Stress Management Coping Skills - PowerPoint

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					Coping and Stress
Management

George Ann Daniels,MS,
RN
                      Terms
   Stress
    – Complex phenomenon that is inherent to
      life
      • Human response
    – Coping
      • Process used to manage events that he/she
        encounters, perceives, or interprets as
        stressful
    – Adaptation
      • A person’s capacity to survive and to flourish
      • Outcome of coping, adjustments, change
    – Homeostatis
Characteristics of stress, coping
and adaptation
   Stress as a stimulus
    – Stressor
       • Event that causes a response
       • Triggers associated with work, relationships,
         disasters, trauma, injuries, illness, divorce,
         death, loss of job.
    – Stress as a response
       • Nonspecific response of the body to any
         demand upon it
       • Change or adaptation
    – Negative/positive stressors
Physiologic response to stress

   Nervous system
    – Central cortex ( thinking part of the brain)
      processes the stressful stimuli and relays
      this information via the limbic system to the
      hypothalamus=emotional response
    – Activation of sympathetic nervous system
       • Fight or flight response
   Endocrine/autonomic nervous system
    – Activation of these systems may alter the
      immune function
Psychologic response to stress

 Anxiety
 Fear
 Anger
 Depression
Cognitive manifestations

 Thinking response
 Problem solving
 Structuring
 Self-control
 Suppression
 Fantasy or day dreaming
 Prayer
Verbal and motor manifestation

 Crying
 Verbal abuse
 Screaming
 Hitting, kicking
 Holding, touching
 Laughing
Normal coping patterns
 Manage change, demands, and
  challenges
 Adaptations
 Coping mechanisms
    – Activities or measures for managing stress
      • Long term coping
      • Short term coping
 Defense mechanisms table 48-1
 Personalities
    – A or B
Lifespan
   Newborns/ infants
    – Reflex responses and associated stressors
      • Hungry infants will cry and the parents will
        response to stimuli and fed the infant
    – Totally dependent on the caregivers
   Toddler and Preschooler
    – Learning coping strategies for simple
      stressors
      • Not getting exactly what they want
    – Still dependent on caregivers for safety and
      limits (boundaries)
   Child
    – Experience stress outside the home
       • Classroom, interaction with other children and
         adults
    – Can identify stressors and reason with
      parents about how to cope.
    – Draw from past experiences
   Adolescents
    – Stressors
       Achieving emotional independence
       from parents, developing sexual
       identity, learning values and social
       responsibility
   Adulthood
    – Daily stressors
    – Draw on coping skills developed though life
      and learn new ones
    – Previous exposure to stressful situations may
      help
   Older adults
    – As a person ages, stress does not decrease.
       • Retirement, decline in physical energy, decrease
         in income, loss of family and friends, loss in
         functioning ability
Factors affecting coping patterns

   Diet
    – Poorly nourished person unprepared to
      handle stress
   Activity/exercise
    – Benefits of exercise on stress reduction
 Sleep/rest
 Safety/security
Manifestations of altered coping

 Addictive behaviors
 Physical illness
    – Overhead
 Anxiety/ depression
 Violent behavior
Assessment
   Subjective
    – Assess
       •   Physiologic stress
       •   Psychological stress
       •   Environmental stress
       •   Sociocultural stress
       •   Risk identification
   Objective
    – Cardiovascular, respiratory, GI, MS,
      integumentary
NDX

 Ineffective individual coping
 Goal
    – The client will identify sources of stress in
      his/her life.
    – The client will list effective coping
      mechanisms for stressful situations.
Interventions
   Health promotion
    – Reducing stress
    – Addressing perfection
    – Supportive internal messages
    – Assertiveness
      • Act in their best interest
    – Lifestyle change
    – Exercise
    – Relaxation techniques
    – Modifying the environment
 Crisis
 A state of psychological emergency
  rendering one’s usually effective problem
  solving skills useless or greatly
  diminished.
 Crisis interventions
    – Systematic application of problem-solving
      techniques, designed to help the client in
      crisis move through the crisis process swiftly
      and painlessly as possible and achieving at
      least the same level prior to crisis

				
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