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Punjabi ,?????? ,یباجنپPañjābī
Pakistan and India. Minor populations in UK, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, UAE, USA, Canada, Australia, France, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Punjabi is native to the Punjab region of South Asia Africa, Suriname, Guyana. Punjab
historical Punjab region (in Pakistan and India) and their diasporas. Speakers include adherents of the religions of Total 88,000,000 (Ethnologue 2005 estimate) Islam, Sikhism and Hinduism. speakers 57,129,000 (Encarta) According to the Ethnologue 2005 estimate, there Western Punjabi: 61–62 million, Eastern Punjabi 28 are 88 million native speakers of the Punjabi language, million (2000 WCD) which makes it approximately the 11th most widely Ranking 9-11 (varies with sources) spoken language in the world. According to the 2002 Language Indo-European Census of Pakistan, there are approximately 63 million family Indo-Iranian native speakers of Punjabi in Pakistan, and according to Indo-Aryan the Census of India, there are over 29 million Punjabi Punjabi speakers in India. Writing Shahmukhi in Punjab (Pakistan) Along with Lahnda and Western Pahari languages, system Gurmukhi in Punjab (India) and Sikh diaspora Punjabi is unusual among modern Indo-European lanDevanagari (mainly used by Hindus) guages in being a tonal language. Official status In his Linguistic Survey of India, the linguist George Abraham Grierson used the word "Punjabi" to refer to Official India several languages spoken in the Punjab region: the term language "Western Punjabi" (ISO 639-3 pnb) covered Saraiki, in while the term "Eastern Punjabi" referred to the lanRegulated No official regulation guage based on Majhi dialect (ISO 639-3 pan). The term by "Punjabi language" today generally refers to "Eastern Language codes Punjabi" i.e. the language based on the Majhi dialect of the historical region of Majha, which spans the Lahore, ISO 639-1 pa Sheikhupura, Kasur, Gujranwala, Sialkot and Narowal ISO 639-2 pan Districts of the Pakistani Province of Punjab and Amritsar District and Gurdaspur District of the Indian State of ISO 639-3 variously: pan – Punjabi (Eastern) Punjab. pnb – Punjabi (Western) Punjabi is a significant language for the Sikhs, and pmu – Punjabi (Mirpuri) Punjabi’s population of speakers is one of the greatest of the Indian subcontinent and indeed the world. The majority of Punjabi speakers live in Pakistan, where they This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning form about half of that country’s population, but the and a lack of conjuncts. More... language has no official status in Pakistan at all, and it is not much used as a written language there in comparison to Urdu. Punjabi or Panjabi (?????? in Shahmukhi script, (?????? in Gurmukhi script), (Pañjābī in transliteration) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the
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their mother tongues were Urdu and Hindi respectively. After the partition of India, the Punjab region was divided between Pakistan and India. Although the Punjab people formed the biggest linguistic group in Pakistan, Urdu was declared the national language of Pakistan, and Punjabi did not get any official status. The Indian Punjab, which then consisted of what are now Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, became Hindi-majority. In the 1960s, the Shiromani Akali Dal proposed "Punjabi Suba", a state for Punjabi speakers in India. Paul R. Brass, the Professor Emeritus of Political Science and South Asian Studies at the University of Washington, opines that the Sikh leader Fateh Singh tactically stressed the linguistic basis of the demand, while downplaying the religious basis for the demand -- a state where the distinct Sikh identity could be preserved. The movement for a Punjabi Suba led to trifurcation of Indian Punjab into three states: Punjab (India), Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language like many other modern languages of South Asia. The Punjabi language is a descendant of Sauraseni Prakrit, which was the chief language of medieval northern India Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th century from the Sauraseni Apabhramsa. The literary tradition in Punjabi started with Fariduddin Ganjshakar (Baba Farid)(1173-1266), many ancient Sufi mystics and later Guru Nanak Dev ji, the first Guru of the Sikhism. The early Punjabi literature was principally spiritual in nature and has had a very rich oral tradition. The poetry written by Sufi saints has been the folklore of the Punjab and is still sung with great love in any part of Punjab. Between 1600 and 1850, Muslim Sufi, Sikh and Hindu writers composed many works in Punjabi. The most famous Punjabi Sufi poet was Baba Bulleh Shah (1680 – 1757), (who born in Och (Bahawalpur) and Setteled in Kasoor) wrote in the Kafi style. He put Saraiki language Culture into the Punjabi Language. Bulleh Shah practiced the Sufi tradition of Punjabi poetry established by poets like Shah Hussain (1538 – 1599), Sultan Bahu (1629 – 1691), and Shah Sharaf (1640 – 1724). His lifespan also overlapped with the legendary Punjabi poet Waris Shah (1722 – 1798), of Heer Ranjha fame. Waris Shah’s rendition of the tragic love story of Heer Ranjha is among the most popular medieval Punjabi works. Other popular tragic love stories are Sohni Mahiwal, Mirza Sahiba and Sassi Punnun. Shah Mohammad’s Jangnama is another fine piece of poetry that gives an eyewitness account of the First Anglo-Sikh War that took place after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 languages with official status in India. It is the first official language of Punjab (India) and Union Territory State Chandigarh and the 2nd official language of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the provincial language of Punjab (Pakistan) the largest province of Pakistan. The famous Punjabi writers from Pakistan include: • Shareef Kunjahi • Mir Tanha Yousafi • Sanawar Chadhar • Alam Lohar • Abid Tamimi • Anwar Masood • Aatish • Shaista Nuzhat • Raja Muhammed Ahmed The famous Indian Punjabi poets in modern times are: • Prof. Mohan Singh • Amrita Pritam • Balwant Gargi • Shiv Kumar Batalvi • Dr Harjinder Singh Dilger
Association with the Sikhs
Punjabi is not the predominant language of the Sikh scriptures (which are written in several dialects, though in Gurumukhi script). A few portions of Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi dialects, but the book is interspersed with several other languages including old Hindi languages (such as Brajbhasha and Khariboli), Sanskrit and Persian. Guru Gobind Singh, the last Guru of the Sikhs composed Chandi di Var in Punjabi, although most of his works are composed in other languages like Braj bhasha and Persian. However, in the 20th century, the Punjabi-speaking Sikhs started attaching importance to the Punjabi written in the Gurumukhi script as a symbol of their distinct identity. The Punjabi identity was affected by the communal sentiments in the 20th century. Bhai Vir Singh, a major figure in the movement for the revival of Punjabi literary tradition, started insisting that the Punjabi language was the exclusive preserve of the Sikhs. The Muslim and Hindu Punjabis began to assert that
Punjabi is the most commonly spoken language of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as first language by over 44% of Pakistanis. Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in the country. Punjabis are dominant in key institutions such as Business, Agriculture, Industry, Government, Army, Navy, Air Force, and Police that is why about 70% of Pakistanis can understand or speak Punjabi. The Punjabis found in Pakistan are composed of various social groups, castes and economic groups. Muslim
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Rajputs, Jat, Gujjars, Gakhars, Khatri or Punjabi Shaikhs, Kambohs, Awans, and Arains, comprise the main tribes in the north, while Gilanis, Gardezis, Syeds and Quraishis are found in the south. There are Pashtun tribes like the Niazis and the lodhis, which are very much integrated into Punjabi village life. People in major urban areas have diverse origins, with many post-Islamic settlers tracing their origin to Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey, Arabia, and Central Asia. India Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 2% of Indians, esp. the followers of Sikhism. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and the shared state capital Chandigarh. It is one of the official languages of the state of Delhi and the second language of Haryana. The Punjabis found in India are composed of various ethnic groups, tribal groups, social groups (caste) and economic groups. Some major sub-groups of Punjabis in India include Ahirs, Arora, Bania, Bhatia, Brahmin, Gujjar, Kalals/Ahluwalias, Kambojs, Khatris, Lobanas, Jats, Rajputs, Saini, Sood and Tarkhan. Most of these groups can be further sub-divided into clans and family groups. Most of East Punjab’s Muslims (in today’s states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in Malerkotla, the only Muslim princely state among the seven that formed the erstwhile Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot, Kapurthala and Kalsia. See also: States of India by Punjabi speakers The Punjabi Diaspora Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom (where it is the second most commonly used language) and Canada, where in recent times Punjabi has grown fast and has now become the fourth most spoken language. Punjabi speaking countries (2005). • Pakistan: 63,000,000- The most commonly spoken language in Pakistan. • India: 29,109,672 - The 11th most commonly spoken language in India. • United Kingdom: 1,600,000- 2nd most common language in the UK. • Canada: 800,000- The 4th most common spoken language in Canada. • United Arab Emirates: 720,000. • United States: 700,000. • Saudi Arabia: 640,000. • Hong Kong: 270,000. • France: 180,000. • Australia: 120,000. • Malaysia: 100,000.
Dialects: linguistic classification
In Indo-Aryan dialectology generally, the presence of transitional dialects creates problems in assigning some dialects to one or another "language". However, over the last century there has usually been little disagreement when it comes to defining the core region of the Punjabi language. In modern India, the states are largely designed to encompass the territories of major languages with an established written standard. Thus Indian Punjab is the Punjabi language state (in fact, the neighboring state of Haryana, which was part of Punjab state in 1947, was split off from it because it is a Hindi speaking region). Some of its major urban centers are Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Patiala. In Pakistan, the Punjabi speaking territory spans the east-central districts of Punjab Province. Lahore, Rawalpindi, Faislabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Sialkot, Jhelum and Gujrat. Lahore the historic capital of Punjab is the largest Punjabi speaking city in the wolrd. Lahore has 86% native Punjabis of total population of the city. and Islamabad the Capital of Pakistan has 71% Native Punjabis of total population.
Major Punjabi dialects
Jhangochi or Rachnavi Jhangochi (???????) dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Jhangochi or Rachnavi is the oldest and most idiosyncretic dialect of the Punjabi. It is spoken throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Gujranwala district. It than runs down to Bahawalnagar and Chishtian araes, on the banks of river Sutlej. This entire area has almost the same traditions, customs and culture. The Jhangochi dialect of Punjabi has several aspects that set it apart from other Punjabi variants. This area has a great culture and heritage, especially literary heritage, as it is credited with the creation of the famous epic romance stories of Heer Ranjha and Mirza Sahiba. It is spoken in the Bar areas of Punjab, i.e. areas whose names are often suffixed with ’Bar’, for example Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar and also from Khanewal to Jhang includes Faisalabad and Chiniot.. Shahpuri perhaps differs from Punjabi This dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab. The Shahpuri language has been spoken by the people of the town Shahpur. This language has been spoken by the people of District Sargodha including Dera Chanpeer Shah, Khushab, Jhang, Mianwali, Attock, parts of Faisalabad (foremerly Lyallpur), parts of Dera
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Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalnagar, Chakwal, Mianwali, Sargodha, Khushab and Mandi Bahauddin districts.. Pothowari perhaps differs from Punjabi This dialect is spoken in north Pakistani Punjab. mainly The area where Pothowari is spoken extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan, Chakwal and Rawalpindi. [phr] 49,440 (2000 WCD). Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Bhimber. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Alternate names: Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari, Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Mirpuri. Pahari means ’hill language’ referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Lexical similarity 76% to 83% among varieties called ’Pahari’, ’Potwari’, and some called ’Hindko’ in Mansehra,Muzaffarabad, and Jammun. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, IndoAryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Hindko perhaps differs from Punjabi This dialect is spoken in north west Pakistani Punjab and NWFP mainly this dialect is spoken in districts of Peshawar, Attock, Nowshehra, Mansehra, Balakot, Abbotabad and Murree and the lower half of Neelum District and Muzafarabad.. Malwi Malwi Spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab. Main areas are Ludhiana, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur. Malwa is the southern and central part of present day Indian Punjab. Also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name. Doabi Doabi spoken in Indian Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialects is spoken between the rivers of Beas and Sutlej. It includes Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur districts. Pwadhi Powadh or Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from
that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj up to the Ghaggar river in the east, which separates the states of Punjab and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are the areas where the Puadhi language is spoken and the area itself is claimed as including from Pinjore, Kalka to Bangar area in Hisar district which includes even Nabha and Patiala in it. Punjabi University classification Punjabi University, Patiala, State of Punjab, India takes a very liberal definition of Punjabi in that it classifies Saraiki, Dogri, and Pothohari/Pothwari as Punjabi. Accordingly, the University has issued the following list of dialects of Punjabi: • Awankari • Baar di Boli • Banwali • Bhattiani • Bherochi • Chacchi • Chakwali • Chambiali • Chenavri • • • • • • • • • • Dhani Doabi Dogri Ghebi Gojri Hindko Jatki Jhangochi Kangri Kachi • • • • • • • • Lubanki Malwai Pahari Pothohari/Pindiwali Powadhi Punchi Rathi Swaen
• Thalochri • Wajeeraw
The "Lahnda" construct
The name "Punjab" means "5 waters" in Persian (panj ab) and refers to five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The historical Punjab gion, now divided between Pakistan and India, is defined physiograph ally by the Indus River and these five tributaries. The bulk of the Panja 3.5 rivers are located in Pakistan. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tr utary of another, the Sutlej River, and lies entirely in present day India well within the eastern half of historical Punjab. The British linguist George Abraham Grierson came to the conclus that a group of dialects known collectively as "western Punjabi" or Lahnda spoken north and west of the Punjab heartland, in the Indus va ley itself and on the lower reaches of the other four tributaries (exclud the Beas River), in fact constituted a language distinct from eastern or jurdga Punjabi. He christened this group of dialects "Lahindā" in a vol of the Language Survey of India (LSI) published in 1919.  He grouped "southern Lahnda" the dialects that are now recognized as multani or Saraiki. The northern Lahnda sub-Group has eveloved into Modern Panjistani (or pahiri/mirpur/pothoahri)and modern Hindko .Grierson tentatively identified the boundary between Punjabi and "Lahnda" as north-south line running from the Gujranwala District to the former Montgomery District (near the town on Sahiwal). This line lies well we of Lahore and within the boundary of Pakistan.
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English What are you doing? (masculine) What are you doing? (masculine to address female) How are you? Do you speak Punjabi? Where are you from? Pleased to meet you Majhi, Lahori/Amritsari Ki karda ae? Ki kardi aa? Pothohari Ka karne uo? Ka karani ay? Dogri Ke karde o? Ke karani ae?
Kangri Pahari Ke (kay) peya kare-nanh? Ke (kay) pai (payi) kareneenh? Tudda ke haal e (eh)? Punjabi uburne o? Kathe ne o? Tussan mil ke khushi thi. Tudda ke naanh ve? Mainda naanh ... eh Tudde gerayenh na ke naanh ve? Hanh Nainh Kuj mitha khaine o? Main tuhan pyar karenanh. Assi cinema gaye ayan. Manh kathe wanjnanh chainaa.
Ki haal hai, Tu Punjabi Bol laenda hai ?
Keh aal e?
ke aal a?
Punjabii bolne Punjabi bolde uo? o? Tus kudhr to o?
Tusin kidhar to ho?/ Tusi kidron Tusa kudhr aaye ho? nay aiyo?
Tuhanu mil ke bahut khushi hoyi Tusan milay Tusan nu militay boo khushi ye bahut khusi oye oyi Tuhada naam ki e? Mera naam ... e Tusan naa ke aa? Mara naa ... e Tusan da naa kay ai? Mera naa ... e
What’s your name? My name is ... What is your village’s name? Yes No Would you like (to eat) some sweets? I love you.
Tuhade pind/graan da naam ki Tusane graana Tusan da graan hai?/ Tuhada pind/graan kehda naa ke aa? kay aa? hai? Haan Nahin Mithaee lainee aa? / Mithaee Khaauge? Main tainu pyar kardaa Ahoo Naa Ah Naa
Mithaee Kaso? Mithaee khaani e? Mai tuki pyar karna Assa cinema gaye saa mai kudhar jaa Mai tusi pyar karna
We went to the Cinema Where should I go?
Assi Cinema gaye sige Mainu kitthe jana chahida hai?
In the aftermath of the independence of Pakistan and subsequent Par"western Panjabi" and "eastern Panjabi" has shifted since 1947 to coin tition of 1947, some investigators supposed that the Punjabi speakers in international border. cide with the new Pakistan might give up their native dialects and adopt one or another "Lahnda" dialect; but this did not occur. Most Punjabis Examples in Pakistan including Muslim migrants from East Punjab now speak the Lahnda dialect.
Classification by Ethnologue
Tone Punjabi has Because of the stature of Ethnologue as a widely accepted authority on three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured the identification and classification of dialects and languages, their diver- (or "voiced aspirate") series of consonants. Phoneticall the of the gent views of the geographical distribution and dialectal namingtones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can span over o syllable Punjabi language merit mention. They designate what tradition calls or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, m and low. "Punjabi" as "Eastern Punjabi" and they have implicitly adopted the belief A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in w (contradicted by other specialists) that the language border between initial position became tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables
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Vowels Front Close Near-close Close-mid Open eː ɛː Consonants Bilabial Nasal Plosive and Affricate voiceless voiceless aspirated voiced Fricative Flap Approximant ʋ m p pʰ b (f) Labiodental Dental/ Alveolar n t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ s (z) ɾ l ɽ ɭ j Retroflex ɳ ʈ ʈʰ ɖ Palatal ɲ ʧ ʧʰ ʤ (ʃ) ə ɑː oː ɔː iː Central
Velar ŋ k kʰ g
following it: ghoṛā [kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem final murmured consonant be• Punjabi Kashmiri Dictionary by Omkar N Koul and Rattan Lal Talashi. came voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh Language Department. 1998. Patiala: Pothohari [mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem medial murmured consonant which appeared(Nothern Lahnda,pahari or Modern panjistani) dictionary b Sharif Shad after a short vowel and before a long vowel became voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāṇā [məɡɑ̀ːɳɑ̀ː] "to be lit". Other syllables and words have mid tone. punjabi zalil
Grammar Writing system
• Languages of Pakistan • Languages of India • List of Indian languages by total speakers
There are several different scripts used for writing the Punjabi language, depending on the region and the dialect spoken, as well as the religion of  Ethnologue. 15th edition (2005). the speaker. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shah Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People. Encarta. mukhi and is essentially the same as the Urdu script. In the IndianS. N. Sridhar; Yamuna Kachru (2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridg  state of Punjab, Sikhs and others use the Gurmukhī script. Hindus, and those livUniversity Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780521781411. ing in neighbouring Indian states such as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh  Ethnologue. 15th edition (2005). sometimes use the Devanāgarī script. Shahmukhi and Gurmukhī scripts  According to statpak.gov.pk 44.15% of the Pakistani speaks Punja are the most commonly ones used for writing Punjabi and are considered This translates to approximately 63 million Punjabi natively. the official scripts of the language. speakers according to the 2002 census (Total population: 143
Notable authors Dictionaries
• • • • •
million).  Census of India, 2001  Barbara Lust, James Gair. Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages. Page 637. Walter de Gruyter, 1999. ISBN 9783110143881.    Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi Punjabi Dictionary English to Punjabi Dictionary  Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN Punjabi to English Dictionary Convert Punjabi word into English 9788125013419. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only ma Online translator English to Punjabi, or vice-versa South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There Punjabi Dictionary (Gurmukhi) Punjabi Kosh Free Windows based Punjabi->English->Punjabi does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about dictionary
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possible origin of Punjabi’s tone-language character but without anyTariq. 2006. The role of English in Pakistan with special • Rahman, final and convincing answer." reference to tolerance and militancy. In Amy Tsui et al., Language,  ^ Shackle 1970:240 policy, culture and identity in Asian contexts. Routledge. 219-240.  India’s culture through the ages by Mohan Lal Vidyarthi. Published by C. 1970. Punjabi in Lahore. Modern Asian Studies, 4(3):239-2 • Shackle, Tapeshwari Sahitya Mandir, 1952. Page 148: "From the apabhramsha online at JSTOR. Available of Sauraseni are derived Punjabi, Western Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujerati [sic]..."  National Communication and Language Policy in India By Baldev Raj • Bhatia, Tej. 1993. Punjabi : a cognitive-descriptive grammar. Routledge Nayar. Published by F. A. Praeger, 1969. Page 35. "...Sauraseni Series: Descriptive grammars. Aprabhramsa from which have emerged the modern Western Hindi • Gill H.S. [Harjit Singh] and Gleason, H.A. 1969. A reference gramma and Punjabi." Punjabi. Revised edition. Patiala, Punjab, India: Languages  The Sauraseni Pr?krit Language. "This Middle Indic language Deparmtent, Punjab University. originated in Mathura, and was the main language used in drama in • Shackle, Northern India in the medieval period. Two of its descendants are C. 1972. Punjabi. London: English Universities Press. Hindi and Punjabi."  Language India. Volume 5 : 12 December 2005. Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D. • Punjabi Primer - especially designed for those who know English  ^ Brass, Paul R. (2005). Language, Religion and Politics in North India. • Punjabi Software, Punjabi Language DVD, Punjabi Keyboard, Punja iUniverse. p. 326. ISBN 9780595343942. Magnetic, Alphabets, Punjabi Language and Grammar Books  The Adi Granth: Or The Holy Scriptures Of The Sikhs by Ernest • Panjabi learning resources Trumpp. 2004. ISBN 8121502446. • Help for  Punjabis Without Punjabi By Ishtiaq Ahmed. The News, 5/24/2008. transliteration • Yahoo in punjabi  Country Studies - Pakistan  "Punjabi Community". The United Kingdom Parliament. • Programme for indian languages • News, history, language  Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada-Indians Abroad-The • Punjabi lessons Times of India • Download punjabi folk-songs  Masica 1991:25 • Punjabi radio on-line  Burling 1970:chapter on India • and  "Majhi" is a word used with reference to many other placesPunjab radio • Virtual dialects in north India; these have nothing to do with the Majhi keyboard • Learn Punjabi Online dialect of Punjabi • Colloquial  Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language, Panjabi, partially available at Google Books. • Punjabi language history Literature and Culture • A Punjabi to Hindi Machine Translation System  ^ Masica 1991:20 • Learn Gurmukhi - Sound and Graphics  e.g., Shackle 1970:240, Panjabi University in India, see below • Intuitive predictive transliteration technology for Punjabi  Ethnologue country pages for Pakistan and India; page for Indo• Dulai, Narinder K. 1989. A Pedagogical Grammar of Punjabi. Patiala: Aryan languages Indian  Harjeet Singh Gill, "The Gurmukhi Script", p. 397. In Daniels and Institute of Language Studies. • Dulai, Narinder K. and Omkar N Koul 1980. Punjabi Phonetic Bright, The World’s Writing Systems. 1996. ReaderMysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. • Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala 1989. Modes of Address and Pronomin Usage in Punjabi. Mysore: Cenral Institute of Indian languages. • Koul, • Burling, Robbins. 1970. Man’s many voices. New York: Holt, RinehartOmkar N. and Madhu Bala 1992. Punjabi Language and Linguist An Annotated Bibliography. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Stud and Winston. • Koul, Omkar • Ethnologue. Indo-Aryan Classification of 219 languages that have been N. and Madhu Bala 2007. Punjabi Newspaper Reader. Springfield: assigned to the Indo-Aryan grouping of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Dunwoody Press. • Sukhvinder Singh 2006. Panjabi Phonology: A Sociolinguistic Study. De Indo-European languages. Indian Institute of Language Studies. • Ethnologue. Languages of India • http://www.punjabilearning.com/index.htm • Ethnologue. Languages of Pakistan • Grierson, George A. 1904-1928. Grierson’s Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta. • Masica, Colin. 1991. The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjabi_language" Categories: Languages of Pakistan, Languages of India, Punjabi culture, Punjabi language, Tonal languages
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