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Islamic Republic of Pakistan ‫ناتسکاپ ?یرو?مج یمالسا‬ Islāmī Jomhuri-ye Pākistān Declared Islamic republic 14 August 1947 23 March 1956

Area - Total Water (%)

803,940 km2 (36th) 340,403 sq mi 3.1 165,900,000[1] (6th) 132,352,279[2] 206/km2 (55th) 534/sq mi 2008 estimate $439.558 billion[3] $2,738[3] 2008 estimate $167.640 billion[3] $1,044[3] 30.6 (medium) ▲ 0.562 (medium) (139th[4]) Pakistani Rupee (Rs.) (PKR) PST (UTC+5) PDT (UTC+6) left .pk 92


State Emblem

Motto: ?????? ?????? ???? ???? Ittehad, Tanzim, Yaqeen-e-Muhkam (Urdu)
"Unity, Discipline and Faith"

Population - 2008 estimate - 1998 census - Density GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2002) HDI (2008) Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Drives on the Internet TLD

Anthem: "Qaumi Tarana"


33°40′N 73°10′E / 33.667°N 73.167°E / 33.667; 73.167

Calling code

Largest city Official languages Other languages Demonym Government President Prime Minister Chair of Senate House Speaker Chief Justice

Karachi Urdu, English Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Seraiki, Balochi Pakistani Semi-presidential federal democratic republic Asif Ali Zardari (PPP) Yousaf Raza Gillani (PPP) Farooq Hamid Naek (PPP) Fahmida Mirza (PPP) Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry from the British Empire

Formation - Independence

Pakistan (Urdu: ??????? Pākistān pronunciation ), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a South Asian country located in the mountainous region adjoining Central Asia and the Middle East.[5][6] It has a 1,046 kilometre (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south, and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, the Republic of India in the east and the People’s Republic of China in the far northeast.[7] Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. In recent times, Pakistan has been called part of the New Middle East.[8] The region forming modern Pakistan was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation and then, successively, recipient of ancient Vedic, Persian, Turco-Mongol, Indo-Greek and Islamic cultures. The area has witnessed invasions and/or settlement by the Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Afghans, Mongols and the British.[9] It was a part of British India during the British Raj


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from 1858 to 1947, until the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. When the Pakistan Movement for a state for Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League resulted in the independence and creation of the state of Pakistan, that comprised the provinces of Sindh, North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, Balochistan and East Bengal. With the adoption of its constitution in 1956, Pakistan became an Islamic republic. In 1971, a civil war in East Pakistan resulted in intervention from India and the subsequent independence of Bangladesh. Pakistan’s history has been characterized by periods of economic growth, military rule and political instability. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and has the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia. The country is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies. Pakistan is a founding member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Developing 8 Countries, G20 developing nations, Asia Cooperation Dialogue and the Economic Cooperation Organisation. It is also a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, World Trade Organisation, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, G33 developing countries, Group of 77 developing nations, major nonNATO ally of the United States and is a nuclear state.


"The Priest King" Wearing Sindhi Ajruk, ca. 2500 BC. National Museum, Karachi, Pakistan Patliputra. Also Emperor Harsha of Thanesar ruled present-day Pakistan for over half a century. However, in the medieval period, while the eastern provinces of Punjab and Sindh grew aligned with IndoIslamic civilisation, the western areas became culturally allied with the Iranian civilisation of Afghanistan and Iran.[14] The region served as crossroads of historic trade routes, including the Silk Road, and as a maritime entreport for the coastal trade between Mesopotamia and beyond up to Rome in the west and Malabar and beyond up to China in the east. The Indus Valley Civilisation collapsed in the middle of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which also extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Achaemenid Persian empire[15] around 543 BCE, Greek empire founded by Alexander the Great[16] in 326 BCE and the Mauryan empire there after. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab from 184 BCE, and reached its greatest extent under Menander, establishing the Greco-Buddhist period with advances in trade and culture. The city of Taxila (Takshashila) became a major centre of learning in ancient times—the remains of the city, located to the west of Islamabad, are one of the country’s major archaeological sites. The Rai Dynasty (c.489–632) of Sindh, at its zenith, ruled this region and the surrounding territories.

The name Pakistan, IPA: US [ˈpøkəˈstøn] BE [ˈpɑːkɪˈstɑːn], means Land of (the) Pure in Urdu and Persian (Farsi). In 1933 Choudhary Rahmat Ali wrote and published his pamphlet Now or Never, which contained the first usage of the term Pakistan.[10] The name represented the "thirty million Muslims of PAKISTAN, who live in the five Northern Units of British Raj — Punjab, North-West Frontier Province,(NWFP), Kashmir, Sindh, and Balochistan."[11] Since Wolpert cited in the reference was not a contemporary of Rahmat Ali, this etymology, at best a conjecture is disputed by many.

The Indus region, which covers much of Pakistan, was the site of several ancient cultures including the Neolithic era Mehrgarh and the Bronze era Indus Valley Civilisation (2500 BCE – 1500 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.[12] Waves of conquerors and migrants from the west—including Harappan, Indo-Aryan, Persian, Greek, Saka, Parthian, Kushan, Hephthalite, Afghan, Arab, Turkics and Mughal—settled in the region through out the centuries, influencing the locals and being absorbed among them.[13] Great ancient empires of the east—such as the Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas, Guptas, and the Palas—ruled these territories at different times from


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Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic Calendar), carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. The controversial division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal caused communal riots across India and Pakistan—millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India. Disputes arose over several princely states including Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir, whose Hindu ruler had acceded to India following an invasion by Pashtun tribal militias, leading to the First Kashmir War in 1948.

An engraving titled "Sepoy Indian troops dividing the spoils after their mutiny against British rule" gives a contemporary view of events from the British perspective. In 712 CE, the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim[17] conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab. The Pakistan government’s official chronology states that "its foundation was laid" as a result of this conquest.[18] This Arab and Islamic victory would set the stage for several successive Muslim empires in South Asia, including the Ghaznavid Empire, the Ghorid Kingdom, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam. The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early eighteenth century provided opportunities for the Afghans, Balochis and Sikhs to exercise control over large areas until the British East India Company[19] gained ascendancy over South Asia. The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Indian Mutiny, in 1857 was the region’s last major armed struggle against the British Raj, and it laid the foundations for the generally unarmed freedom struggle led by the Indian National Congress in the twentieth century. In the 1920s and 1930, a movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, and displaying commitment to ahimsa, or non-violence, millions of protesters engaged in mass campaigns of civil disobedience.[20] In early 1947, Britain announced the end of its rule in India. The All India Muslim League rose to popularity in the late 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of Muslims in politics. On 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal’s presidential address called for an autonomous "state in northwestern India for Indian Muslims, within the body politic of India."[21] Muhammad Ali Jinnah espoused the Two Nation Theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. In June 1947, the nationalist leaders of British India—including Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad on behalf of the Congress, Jinnah representing the Muslim League and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence. The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27

Governor General Jinnah delivering the opening address on 11 August 1947 to the new state of Pakistan. From 1947 to 1956, Pakistan was a Dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. It became a Republic in 1956, but the civilian rule was stalled by a coup d’état by General Ayub Khan, who was president during 1958–69, a period of internal instability and a second war with India in 1965. His successor, Yahya Khan (1969–71) had to deal with a devastating cyclone—which caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan—and also face a civil war in 1971. Economic grievances and political dissent in East Pakistan led to violent political tension and military repression that escalated into a civil war.[22] After nine months of guerrilla warfare between Pakistan Army and the Bengali Mukti Bahini militia backed by India, later Indian intervention escalated into the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and ultimately to the secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.[23]


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Government and politics
National Symbols of Pakistan Flag Emblem Anthem Animal Bird Flower Tree Juice Sport Dress

Flag of Pakistan Faith, Unity, Discipline Qaumi Tarana Markhor Chukar Jasmine Cedrus deodara Sugarcane juice Field hockey Shalwar Kameez

The two wings of Pakistan in 1970; East Pakistan separated from the West wing in 1971 as an independent Bangladesh. Civilian rule resumed in Pakistan from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, until he was deposed and later sentenced to death in 1979 by General Zia-ul-Haq, who became the country’s third military president. Zia introduced the Islamic Sharia legal code, which increased religious influences on the civil service and the military. With the death of President Zia in a plane crash in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan. Over the next decade, she fought for power with Nawaz Sharif as the country’s political and economic situation worsened. Pakistan got involved in the 1991 Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a U.S.-led coalition, specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.[24] Military tensions in the Kargil conflict[25] with India was followed by a Pakistani military coup d’état in 1999[26] in which General Pervez Musharraf assumed executive powers beyond human belief. In 2001, Musharraf became President after the controversial resignation of Rafiq Tarar. After the 2002 parliamentary elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to newly-elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 prime-ministerial election by Shaukat Aziz. On 15 November 2007 the National Assembly completed its tenure and new elections were called. The exiled political leaders Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif were permitted to return to Pakistan. However, the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in December during election campaign led to postponement of elections and nationwide riots. Bhutto’s Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the most number of seats in the elections held in February 2008 and its member Yousaf Raza Gillani was sworn in as Prime Minister.[27] On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharaff resigned from the presidency when faced with impeachment.[28]

The first Constitution of Pakistan was adopted in 1956, but was suspended in 1958 by General Ayub Khan. The Constitution of 1973—suspended in 1977, by Zia-ul-Haq, but re-instated in 1985—is the country’s most important document, laying the foundations of government.[13] Pakistan is a semi-presidential federal democratic republic with Islam as the state religion.[30] The bicameral legislature comprises a 100-member Senate and a 342-member National Assembly. The President is the Head of State and the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and is elected by an electoral college. The prime minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the National Assembly. Each province has a similar system of government with a directly elected Provincial Assembly in which the leader of the largest party or alliance becomes Chief Minister. Provincial Governors are appointed by the President.[30] The Pakistani military has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan’s history, with military presidents ruling from 1958–71, 1977–88 and from 1999–2008.[31] The leftist Pakistan Peoples Party, led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, won support after the loss of East Pakistan but was overthrown amidst riots in 1977.[32] Under the military rule of Muhammad Zia-ulHaq, during the 1980s, the anti-feudal, pro-Muhajir Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) was started by unorthodox and educated urban dwellers of Sindh and particularly Karachi. The 1990s were characterized by coalition politics dominated by the Pakistan Peoples Party and a rejuvenated Muslim League.[30] Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the latter of which Pakistan has used as a forum for Enlightened Moderation, a plan to promote a renaissance and enlightenment in the Muslim world.[30] Pakistan is also a member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Economic


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The third tier of government was composed of 26 divisions witfh two further tiers (districts and tehsils) administered directly from the provincial level. The divisions were abolished in 2001[41] and a new three-tiered system of local government came into effect comprising districts, tehsils and union councils with an elected body at each tier. There are currently 107 districts in Pakistan proper, each with several tehsils and union councils. The tribal areas comprise seven tribal agencies and six small frontier regions detached from neighbouring districts whilst Azad Kashmir comprises seven districts and Northern Areas comprises six districts.[42]

Prime Minister’s Secretariat, Islamabad Cooperation Organisation (ECO).[30] In the past, Pakistan has had mixed relations with the United States; in the early 1950s, Pakistan was the United States’ "most allied ally in Asia"[33] and a member of both the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO). During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s Pakistan was a major U.S. ally. But relations soured in the 1990s, when sanctions were imposed by the U.S. over Pakistan’s refusal to abandon its nuclear activities.[34] However, the 11 September 2001 attacks and the subsequent War on Terrorism led to an improvement in U.S.–Pakistan ties, especially after Pakistan ended its support of the Taliban regime in Kabul. This was evidenced by a major increase in American military aid, providing Pakistan $4 billion more in three years after the 9/11 attacks than before.[35] On 18 February 2008, Pakistan held its general elections after Benazir Bhutto’s assassination postponed the original date of 8 January 2008.[36] The Pakistan Peoples Party won the majority of the votes and formed an alliance with the Pakistan Muslim League (N). They nominated and elected Yousaf Raza Gilani as Prime Minister of Pakistan.[37] On 18 August 2008, Pervez Musharraf resigned as President of Pakistan amidst increasing calls for his impeachment.[38] In the presidential election that followed, Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan People’s Party won by a landslide majority and became President of Pakistan.[39] Part of Pakistan, namely the Malakand division and Swat Valley are now governed according to the principles of Sharia after Pakistani lawmakers approved the bill under pressure from the Taliban forces that had captured those areas.[40]

Provinces and territories of Pakistan Provinces: 1. Balochistan 2. North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) 3. Punjab 4. Sindh Territories: 5. Islamabad Capital Territory (IST) 6. Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 7. Azad Jammu and Kashmir (or simply Azad Kashmir)[7] (AJK) 8. Northern Areas (FANA)

• Balochistan and NWFP also have Provincially Administered Tribal Areas.[43](PATA)

The estimated population of Pakistan is 172,800,000,[1] making it the world’s sixth most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Russia. By the year 2020, the country’s population is expected to reach 208 million, owing to a relatively high growth rate.[44] Population projections for Pakistan are relatively difficult because of the differences in the accuracy of each census and the inconsistencies between various surveys related to the fertility rate, but it is likely that the rate of growth peaked in the 1980s and has since declined

Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, a capital territory and federally administered tribal areas. The government of Pakistan exercises de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of the disputed Kashmir region,[7] organized as two separate political entities (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas) also known as Pakhtunkhwa. [13]


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significantly.[45] Pakistan also has a high infant mortality rate of 70 per thousand births.[46]
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 City Karachi Lahore Faisalabad Rawalpindi Multan Hyderabad Gujranwala Peshawar Province Sindh Punjab Punjab Punjab Punjab Sindh Punjab NorthWest Frontier Balochistan Islamabad Capital Territory


9 10

Quetta Islamabad

5. Muhajirs (7.57%) 6. Balochis (3.57%) Cities by population (2009 estimation)[47] 7. Others (4.66%) Other languages include Aer, Badeshi, Bagri, Balti, BaPopulation Rank City Province Population teri, Bhaya, Brahui, Burushaski, Chilisso, Dameli, De12,827,927 11 Sargodha Punjab 586,922 hwari, Dhatki, Domaaki, Farsi (Dari), Gawar-Bati, Ghera, 6,936,563 12 Bahawalpur Punjab Goaria, Gowro, 530,438 Gujarati, Gujari, Gurgula, Hazaragi, Hindko (two varieties), Jadgali, Jandavra, Kabutra, Kach2,793,721 13 Sialkot Punjab 502,721 chi (Kutchi), Kalami, Kalasha, Kalkoti, Kamviri, Kashmiri, 1,933,933 14 SukkurKati, Khetrani, Khowar, Indus Kohistani, Koli (three variSindh 476,776 eties), Sindh Loarki, Marwari, Memoni, Od, Ormuri, Lasi, Karachi, Sindh 1,566,932 15 Larkana 435,817 Pahari-Potwari, Pakistan Sign Language, Palula 1 536 398 16 Shekhupura Punjab (Phalura), Sansi, 411,834Shina (two varieties), Torwali, Savi, Ushojo,Punjab Wakhi, Waneci, and Yidgha.[50] Some of Vaghri, 365,198 1,526,168 17 Jhang these are endangered languages with a relatively small 1,390,874 18 Mardan North340,898 number of speakers and others have hundreds of thouWest sands of speakers. Frontier Most of the languages belong to the Indo-Iranian 859,973 19 Rahim branch Punjab Indo-European family. Punjab Yar 340,810 of the Lahore, The exceptions are Khan Burushaski, which is a language isolate; Balti, which is 673,766 20 Gujrat Sino-TIbetan; and 328,512 which is Dravidian. Punjab Brahui, For more details, see languages of Pakistan.



Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is the largest in the country. Pakistan is the second-most populous Muslim-majority country[51] and also has the second-largest Shi’a population in the world.[52] About 95% of the Pakistanis are Muslim, of which nearly 85% are Sunni and 15% are Shi’a.[13] Although the two groups of Muslims usually coexist peacefully, sectarian violence occurs sporadically.[53] The religious breakup of the country is as follows [13]: • Islam 173,000,000 (95%) (nearly 85% are Sunni Muslims and 15% are Shi’a Muslims). • Hinduism 3,200,000 (1.85%) • Christianity 2,800,000 (1.6%) • Sikhs Around 20,000 (0.04%) • The remaining are Parsis, Ahmadis, Buddhists, Jews, Bahá’ís, and Animists (mainly the Kalasha of Chitral).[54]

Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan Pakistan is a multilingual country with more than sixty languages being spoken.[48] English is the official language of Pakistan and used in official business, government, and legal contacts,[13] while Urdu is the national language. Punjabi is the most commonly spoken language of Pakistan. The following are major languages spoken in Pakistan.[49] 1. Punjabis (44.15%) 2. Pashtuns (15.42%) 3. Sindhis (14.1%) 4. Seraikis (10.53%)


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The armed forces of Pakistan are an all-volunteer force and are the Sixth-largest in the world. The three main services are the Army, Navy and the Air Force, supported by a number of paramilitary forces which carry out internal security roles and border patrols. The National Command Authority is responsible for exercising employment and development control of all strategic nuclear forces and organizations.

K2 at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) is the second highest peak in the world

Pakistan Air Force personnel during a competition course. The Pakistan military first saw combat in the First Kashmir War, gaining control of what is now Pakistanadministered Kashmir. In 1961, the army repelled a major Afghan incursion on Pakistan’s western border.[55] Pakistan and India would be at war again in 1965 and in 1971. In 1973, the military quelled a Baloch nationalist uprising. During the Soviet-Afghan war, Pakistan shot down several intruding pro-Soviet Afghan aircraft and provided covert support to the Afghan mujahideen through the Inter-Services Intelligence agency. In 1999, Pakistan was involved in the Kargil conflict with India. Currently, the military is engaged in an armed conflict with extremist Islamic militants in the north-west of the country. The Pakistani armed forces are the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping efforts, with more than 10,000 personnel deployed in 2007.[56] In the past, Pakistani personnel have volunteered to serve alongside Arab forces in conflicts with Israel. Pakistan provided a military contingent to the U.N.-backed coalition in the first Gulf War.[57] Pakistan’s military employs armaments that include atomic weapons, mobile vehicle ballistic missile systems, laser communication systems, armored cars and tanks, and multi-role fighter/bomber jets.

A small lake near Lulusar Lake.

Mountain Peaks. located on the Indian tectonic plate and the western and northern regions on the Iranian plateau and Eurasian landplate. Apart from the 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) Arabian Sea coastline, Pakistan’s land borders total 6,774 kilometres—2,430 kilometres (1,509 mi) with Afghanistan to the northwest, 523 kilometres (325 mi) with China to the northeast, 2,912 kilometres (1,809 mi) with

Geography and climate
Pakistan covers 340,403 square miles (881,640 km2),[58] approximately equalling the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. Its eastern regions are


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Thar Desert and an expanse of alluvial plains, the Punjab and Sind, lie to the east. The 1,000-mile-long (1,609-km) Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea.[59] Pakistan has four seasons: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location.[60] Rainfall can vary radically from year to year, and successive patterns of flooding and drought are also not uncommon.[61]

Dudipat Lake

Flora and fauna
The national animal of Pakistan is Markhor and the national bird is Chukar, also known as Chakhoor in Urdu.[62] The wide variety of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows for a wide variety of wild animals and birds. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the northern mountains to deciduous trees such as the mulberry-type Shisham in the Sulaiman range in the south. The western hills have juniper and tamarisk as well as coarse grasses and scrub plants. Along the southern coast are mangrove forests which form much of the coastal wetlands.[63] In the south, there are crocodiles in the murky waters at the mouth of the Indus River whilst on the banks of the river, there are boars, deer, porcupines, and small rodents. In the sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are found jackals, hyenas, wild cats, panthers, and leopards while the clear blue skies abound with hawks, falcons, and eagles. In the southwestern deserts are rare Asiatic cheetahs. In the northern mountains are a variety of endangered animals including Marco Polo sheep, Urial sheep, Markhor and Ibex goats, black and brown Himalayan bears, and the rare Snow Leopard. During August 2006, Pakistan donated an orphaned snow leopard cub called Leo to USA.[64] Another rare species is the blind Indus River Dolphin of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh.[65] In recent years the number of wild animals being killed for fur and leather trading led to a new law banning the hunting of wild animals and birds and the establishment of several wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves.[66]

Ansoo Lake("Teardrop" Lake)

Satpara Lake India to the east and 909 kilometres (565 mi) with Iran to the southwest.[13] The northern and western highlands of Pakistan contain the towering Karakoram and Pamir mountain ranges, which include some of the world’s highest peaks: K2 (28,250 ft; 8,611 m) and Nanga Parbat (26,660 ft; 8,126 m). The Baluchistan Plateau lies to the west, and the

Despite being a very poor country in 1947, Pakistan’s economic growth rate was better than the global average during the subsequent four decades, but imprudent policies led to a slowdown in the late 1990s.[67] Recently, wide-ranging economic reforms have resulted in a


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GDP Rate of Growth 1951-2007 stronger economic outlook and accelerated growth especially in the manufacturing and financial services sectors.[67] Since the 1990s, there has been great improvement in the foreign exchange position and rapid growth in hard currency reserves.[67] The 2005 estimate of foreign debt was close to US$40 billion. However, this has decreased in recent years with assistance from the International Monetary Fund and significant debt-relief from the United States. Pakistan’s gross domestic product, as measured by purchasing power parity, is estimated to be US$475.4 billion[68] while its per capita income stands at $2,942.[68] The poverty rate in Pakistan is estimated to be between 23%[69] and 28%.[70] GDP growth was steady during the mid 2000s at a rate of 7%[71][72]; however, slowed down during the Economic crisis of 2008 to 4.7%.[13] A large inflation rate of 24.4% and a low savings rate, and other economic factors, continue to make it difficult to sustain a high growth rate.[73][74][75] The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural base to a strong service base. Agriculture now only accounts for roughly 20% of the GDP, while the service sector accounts for 53% of the GDP.[76] Significant foreign investments have been made in several areas including telecommunications, real estate and energy.[77][78] Other important industries include textiles (accounts almost 60 % of total GDP), food processing, chemicals manufacture, and the iron and steel industries.[79] Pakistan’s exports in 2008 amounted to $20.62 billion (USD).[13] Pakistan is a rapidly developing country[80][81][82]. However, the Economic crisis of 2008 led Pakistan to seek more than $100 billion in aid in order to avoid possible bankruptcy.[83][84]

Mango Orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Wheat Fields in Punjab, Pakistan of Punjab is Pakistan’s agricultural heartland. Grains constitute the most important food crops, with wheat, rice, corn, and citrus the major products. Cotton, the most important cash crop, generates more foreign trade income than any other export item. Cotton production suffered in the late 1990s from leaf curl virus. In 2001/ 02, production totaled 8.3 million bales. Rice, sugarcane, tobacco, rapeseed, and mustard are also large export earners. Rice covers 11% of all cropland—production in 2001/02 totaled 3.88 million tons. The introduction of improved wheat and rice varieties has met with some success, although the greatest impact on agriculture has derived from the Indus basin irrigation schemes, which by the 1970s had provided Pakistan with the largest irrigated network in the world.[85] Pakistan’s principal natural resources are arable land and water. About 25% of Pakistan’s total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia. Agriculture accounts for about 23% of GDP and employs about 44% of the labor force. Pakistan is one of the world’s largest producers and suppliers of the following according to the 2005

Agriculture in Pakistan
Agriculture engaged 44% of the economically active population in 1999. Agricultural production increased by an annual average of 4.4% during 1990–2000, accounting for 26% of GDP in 2001. The development of a huge irrigation network covering two-thirds of the total cultivated area—together with massive land reclamation projects—has made possible the farming of vast tracts of previously barren and unusable land. The Indus Valley


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Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations and FAOSTAT given here with ranking: • Chickpea (2nd) • Apricot (4th) • Cotton (4th) • Sugarcane (4th) • Milk (5th) • Onion (5th) • Date Palm (6th) • Mango (7th) • Tangerines, mandarin orange, clementine (8th) • Rice (8th) • Wheat (9th) • Oranges (10th) Pakistan ranks fifth in the Muslim world and twentieth worldwide in farm output. It is the world’s fifth largest milk producer.


Main Campus of Iqra University

Fishery plays an important role in the national economy. It provides employment to about 400,000 fishermen directly. In addition, another 500,000 people are employed in ancillary industries. It is also a major source of export earning. In July-May 2002-03 fish and fishery products valued at US $117 million were exported from Pakistan. Federal Government is responsible for fishery of Exclusive Economic Zone of Pakistan. The major fish harbours of Pakistan are: • Karachi Fisheries Harbour is being operated by Provincial Government of Sindh. • Karachi Fish Harbour handles about 90% of fish and seafood catch in Pakistan and 95% of fish and seafood exports from Pakistan. • Korangi Fish Harbour is being managed by Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. • Pasni Fish Harbour being operated by Provincial Government of Balochistan. • Gwadar Fish Harbour being operated by Federal Ministry of Communication. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.18,290 million in 2005 thus registering over 10% growth since 2000. [2]

National Defence University Building

Islamia College University, Peshawar students choose to take the O level and A level exams, which are administered by the British Council,[87] in place of government exams. There are currently 730 technical & vocational institutions in Pakistan.[88] The minimum qualifications to enter male vocational institutions, is the completion of grade 8. The programmes are generally two to three years in length. The minimum qualifications to enter female vocational institutions, is the completion of grade 5.[89] All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments. The federal

Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and advanced degrees.[86] Pakistan also has a parallel secondary school education system in private schools, which is based upon the curriculum set by the University of Cambridge. Some


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University of the Punjab

Cloth market in Karachi

National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences Karachi Campus government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research. English medium education is to be extended, on a phased basis, to all schools across the country.[90] Through various educational reforms, by the year 2015, the ministry of education expects to attain 100% enrolment levels amongst primary school aged children, and a literacy rate of 86% amongst people aged over 10.[91] Pakistan also has madrassahs that provide free education and also offer free boarding and lodging to students who come mainly from the poorer strata of society. [92] After criticism over terrorists using them for recruiting purposes, efforts have been made to regulate them by including modern disciplines such as English, science, mathematics, economics, and computer science.

A sitar workshop in Islamabad

An example of modern day Pakistani architecture in Karachi traditional joint family system.[94] Recent decades have seen the emergence of a middle class in cities like Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, and Peshawar that wish to move in a more liberal direction,[95] as opposed to the northwestern regions bordering Afghanistan that remain highly conservative and dominated by centuries-old regional tribal customs. Increasing

Society and Culture
Pakistani society is largely hierarchical, with high regard for traditional family values, although urban families have grown into a nuclear family system because of the socio-economic constraints imposed by the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium[99] B.C., an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large structural facilities, some of which survive to this day.[100] Mohenjo Daro, Harappa and Kot Diji belong to the pre-Islamic era settlements. The rise of Buddhism and the Persian and Greek influence led to the development of the Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of this era was reached with the culmination of the Gandhara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in the northwest province. The arrival of Islam in today’s Pakistan meant a sudden end of Buddhist architecture.[101] However, a smooth transition to predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture occurred. The most important of the few completely discovered buildings of Persian style is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era design elements of Islamic-Persian architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of the Hindustani art. Lahore, occasional residence of Mughal rulers, exhibits a multiplicity of important buildings from the empire, among them the Badshahi mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, still strongly Persian seeming Wazir Khan Mosque as well as numerous other mosques and mausoleums. Also the Shahjahan Mosque of Thatta in Sindh originates from the epoch of the Mughals. In the British colonial period, predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures like the Faisal Mosque, the Minar-e-Pakistan and the Mazar-e-Quaid. The literature of Pakistan covers the literatures of languages spread throughout the country, namely Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pushto, Baluchi as well as English[102] in recent times and in the past often Persian as well. Prior to the 19th century, the literature mainly consisted of lyric poetry and religious, mystical and popular materials. During the colonial age the native literary figures, under the influence of the western literature of realism, took up increasingly different topics and telling forms. Today, short stories enjoy a special popularity.[103] The national poet of Pakistan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, suggested the creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. His book The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam is a major work of modern Islamic philosophy. The most well-known representative of the contemporary Urdu literature of Pakistan is Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Sufi poetry Shah Abdul Latif, Bulleh Shah and Khawaja Farid are also very popular in Pakistan.[104] Mirza Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose.[105]

Muhammad Iqbal, the national poet of Pakistan globalization has increased the influence of "Western culture" with Pakistan ranking 46th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.[96] The variety of Pakistani music ranges from diverse provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern forms fusing traditional and western music, such as the synchronisation of Qawwali and western music by the world renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan. In addition Pakistan is home to many famous folk singers such as the late Alam Lohar, who is also well known in Indian Punjab. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has rekindled Pashto and Persian music and established Peshawar as a hub for Afghan musicians and a distribution centre for Afghan music abroad.[97] State-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation were the dominant media outlets, but there are now numerous private television channels. Various American, European, and Asian television channels and films are available to the majority of the Pakistani population via private Television Networks, cable, and satellite television. There are also small indigenous film industries based in Lahore and Peshawar (often referred to as Lollywood). And while Bollywood films have been banned from being played in public cinemas since 1965 they have remained popular in popular culture. [98] The architecture of the areas now constituting Pakistan can be designated to four distinct periods — pre-Islamic, Islamic, colonial and post-colonial. With the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gregorian Date variable variable variable variable January 1 March 23 May 1 August 14 November 9 December 25 English The Tenth Day Day of the Sacrifice Birth of the Prophet Muhammad End of month of Ramadan New Year’s Day Pakistan Day Labor Day Independence Day Birthday of Muhammad Iqbal Birthday of Muhammad Ali Jinnah Arabic/Urdu Ashura Eid ul-Adha Eid Milad an Nabi Eid ul-Fitr Ra’s as-Sana al-meladiah Yom-e-Pakistan Yom-e-Karigar Yum-e-Azadi Yum-e-Iqbal Yom-e-Viladat-e-Quaid-eAzam

Islamic Date

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The Lahore Fort, rebuilt by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1566. become a source of income for the local people. Majority of the tourists are from other Asian countries. The northern parts of Pakistan are the site of several historical fortresses, towers and other architecture. Including the Hunza and Chitral valleys, the latter being home to the Kalash, a small pre-Islamic Animist community.[109] Punjab is also the site of Alexander’s battle on the Jhelum River. The historic city of Lahore is considered Pakistan’s cultural center and has many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort.[110] The PTDC also helps promote tourism in the country.[111] However, tourism is still limited because of the lack of proper infrastructure and the worsening security situation in the country. The recent militancy in Pakistan’s scenic sites including Swat and NWFP has given a massive blow to the tourism industry.[112] Much of the trouble is also being blamed on

The site of Pakistan National Monument in Islamabad. Despite having a huge image-problem around the world and sometimes described as one of the most dangerous countries in the world,[106] tourism is still a growing industry in Pakistan because of its diverse cultures, peoples and landscapes.[107] The variety of attractions range from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, that attract those interested in field and winter sports. Pakistan also has several mountain peaks over 7,000 metres (22,970 ft) that attract adventurers and mountaineers from around the world, especially to K2.[108] Starting in April to September, domestic and international tourists visit these areas helping tourism


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
the frail travel, tourism regulatory framework, low prioritization of the tourism industry by the government, low effectiveness of marketing and a constricted tourism perception.[113]

Field hockey and Polo are the national sports of Pakistan, however cricket is the most popular sports and is played throughout Pakistan[114]. Over recent years there has been an increase in sporting activity in Pakistan, with Pakistani sportsmen and women participating at many national and international events. Also, more international tournaments now take place in Pakistan. The size of the teams Pakistan sends, and the number of events they participate in the Olympic and Commonwealth Games has increased since the turn of the century. Money is now being placed into sports, and many of the federations are now managed by people who are trying to push Pakistani sportsmen and women forward. International tournaments are now hosted in the country, and the nation now sends sportsmen and women to compete abroad. There have also been restructuring of national tournaments, and new facilities and equipment being provided. This has seen overall results improve.


Cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan

See also
• Index of Pakistan-related articles • Outline of Pakistan

[1] [2]

[3] Field hockey match against India




Polo is regarded as a traditional sport and played widely in the northern areas


^ "Population Reference Bureau: 2008 Data Sheet". Retrieved on 2009-03-17. "Area, Population, Density and Urban/Rural Proportion by Administrative Units". Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. area_pop/area_pop.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. ^ "Pakistan". International Monetary Fund. weodata/ weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1 Retrieved on 2009-04-22. "2008 HDI Statistical Update". UNDP. country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_PAK.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-22. "Pakistan". Encarta Encyclopedia. Pakistan.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-22. "Pakistan". Middle East Institute. countries.php?name=pakistan. Retrieved on 2009-02-22. ^ The Kashmir region is claimed by both India and Pakistan. Both countries and China separately administer parts of the region with the Indian and Pakistani-held areas defined by the Line of Control. Pakistan refers to Azad Kashmir and the Northern


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Areas as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir(POK), while India refers to Jammu and Kashmir as Indian Occupied Kashmir. The United States’ new backyard. by Alain Gresh. Le Monde diplomatique. November 2007. Pakistan "Pakistan". InfoPlease. 2/hi/south_asia/4032997.stm Pakistan. Retrieved on 2009-02-22. Choudhary Rahmat Ali (28 January 1933). "Now or never: Are we to live or perish for ever?". Columbia University. 00islamlinks/txt_rahmatali_1933.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-04. Wolpert, Stanley A. (1984). Jinnah of Pakistan. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195034120. Minnesota State University page on Mohenjo-Daro ^ "Pakistan". World Factbook. CIA. library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. Wright, John W. (1997). Universal Almanac. New York: Andrews & McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0836221877. Jona Lendering. "Achaemenids". aa-ac/achaemenians/achaemenians.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. "Plutarch’s Life of Alexander". Plutarch/Lives/Alexander*/8.html#ref98. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. "Infinity Foundation’s translation of the Chach-Nama". ECITChachnamaframeset.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. "History in Chronological Order". Government of Pakistan. "A Country Study: Pakistan". Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley Limited. 1997. pp. p. 455. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4. "Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s 1930 Presidential Address". Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal. 00islamlinks/txt_iqbal_1930.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. "1971 war summary". BBC. 2002. hi/english/static/in_depth/south_asia/2002/ india_pakistan/timeline/1971.stm. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. "US Country Studies article on the Bangladesh War". U.S. Library of Congress. bangladesh/17.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. "The 1991 Gulf war". San Francisco Chronicle. 2002-09-24. 09/24/MN168392.DTL. Retrieved on 2009-03-16. "India launches Kashmir air attack". BBC News. 1999-05-26. south_asia/352995.stm. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.


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[62] "Basic Facts". Pakistan Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. [63] "Conservation of Mangrove Forests in the Coastal Areas of Sindh and Balochistan". WWF Pakistan. Retrieved on 2009-03-17. [64] "Leo the snow leopard is US-bound". BBC News. 2006-08-09. south_asia/4776031.stm. Retrieved on 2008-08-05. [65] Paul Massicot (2006-06-21). "Animal Info:Indus River Dolphin". platmino.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-17. [66] "Pakistan Wildlife". Wildlife Sanctuaries of Pakistan. wildlifesanctuarygamereservesmap.htm. Retrieved on 2009-03-12. [67] ^ "Economy". Pakistan Trade Development Authority. Retrieved on 2009-03-08. [68] ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (PPP)". International Monetary Fund. October 2007. weodata/ weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2007&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1 [69] "WB, UNDP question poverty estimates". Dawn Group of Newspapers. 2006-06-20. 06/20/top1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. [70] "Pakistan: People". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. [71] "7% growth achieved in FY 05–06". Daily Times of Pakistan. 2006-12-01. default.asp?page=2006\12\01\story_1-12-2006_pg5_4. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. [72] "Pakistan Economy Registers 7% Growth Rate for 4th Consecutive Year". Pakistan Times. 2007-06-02. business1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. [73] John Wall. "Concluding Remarks at the Pakistan Development Forum 2006". World Bank. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. [74] "Country-by-Country Growth and Forecasts". Asian Development Bank. 2006/9638-regional-GDP-table/. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. [75] "View: Is GDP growth sustainable?". Daily Times Newspaper. 2006-05-01. default.asp?page=2006%5C05%5C01%5Cstory_1-5-2006_pg3_5. Retrieved on 2006-02-12. [76] "Sectoral Share in Gross Domestic Product". national_accounts/table13.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-03-17. [77] "FDI to touch $7 billion by year-end: SBP governor". Daily Times of Pakistan. 2007-04-01.


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default.asp?page=2007\04\01\story_1-4-2007_pg5_2. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. "Foreign investment to reach $7 billion during current fiscal: Governor SBP". Pak Tribune. 2007-04-01. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. "Pakistan Industry". Nations Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2009-03-17. "GCC investments in Pakistan and future trends". Gulf Research Center. 2007-01-03. index.php?m=araa&lang=en&id=2126. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. "Quid Pro Quo 45 – Tales of Success" (PDF). Muslim Commercial Bank of Pakistan. 2007-09-19. Quid%20Pro%20Quo%2045%20Tales%20of%20Success.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. "Pakistan steels itself for sell-offs". BBC News. 2006-06-01. Retrieved on 2008-02-12. Isambard Wilkinson (2008-10-06). "Pakistan facing bankruptcy - Telegraph". finance/financetopics/financialcrisis/3147266/Pakistanfacing-bankruptcy.html. Con Coughlin (2008-10-10). "If Pakistan goes bust, the Taliban will rule the roost there as well - Telegraph". opinion/2008/10/10/do1003.xml. "Diagnostic Report" (PDF). Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan. Pakistan_diag_report.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. "GCE O and A level exams in Pakistan". The British Council. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. "Medium Term Development framework 2005-10" (PDF). Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. Structure of Pakistani Education. World Education Services. Retrieved on 10 February 2008 "Ministry of Education". Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. "National Plan of Action". Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan. npamain.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. "PAKISTANI MADRASSAHS: A BALANCED VIEW". International Crisis Group. ~envprog/madrassah.html#_ftn8. Retrieved on 2009-02-21.

[93] Synovitz, Ron. "Pakistan: Despite Reform Plan, Few Changes Seen At Most Radical Madrassahs". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. article/1051650.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. [94] "Pakistan- Language, Religion, Culture, Customs and Etiquette". Kwint Essential. Retrieved on 2009-03-17. [95] Beinart, Peter. "Understate". The New Republic Online. 01 July 2002. [96] Kearney Foreign Policy Globalization Index [97] Tohid, Owais Music soothes extremism along troubled Afghan border. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved on 18 February 2008 [98] "Pakistan to show Bollywood film". BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-02-13. [99] Dehejia, Vidja South Asian Art and Culture. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved on 10 February 2008 [100] The Indus Valley And The Genesis Of South Asian Civilization [1] Retrieved on 6 February 2008 [101] Architecture in Pakistan: A Historical Overview. All Things Pakistan. Retrieved on 10 February 2008 [102] Shamsie, Muneeza Pakistani Writers in English: A Question of Identity. Sepia Mutiny. Retrieved on 9 February 2008 [103] Kamran, Gilani Pakistani Literature- Evolution & trends. The South Asian. Retrieved on 9 February 2008 [104] Shah Abdul Latif. Story of Pakistan. Retrieved on 9 February 2008 [105] Rahman, Mahmudur. "Renowned scholar of Sindh". DAWN newspaper. books/archive/011111/books5.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-09. [106] displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=10430237 [107] "Tourism in Pakistan". 2005-10-20. Retrieved on 2008-04-05. [108] "PTDC page on mountaineering". Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. 20061110014044/ mountain.html. [109] "Visiting". Empori Trade. countries-trading-profiles/pakistan/praticalinformation. Retrieved on 2009-03-19. [110] "Attack terrorises Lahore’s upscale commercial centre". Daily Times. 2009-03-04. default.asp?page=2009\03\04\story_4-3-2009_pg13_13. Retrieved on 2009-03-19. [111] "About PTDC". about_ptdc.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-19. [112] "Lanka-style policies sought to save Pakistan tourism". Daily Mirror. 2009-03-02.








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• Malik, Iftikhar H. Culture and customs of Pakistan. Greenwood Press. December 2005. ISBN 031333126X • Najim, Adil. Pakistan and Democracy. The News International Pakistan. 6 May 2004."Pakistan and Democracy". najam1.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-08-14. • Rooney, John. Shadows in the dark: A history of Christianity in Pakistan up to the 10th century. Christian Study Centre. January 1984. OCLC 12177250 • Rahman, Tariq.1996. Language and Politics in Pakistan Karachi: Oxford University Press. Reprinted several times, latest repr. 2006. • Rahman, Tariq .2002. Language, Ideology and Power: Language-learning Among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India Karachi: OUP. • Rahman, Tariq .2004. Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan Karachi: OUP, 2006 repr. • Sharif, Shuja. Musharraf’s Administration And Pakistan’s Economy. Contemporary Review. 31 March 2005. 129–134. • Wolpert, Stanley. Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, USA. May 1984. ISBN 0-19-503412-0. • Zakaria, Rafiq. The Man Who Divided India: An Insight into Jinnah’s Leadership and its Aftermath. Popular Prakashan. 2001. ISBN 81-7154-892-X • Statehood in South Asia • Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 10 (October 2004) • PAKISTAN TELEVISION (PTV) NEWS OF WEATHER REPORT.

Further reading
• Cohen, Stephen P. The Idea of Pakistan. The Brookings Institution. November 2004. ISBN 0-8157-1502-1. • Banuazizi, Ali and Weiner, Myron. The State, Religion, and Ethnic Politics: Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Syracuse University Press. August 1988. ISBN 0-8156-2448-4. • Halliday, Fred. State and Ideology in the Middle East and Pakistan. Monthly Review Pr. February 1998. ISBN 0-85345-734-4. • Hammond Incorporated. Hammond Greater Middle East Region: Including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Libya, and Turkey. American Map Corporation. August 2002. ISBN 0-8437-1827-7. • Hilton, Isabel. Letter from Pakistan: The Pashtun Code. The New Yorker. 3 December 2001.ISABEL HILTON (2001-12-03). "THE PASHTUN CODE". Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. web/20070227232337/ content/?011203fa_FACT1. • Insight Guides, Halliday, Tony and Ikram, Tahir. Insight Guide Pakistan. Apa Productions. January 1998. ISBN 0-88729-736-6. • Malik, Hafeez. Pakistan: Founders’ Aspirations and Today’s Realities. Oxford University Press, USA. May 2001. ISBN 0-19-579333-1. • Malik, Iftikhar H. Religious Minorities in Pakistan. Minority Rights Group International. September 2002. ISBN 1-897693-69-9.[3]

External links
• • • • • • • • • • Government of Pakistan The President of Pakistan The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Chief of State and Cabinet Members Pakistan entry at The World Factbook Pakistan at UCB Libraries GovPubs Pakistan at the Open Directory Project Wikimedia Atlas of Pakistan Pakistan travel guide from Wikitravel Pakistan, an external wiki

Retrieved from "" Categories: Pakistan, Developing 8 Countries member states, English-speaking countries and territories, Federal countries, Former British colonies, Iranian Plateau, Islamic republics, Members of the Commonwealth of Nations, Organization of the Islamic Conference members, South Asia, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation member states, States and territories established in 1947 This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 09:08 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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