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					                                   Lecture No. 11

                                       Access



1. General

A. Definition and Purpose
 Access is a Microsoft’s database.
 Access files have an *.mdb extension which presumably stands for Microsoft
   database.
 The symbol for Access is a key:



   A database is a collection of data that may include text, numbers, names, pictures,
    phone numbers, photographs, yes/no, true/false, pick-one from a collection facts that
    are related to a particular topic or purpose.
   Databases are certainly the most ubiquitous and often used computer products in this
    country. Credit card purchases, check writing, student grades, DMV records are all at
    their core databases.

B. Database Structure and Navigation
 A modern database contains more than data; it also includes objects. The six specific
   objects are: Tables, Queries, Forms, Reports, Pages, Macros and Modules. At a
   minimum a database must contain at least one table.
 The standard opening page of Access looks like this:
                           Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 2



   Unlike other commonly used computer products such as Word or Paint, the structure
    of a database is not intuitive. Basically the database creation process works like this:
    1.) a table is created with data of interest. 2.) A form may be created to facilitate the
    entry of data into the table. 3.) A report may be then generated to facilitate or fine-
    tune the data presentation. A table can exist without either a form or report, but the
    converse is not true, i.e. you can NOT create a report or form or anything else without
    a table. There may be but there is not necessarily a one to one correspondence
    between table/form/report. On the other hand, a single table could generate a number
    of forms and reports. More practiced users would then easily slip into queries and
    perhaps macros and modules. A database then is not just a table (all though it may be)
    but a collection of tables, forms and other object inputs.
   The table is a collection or rows and columns. A field is a single unit or column of
    information. For example all the first names would constitute a field, as would all the
    phone numbers. A record is a set of all the fields in a row; that would be the first
    name AND last name AND phone AND… A record consisting of fields is the basic
    unit of complete information in a database.
   A typical table looks like this:




   Since Access is a Microsoft product operating under some incarnation of Windows,
    all the Windows-type environmental factors have been handled for you and the menus
    and keystrokes that you are familiar with in Work or Excel will have a similar or the
    exact same result in Access. In other words, you do not have to worry about fonts or
    printing and Ctrl-A still selects everything and Ctrl-Home will take you home.
   Another database aberration is the necessity to save. There isn’t any. A record is
    saved automatically at it is created. Some items must be actively saved but the not
    basic unit of databases, the record.
   It is the intent of these notes to create product as quickly as possible. The basic
    product consists of a table, a form and the concomitant report.

C. Topics and Learning Approach
 These notes are directed at beginning and intermediary users. If the student
   understands this level material she will be equipped for advanced self-study.
 These notes emphasis production. The concept is to make a database immediately and
   then begin making it better.
 The learning approach will be to use the most basic tools and then slide into
   creational tools such as “wizards” which greatly facilitate the process. As a longtime
   programmer and computer product user, it has been my experience that true learning
   comes with a holistic understanding of basic structure. Although the learning curve is
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 3

    steeper up front, the eventual dividends are enormous if one is forced to deal with
    non-routine situations, errors or permutations of the basic product all of which are
    inevitable.
   These notes will emphasis databases of particular interest to students and their
    professors: a student census and home inventory.


2. The Basic Database From Scratch
   Run Access and you are presented with an initial screen as follows:




   Since we are doing the basic scenario pick the first choice “Blank Database” by
    clicking on its radio button.
   The next screen presents a “Create” button at the lower right and that’s the one we
    want. We have also chosen to name the product CE210.mdb.
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 4




   We are presented with the following:




   We will choose the third and last choice, “Create table by entering data” because it is
    the most fundamental. We will be using the design view and wizard latter on.
                           Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 5




   All that is left is to rename the columns and to fill the table in, so do it.
   Put the cursor in one first column, specifically in the first entry, i.e. “Field1” and from
    the menu select “Format” and then “Rename Column”, this will allow you to type a
    field of my choice which is LastName. Do the same for 2nd column except name that
    FirstName and the 3rd column type Phone.
   Fill in the table: with Susan Puz 2432; Jo Jones 8080 and Morgan Fupmeyer 9342
    and it will look just like the sample we previously saw on page 2. Note that the
    previous record is saved automatically as soon as a move to the next record. No need
    to File>Save. High-end CAD programs also save automatically.
   Naturally we want to save our work and we can hit the save icon which is a picture of
    as floppy disk or do it via the File>Save menu procedure. We are promoted for a
    name and Junk will do as well as any. When practicing I find Junk a convenient name
    to use as it leaves no doubt as to what is to be erased latter on.
   But then we get an usual dialog box as follows:




   The primary key is of utmost importance in a database; it is the one and very often on
    the only table entry which is unique to the record. We would not want John Jones to
    get an F grade when he really disserved an A, which the other John Jones (number 2)
    received. At Cal Poly that would be a PIN number; for many of us, it would be our
    social security number. Press Yes and the following modified version of our table
    appears:
                           Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 6




   Note that the first column ID has been added and that a * and (AutoNumber) have
    mysteriously appeared as well as the numbers 1, 2 and 3. If we were numbering our
    CD collection, 1,2,3… would be fine. For a great deal more sophisticated student
    population, we might want to change the primary key column to a PIN. Let’s leave it
    alone for now.
   At the risk of getting too fancy at this stage we might want to do one other thing and
    that is to sort the information. Highlight the LastName column and while holding
    down the shift key, highlight FirstName. Press the sort key AZ at the top of the
    menu and the following results:




   Note that Mr. Fupmeyer is now on top as is proper in an alphabetical sense anyway.
    Notice also that Mr. Fupmeyer’s correct first name and correct phone have traveled
    with him and so has the number 3 although ostensibly Mr. Fupmeyer is now first. Mr.
    Fupmeyer will always be number 3 even if Puz and Jones pass away and are
    eliminated from the database. We can return to the original order with
    Records>Remove Filter/Sort command from the main menu.
   We completed our first table except for some cleanup comments. There was a reason
    for placing the last name first, followed by the first name, followed by the middle
    initial, the latter not in this case. Access sorts from left to right in adjacent columns.
   A word on naming conventions. The field headings should be descriptive and
    straightforward such that real people might have a clue as to their meaning. LastName
    may be better than SurName or PrimaryAppellation or NomDeGuerre. Secondly,
    although spaces are permitted, it is a good (read programming) idea not to use them.
    If mushing multiple words is too Germanic for you, use an underscore,_. There are a
    number or naming conventions; now that you know that stick to letters and numbers
    and under 64 characters in length.

3. The Basic Form
   We do not need a Form for LastName, FirstName and Phone. We can just enter the
    information directly into the Table, which is perfectly legitimate. We would not have
    to add too many fields, however, before a form would proceed from “not needed” to
                           Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 7

    “that would be nice” to “we better do that” to “gotta have it” in direct proportion to
    the number of fields and their complexity.
   We need a table to make a form, but not the other way around.
   Bring up the basic datasheet and select Form on the left and we are presented with
    two choices: “Create form in Design view” and “Create form by using wizard”. This
    time we will take wizard by double clicking on it.




   We are presented with the following screen:




   We are interested in the Table:Junk. Note that if we had more than one table, we
    could select the appropriate one. In this case, we are interested in all four fields so we
    select all four. We could also have a table with 36 fields but perhaps only interested
    in gathering information on 6 or 7 fields.
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 8




   We select Columnar from the layout wizard and Standard from the style choice,
    which is the next screen. The way to experience different layouts and styles is to try
    them. Finally we are asked to Finish and to name the form and “junk” will do as
    always and we are presented with the following:




   The form is not particularly attractive but it beats the table in aesthetics and
    functionality and we can spruce it up with a minimum of effort. Note that we can
    review existing data as well as adding new records.
                           Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 9


4. The Basic Report




   Bring up the home page as ususal, but this time instead of Tables or Forms, select
    Report on the left and Create report by using wizard on the right. If all the defaults are
    accepted the following results:




   Note that the report wizard leads us through a plethora of choices including: Choice
    of tables and fields, ability to add grouping levels, ability to sort any field in any
    order, layout, orientation and style. The layout and orientation looks like this:
                           Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 10




   We can print it out. And we are finished the beginner stuff


5. Modifications
   The table/form/report are dynamically linked from the data point of view but they are
    not linked from a structural point of view. In other words, you can add and delete
    data at will (that’s what a database is all about) but the not the fields.
   If you add a record to the form it will appear in the table and report and vice versa.
    This is not surprising as it is the function of the form to facilitate data entry. Further,
    what would be the point of entering any data if it did not appear in the report.
   Watch out with dealing with the field headings a structural element. If we delete
    LastName, for example, we will not only get rid of the field name, but all the data it
    contains. If several thousand names were involved, such a deletion might be
    undesirable.
   Adding names is another story, a different problem. Assume, we wish to add
    addresses to the basic junk database. We could do so easily by gearing up the table
    and renaming the next vacant fields: address, city, state and zip. Next, we would fill
    in this information. Would this data then appear in the form and report? No. The form
    is set, forever, based on the original table and the new tabular headings are not
    transferred to the form.
   What if we want the modified tabular data to be reflected in the form? Rebuilt the
    form as previously described and create a new form, name it junk2. If you do not
    want a new form, name the new form junk, the old name and the new form will
    replace the old form. The same procedure holds true for the report as well; build a
    new report with a new name or build a new report and use the old name. In other
    words, if you change the basic structure, you need new forms and reports.
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 11


6. Fine Tuning Table Entries, Introduction to Table Design View

A. General
 As you may have discerned, the table and table view are pretty much the key to
   everything. Close whatever is going on such as forms and reports so that the only
   thing that is open is the basic Access screen:




   Select the table:junk and then the second icon on the top that looks like a ruler,
    triangle and pencil and says “Design” which is the design view and you get this:
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 12


   Note that you can toggle between the current Design view and the Datasheet view
    that we started with by clicking the first icon.
   The above is the heart and soul of the database. In this introductory session will
    perform two actions using the table design view: add fields and explore the field
    properties.
   A few observations concerning the above graphic are in order. Although we entered a
    single column, LastName, FirstName and Phone, the design view shows 2 additional
    columns, Data Type and Description. The data type for ID is AutoNumber the next
    two are Text and Phone is indicated as a Number. There are no entries in the
    description column. At the bottom of the form is a second table entitled Field
    Properties, which is showing two tabs: General and Lookup. There is actually a
    fourth, slim column at the extreme left. Next to ID there is a small key, blank, blank
    and then an arrow at the last entry. Where did all this come from and what does it
    mean? It was generated automatically way by when at the time that we first created
    the table. The meaning of the collective information is really a digest of what is going
    on under the hood of a database and we will explore the entries at length.

B. Adding Fields in the Design View
 We will add the following fields to demonstrate the procedure: address, city, state and
   zip code.
 We will add the following fields to demonstrate some advanced possibilities: Have a
   Nose to which will require a yes/no answer and Color Of Hair to which we will
   present the following choices: red, black, no, brown and purple. We can see
   immediately that these exercises were not copied from some erudite tome.
 The first entries are straightforward. Type address, city, state and zip in the Field
   Name column and accept Text in the Data Type column. That’s it and the process was
   even easier than our initial experience in which we renamed fields and so on.
 For HaveANose we will type it in as usual (as a single word to facilitate future
   programming) but when we tab over to the Data Type instead of accepting the Text
   option, open up the menu by clicking on the down arrow and select Yes/No.
 So far the table looks like this:
                         Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 13




   For ColorOfHair we will again click on the down arrow in the Data Type column and
    select Look Wizard…. The following choice is presented:




   The first choice will allow us to select a table or query, which is a very powerful
    choice, but we want to type in our hair colors, which is the second choice. Hit Next>
                            Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 14




   We called for 1 column and typed in the hair colors. We are then asked what we
    would like to call the field and ColorOfHair is the default and we just accept it and
    finally press Finish, which completes the entry. Save it.
   Toggle to the Datasheet view. Writing in Design view and checking in datasheet view
    is an efficient method for creating and checking code. It is a constant back and forth
    scenario. If you do not like using the first icon to toggle, you can use the view menu
    as follows:




   The last part of it looks like this:




   HaveANose contains a checkbox and ColorOfHair has a down arrow in the upper
    right when selected. Note that the arrow only appears when the cursor is in that box.
    Checking the nose box will make an  appear in it and means the person has a nose.
    An unchecked box would be strange. Depressing the arrow opens a selection box that
    presents the five choices that we typed in the previous step.
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 15




   With more items it may be desirable to have a Form to facilitate data entry. We go
    back to the basic access screen, select junk on the right and form on the left, select all
    the fields and Finish and we get:




   Let’s add one Record, Jane Smith with purple hair to prove that it works. When you
    finish a record go to the next one, which saves the previous one. Also the Datasheet
    view does not update on the fly. You usually have to go another view and return to
    the Dataview to see the update.

7. The Basic Query
   Queries allow us to extract data, but far more than that. Queries also allow us to do
    calculations, create new tables and to create data sources for forms and reports.
   In order to generate a Query, go to the basic database screen and choose Queries on
    the left and Create Query in design view which looks like this:
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 16




   The next box asks what fields we would like to query and notes that more than one
    table may be queried. Oh, really. Do you mean we can get all the people with black
    hair from 10 different databases? Yes. Possibilities are beginning to suggest
    themselves. In this case we choose Junk because it is the only table that we have
    created.




   Immediately after selection, we are presented with a drop box containing all the fields
    that we have previously created. We will select, ID, LastName, and ColorOfHair.
    Selection involves “picking up” the field with the cursor and dropping it to the table
    below. We also type in “Purple” under the ColorOfHair in the Criteria row. In short,
    we want to know everybody who has purple hair. We included ID and LastName to
    identify the purple-haired people-eaters. Purple hair is arbitrary, but hypothetically we
    could just as easily extracted, women, people with shoes sizes between 6 and 10, the
    population over 21 and on and on provided those fields exist to query. In a sense, the
    query is the real power of the database because it provides an opportunity to extract
    the exact data that we want.
                         Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 17




   And the results, named Query1, are:




   You can see Fupmeyer and Smith both have purple hair. Business is usually pretty
    adept at using information. Perhaps these two can share an experience on “Blind
    Date” or perhaps Clairol would like to approach them with hair care products or
    perhaps they would care to purchase additional accoutrements such as tongue studs or
    belly-button rings for the next Goth rave.
   Holistically, there are two aspects to a database: how do we enter data and secondly,
    how do we extract it. At this point we have reached a plateau, we know how to enter
    data via tables and forms and that the design view of tables is of paramount
    importance. We have used Reports and Queries for data extraction and presentation.

8. Table Design View
   Software often contains a key element, the successful use of which separates a casual
    user from someone who may be more interested in what is going on under the hood.
    In Excel that skill might mean writing equations, in Work it might involve the use of
    the overhead view, in Access a key element is an understanding of the Design View.
   I have arbitrarily typed a wine database. It was created by running Access and
    selecting “Create table in Design view”. The field names in the 1st column such as
    WineName, Vineyard and Vintage were simply typed in. The 2nd column, Data
    Type, was selected from a drop-down list which appears when the cursor is put in the
    2nd column and the resulting arrow that appears is clicked. The WineListID and
    AutoNumber were added by the program when you save the work and accept the
    primary key as we have done previously.
                         Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 18




      The top is fairly routine, the bottom, labeled “Field Properties” is where the action
       is.




A. Data Types
   When we place the cursor in Data Type column a combo down arrow appears. When
   opened, the following choices are presented:
                         Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 19


  Text: The default. Maximum of 255 (28, 1 byte)characters in length. Any word and
   numbers that are not to be used for calculations. Also which are descriptive such as
   phone numbers and zip codes.
 Memo: Large text entries up to 64K in length.
 Number: True numbers that would typically enter into calculations e.g. an inventory
   of wine bottles or the sum of dolls that have been sold.
 Date/Time: Dates and Times
 Currency: $ amounts.
 AutoNumber: A number that is assigned automatically and never changes again. It is
   unique to the database and is associated with the Primary Key which uniquely defines
   each record. Note the small key symbol in the first column next to WineListID. The
   autonumber may be incremental, 1, 2, 3,… for bottles of wine or it may be random as
   in PIN numbers or SSANs.
 Yes/No: A yes/no, true/false, on/off type answer.
 OLE Object: An OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) object such as a picture,
   sound, or text document.
 Hyperlink: Mac stuff and very nice. Used to jump around to objects in the same or
   another database, to Excel, PowerPoint or to HTML documents on the Net.
 Lookup Wizard…: A list of values that you supply as in ColorOfHair that we have
   previously used or a table or query that we have previously created.
   We will explore the properties of the some of the very common items like dates, zips
and phone numbers.

B. Adding Fields and Data Types
 The wine list table is very nice but fairly useless to someone who owns one bottle of
   Gallo red and another Thunderbird which is more or less white. So let’s add some
   useful information such as: zip, phone number and the date. After BottleSize, type in
   ZipCode, PhoneNo, and Date. For the Data Type both are text.

C. Defining Field Properties
    Once again, if we look below the three main columns of the table design view, the
lower section is labeled Field Properties and contains two tabs: General and Lookup.
Both of these will change depending upon the Data Type of the field that is
highlighted in the upper table. Nonetheless, there are general properties that we may
fruitfully discuss. In order of appearance:
    The new fields ZipCode and PhoneNo are just text for now but let us take a closer
look at the Date field. After typing in Date, move to the 2nd column, open up the list and
select Date/Time as the Data Type.
                         Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 20




        Move to the bottom “File Properties” and open up the first choice Format and you
are presented with the following:




    Pick one, say the Short Date: 6/19/1994. When’s the last time they updated this
stuff?
    If you had picked the more common Data Type called “Text” you would get
something slightly different:




   Note that in both cases, instructions and help are printed on the right.
                          Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 21


   Field Size: Maximum length of field. Defaults are 50 for text and Long Integer for
    numbers. Max is 255.
    Next, select the Date if not already selected move below to the Field Property section
    and click on the first entry “Format” and click on the arrow.
   Format: Define the appearance of data in a field. Select the Date field with the
    Date/Time Data Type and move the cursor to Format at which time the familiar down
    arrow appears. Open it up and the following appears:
   Decimal Places: The number of places to the right of the decimal in a numeric field.
    For a currency field, the number would typically be 2. If you put the cursor on the
    Decimal Places field property, and arrow will appear which when opened will list:
    auto, 0, 1, 2,… Auto will generate decimal places automatically.
   Input Mask: Let’s us define a pattern of data entry. The input mask for ZipCode is
    00000\-9999 which will allow you to type 9 straight numbers and have the program
    put in the dash. If we typed 917671225, we would get 91767-1225. The phone
    number mask is !\(999”)”000\-0000 and when we type in 9095551212, we get (909)
    555-1212. We might think that this is a small thing, but don’t tell it to the data entry
    person who might do several thousand of these numbers a day. By the way, I learned
    the masks in the time-honored way of stealing them from other databases. One of the
    best ways to learn code is to have the Wizard do it and then inspect the results.
   Caption: Allows us to define an alternative name for the fields. For example, might
    want to caption LastName as Last Name. Why bother?
   Default Value: This is the value that appears in the field when you bring up the entry
    material. The default for Text is an empty string which programmese for blank and 0
    for numbers and currency. =Date( ) will enter today’s date. =Now( ) will put the
    current date and time into the box automatically when a new record appears. Yes is
    true and No is false.
   Validation Rule: Allows us to create an expression that tests entry data and rejects
    faulty entries. >0 won’t allow negative numbers; Between 1 and 99 (inclusive) will
    only accept numbers in that range; 198 or –34 won’t happen. >=Date( ), no
    backdating; shame on you. We can see that this validation rule is going to go a long
    way to idiot-proofing our forms. Make the BottleSize between 1 and 100 with the
    concomitant validation text.
   Validation Text: Flashes a boxed error message on the screen when faulty data is
    entered. For example, The entry must be greater than zero or The number must be
    between 1 and 99 or No Backdating.
   Required: If Yes the field cannot be left blank.
   Indexed: If we click on the index box, the arrow with three choices will appear: No,
    Yes (Duplicates OK) and Yes (No Duplicates). Indexing speeds up sorting and
    searching but slows down everything else. Unless you have a database the size of
    Citicorp go for the indexing.
                         Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 22




D. The Lookup Tab

       We can use the Lookup tab to define a lookup field or choose the Wizard to do it
automatically. The values can be ones that we supply such as wine types (we previously
used color of hair) or may come from another table or query that we have previously
created. The Wine List Form shows the following table: Date Purchased in column 1,
Unit Price in column 2 and Quantity in the last column. The code in Lookup looks like
this:




    At this stage, let the Wizard do it. The code for ColorOfHair in which we entered the
values would be identical to the above except for the Row Source entry which would read
“red”, “black”, “no”, “brown”, “purple”.


E. The Modified Wine List
   Here is what we did:
 Added ZipCode as Text and added 00000\-9999 to the input mask.
 Added PhoneNo as Text and added !\(999")"000\-0000 to the input mask.
 Added Date as Date\Time and in Format: Short Date, Default Value: =Date( ), and
   under validation text: Must be in 12-Jun-98 Format.
 Under BottleSize added Default Value: 10, Validation Rule: Between 1 and 100 and
   under Validation Text: Must be between 1 and 100.
 Save it, close it and then open it and the following appears:
                        Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 23


     Note the default value for Mkt Value Per, Bottle Size and Date. The zip and
      phone were punched in without ( ) and --. Try entering 333 in the Bottle size or
      12/3/99 in the Date.
     Recall that the modified Wine List table items will not automatically be reflected
      in the old Wine List form and report. The Wine List form and report must be
      rebuild to contain the complete new package.


9. Creating Tables from Templates

     In Access, Select File>New and then select the Database tab. There are a dozen
      or so choices including Asset Tracking, Contact Management, Event Management
      and so on. I have arbitrarily chosen Contact Management and accepted the
      default title as well as the default choices and wound up with the following which
      is know as the switchboard:




     The choices speak for themselves but we can also bring up the associated
      database which looks like this:
                      Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 24




   Notice that the standard Create table… options are present, but directly beneath
    these are four tables: Call, Contact Types, Contacts and Switchboard Items.
   The Calls table looks like this:




   Not much in the table but don’t forget this is the setup or the structure, we have
    not added any data yet,
   The Design view for the same Calls table looks like this:
                     Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 25




   The gamut of information such as Forms and Reports are available as well as the
    basic tables. The Forms menu looks like this:




   The Contacts Form looks like this:
                      Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 26




   The point is simple: Existing templates provide a goldmine of tables, reports,
    forms, queries and so forth and make easily be exploited or form a base for future
    work.
                                             Lecture Nos. 11, Access, Page No. 27



LECTURE NO. 11 ........................................................................................................................................ 1

ACCESS ........................................................................................................................................................ 1

1. GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................ 1
    A.       DEFINITION AND PURPOSE ................................................................................................................ 1
    B.       DATABASE STRUCTURE AND NAVIGATION ....................................................................................... 1
    C.       TOPICS AND LEARNING APPROACH ................................................................................................... 2
2. THE BASIC DATABASE FROM SCRATCH ...................................................................................... 3

3. THE BASIC FORM ................................................................................................................................. 6

4. THE BASIC REPORT ............................................................................................................................. 9

5. MODIFICATIONS..................................................................................................................................10

6. FINE TUNING TABLE ENTRIES, INTRODUCTION TO TABLE DESIGN VIEW.....................11
    A. GENERAL ..............................................................................................................................................11
    B. ADDING FIELDS IN THE DESIGN VIEW ..............................................................................................12
7. THE BASIC QUERY ..............................................................................................................................15

8. TABLE DESIGN VIEW .........................................................................................................................17
    A. DATA TYPES .........................................................................................................................................18
    B. ADDING FIELDS AND DATA TYPES........................................................................................................19
    C. DEFINING FIELD PROPERTIES ...........................................................................................................19
    D. THE LOOKUP TAB .................................................................................................................................22
    E. THE MODIFIED WINE LIST ....................................................................................................................22
9. CREATING TABLES FROM TEMPLATES ......................................................................................23
............................................................................................. 22
     E. THE M ODIFIED W INE LIST .................................................................................................................................. 22
9. CREATING TAB LES FROM TEMPLATES ................................................................................................ 23

				
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