                     Percent     Dollar
                        HUD Fair       HUD Fair    Change                                           HUD Fair       HUD Fair    Change     Change




                                                                                        Rank
        Rank




                       Market Rent    Market Rent  2004 to       Change                            Market Rent   Market Rent   2004 to    2004 to
           County         2004           2008       2008       2004 to 2008        County             2004          2008         2008      2008
        1  Copiah              $389           $747  92.03%             $358   42 Jasper                   $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        2  Tunica              $389           $699  79.69%             $310   43 Jefferson                $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        3  Stone               $389           $676  73.78%             $287   44 Jefferson Davis          $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        4  George              $389           $644  65.55%             $255   45 Jones                    $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        5  Perry               $389           $581  49.36%             $192   46 Lawrence                 $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        6  Benton              $389           $564  44.99%             $175   47 Leake                    $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        7  Warren              $431           $621  44.08%             $190   48 Leflore                  $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        8  Oktibbeha           $412           $586  42.23%             $174   49 Lincoln                  $389           $498    28.02%       $109
        9  Coahoma             $414           $579  39.86%             $165   50 Marion                   $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       10  Chickasaw           $389           $542  39.33%             $153   51 Monroe                   $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       11  Holmes              $389           $542  39.33%             $153   52 Montgomery               $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       12  Sharkey             $389           $542  39.33%             $153   53 Neshoba                  $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       13  Winston             $389           $542  39.33%             $153   54 Panola                   $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       14  Clarke              $389           $530  36.25%             $141   55 Pike                     $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       15  Kemper              $389           $530  36.25%             $141   56 Pontotoc                 $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       16  Newton              $389           $530  36.25%             $141   57 Prentiss                 $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       17  Pearl River         $389           $527  35.48%             $138   58 Scott                    $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       18  Adams               $391           $528  35.04%             $137   59 Smith                    $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       19  Simpson             $389           $525  34.96%             $136   60 Sunflower                $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       20  Union               $389           $521  33.93%             $132   61 Tallahatchie             $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       21  Lafayette           $489           $651  33.13%             $162   62 Tippah                   $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       22  Quitman             $389           $514  32.13%             $125   63 Tishomingo               $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       23  Bolivar             $404           $528  30.69%             $124   64 Walthall                 $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       24  Noxubee             $389           $506  30.08%             $117   65 Wayne                    $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       25  Tate                $412           $534  29.61%             $122   66 Webster                  $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       26  Marshall            $389           $504  29.56%             $115   67 Wilkinson                $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       27  Lauderdale          $429           $552  28.67%             $123   68 Yalobusha                $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       28  Alcorn              $389           $498  28.02%             $109   69 Yazoo                    $389           $498    28.02%       $109
       29  Amite               $389           $498  28.02%             $109   70 Lee                      $429           $545    27.04%       $116
       30  Attala              $389           $498  28.02%             $109   71 Hinds                    $589           $747    26.83%       $158
       31  Calhoun             $389           $498  28.02%             $109   72 Madison                  $589           $747    26.83%       $158
       32  Carroll             $389           $498  28.02%             $109   73 Rankin                   $589           $747    26.83%       $158
       33  Choctaw             $389           $498  28.02%             $109   74 Lowndes                  $418           $525    25.60%       $107
       34  Claiborne           $389           $498  28.02%             $109   75 Forrest                  $480           $581    21.04%       $101
       35  Clay                $389           $498  28.02%             $109   76 Lamar                    $480           $581    21.04%       $101
       36  Covington           $389           $498  28.02%             $109   77 DeSoto                   $626           $743    18.69%       $117
       37  Franklin            $389           $498  28.02%             $109   78 Hancock                  $573           $676    17.98%       $103
       38  Greene              $389           $498  28.02%             $109   79 Harrison                 $573           $676    17.98%       $103
       39  Grenada             $389           $498  28.02%             $109   80 Washington               $454           $528    16.30%        $74
       40  Humphreys           $389           $498  28.02%             $109   81 Jackson                  $573           $644    12.39%        $71
       41  Itawamba            $389           $498  28.02%             $109   82 Issaquena                $507           $542     6.90%        $35
      Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data http:///www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html

Table 5: Louisiana Fair Market Rents 2-Bedroom
                                 Louisiana HUD Fair Market Rent 2 Bedroom - Change from 2004 to 2008
                                                Ranked by Counties receiving the largest percent increase from 2004 to 2008
               County or MSA                          HUD FMR 2004    HUD FMR 2008            Percent Change 2004 to 2008          Dollar Change 2004 to 2008
               Alexandria, LA MSA                               473               543                                     14.80%                           $70
               Baton Rouge, LA MSA                              535               758                                     41.68%                          $223
               Houma, LA MSA                                    446               584                                     30.94%                          $138
               Lafayette, LA MSA                                431               742                                     72.16%                          $311
               Lake Charles, LA MSA                             512               624                                     21.88%                          $112
               Monroe, LA MSA                                   487               581                                     19.30%                           $94
               New Orleans, LA MSA                              661               990                                     49.77%                          $329
               St. James Parish MSA*                            447               649                                     45.19%                          $202
               Shreveport--Bossier City, LA MSA                 524               634                                     20.99%                          $110
               Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data http:///www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html




                                                                                    9
Table 6: Mississippi Fair Market Rents 3-Bedroom

           Mississippi HUD Fair Market Rent 3- Bedroom -                              Mississippi HUD Fair Market Rent 3-Bedroom -
                     Change from 2004 to 2008                                                   Change from 2004 to 2008
          Ranked by Counties receiving the largest percent increase                Ranked by Counties receiving the largest percent increase from
                            from 2004 to 2008                                                              2004 to 2008
                                                     Percent                                                                       Percent        Dollar
                            HUD Fair    HUD Fair     Change       Change                                 HUD Fair     HUD Fair     Change        Change
                           Market Rent Market Rent   2004 to      2004 to                                 Market       Market      2004 to       2004 to
        Rank County           2004        2008        2008         2008        Rank County               Rent 2004    Rent 2008     2008          2008
          1   Copiah              $500        $899     79.80%        $399       42    Chickasaw                $500         $649     29.80%           $149
          2   George              $500        $887     77.40%        $387       43    Winston                  $500         $649     29.80%           $149
          3   Stone               $500        $881     76.20%        $381       44    Holmes                   $500         $648     29.60%           $148
          4   Perry               $500        $846     69.20%        $346       45    Sharkey                  $500         $648     29.60%           $148
          5   Tunica              $500        $839     67.80%        $339       46    Tippah                   $500         $648     29.60%           $148
          6   Marshall            $500        $736     47.20%        $236       47    Pearl River              $502         $643     28.09%           $141
          7   Lowndes             $522        $763     46.17%        $241       48    Lafayette                $613         $780     27.24%           $167
          8   Clay                $500        $726     45.20%        $226       49    Adams                    $500         $633     26.60%           $133
          9   Tate                $517        $748     44.68%        $231       50    Simpson                  $500         $629     25.80%           $129
         10   Sunflower           $500        $710     42.00%        $210       51    Bolivar                  $505         $633     25.35%           $128
         11   Clarke              $500        $694     38.80%        $194       52    Tishomingo               $500         $625     25.00%           $125
         12   Kemper              $500        $694     38.80%        $194       53    Claiborne                $500         $624     24.80%           $124
         13   Newton              $500        $694     38.80%        $194       54    Covington                $500         $624     24.80%           $124
         14   Noxubee             $500        $693     38.60%        $193       55    Jefferson                $500         $624     24.80%           $124
         15   Lee                 $537        $744     38.55%        $207       56    Jefferson Davis          $500         $624     24.80%           $124
         16   Alcorn              $500        $692     38.40%        $192       57    Lawrence                 $500         $624     24.80%           $124
         17   Lincoln             $500        $683     36.60%        $183       58    Union                    $500         $624     24.80%           $124
         18   Lauderdale          $557        $758     36.09%        $201       59    Monroe                   $500         $623     24.60%           $123
         19   Benton              $500        $677     35.40%        $177       60    Warren                   $596         $742     24.50%           $146
         20   Pontotoc            $500        $677     35.40%        $177       61    Quitman                  $500         $616     23.20%           $116
         21   Attala              $500        $667     33.40%        $167       62    Amite                    $500         $602     20.40%           $102
         22   Calhoun             $500        $667     33.40%        $167       63    Franklin                 $500         $602     20.40%           $102
         23   Choctaw             $500        $667     33.40%        $167       64    Walthall                 $500         $602     20.40%           $102
         24   Montgomery          $500        $667     33.40%        $167       65    Wilkinson                $500         $602     20.40%           $102
         25   Webster             $500        $667     33.40%        $167       66    Jasper                   $500         $599     19.80%             $99
         26   Yalobusha           $500        $667     33.40%        $167       67    Leake                    $500         $599     19.80%             $99
         27   Coahoma             $519        $692     33.33%        $173       68    Smith                    $500         $599     19.80%             $99
         28   Oktibbeha           $573        $764     33.33%        $191       69    Panola                   $500         $597     19.40%             $97
         29   Carroll             $500        $661     32.20%        $161       70    Prentiss                 $500         $597     19.40%             $97
         30   Humphreys           $500        $661     32.20%        $161       71    Scott                    $500         $596     19.20%             $96
         31   Tallahatchie        $500        $661     32.20%        $161       72    Yazoo                    $500         $595     19.00%             $95
         32   Grenada             $531        $701     32.02%        $170       73    Neshoba                  $500         $593     18.60%             $93
         33   Leflore             $501        $661     31.94%        $160       74    Washington               $587         $685     16.70%             $98
         34   Itawamba            $500        $658     31.60%        $158       75    Hinds                    $784         $899     14.67%           $115
         35   Forrest             $644        $846     31.37%        $202       76    Madison                  $784         $899     14.67%           $115
         36   Lamar               $644        $846     31.37%        $202       77    Rankin                   $784         $899     14.67%           $115
         37   Jones               $500        $656     31.20%        $156       78    DeSoto                   $870         $990     13.79%           $120
         38   Pike                $500        $655     31.00%        $155       79    Jackson                  $798         $887     11.15%             $89
         39   Marion              $500        $654     30.80%        $154       80    Hancock                  $798         $881     10.40%             $83
         40   Greene              $500        $650     30.00%        $150       81    Harrison                 $798         $881     10.40%             $83
         41   Wayne               $500        $650     30.00%        $150       82    Issaquena                $634         $648      2.21%             $14
        Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data http:///www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html

Table 7: Louisiana Fair Market Rents 3-Bedroom
                                  Louisiana HUD Fair Market Rent 3 Bedroom - Change from 2004 to 2008

        County or MSA                       HUD FMR Rent 2004       HUD FMR Rent 2008       Percent Change 2004 to 2008        Dollar Change 2004 to 2008
        Alexandria, LA MSA                                  $655                   $706                              7.79%                              $51
        Baton Rouge, LA MSA                                 $741                   $966                             30.36%                             $225
        Houma, LA MSA                                       $619                   $767                             23.91%                             $148
        Lafayette, LA MSA                                   $594                   $966                             62.63%                             $372
        Lake Charles, LA MSA                                $670                   $770                             14.93%                             $100
        Monroe, LA MSA                                      $656                   $771                             17.53%                             $115
        New Orleans, LA MSA                                 $899                 $1,271                             41.38%                             $372
        St. James Parish MSA*                               $557                   $796                             42.91%                             $239
        Shreveport--Bossier City, LA MS                     $701                   $805                             14.84%                             $104
        Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data http:///www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html

The Need for Energy Efficiency in Housing
The Federal government has enacted multiple regulations and legislative initiatives, and numerous Federal agencies have
implemented programs to encourage energy efficiency in housing in an effort to reduce the negative economic impact of
high energy costs and the related depletion of natural resources. These programs include (but are not limited to):

   Section 945 of the 1990 Affordable Housing Act that encourages adopting the model energy code for new construction,
   advancing a DOE-HUD partnership, utilizing an action plan for reducing the outlay for utilities in public housing,
   emphasizing energy efficiency in HOPE VI programs, expanding the use of energy-efficient mortgages, improving
   financing for energy improvements in manufactured housing, and increasing emphasis on sustainable development.



                                                                              10
       The Energy Policy Act of 1992; P.L. 102 – 486, amended Section 109 of the 1990 Affordable Housing Act to meet
       energy efficiency standards in all new construction assisted by HUD, including all HOME programs.
       The Model Energy Code (MEC) establishes minimum requirements for energy related features of new buildings and
       additions to existing buildings.
       The Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program Act of 1974, as amended (P.L. 93-383). A primary
       objective of Section 101 is “the development of viable communities by providing decent housing and suitable living
       environment by expanding economic opportunities, principally for persons of low and moderate income, by providing
       Federal assistance to support community development activities directed toward the conservation and expansion of the
       Nation’s housing stock and the conservation of the Nation’s scarce energy resources, improvement in energy efficiency,
       and the provision of alternative and renewable energy sources of supply.” Under Section 105, activities that may be
       assisted include: the acquisition, construction, reconstruction, or installation (including design features and improvements
       with respect to such construction, or installation which promote energy efficiency) of public works and site or other
       improvements; and grants to neighborhood-based nonprofit organizations to carry out a neighborhood revitalization or
       community economic development or energy conservation projects in furtherance of the objectives of Section 101 {c}.
       Thirty percent of CDBG funds to states are allocated for use by cities with populations of less than 50,000 to implement
       the Congressional Energy Mandate.
       FHA Energy-Efficient Mortgages became a Congressionally Mandated national program in 1995 in recognition that
       reduced utility expenses permit homeowners to pay a higher mortgage.
       The State Energy Program established in 1996 is designed to strengthen the capabilities of States to promote and adopt
       energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies.
       Building America is a private-public partnership designed to combine the knowledge and resources of industry leaders
       with the U.S. Department of Energy’s technical capabilities to act as a catalyst for change in the home building industry.
       This program emphasizes a systems engineering approach to produce housing that incorporates energy- and material-
       saving strategies throughout the design and building process.
       The Partnership for Advancing Technologies in Housing (PATH) is a private/public effort established to develop,
       demonstrate, and gain widespread market acceptance for the “Next Generation” of American Housing. Partners include
       the Departments of Energy, Commerce, Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Emergency
       Management Agency.

The Linkage between Energy Efficiency, the Economy, and Economic Development
The rising price of oil, the rising cost of energy to consumers, increasing consumption of energy, and the related net drain
on the U.S. and Mississippi economies should make the need to increase the energy efficiency of housing self-evident.
“On a local level, millions of dollars are being exported out of U.S. cities and counties to pay for energy. This exodus of
dollars has very real effects on local economic vitality. City and county leaders across the U.S. often fail to realize that the
dollars being spent on energy by their residents, businesses, and industries drain their local economies and would be better
spent on public works, consumer goods, industrial site development, and new plants and machinery.”12 Dollars exported
out of communities to pay for energy expenditures are a drain on the economic vitality of the community, when these dollars
could instead be spent as consumer expenditures or for other economic development purposes within the community. For
example, a study conducted by the Nebraska Energy Office estimates that for each dollar spent on energy, $.80 left the
state; compared to typical consumer purchases, for which only $.34 left the state. Increasing energy consumption and
related expenditures have a detrimental economic impact at the local, state, and national level.

A special Congressional Energy Mandate in Section 101 of P.L. 93-383 states, “The Congress finds and declares that the
Nation’s cities, towns, and smaller urban communities face critical social, economic, and environmental problems arising in
significant measure from…increasing energy costs which have seriously undermined the quality and overall effectiveness of
local community and housing development activities.” Not only are energy costs a drain on local economies, they are also a
drain on Federal programs that provide housing and energy supplements for low-income citizens. Inherent in the linkage
between energy costs and the systemic economic development problems faced by communities throughout Mississippi is
the exodus of energy-related dollars and the drain these expenditures represent for local economies. These factors further
exacerbate the economic hardship faced by many communities in the State of Mississippi. High unemployment, high
poverty, coupled with high residential energy usage and the disproportionate impact of energy costs on low income persons
substantiates the need to significantly increase the energy efficiency of housing within the state of Mississippi. Stop-gap
approaches such as more efficient light-bulbs or energy-efficient appliances pall in comparison to existing building
technologies that can reduce by 50 percent the whole-house energy-efficiency of the building envelope.




12
     The Hidden Link: Energy and Economic Development, The Energy Task Force of Public Technology, U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development, 1987


                                                                                   11
Figure 1: Mississippi Retail Expenditures on Electricity 1990 to 2006




  The primary residential source of energy is electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas. Electricity’s share of energy consumption
  has been increasing, while the share of fuel oil and natural gas has been declining.13 Retail electricity sales exceed sales to
           Mississippi Retail Revenue (in millions of dollars) Expended on Electricity 1990 to 2006 both the commercial and industrial sectors. 14 In 2006,
                                              Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Mississippi Electricity Profile released 11/2007


                                  $2,000
                                                                                                    consumers in the state of Mississippi spent $3.9 billion on
                                                                                      $1,765
                                                                                                    electricity, this represented a $452 million increase above
                                  $1,800
                                                                                                    the 2005 retail electricity revenues.15 In 2006, Mississippi
                                  $1,600                                                            residential consumers expended $1.76 billion on electricity,
                                  $1,400
                                                                                                    an increase of $201 million as compared to 2005. Using a
                                                                                                    conservative estimate of 50 cents leaving the state for
       (in millions of dollars)




                                                                                        $1,213                                                                         Residential
                                  $1,200
                                                                                                    every $1.00 spent on energy, there was an exodus of                Commercial
                                                                                                                                                                       Industrial


                                  $1,000                                                $934        approximately $1.96 billion energy-related dollars from the
                                   $800
                                                                                                    state of Mississippi in 2006; of this amount approximate
                                                                                                    $882.5 million was associated with residential energy
                                   $600
                                                                                                    consumption. If residential consumers had instead spent
                                   $400
                                              1990        1995         2000         2001
                                                                                                    these dollars on taxable items within the state, at a 7
                                                                                                 2002         2003         2004        2005         2006

                                                                                                    percent tax rate, approximately $61 million in sales tax
  revenues might have been generated within the state for education, Medicaid, infrastructure and other benefits to citizens
  that are provided by government at the state and local level.

  In 2005, Mississippi had the 10th highest per capita residential electricity consumption in kilowatt hours as compared to all
  other states and the District of Columbia (see Table 8, below):
  Table 8: 2005 Per Capita Residential Electricity Consumption Ranked by State
                                 2005 Per Capita                                                                                                                              2005 Per Capita
                                    Residential                                                                                                                                 Residential                                              2005 Per Capita
                                    Electricity                                                                                                                                  Electricity                                           Residential Electricity
                                 Consumption in                                                                                                                               Consumption in                                          Consumption in Kilowatt
   Rank          State           Kilowatt Hours             Rank          State                                                                                               Kilowatt Hours                Rank              State           Hours
        1 Tennessee                            6897.9           18 Indiana                                                                                                                5361.8                35    Connecticut                        3932.1
        2 Alabama                              6870.6           19 Idaho                                                                                                                  5318.7                36    Illinois                           3807.2
        3 South Carolina                       6739.2           20 Nebraska                                                                                                               5292.9                37    Michigan                           3566.4
        4 Florida                              6508.8           21 Washington                                                                                                             5282.0                38    Colorado                           3523.1
        5 Kentucky                             6456.8           22 Arizona                                                                                                                5142.7                39    Dist. of Col.                      3520.3
        6 Louisiana                            6334.3           23 South Dakota                                                                                                           5120.3                40    Vermont                            3513.4
        7 West Virginia                        6265.8           24 Maryland                                                                                                               5078.2                41    New Jersey                         3438.1
        8 North Carolina                       6227.3           25 Oregon                                                                                                                 5036.7                42    New Hampshire                      3431.5
        9 Arkansas                             6165.2           26 Kansas                                                                                                                 4884.3                43    Maine                              3407.5
      10 Mississippi                           6146.0           27 Ohio                                                                                                                   4702.0                44    Massachusetts                      3209.8
      11 Oklahoma                              6006.1           28 Wyoming                                                                                                                4667.2                45    Alaska                             3107.0
      12 North Dakota                          5962.2           29 Nevada                                                                                                                 4588.4                46    Utah                               3064.1
      13 Missouri                              5932.8           30 Iowa                                                                                                                   4575.0                47    New Mexico                         3041.4
      14 Virginia                              5901.8           31 Montana                                                                                                                4511.2                48    Rhode Island                       2946.5
      15 Georgia                               5822.7           32 Pennsylvania                                                                                                           4317.2                49    New York                           2624.5
      16 Texas                                 5536.4           33 Minnesota                                                                                                              4236.1                50    Hawaii                             2481.2
      17 Delaware                              5446.2           34 Wisconsin                                                                                                              4056.6                51    California                         2369.4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      United States                      4585.6
   Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration
  The residential price of electricity per million BTU in Mississippi was $25.53 (in nominal dollars), with Mississippi ranked as
  the 24th highest among the 50 states plus the District of Columbia (see Table 9, below).
  Table 9: 2005 Residential Price of Electricity per Million BTU: State Rankings
                2005 Residential Price of Electricity per Millions BTU: Ranking of States
   Rank                                        State                Residential Price                      Rank         State                         Residential Price              Rank   State            Residential Price
                                  1        Hawaii                                          60.67               18       New Mexico                                        26.76       35    Arkansas                     23.45
                                  2        New York                                        46.08               19       Dist. of Col.                                     26.68       36    Alabama                      23.44
                                  3        Connecticut                                     39.98               20       Colorado                                          26.56       37    Oklahoma                     23.31
                                  4        New Hampshire                                   39.59               21       Delaware                                          26.42       38    Kansas                       23.14

     5 Massachusetts             39.39      22 Louisiana                                                                                                                      26      39    South Dakota                 22.77
     6 Alaska                    38.97      23 Arizona                                                                                                                    25.98       40    Utah                         22.03
     7 Maine                     38.79      24 Mississippi                                                                                                             25.53          41    Indiana                      21.98
     8 Rhode Island              38.21      25 South Carolina                                                                                                             25.42       42    Wyoming                      21.91
     9 Vermont                   37.99      26 North Carolina                                                                                                             25.37       43    Oregon                       21.26
    10 California                36.66      27 Georgia                                                                                                                    25.33       44    Nebraska                     20.94
    11 New Jersey                 34.4      28 Ohio                                                                                                                       24.93       45    Missouri                     20.75
    12 Texas                     32.03      29 Maryland                                                                                                                   24.79       46    North Dakota                 20.49
    13 Nevada                    29.88      30 Michigan                                                                                                                   24.63       47    Tennessee                    20.47
    14 Pennsylvania              28.89      31 Illinois                                                                                                                   24.46       48    Kentucky                     19.24
    15 Wisconsin                 28.33      32 Minnesota                                                                                                                  24.26       49    Washington                   19.18
    16 Florida                    28.2      33 Virginia                                                                                                                   23.92       50    Idaho                        18.43
    17 Iowa                      27.17      34 Montana                                                                                                                    23.75       51    West Virginia                18.19
   Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration

  13 U.S. Household Energy Report, Energy Information Administration, release July 2005.
  14 Ibid.
  15 U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, release November 2007




                                                                                                                                                                                12
      As demonstrated in Figure 2 below, residential electricity costs in Mississippi have been increasing at an increasing rate
      over time and experienced a 10.9 percent increase in the one year period from 2005 to 2006.
                              State of Mississippi: Average Retail Price of Electricity by Sector 1990 to 2006
                                                        in Cents per Kilowatt Hour
                        Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Date of Release 11/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                     As demonstrated in the Figure 3 below, there is
                                                                                                                                                                                     an inverse relationship between Household
       10.50

                                                                                                                                                                        $9.66
                                                                                                                                                                                     Income and Residential Energy Consumption
        9.50
                                                                                                                                                                            9.37
                                                                                                                                                                                     and Residential Energy Expenditures. Lower
                                                                                                                                                               $8.71                 income groups consume and expend more per
        8.50                                                                                                                                        $8.21          8.48              square foot for residential energy than do higher
        7.50   7.21      7.18
                                    7.27      7.45
                                                     7.22
                                                                                                                         $7.37    $7.28
                                                                                                                                            $7.60       7.99
                                                                                                                                                                                     income groups in the United States. As
                                                                                                                                                                                     residential energy costs increase exponentially,
                                                               7.01     $7.04    $7.02         $7.03             $6.93
                                                                                                         $6.75                              7.25
                                             $7.12                       7.09
                                                                                                                                                                                     the burden of these costs will impact all
               $6.89     $6.88      $7.01            $7.06    $6.99                                                        6.94
        6.50                                                                                                                       6.83
                                                                                     6.69      6.62

                                                                                                                                                                                     Americans – but the disproportional negative
                                                                                                                 6.41
                                                                                                         6.19
                                                                                                                                                                        $5.94
        5.50
                                                                                                                                                               $5.37                 impact of energy costs will be most severe for
        4.50
               $4.65                         $4.59
                                                                                                                                                    $4.83                            low-income Americans; statistics from the U.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Department of Energy indicate that the lower the
                         $4.49      $4.41            $4.48     $4.44    $4.41                                            $4.40    $4.40     $4.48
                                                                                 $4.12         $4.22             $4.14
                                                                                                         $4.02

                                                                                                                                                                                     income, the higher the cost of energy (Figure 4,
        3.50
               1990       1991      1992      1993   1994      1995      1996    1997          1998      1999    2000    2001     2002      2003    2004       2005     2006

                                                             Residential                       Commercial                     Industrial                                             below).
                        Mississippi: Percent Change from Prior Year for Residential Retail Price of Electricity 2000 to 2006

                                                                                              The April 2007 Home Energy Affordability Gap
                                           Average Retail Price expressed as Cents per Killowatt Hour
                                      Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, release 11/2007


       0.12
                                                                                              research conducted by Fisher, Sheehan, &
                                                                                       10.91%
                                                                                              Colton found that in Mississippi approximately
        0.1                                                                                   94,000 Mississippi households have income at
                                                                           8.03%              or below 50 percent of the Federal Poverty
       0.08                                                                                   Level and face a home energy cost burden of
                                6.35%
                                                                                              49.7 percent of their annual income; and that
       0.06
                                                                                 6.09%
                                                                                              54,000 Mississippi household have a home
       0.04
                                                                     4.40%                    energy cost burden of 19.9 percent of their
                                                                                              annual income. Further support for the negative
       0.02
                      2.67%
                                                                                              impact of high energy costs on low-income
                                                                                              families is provided by the 2005 National Energy
          0                                                                                   Assistance Survey Report of recipients of Low
                                                                                              Income Home Energy Assistance Program
                       2000                   2001                    2002                     2003                 2004                   2005                  2006
                                                     -1.22%
       -0.02
                                                                                              funding. This report found that due to high
         Figure 2: Mississippi Increase in Retail Price of Electricity                        energy bills, 32 percent of respondents did not
      fill their medical prescriptions or took less than a full dose of a prescribed medicine and 16 percent of respondents fell ill as
      a result of a home that was kept too cold.
                                    U.S: Residential Energy Expenditures per Square Foot 2001                                                                                       U.S.: Residential Energy Consumption per Square Foot by Income 2001
                                                                   (in dollars)                                                                                                                                  (1000 Btu)
                                 Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use                                                                      Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use


 1                                                                                                                                                       60
                                                                                                                                                                  55.9
        0.89                                                                                                                                                                                    53.9          53.6
0.9                     0.85                0.86        0.85                                                                                                                       52.5
                                                                         0.81                                                                                                                                               50.4
                                                                                                                                                         50
0.8
                                                                                             0.73                                                                                                                                          44.9
                                                                                                             0.71                                                                                                                                        43.4
                                                                                                                            0.68                                                                                                                                          41.8
0.7                                                                                                                                         0.66                                                                                                                                       40.1
                                                                                                                                                         40

0.6


0.5                                                                                                                                                      30


0.4

                                                                                                                                                         20
0.3


0.2
                                                                                                                                                         10

0.1


 0                                                                                                                                                        0
       Less than       $10,000 to      $15,000 to     $20,000 to        $30,000 to          $40,000 to     $50,000 to      $75,000 to     $100,000 or           Less than       $10,000 to    $15,000 to    $20,000 to    $30,000 to     $40,000 to    $50,000 to       $75,000 to   $100,000 or
        $9,999          $14,999         $19,999        $29,999           $39,999             $49,999        $74,999         $99,999          More                $9,999          $14,999       $19,999       $29,999       $39,999        $49,999       $74,999          $99,999        More

                                                        Figure 3: U.S. Energy Expenditures and Consumption per Square Foot based on Household Income




                                                                                                                                                    13
                                                                                                                               Although there are multiple Federal and State programs that
                                                                                                                               provide financial assistance to low-income persons to offset
                    U.S. Energy Expenditures per Square Foot for the Poorest Income
                                             Groups 2001

                                                                                                                               the burden of residential energy costs, failure to address the
                                                       (expressed in dollars)




                                                                                                                               core problem – energy inefficient low income housing – can
      1
                           0.93
                                                                 0.89
     0.9


     0.8
                                                                                                                               only result in a continuously escalating financial and societal
                                                                                                                               burden as energy costs continue to increase. Whether these
                                                                                                    0.73
     0.7


     0.6                                                                                                                       costs are borne directly by low income households, negatively
     0.5                                                                                                                       impacting their disposal income for expenditures on other
     0.4                                                                                                                       family necessities or absorbed at the Federal or state level
     0.3
                                                                                                                               through the redistribution of tax revenues does not change the
     0.2
                                                                                                                               underlying impact of the cost to society related to the failure to
     0.1
                                                                                                                               implement energy efficient building technologies.
      0
                    Below 100 Percent                     100 to 150 Percent                   Above 150 Percent


                                                                                                         The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services’ (HHS) Low
                                                                                                                           Income Home Energy Assistance Program
                                          Federal Low-Income Energy Programs: Funding History 1990 to 2008
                                                               (in millions of dollars)                                    (LIHEAP) has expended $75.15 Billion
                                                                                                                           during the period 1977 to 2008. 16
                           Source: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, LIHEAP Clearinghouse


           $6,500
                                                                                                                    $6,095 Mississippi received approximately $12.3
           $6,000                                                                                                          million for LIHEAP programs for 2005, this
           $5,500
                                                                                                                           amount increased to $14.38 million as of
           $5,000
                                                                                                                           January 2008 17 . Even with increases in
                                                                                                                           Federal LIHEAP assistance to Mississippi,
           $4,500
                                                                                                                           the Home Energy Affordability Gap in
           $4,000                                                                                                          Mississippi has increasingly outstripped
           $3,500                                                                                                          LIHEAP funding, exhibiting an increase of
           $3,000
                                                                                                                           45.4 percent from 2002 to 2006; with actual
                                                                                                                           low-income energy bills exceeding affordable
                                                                                                                           energy bills by approximately $421.3 million
           $2,500


           $2,000
                                                                                                                           in 2006 and federal LIHEAP funding
           $1,500
                    1990     1991       1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000         2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
                                                                                                                           allotments of only $14.4 million18.
           Figure 4: Federal Spending on Low-Income Energy Programs




Recommendations

There are multiple strategies that can be implemented to improve the quality of housing, increase energy-efficiency, and
create homeownership opportunities in the State of Mississippi. According to the September 20, 2007 HUD report on 50
states plus Puerto Rico use of HOME funds, Mississippi ranked as the 48th lowest for its leveraging of HOME funds, 43rd for
its disbursements on Community Housing Development Organizations, 50th in the category of benefits to low-income
persons, and received an Overall ranking of 49; only Florida and Puerto Rico scored more poorly in HUD’s Overall ranking
of states for their use of HOME funds. This indicates a strong need in the state to restructure housing policies and the use
of HOME and other HUD funds.
Decision-makers in the state of Mississippi may need to consider the creation of the necessary mechanisms to establish
sustainable funding for programs that will increase the affordability of homeownership and improve the quality of housing,
with an emphasis on energy-efficiency. To achieve this purpose will require the integration of multiple sources of funding
that leverage existing funds with equity investment from the for-profit sector through the use of tax credit programs such as
Low-Income Housing Tax Credits, New Market Tax Credits, Historic Preservation Tax Credits, and perhaps Research Tax
Credits.

Different approaches to structuring housing financing and investment mechanisms will need to be considered based upon
geographic location. For example, in some communities such as Greenville, Greenwood, or Meridian with a significant
number of vacant historic residential structures within the urban core or a large number of multi-story historic buildings in
downtown areas, the most cost effective strategies may be to utilize and rehabilitate existing residential homes to create
homeownership opportunities coupled with the opportunity to restore historic downtown structures using mixed-use
16
   U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , Administration for Children & Families, LIHEAP Clearinghouse, http://liheap.ncat.org/Funding/lhhist.htm
17
   Ibid.
18
   Fisher, Sheehan, & Colton, Home Energy Affordability Gap, State Fact Sheets, released April 2007.


                                                                                                                               14
development strategies that use ground floor space for retail with upper levels of the building for rental or perhaps
condominium ownership. These types of projects can leverage Federal and State Historic Preservation Tax Credits, plus
New Market Tax Credits to attract equity investment that will offset the cost of completing the projects. Alternatively, in
more rural areas such as Bolivar, Sunflower, Humphreys or Claiborne county that exhibit low vacancy rates and strong
indications of overcrowding in housing or in areas of coastal Mississippi where housing was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina,
there is an undersupply of available housing and new single-family housing will be required. Depending upon the supply of
housing and the population demographics of a particular area, different financing and investment structures will be required.

As decision-makers examine the issues related to the need to increase the quality and energy-efficiency of housing and
design policies to increase the supply of affordable housing and increase homeownership opportunities for workforce and
lower-income citizens, consideration should be given to providing reliable, steady funding streams. To maximize the
leveraging of funding with the objective of reducing housing costs while retaining high quality, will require integrating multiple
federal and state sources of funds and tax credits, some funding streams are determinant, others will require time to
acquire. For example, the CDBG, HOME, and ADDI funding plus the Low Income Housing Tax Credits received by the
state are annual steady streams of funding; alternatively, New Market Tax Credits are allocated annually in a highly
competitive process and may not be relied upon, the same is true for many of the Federal grants for housing. Further
consideration might be given to the feasibility and desirability of creating state set-asides funding for the purpose of creating
investment structures with dependable, longitudinal streams of funding. To achieve that purpose, decision-makers may
consider setting aside either a percentage of, or a specific amount of the exisiting CDBG, HOME, ADDI or Low-Income
Housing Tax Credits allocated to the state for the specific purpose of supporting a state or regional homeownership
consortium, or to support local Community Housing Development Organization (CHDOs) that meet specific financial
leveraging requirements. Additionally, decision-makers might consider setting-aside HOME or CDBG funding to build
capacity or to provide technical assistance, with an emphasis on the financial investment and leveraging capabilities of
CHDOs or regional homeownership consortiums. These policy decisions might include a review of a policy that creates a
central structure to leverage financing and investment for the purpose of increasing equity investment in housing ventures
with public housing authorities or CHDOs. Many states have successfully created Housing Land Trusts, Employee Assisted
Housing Programs, and Housing Cooperatives to facilitate leveraging investments and reduce the ultimate cost of housing
for the workforce and for lower-income persons. Under the HOME program (HUD-2006-08-CPD), local governments are
able to join together to form a "consortium" in order to receive HOME funding for affordable housing. Forming a consortium
enables local governments that would not otherwise qualify for HOME program funding under the formula criteria to join with
other units of local government to receive a direct allocation of funds. This creates an opportunity for these jurisdictions to
take a more regional, collaborative approach to meeting their affordable housing needs. Decision-makers should examine
the feasibility of the formation of regional housing consortiums.

Another issue in the state is the failure to maximize the use of the Section 8 Homeownership Voucher. Some approaches
to motivate public housing authorities to increase the number Homeownership Vouchers included in Public Housing
Authorities’ Plans submitted to HUD may be considered by decision-makers, these policies may include a Legislative
Housing Task Force working with regional housing authorities to provide evaluation and technical assistance to increase the
number of Housing Vouchers applied for by Public Housing Authorities, or providing financial incentives to encourage the
increased application for Section 8 Homeownership Vouchers by public housing authorities (i.e. set-asides of HOME/CDBG
funds for down-payment assistance or infrastructure development for public housing authorities that meet benchmarks
related to the use of Homeownership Vouchers.

The quality of construction and energy-efficiency of workforce and low-income housing in Mississippi must be improved. To
achieve this purpose, decision-makers may consider policies to provide incentives or regulatory requirements that single-
family or multi-family housing developments that use state funds or state allocated Low-Income Housing Tax Credits
(LIHTC) provide verifiable documentation of energy-efficiency and engineering testing. Other policies, such as providing
additional points for energy-efficient building envelopes on the rating of applications to the Mississippi HOME Corporation
for Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and other grant awards may also be considered.

Decision-makers may also consider policies that integrate Mississippi’s universities and community colleges into
collaborative relationships with state or regional housing consortiums and with CHDOs. Educational institutions can play a
vital role in evaluating alternative financing strategies, developing research elements for housing projects that in turn may
qualify private sector investors for research tax credits and bring U.S. Department of Energy funding into
projects. Additionally, a partnership with a university can improve the ability of a public/private housing foundation to attract
federal funding and philanthropic funding. University partners may also improve the fiscal reportability, accountability, and
transparency of the process to assure that funding is used to reduce the cost of housing while improving the quality and to



                                                               15
avoid excess profit-taking by all partners to the process – with the caveat that partnering universities and colleges must limit
overhead to a reasonable amount.

Consideration may also be given to the creation of a non-partisan Housing Task Force, to evaluate and develop alternative
strategies for financing and attracting investment into Mississippi. The implementation of a strategic plan and the ability to
obtain additional grant funding will require a concentrated, strategic focus by Mississippi’s elected leadership to create
support and awareness with federal funding agencies and the Mississippi Congressional Delegation.

Five complex issues must be examined to determine the best policies for leveraging funding and financial structuring to
expand the supply of quality workforce housing and to create homeownership opportunity for low-income working families in
Mississippi:

   1. The financial structuring of public-private partnerships able to leverage federal and state grants and grants from
      philanthropic organizations with Low-Income Housing Tax Credits and New Market Tax Credits to attract investment
      from private sector equity, to include the use of Housing Choice Vouchers and Downpayment Assistance grants;
   2. The structuring of incentives to encourage employee-assisted housing programs by business and governmental
      organizations;
   3. Policies to expand of the use of Housing Choice Vouchers in Mississippi;
   4. Policies to increase the energy efficiency of all housing in the state of Mississippi that use CDBG, HOME, ADDI, and
      other HUD funds; and projects allocated Low-Income Housing Tax Credits; coupled with stringent engineering
      requirements for proof of the energy efficiency of building envelopes; and
   5. Further study of the creation of state or regional housing consortiums.

Two approaches to these five issues might be considered by decision-makers:

   1. The creation of a housing task force comprised of representatives from Mississippi Development Authority, regional
      universities, U.S.D.A., HUD, and elected leaders to study the five issues identified in the previous paragraph; or
   2. The creation and funding of regional demonstration projects to develop a prototype for the financing and construction
      of model projects designed for future replication.




                                                               16
Appendix of Maps




       17
                                        HUD 2008 Fair Market Rent
                                          Three-Bedroom Unit
                                                                                                                                                                                   Alcorn
                                                                                       DeSoto
                                                                                                $990.00                                            $677.00                                  $692.00
                                                                                                                                                    Benton
                                                                                                                            $736.00                                 $648.00                                   $625.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                                                               Prentiss
                                                                      $839.00                                                   Marshall                                Tippah
                                                                                        Tate    $748.00
                                                                      Tunica                                                                                                                  $597.00

                                                                                                                                                     Union   $624.00
                                                                                                                               Lafayette

                                                                                        Panola $597.00                        $780.00                                                                     Itawamba

                                                        Coahoma
                                                                                                                                                                                   $744.00             $658.00
                                                                         $616.00                                                                            $677.00                     Lee
                                                       $692.00               Quitman
                                                                                                                                                              Pontotoc

                                                                                 Tallahatchie
                                                                                                              $667.00                                               Chickasaw
                                                                                $661.00                        Yalobusha
                                                                                                                                         $667.00                    $649.00
                                  Bolivar                                                                                                  Calhoun                                               $623.00
                                            $633.00                                                      $701.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Monroe
                                                                                               Grenada
                                                                                                                                                                            Clay

                                                          Sunflower                                                                                                    $726.00
                                                                                                                   Montgomery
                                                                                                                                           $667.00
                                                       $710.00           $661.00                                                       Webster
                                                                             Leflore                               $667.00                                             Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                   $763.00
                                                                                                   $661.00                                       Choctaw              $764.00
                                                                                         Carroll                                                                                                   Lowndes
                                                                                                                                           $667.00
                                    $685.00
                                     Washington             Humphreys




     ­
                                                          $661.00              Holmes   $648.00                                                              $649.00                        $693.00
                                                                                                                Attala   $667.00                  Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                            Noxubee

                                            $648.00
                                            Sharkey
                                                                                                                              Leake
                            Issaquena
                                                          Yazoo       $595.00
                                                                                                                           $599.00                   $593.00                 Kemper   $694.00
                                                                                                                                                       Neshoba
                                      $648.00                                     Madison       $899.00

                                                                                                                                                           Newton                     Lauderdale
                                                                                                                    Scott $596.00                    $694.00                        $758.00
                                            $742.00
                                              Warren
                                                        Hinds    $899.00                 Rankin $899.00



                                                                                                                    Smith                                  Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke $694.00
                                                                                                                             $599.00                 $599.00
                           Claiborne
                                     $624.00
                                                                                         Simpson
                                                                                                    $629.00
                                                        Copiah   $899.00

                    Jefferson   $624.00                                                                                  Covington

                                                                                        Lawrence                         $624.00           Jones $656.00                    Wayne $650.00


                                                                 $683.00               $624.00 $624.00
                                                                                                          Jefferson Davi
              $633.00       Franklin $602.00                      Lincoln
                 Adams
                                                                                                                                           $846.00
                                                                                                          Marion                Lamar
                                                                                                         $654.00             $846.00             Forrest                              $650.00
                                   Amite    $602.00               $655.00 $602.00                                                                              $846.00
       Wilkinson $602.00                                                                                                                                                                Greene
                                                                      Pike                                                                                          Perry
                                                                                         Walthall




    Legend                                                                                                                                                                            $887.00
                                                                                                                                             Stone    $881.00                           George
                                                                                                                         $643.00
    HUD Fair Market Rent 3 Bedroom                                                                                       Pearl River

    2008 Fair Market Rent for 3 Bedroom
                                                                                                                                                                                      $887.00
                                                                                                                                                      $881.00
            $593.00 - $633.00                                                                                                                          Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                        Jackson
                                                                                                                            $881.00
            $633.01 - $667.00                                                                                                  Hancock

                                                                                                                                                    Data Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data
            $667.01 - $710.00                                                                                                                                          $887.00
                                                                                                                                                     $881.00 http://www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html
                                                                                                                                                                                  $887.00
            $710.01 - $780.00                                                                                                                       Prepared by: Judith Philllips
                                                                                                                                                                phillips@sig.msstate.edu
            $780.01 - $990.00                                                                                                                                   662.325.3329




Map 1: Fair Market Rent 3-bedroom unit




                                                                                                                   18
                 Percent Change from 2004 to 2008
               Fair Market Rent for Three-Bedroom Unit
                                                                                                                                                                                       Alcorn
                                                                                                                                                          Benton                                 0.38%
                                                                                          DeSoto    0.14%                                                                                                         Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                        0.35%             0.30%
                                                                                                                                  0.47%                                    Tippah                                  0.25%
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prentiss
                                                                                                                                     Marshall
                                                                        0.68%              Tate     0.45%
                                                                       Tunica
                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.19%

                                                                                                                                                          Union    0.25%
                                                                                                                                    Lafayette

                                                                                          Panola     0.19%                          0.27%                                                                    Itawamba

                                                         Coahoma
                                                                                                                                                                                         0.39%               0.32%
                                                                               0.23%                                                                               0.35%                   Lee
                                                        0.33%                  Quitman
                                                                                                                                                                   Pontotoc

                                                                                  Tallahatchie
                                                                                                                  0.33%                                                Chickasaw
                                                                                   0.32%                          Yalobusha
                                                                                                                                                0.33%                   0.30%
                                    Bolivar                                                                                                     Calhoun                                    Monroe     0.25%
                                              0.25%                                                         0.32%                                                                Clay
                                                                                                  Grenada

                                                                                                                                                                           0.45%
                                                             0.42%                                                                     Webster 0.33%
                                                                                                                      Montgomery
                                                         Sunflower
                                                                               0.32%
                                                                               Leflore
                                                                                                                        0.33%                                             Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                       0.46%
                                                                                                      0.32%                                        Choctaw                 0.33%
                                                                                           Carroll                                                                                                    Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                 0.33%
                                          0.17%
                                      Washington              Humphreys




     ­
                                                             0.32%               Holmes    0.30%                                                                   0.30%                        0.39%
                                                                                                                     Attala     0.33%                Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                                Noxubee


                                              0.30%
                                              Sharkey
                               0.02%                         Yazoo      0.19%
                                                                                                                        Leake 0.20%                         0.19%               Kemper    0.39%
                                                                                                                                                            Neshoba
                                           Issaquena
                                                                                 Madison   0.15%

                                                                                                                                                              Newton                     Lauderdale
                                                    Warren
                                                                                                                        Scott    0.19%                      0.39%                         0.36%
                                               0.25%
                                                         Hinds    0.15%                    Rankin 0.15%



                                                                                                                         Smith                                Jasper

                                                                                                                                    0.20%                   0.20%               Clarke   0.39%
                             Claiborne
                                          0.25%
                                                                                            Simpson 0.26%
                                                         Copiah   0.80%

                       Jefferson   0.25%                                                                                      Covington

                                                                                          Lawrence                              0.25%           Jones   0.31%
                                                                                                                                                                               Wayne     0.30%
                                                                                          0.25%             0.25%
                                                                     0.37%                                   Jefferson Davi
                0.27%          Franklin   0.20%                      Lincoln
                    Adams


                                                                                                            Marion                   Lamar
                                                                                                            0.31%                  0.31%           0.31%                                  0.30%
        Wilkinson   0.20%            Amite     0.20%                  0.31%              0.20%                                                                      0.69%                  Greene
                                                                        Pike                                                                        Forrest            Perry
                                                                                           Walthall




    Legend                                                                                                                                                                       George 0.77%

                                                                                                                               0.28%
                                                                                                                                                   Stone    0.76%
    HUD Fair Market Rents 3 Bedroom                                                                                           Pearl River

    0408 percent change
                                                                                                                                                                                 Jackson 0.11%
                                                                                                                                                            0.10%
             0.022% - 0.167%                                                                                                         Hancock
                                                                                                                                                            Harrison
                                                                                                                                   0.10%
             0.168% - 0.272%
                                                                                                                                                        Data Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data
             0.273% - 0.366%                                                                                                                               0.10% 0.10% 0.11%
                                                                                                                                                                     http://www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html
                                                                                                                                                                                         0.11%
             0.367% - 0.472%                                                                                                                            Prepared by: Judith Philllips
                                                                                                                                                                    phillips@sig.msstate.edu
             0.473% - 0.798%                                                                                                                                        662.325.3329




Map 2: 2004 to 2008 Percent Change in Fair Market Rent for 3-Bedroom Unit




                                                                                                                       19
              HUD 2008 Fair Market Rent for Three-Bedroom Unit
                Net Dollar Change in Rent from 2004 to 2008

                                                                                                                                                                                   Alcorn
                                                                                       DeSoto
                                                                                                $120.00                                            $177.00                                  $192.00
                                                                                                                                                    Benton
                                                                                                                            $236.00                                 $148.00                                  $125.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prentiss
                                                                      $339.00                                                   Marshall                                Tippah
                                                                                        Tate    $231.00
                                                                      Tunica                                                                                                                  $97.00

                                                                                                                                                     Union   $124.00
                                                                                                                               Lafayette

                                                                                        Panola     $97.00                     $167.00                                                                    Itawamba

                                                        Coahoma
                                                                                                                                                                                   $207.00             $158.00
                                                                         $116.00                                                                            $177.00                     Lee
                                                       $173.00               Quitman
                                                                                                                                                              Pontotoc

                                                                                 Tallahatchie
                                                                                                              $167.00                                               Chickasaw
                                                                                $161.00                        Yalobusha
                                                                                                                                         $167.00                    $149.00
                                  Bolivar                                                                                                  Calhoun                                               $123.00
                                            $128.00                                                      $170.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Monroe
                                                                                               Grenada
                                                                                                                                                                            Clay

                                                          Sunflower                                                                                                    $226.00
                                                                                                                   Montgomery
                                                                                                                                           $167.00
                                                       $210.00           $160.00                                                       Webster
                                                                             Leflore                               $167.00                                             Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                   $241.00
                                                                                                   $161.00                                       Choctaw              $191.00
                                                                                         Carroll                                                                                                   Lowndes
                                                                                                                                           $167.00
                                     $98.00
                                     Washington             Humphreys




     ­
                                                          $161.00              Holmes   $148.00                                                              $149.00                        $193.00
                                                                                                                Attala   $167.00                  Winston
                                                                                                                                                                                            Noxubee

                                            $148.00
                                            Sharkey

                            Issaquena
                                                           Yazoo      $95.00
                                                                                                                    Leake $99.00                      $93.00                 Kemper   $194.00
                                                                                                                                                       Neshoba
                                        $14.00                                           $115.00
                                                                             Madison

                                                                                                                                                           Newton                     Lauderdale

                                            $146.00
                                                                                                                    Scott   $96.00                   $194.00                        $201.00
                                              Warren
                                                        Hinds    $115.00                 Rankin    $115.00


                                                                                                                     Smith                                 Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                             Clarke $194.00
                                                                                                                              $99.00                  $99.00
                           Claiborne
                                     $124.00
                                                                                         Simpson
                                                                                                    $129.00
                                                        Copiah   $399.00

                    Jefferson   $124.00                                                                                  Covington

                                                                                        Lawrence                         $124.00           Jones $156.00                    Wayne $150.00


                                                                 $183.00               $124.00 $124.00
                                                                                                          Jefferson Davi
              $133.00       Franklin $102.00                       Lincoln
                 Adams
                                                                                                                                           $202.00
                                                                                                          Marion                Lamar
                                                                                                         $154.00             $202.00             Forrest                              $150.00
                                   Amite    $102.00                $155.00 $102.00                                                                             $346.00
       Wilkinson $102.00                                                                                                                                                                Greene
                                                                      Pike                                                                                          Perry
                                                                                         Walthall




    Legend                                                                                                                                                                            $387.00
                                                                                                                                             Stone    $381.00                           George
                                                                                                                         $141.00
    HUD Fair Market Rent 3 Bedroom                                                                                       Pearl River

    Net dollar change in rent 2004 to 2008
                                                                                                                                                                              Jackson $89.00
                                                                                                                                                       $83.00
            $14.00 - $102.00                                                                                                    Hancock
                                                                                                                                                       Harrison
                                                                                                                              $83.00
            $102.01 - $141.00
                                                                                                                                                    Data Source: HUD Fair Market Rents, County Level Data
            $141.01 - $183.00                                                                                                                         $83.00 $83.00 $89.00 $89.00
                                                                                                                                                                 http://www.huduser.org/datasets/fmr.html

            $183.01 - $241.00                                                                                                                       Prepared by: Judith Philllips
                                                                                                                                                                phillips@sig.msstate.edu
            $241.01 - $399.00                                                                                                                                   662.325.3329




Map 3: Net Dollar Change in Fair Market Rent from 2004 to 2008




                                                                                                                   20
                         Mississippi 2000: Total Housing Units

                                                                                                                                                         Benton
                                                                                                                                                                                     Alcorn   15,818
                                                                                            DeSoto     40,795                                                                                                     Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                         3,456             8,868
                                                                                                                                   13,252                                   Tippah                                  9,552
                                                                                                                                     Marshall
                                                                            3,705
                                                                                              Tate     9,354
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10,682
                                                                           Tunica                                                                                                                 Prentiss
                                                                                                                                                           Union   10,693
                                                                                                                                     Lafayette

                                                                                              Panola   13,737                       16,586
                                                                                  3,922
                                                                                                                                                                   Pontotoc
                                                                                                                                                                                          31,887             9,804
                                                         11,490                                                                                                    10,816                   Lee
                                                         Coahoma                                                                                                                                             Itawamba
                                                                                  Quitman

                                                                                      Tallahatchie                     6,224
                                                                                                                                                                        Chickasaw
                                                                                        5,711                             Yalobusha              6,902                    7,981
                                                                                                                                                 Calhoun                                    Monroe     16,236
                                                14,939                                                                 9,973
                                                                                                                                                                                  Clay
                                      Bolivar                                                                 Grenada
                                                                                                                                                                              8,810
                                                              10,338
                                                                                                                        Montgomery      Webster 4,344
                                                                              14,097                                                                                                                         Lowndes
                                                            Sunflower
                                                                                                          4,888           5,402                                                                         25,104
                                                                                  Leflore
                                                                                                                                                                           17,344
                                                                                                                                                                           Oktibbeha
                                                                                                             Carroll
                                                                                                                                                   4,249
                                            24,381
                                                                                                                                                       Choctaw
                                                                Humphreys
                                            Washington
                                                               4,138                           8,439                              8,639                             8,472
                                                                                     Holmes                            Attala                                                        Noxubee 5,228

                                                                                                                                                                 Winston
                                                  Sharkey




      ­
                                                2,416                     10,015
                                                               Yazoo
                                     877                                                                                  Leake    8,585                                         Kemper     4,533
                                                                                                                                                            11,980
                                                                                                                                                             Neshoba
                                             Issaquena
                                                                                   Madison     28,781


                                                                                                                          Scott   11,116                     9,260                        33,418
                                                20,789

                                                                     100,287                   Rankin     45,070                                               Newton                     Lauderdale
                                                Warren      Hinds


                                                                                                                                    Smith
                                                                                                                                                             7,670               Clarke   8,100
                                                                                                                                     7,005          Jasper
                               Claiborne     4,252
                                                                                               Simpson
                                                            Copiah
                                                                                                           11,307
                                                                     11,101

                         Jefferson   3,819                                                                                      Covington
                                                                                                                                                                                Wayne     9,049
                                                                                             Lawrence                             8,083          Jones   26,921
                                                                                              5,688         5,891
                                                                      14,052                                 Jefferson Davis
                 15,175          Franklin    4,119                      Lincoln
                      Adams


                                                                                                              Marion                 Lamar
                                                                                                             10,394                15,433          29,913                                   4,947
          Wilkinson   5,106            Amite     6,446                  16,720              6,419                                                                    5,107                    Greene
                                                                           Pike                                                                      Forrest            Perry
                                                                                               Walthall




     Legend                                                                                                                                                                       George    7,513
                                                                                                                                20,610
                                                                                                                                                    Stone    5,343
     Census Bureau Housing Estimates                                                                                         Pearl River

     Housing Units 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                           51,678
                                                                                                                                      Hancock                79,636
               877 - 4,533                                                                                                                                   Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                            Jackson
                                                                                                                                   21,072
               4,534 - 7,670
                                                                                                                                                   0             20        40
                                                                                                                                                             79,636 79,636 51,678
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 Miles
               7,671 - 11,980                                                                                                                                                                           51,678
               11,981 - 21,072
               21,073 - 33,418
               33,419 - 51,678                      Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division
                                                                 Release Date 2007
               51,679 - 100,287                                                                                                                             Prepared by: Judith Phillips 662.325.3329


Map 4: Mississippi Housing Units by County 2000




                                                                                                                        21
                         Mississippi 2006: Total Housing Units

                                                                                                       DeSoto
                                                                                                                                                                                         Alcorn
                                                                                                                                    Marshall
                                                                                                                                                           Benton
                                                                                                                                                                             Tippah                  16,358
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tishomingo
                                                                                                  55,751
                                                                                                                                                           3,591             9,285
                                                                                                                                      14,239                                                           Prentiss
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9,890
                                                                            4,445             Tate     10,578
                                                                           Tunica                                                                                                                     11,160
                                                                                                                                                             Union   11,121
                                                                                                                                       Lafayette
                                                                                                                                                                                               Lee
                                                                                              Panola
                                                                Coahoma                                   14,448                      18,535                         Pontotoc
                                                                                  3,968                                                                                                                           10,256
                                                                                                                                                                                             33,155
                                                         11,637                                                                                                      11,389                                    Itawamba
                                                                                  Quitman

                                                                                      Tallahatchie                     6,572                       Calhoun                Chickasaw

                                                                                                                            Yalobusha
                                                                                        5,952                                                      7,150                   8,281               Monroe
                                                                                                                                                                                                          16,729
                                                                                                  Grenada       10,340
                                      Bolivar   15,410
                                                                                                                                                     Webster
                                                                                                                                                                             Clay
                                                              10,703                                                                                                                   9,083
                                                                                                                          Montgomery
                                                                                  14,894                                                       4,510
                                                            Sunflower                                                                                                                                       Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                             Oktibbeha
                                                                                  Leflore                 5,116                                                              19,638
                                                                                                                                    6,006                                                                 26,321
                                                                                                             Carroll                                 4,403
                                            25,044
                                                                                                                                                         Choctaw
                                                                    Humphreys                                                                                                                        Noxubee
                                            Washington

                                                                                    Holmes                               Attala     9,023                             8,739
                                                                4,202                         8,802                                                                                                  5,432
                                                                                                                                                                   Winston
                                                  Sharkey
                                      895




      ­
                                                                                                                                                               Neshoba
                                Issaquena       2,489          Yazoo      10,274                                            Leake    8,948                                          Kemper     4,736
                                                                                                                                                              12,484

                                                                            Madison         35,278

                                                                                                                            Scott   11,577                                                   34,770
                                                21,317                                                                                                         9,627
                                                                                                                                                               Newton                        Lauderdale
                                                Warren      Hinds                             Rankin   53,180
                                                                    105,081
                                                                                                                                      Smith
                                                                                                                                                      Jasper                        Clarke   8,442
                                                                                                                                                               8,086
                               Claiborne
                                                                                                                                       7,280
                                            4,426                                              Simpson
                                                            Copiah
                                                                                                           11,622
                                                                       11,440

                         Jefferson   3,998                                                                                        Covington
                                                                                                                                                                                Wayne        9,346
                                                                                                                                    8,502          Jones   27,887
                                                                                              5,896         6,117
                                                                       14,571                                   Jefferson Davis
                 15,403          Franklin    4,301                      Lincoln               Lawrence
                      Adams


                                                                                                                Marion                 Lamar
                                                                                                                                                                        Perry
                                                                                                             10,854                  16,627          32,369                                    5,125
          Wilkinson   5,340            Amite     6,739                  17,314               6,739                                                                     5,315                    Greene
                                                                           Pike                                                                        Forrest
                                                                                               Walthall




     Legend                                                                                                                                                                          George    7,998
                                                                                                                                  24,539
                                                                                                                                                      Stone    5,895
     Census Bureau Housing Estimates                                                                                           Pearl River

     Housing Units 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                              54,900
                                                                                                                                        Hancock                78,693
               895 - 4,736                                                                                                                                     Harrison
                                                                                                                                                                                               Jackson
                                                                                                                                     22,913
               4,737 - 7,280
                                                                                                                                                     0             20        40                                             80 Miles
               7,281 - 9,890                                                                                                                                   78,693 78,693 54,900                        54,900
               9,891 - 12,484
               12,485 - 22,913
               22,914 - 35,278                      Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division
                                                                 Release Date 2007
               35,279 - 105,081                                                                                                                               Prepared by: Judith Phillips 662.325.3329


Map 5: Mississippi Total Housing Units by County 2006




                                                                                                                          22
                        Change in Number of Housing Units
                                from 2000 to 2006
                                                                                                     DeSoto
                                                                                                                                                         Benton                            Alcorn   506
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Tishomingo
                                                                                               14,336
                                                                                                                         Marshall                         125      Tippah
                                                                                                                                       947                                   393                                        316
                                                                           675              Tate       1,174
                                                                          Tunica
                                                                                                                                                                                            Prentiss   455
                                                                                                                                                          Union
                                                                                                                                    Lafayette                      402
                                                                                                                                                                                            Lee
                                                                                             Panola
                                                             Coahoma                                    665                         1,852                         Pontotoc
                                                                                42                                                                                                                              419
                                                                                                                                                                                          1,216
                                                         139                                                                                                       528                                       Itawamba
                                                                             Quitman

                                                                                   Tallahatchie                     Yalobusha
                                                                                                                                                Calhoun                 Chickasaw
                                                                                                                      327
                                                                                      226                                                        232                      278                Monroe
                                                                                                                                                                                                          456
                                                                                                                      346
                                     Bolivar   436                                                   Grenada
                                                                                                                                                  Webster
                                                                                                                                                                          Clay
                                                             350                                                                                                                    253
                                                                                                                      Montgomery
                                                                                788                                                          156
                                                         Sunflower                                                                                                                                        Lowndes
                                                                                                                                                                          Oktibbeha
                                                                            Leflore           Carroll   212                      576                                         2,180                     1,159
                                                                                                                                                   144
                                           627
                                                                                                                                                      Choctaw
                                                             Humphreys
                                       Washington                                                                                                                  Winston

                                                                                   Holmes
                                                                                              339
                                                                 60
                                                                                                                      Attala      351                               247              Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                    189
                                               Sharkey




      ­
                                                                                                                                                            Neshoba
                              Issaquena        67            Yazoo         241                                           Leake     340                                           Kemper       189
                                    16
                                                                                                                                                              472

                                                                          Madison     6,340

                                                                                                                         Scott     426             Newton                                  1,280
                                                                                                                                                              340
                                                 487
                                                                                                                                                                                          Lauderdale
                                            Warren       Hinds                              Rankin
                                                                 4,589                               7,863


                                           161                                                                                 Smith                Jasper    388
                                                                                                                                                                                 Clarke    318
                              Claiborne
                                                                                                                                       253
                                                                                              Simpson     289
                                                          Copiah      312

                        Jefferson   165                                                                                        Covington
                                                                                                                                                                              Wayne       267
                                                                                                                                 393             Jones    905
                                                            Lincoln                         191               210
                                                                      483                                     Jefferson Davis
            Adams 209           Franklin   169                                           Lawrence




                                                                                                                                    Lamar
                                                                                                                                                                     Perry
                                                                                                      Marion   436                 1,155                                            Greene    162
          Wilkinson   216             Amite      272               Pike   559                                                                      2,359             191
                                                                                        300                                                         Forrest
                                                                                            Walthall




     Legend                                                                                                                                                                       George     463
                                                                                                                                                    Stone     537
                                                                                                                                3,817
     Census Bureau Housing Estimates                                                                                      Pearl River

     Change 2000 to 2006 Housing Units
                                                                                                                                                                                 Jackson    2,953
                                                                                                                                       Hancock              -1,531
              -1,531                                                                                                                                         Harrison
                                                                                                                                   1,667
              -1,530 - 351
              352 - 947                                                                                                                           0                 20                40
                                                                                                                                                                                       2,953                              80 Miles
                                                                                                                                                              -1,531 -1,531                               2,953
              948 - 2,359
              2,360 - 4,589
              4,590 - 7,863                      Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division
                                                              Release Date 2007
              7,864 - 14,336                                                                                                                                Prepared by: Judith Phillips 662.325.3329


Map 6: Mississippi Change in the Number of Housing Units from 2000 to 2006




                                                                                                                      23
                                      Housing Units Per Person 2006

                                                                                            DeSoto
                                                                                                       38.53                                                                             Alcorn 45.96
                                                                                                                                 Marshall             45.61
                                                                                                                                                       Benton            43.70                                     51.75
                                                                                                                                 39.71
                                                                                                                                                                           Tippah                                 Tishomingo
                                                                                             Tate
                                                                             42.66                      39.58                                                                                     43.57
                                                                    Tunica                                                                                                                        Prentiss

                                                                                                                                                        Union     41.18
                                                                                                                                  Lafayette
                                                                                            Panola                                                                                         Lee               Itawamba
                                                                                                       40.78                      45.36
                                                           Coahoma               42.72                                                                                                   41.59               43.92
                                                                                                                                                                 39.43
                                                           40.95                 Quitman                                                                         Pontotoc



                                                                                    Tallahatchie                 49.04                        Calhoun
                                                                                                                 Yalobusha                                               43.59
                                                                                      43.14                                                   48.82                                        Monroe
                                                                                                                                                                       Chickasaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                      44.53
                                               40.18
                                                Bolivar                                              Grenada
                                                                                                                 45.23
                                                                                                                                                                            42.82
                                                                                                                                     Webster 44.92                                  Clay
                                                              33.62
                                                           Sunflower                                                 Montgomery
                                                                                 41.66                                                                                    Oktibbeha
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lowndes
                                                                                 Leflore
                                                                                                        49.54          51.10                                                                          44.03
                                                                                             Carroll
                                                                                                                                                 Choctaw                    47.17
                                      Washington
                                                                                                                                                46.84
                                            43.17

                                                              40.43                                                                                                                              45.08
                                                              Humphreys
                                                                                  Holmes
                                                                                            42.18                   Attala    45.93                  Winston      44.34             Noxubee


                                                 Sharkey
                                                42.54
                                     49.58                     Yazoo      36.79                                                                           41.44




     ­
                                                                                                                       Leake    39.30                                           Kemper     46.85
                                                                                                                                                          Neshoba

                                             Issaquena
                                                                                 Madison    40.36
                                                                                                                                                              Newton                     Lauderdale
                                                     Warren
                                                                                                                       Scott    40.21                     42.95                           45.32
                                                43.23
                                                                                             Rankin
                                                           Hinds
                                                                    42.20                               39.15

                                                                                                                                 Smith
                                                                                                                                                 Jasper 44.44                   Clarke   47.88
                                            38.53                                                                                 45.59
                               Claiborne
                                                                                              Simpson    41.55
                                                           Copiah      39.15

                         Jefferson   43.48                                                                                   Covington

                                                                                           Lawrence                           41.58           Jones     41.80                  Wayne     44.32
                                                                                            43.81          46.40
                                                                       42.35                               Jefferson Davis
                     47.21       Franklin   52.01                      Lincoln
                      Adams


                                                                                                           Marion                 Lamar
                                                                                                           42.18                 35.96           42.38                                     39.11
         Wilkinson   52.15             Amite    50.04                   43.03              43.36                                                                   43.81                   Greene
                                                                          Pike                                                                      Forrest            Perry
                                                                                             Walthall




                                                                                                                                                                                 George    36.64
                                                                                                                                                 Stone    37.77
                                                                                                                             42.98
     Legend                                                                                                              Pearl River


                                                                                                                                                                                 Jackson   42.04
     U.S. Census Bureau                                                                                                            Hancock
                                                                                                                                                Harrison 45.79

                                                                                                                                 56.69
     Housing Units Per Person 2006
                33.62 - 40.43                                                                                                                   0                20
                                                                                                                                                              45.79 45.79 40
                                                                                                                                                                           42.04
                                                                                                                                                                                                       42.04
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 Miles
                40.44 - 44.03
                44.04 - 47.88
                47.89 - 56.69
                                            Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau Population and Housing Estimatates

                                            Note: Data for Mississippi Katrina Impacted Counties
                                                  is highly unreliable

Map 7: Mississippi Counties: Housing Units Per Person 2006




                                                                                                                      24
   Owner-occupied Housing Units - Vacancy Rate
            Mississippi Counties 2000
                                                                                                           1.9                                               Benton
                                                                                                                                                                                           Alcorn      2.3
                                                                                                DeSoto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                              2.2                1.4
                                                                                                                               Marshall   1.1                                                                               2.6
                                                                                                                                                                                 Tippah
                                                                                   1.3            Tate      1.1
                                                                                Tunica                                                                                                           Prentiss 1.2


                                                                                                                                                                Union      1.5
                                                                                                 Panola        1.4              Lafayette     2.1
                                                                                      1.6                                                                                                 Lee   1.5                2.1
                                                               1.8                                                                                            Pontotoc 1.3                                       Itawamba
                                                                                    Quitman
                                                              Coahoma


                                                                                                                             2.5                                             Chickasaw
                                                                                Tallahatchie                               Yalobusha
                                                                                               1.3                                                   2.7                         1.7                         1.7
                                                                                                                                                    Calhoun                                        Monroe
                                           Bolivar
                                                     0.9                                               Grenada         1.5
                                                                                                                                                                             Clay   1.2
                                                                     1.6
                                                               Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                Webster   1.5
                                                                                Leflore 1.7                                  Montgomery

                                                                                                               1.1               1.4                                                                  Lowndes   1.5
                                                                                                     Carroll                                                                        1.4
                                                                                                                                                          1.5                    Oktibbeha

                                              1.6                                                                                                          Choctaw




     ­
                                           Washington
                                                                   Humphreys

                                                                     0.7                 Holmes
                                                                                                     1.5                                                        Winston 1.7
                                                                                                                             Attala     1.7                                                Noxubee     1.6

                                                     Sharkey

                                                   1.0
                                                                   Yazoo          1.3
                                     1.8                                                                                                 1.1                                                       1.3
                                                                                                                                Leake                                0.8               Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                   Neshoba
                                             Issaquena
                                                                                         Madison     1.4


                                                                                                                                Scott    1.0              Newton     2.0            Lauderdale 2.1
                                                     1.5
                                                     Warren
                                                                 Hinds      1.9                      Rankin    1.5



                                                                                                                                                                     0.9               Clarke   3.6
                                              1.1
                                                                                                                                      Smith   1.2          Jasper
                               Claiborne
                                                                                                     Simpson     1.5
                                                                Copiah      1.4

                         Jefferson    0.8                                                                                          Covington

                                                                                                                                        0.9          Jones      1.1                 Wayne       1.2
                                                                                                  1.2                1.6
                                                                  Lincoln   1.4                                      Jefferson Davi
             Adams 1.3          Franklin      2.0                                               Lawrence




                                                                                                            Marion    1.6                     1.5                                         Greene   2.9
           Wilkinson   1.3                 Amite      1.3                Pike   1.8                                                                        1.8       Perry 1.0
                                                                                                1.8                                       Lamar           Forrest
                                                                                                 Walthall




      Legend                                                                                                                                                                            George     1.4
                                                                                                                                       1.7
                                                                                                                                                           Stone     1.8
      Owner Occupied Housing                                                                                             Pearl River


      Vacancy Rate 2000                                                                                                                                                                Jackson     1.5
                                                                                                                                                          Harrison   1.9
              0.7 - 0.9                                                                                                                   2.1
                                                                                                                                         Hancock
              1.0 - 1.2
                                                                                                                                                              Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 20000
                                                                                                                                                                     1.9         1.9             1.5
              1.3 - 1.5                                                                                                                                                                                         1.5
                                                                                                                                                              Prepared by: Judith Phillips
                                                                                                                                                                          phillips@sig.msstate.edu
              1.6 - 1.8                                                                                                                                                   662.325.3329

              1.9 - 2.3
              2.4 - 2.9
              3.0 - 3.6

Map 8: Mississippi Counties 2000: Owner Occupied Housing Vacancy Rates




                                                                                                                              25
   Renter-occupied Housing Units - Vacancy Rate
             Mississippi Counties 2000
                                                                                                           6.3                                               Benton
                                                                                                                                                                                           Alcorn    12.4
                                                                                                DeSoto
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                              10.1               9.5
                                                                                                                               Marshall   7.1                                                                            13.0
                                                                                                                                                                                 Tippah
                                                                                   5.8            Tate         3.8
                                                                                Tunica                                                                                                           Prentiss 9.9


                                                                                                                                                                 Union     7.8
                                                                                                 Panola        7.3             Lafayette 10.5

                                                                                      3.4                                                                                                 Lee 11.5                10.7
                                                               4.9                                                                                            Pontotoc 8.0                                       Itawamba
                                                                                    Quitman
                                                              Coahoma

                                                                                                                             11.5
                                                                                                                           Yalobusha                                         Chickasaw
                                                                                Tallahatchie
                                                                                               4.3                                                   7.0                         9.3                        12.3
                                                                                                                                                    Calhoun                                       Monroe
                                           Bolivar
                                                     4.9                                                Grenada        8.2
                                                                                                                                                                             Clay   7.7
                                                                     5.2
                                                               Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                Webster    5.4
                                                                                Leflore 6.7                                  Montgomery

                                                                                                               12.7              9.0                                                                Lowndes   9.4
                                                                                                     Carroll                                                                        8.3
                                                                                                                                                          12.2                   Oktibbeha

                                              8.1                                                                                                           Choctaw




     ­
                                           Washington
                                                                   Humphreys

                                                                     6.0                 Holmes
                                                                                                     3.5                                                         Winston 4.6
                                                                                                                             Attala     6.6                                                Noxubee     7.0

                                                     Sharkey

                                                   6.4
                                                                   Yazoo          7.1
                                     9.8                                                                                                 7.9                                                        5.2
                                                                                                                                Leake                                9.1               Kemper
                                                                                                                                                                   Neshoba
                                             Issaquena
                                                                                         Madison     4.5


                                                                                                                                Scott    6.8               Newton    9.9                         10.2
                                                     12.1                                                                                                                                    Lauderdale
                                                     Warren
                                                                Hinds      11.2                      Rankin     9.9



                                                                                                                                                                     6.4               Clarke    7.9
                                              8.5
                                                                                                                                      Smith   7.9          Jasper
                               Claiborne
                                                                                                     Simpson     7.8
                                                                Copiah      8.6

                         Jefferson    6.2                                                                                          Covington

                                                                                                                                       10.4          Jones       9.8                Wayne       13.7
                                                                                                  8.3                8.9
                                                                  Lincoln   8.3                                      Jefferson Davi
             Adams 7.4          Franklin      8.8                                               Lawrence




                                                                                                                                                                            Perry
                                                                                                           Marion 11.3                                                                    Greene 11.6
                       5.2                                                                                                                    8.4          10.0
           Wilkinson                       Amite      4.8                Pike   9.7             7.6                                                                         13.8
                                                                                                                                          Lamar            Forrest
                                                                                                 Walthall




      Legend                                                                                                                                                                           George    11.3
                                                                                                                                      11.5
                                                                                                                                                           Stone     11.8
      Renter Occupied Housing                                                                                                    Pearl River


      Rental Vacancy rate                                                                                                                                                              Jackson   10.1
                                                                                                                                                          Harrison 10.6
                                                                                                                                          Hancock
              3.4 - 5.4                                                                                                                   15.3
              5.5 - 6.8
                                                                                                                                                               Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 20000
                                                                                                                                                                     10.6        10.6           10.1
              6.9 - 8.0                                                                                                                                                                                         10.1
                                                                                                                                                               Prepared by: Judith Phillips
                                                                                                                                                                           phillips@sig.msstate.edu
              8.1 - 9.3                                                                                                                                                    662.325.3329

              9.4 - 10.7
              10.8 - 12.7
              12.8 - 15.3

Map 9: Mississippi Counties 2000: Renter-Occupied Housing Vacancy Rates




                                                                                                                              26
                                                      Poverty Rate 2005
                                                  by county, for all age groups
                                                                                             DeSoto        8.6                     Marshall
                                                                                                                                                           Benton
                                                                                                                                                                          Tippah
                                                                                                                                                                                            Alcorn   17.7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tishomingo
                                                                                                                                                           23.7           17.3
                                                                                                                                     23.0                                                                             16.7
                                                                                                Tate
                                                                                27.7                   15.9
                                                                       Tunica                                                                                                                          17.3
                                                                                                                                                                                            Prentiss

                                                                                                                                                            Union    13.5
                                                                                             Panola                        Lafayette
                                                                                                           24.6                          20.7
                                                                                                                                                                    Pontotoc          Lee
                                                             Coahoma                                                                                                                        17.5               15.6
                                                                                   33.8                                                                              14.5                                     Itawamba
                                                             40.4                Quitman


                                                                                       Tallahatchie                     23.9                    Calhoun                 Chickasaw
                                                                                         33.3                         Yalobusha
                                                                                                                                                   19.4                   22.2                Monroe    18.7
                                        Bolivar
                                                  36.7                                                 Grenada          21.6
                                                                                                                                                                        Clay
                                                                                                                                                                               25.2
                                                                 37.9                                                                      Webster
                                                                                                                                                     21.8
                                                             Sunflower                                                   Montgomery
                                                                                   36.5
                                                                                  Leflore
                                                                                                                            23.4                                                                Lowndes 21.0
                                                                                                 Carroll 18.4
                                                                                                                                                                               28.3
                                                                                                                                                     25.8                   Oktibbeha
                                            35.8                                                                                                       Choctaw
                                        Washington               Humphreys




    ­
                                                                                                                                                                     Winston
                                                                 38.9                  Holmes
                                                                                                 43.8                                                                                 Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                     32.2
                                                                                                                        Attala     23.1                               23.1

                                                   Sharkey

                                                38.4
                                                                                                                                                              Neshoba
                                  46.4                           Yazoo          33.7
                                                                                                                           Leake     22.5                       24.8            Kemper        24.8
                                             Issaquena
                                                                                   Madison       12.8


                                                                                                                           Scott     19.7            Newton 20.7                             20.6
                                                   18.4                                                                                                                                  Lauderdale
                                                  Warren      Hinds
                                                                         22.0                    Rankin     9.1


                                                                                                                                 Smith                                          Clarke
                                                                                                                                         17.8         Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                23.0                        20.0
                                Claiborne    34.7
                                                                                                  Simpson    21.3
                                                              Copiah     23.2

                          Jefferson   33.6                                                                                       Covington

                                                                                                                                   22.1            Jones    25.0
                                                                                                                                                                               Wayne     24.3
                       Adams
                                                                Lincoln 20.8                    18.9             30.1
                                                                                                                 Jefferson Davi
                   27.1          Franklin    21.7                                           Lawrence




                                                                                                       Marion 27.3                                                                 Greene 23.6
                                                                                                                                      12.4            27.7
           Wilkinson   36.8             Amite      21.4                Pike 30.3
                                                                                            25.5                                                                       21.6
                                                                                                                                      Lamar           Forrest          Perry
                                                                                                Walthall



      State Poverty Rate 2005: 21%                                                                                                                                               George      16.6
      Number of People (all ages) in poverty: 591,549
                                                                                                                                  22.5
                                                                                                                                                      Stone     17.5
       Legend                                                                                                                Pearl River


       2005 Poverty Rate                                                                                                                                                         Jackson      15.4
                                                                                                                                                     Harrison 16.1
                                                                                                                                         Hancock
                 8.6 - 13.5
                                                                                                                                      15.5
                 13.6 - 18.7
                                                                                                                                                           Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau Poverty Estimates 2005
                                                                                                                                                                                15.4
                                                                                                                                                                16.1        16.1                            15.4
                 18.8 - 22.2
                                                                                                                                                           Prepared by: Judith Phillips sig.msstate.edu
                 22.3 - 25.8                                                                                                                                           662.325.3329

                 25.9 - 30.3
                 30.4 - 38.9
                 39.0 - 46.4

Map 10: Mississippi Counties 2005: Poverty Rate for all Age Groups




                                                                                                                          27
               Change in Poverty Rate from 2000 to 2005
                     by county, for all age groups
                                                                                              DeSoto        1.5                                          Benton
                                                                                                                                                                             Tippah
                                                                                                                                                                                              Alcorn   1.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tishomingo
                                                                                                                            Marshall                        0.5               0.4
                                                                                                                                       1.1                                                                                 2.6
                                                                                               Tate
                                                                               -5.4                        2.4                                                                                 Prentiss
                                                                      Tunica                                                                                                                              0.8
                                                                                                                                                             Union      0.9
                                                                                              Panola                         Lafayette
                                                                                                           -0.7                            -0.6
                                                                Coahoma                                                                                                                 Lee
                                                                                                                                                                                               4.1                1.6
                                                            4.5                    0.7                                                                      Pontotoc
                                                                                                                                                                       0.7                                      Itawamba
                                                                                 Quitman


                                                                                                                          2.1                     Calhoun                Chickasaw
                                                                             Tallahatchie                               Yalobusha
                                                                                            1.1                                                    1.3                        2.2               Monroe      1.5
                                       Bolivar
                                                 3.4                                                Grenada
                                                                                                                    0.7
                                                                                                                                                                          Clay
                                                                                                                                                                                 1.7
                                                                  7.9                                                                       Webster
                                                                                                                                                      3.1
                                                            Sunflower                                                     Montgomery
                                                                             Leflore 1.7
                                                                                                                             -0.9                                                                 Lowndes -0.3
                                                                                                  Carroll   2.4                                                                  0.1
                                                                                                                                                      1.1                     Oktibbeha
                                            6.6                                                                                                        Choctaw
                                       Washington               Humphreys




    ­
                                                                                                                                                                       Winston
                                                                  0.7                 Holmes
                                                                                                  2.7                                                                                   Noxubee
                                                                                                                                                                                                     -0.6
                                                                                                                          Attala     1.3                               -0.6

                                                  Sharkey

                                               0.1
                                                                                                                                                               Neshoba
                                 13.2                           Yazoo          1.8
                                                                                                                             Leake    -0.8                       3.8                Kemper      -1.2
                                            Issaquena                                 Madison
                                                                                                  -1.2


                                                                                                                             Scott    -1.0            Newton     0.8                           -0.2
                                                  -0.3                                                                                                                                       Lauderdale
                                               Warren         Hinds                                         -0.4
                                                                         2.1                      Rankin




                                                                                                                                   Smith                                            Clarke
                                            2.3                                                                                            0.9         Jasper
                                                                                                                                                                 0.3                          -3.0
                               Claiborne
                                                                                                  Simpson     -0.3
                                                             Copiah      -1.9

                         Jefferson   -2.4                                                                                       Covington

                                                                                                                                     -1.4          Jones     5.2
                                                                                                                                                                                 Wayne       -1.1
                                                                                              -0.7                1.9
                                                               Lincoln   1.6                                      Jefferson Davi
             Adams 1.2          Franklin    -2.4                                             Lawrence




                                                                                                         Marion    2.5                 -0.9                                            Greene    4.0
           Wilkinson   -0.9            Amite      -1.2                Pike   5.0                                                                       5.2              -0.4
                                                                                             -2.3                                      Lamar          Forrest            Perry
                                                                                              Walthall




                                                                                                                                                                                     George     -0.1
                                                                                                                                     4.1
                                                                                                                                                       Stone     0.0
       Legend                                                                                                         Pearl River


       Change in Poverty Rate 2000 to 2005                                                                                                                                            Jackson    2.7
                                                                                                                                                      Harrison   1.5
                 -5.4 - -2.3                                                                                                             1.1
                                                                                                                                      Hancock
                 -2.2 - -0.6
                                                                                                                                                           Data Source: U.S. Census Bureau Poverty Estimates 2005
                                                                                                                                                                                 2.7
                                                                                                                                                                  1.5         1.5                               2.7
                 -0.5 - 0.5
                                                                                                                                                           Prepared by: Judith Phillips sig.msstate.edu
                 0.6 - 1.9                                                                                                                                             662.325.3329

                 2.0 - 3.8
                 3.9 - 7.9
                 8.0 - 13.2

Map 11: Mississippi Counties: Change in Poverty Rate from 2000 to 2005 for all age groups




                                                                                                                           28
29
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                                                                      Website: http://www.msgovt.org




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