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Comparative Analysis of Science College Workplace Readiness Standards

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					                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                      Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                      ACT College Readiness Standards                                            Knowledge and Skills for                   National Science Education                Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                 for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy            University Success                         Standards                                 (PASS)                           Project

LIFE SCIENCE
                                                      The amount of life any environment
                                                      can support is limited by the
                                                      available energy, water, oxygen, and
                                                      minerals, and by the ability of
                                                      ecosystems to recycle the residue of
                                                      dead organic materials. Human
                                                      activities and technology can change
Ability to support                                    the flow and reduce the fertility of the
life                                                  land.
Ability to support                                                                               Understand the notion of habitats
life                                                                                             and their role in evolution.
                                                                                                                                            Evidence for one-celled forms of life--
                                                                                                                                            the bacteria--extends back more
                                                                                                                                            than 3.5 billion years. The evolution
                                                                                                                                            of life caused dramatic changes in
                                                                                                                                            the composition of the earth's
Ability to support                                                                                                                          atmosphere, which did not originally
life                                                                                                                                        contain oxygen.
                                                                                                 Know that multicellular organisms
                                                                                                 have a variety of specialized cells,
                                                                                                 tissues, organs, and organ systems
                                                                                                 that each perform specialized
                                                                                                 functions (e.g., digestion, respiration,
                                                                                                 circulation, excretion, movement,          The complexity and organization of
                                                                                                 control and coordination, protection       organisms accommodates the need
                                                                                                 from disease and reproduction).            for obtaining, transforming,
                                                                                                 Understand that the different organ        transporting, releasing, and
Characteristics of                                                                               systems are integrated to make a           eliminating the matter and energy
organisms                                                                                        functional organism.                       used to sustain the organism.
Characteristics of
organisms             Animal development and growth
Classification of
organisms             Taxonomy
                                                                                                 Know ways in which living things can
                                                                                                 be classified based on each
                                                                                                 organism's internal and external
Classification of                                                                                structure, their development, and
organisms                                                                                        relatedness of DNA sequence.
                                                                                                                                            Biological classifications are based
                                                                                                                                            on how organisms are related.
                                                                                                                                            Organisms are classified into a
                                                                                                                                            hierarchy of groups and subgroups
                                                                                                                                            based on similarities which reflect
                                                                                                                                            their evolutionary relationships.
Classification of                                                                                                                           Species is the most fundamental unit
organisms                                                                                                                                   of classification.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Classify organisms into distinct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        groups according to structural,
Classification of                                                                                                                                                                                                       cellular, biochemical, and genetic
organisms                                                                                                                                                                                                               characteristics
                                                      The degree of kinship between
                                                      organisms or species can be
                                                      estimated from the similarity of their     Know how DNA and protein
                                                      DNA sequences, which often closely         sequences are used to infer
Diversity and unity                                   matches their classification based on      evolutionary relationships among
among organisms                                       anatomical similarities.                   organisms.

                                                                                                                                            Living organisms have the capacity to
                                                                                                                                            produce populations of infinite size,
                                                                                                                                            but environments and resources are
                                                                                                                                            finite. This fundamental tension has                                        Analyze the effects of natural events
Diversity and unity                                                                                                                         profound effects on the interactions                                        and human activities on the earth's
among organisms                                                                                                                             between organisms.                                                          capacity to sustain biological diversity

                                                      The variation of organisms within a
                                                      species increases the likelihood that
                                                      at least some members of the
                                                      species will survive under changed
                                                      environmental conditions, and a
                                                      great diversity of species increases                                                  The great diversity of organisms is
                                                      the chance that at least some living                                                  the result of more than 3.5 billion
Diversity and unity                                   things will survive in the face of large                                              years of evolution that has filled
among organisms                                       changes in the environment.                                                           every available niche with life forms.




                                                                                                                                                                                                   * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic     1
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                         Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                      ACT College Readiness Standards                                              Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education                 Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                 for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy              University Success         Standards                                  (PASS)                           Project

                                                                                                                              The millions of different species of
                                                                                                                              plants, animals, and microorganisms
Diversity and unity                                                                                                           that live on earth today are related by
among organisms                                                                                                               descent from common ancestors.
                                                                                                                              The distribution and abundance of
                                                                                                                              organisms and populations in
                                                                                                                              ecosystems are limited by the
                                                                                                                              availability of matter and energy and
Diversity and unity                                                                                                           the ability of the ecosystem to
among organisms                                                                                                               recycle materials.

                                                                                                                              Changes in DNA (mutations) occur
                                                                                                                              spontaneously at low rates. Some of
                                                                                                                              these changes make no difference to
                                                      Some new gene combinations make                                         the organism, whereas others can
                                                      little difference, some can produce                                     change cells and organisms. Only
                                                      organisms with new and perhaps                                          mutations in germ cells can create
Genetic mutation                                      enhanced capabilities, and some can                                     the variation that changes an
and recombination                                     be deleterious.                                                         organism's offspring.

                                                      Gene mutations can be caused by
                                                      such things as radiation and
                                                      chemicals. When they occur in sex
                                                      cells, the mutations can be passed
                                                      on to offspring; if they occur in other
                                                      cells, they can be passed on to
                                                      descendant cells only. The
                                                      experiences an organism has during
                                                      its lifetime can affect its offspring only
Genetic mutation                                      if the genes in its own sex cells are
and recombination                                     changed by the experience.
                                                      The sorting and recombination of
                                                      genes in sexual reproduction results
                                                      in a great variety of possible gene
Genetic mutation                                      combinations from the offspring of
and recombination                                     any two parents.*
                                                      Gene mutation in a cell can result in
                                                      uncontrolled cell division, called
                                                      cancer. Exposure of cells to certain
                                                      chemicals and radiation increases
Genetic mutation                                      mutations and thus increases the
and recombination                                     chance of cancer.
Inter-dependence
of organisms      Ecology
                                                                                                                              Organisms both cooperate and
                                                                                                                              compete in ecosystems. The
                                                                                                                              interrelationships and
                                                                                                                              interdependencies of these
                                                                                                                              organisms may generate
Inter-dependence                                                                                                              ecosystems that are stable for
of organisms                                                                                                                  hundreds or thousands of years.
                                                                                                                                                                         Demonstrates knowledge and
Inter-dependence                                                                                                                                                         applied understand of behavior and
of organisms                                                                                                                                                             interdependence of organisms
Life cycles           Life cycles

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Identify and describe human life
                                                                                                                                                                                                              functions, and compare and contrast
                                                                                                                                                                                                              the structural and functional systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                              that regulate human group and
Life cycles                                                                                                                                                                                                   development, and maintain health


                                                                                                                              The energy for life primarily derives
                                                                                                                              from the sun. Plants capture energy
                                                                                                                              by absorbing light and using it to
                                                                                                                              form strong (covalent) chemical
                                                      The chemical elements that make                                         bonds between the atoms of carbon-
                                                      up the molecules of living things                                       containing (organic) molecules.
                                                      pass through food webs and are                                          These molecules can be used to
                                                      combined and recombined in                                              assemble larger molecules with                                                  Understand that individual organisms
                                                      different ways. At each link in a food                                  biological activity (including proteins,                                        use matter and energy for life
                                                      web, some energy is stored in newly                                     DNA, sugars, and fats). In addition,                                            processes, and explain how
                                                      made structures but much is                                             the energy stored in bonds between                                              organisms can sustain life by
                                                      dissipated into the environment as                                      the atoms (chemical energy) can be                                              obtaining, transporting, transforming,
Matter and energy                                     heat. Continual input of energy from                                    used as sources of energy for life                                              releasing, and eliminating matter and
in living systems                                     sunlight keeps the process going.                                       processes.                                                                      energy




                                                                                                                                                                                        * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    2
                                                                       Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                           Knowledge and Skills for                 National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy           University Success                       Standards                                (PASS)                           Project

                                                                                                                                        As matter and energy flows through
                                                                                                                                        different levels of organization of
                                                                                                                                        living systems--cells, organs,
                                                                                                                                        organisms, communities--and
                                                                                                                                        between living systems and the
                                                                                                                                        physical environment, chemical
                                                                                                                                        elements are recombined in different
                                                                                                                                        ways. Each recombination results in
                                                                                                                                        storage and dissipation of energy into
                                                                                                                                        the environment as heat. Matter and                                        Analyze systems, including the inputs
Matter and energy                                                                                                                       energy are conserved in each                                               and outputs of a system and its
in living systems                                                                                                                       change.*                                                                   subsystems
                                                                                                                                        The chemical bonds of food
                                                                                                                                        molecules contain energy. Energy is
                                                                                                                                        released when the bonds of food
                                                                                                                                        molecules are broken and new
                                                                                                                                        compounds with lower energy bonds
                                                                                                                                        are formed. Cells usually store this
                                                                                                                                        energy temporarily in phosphate
Matter and energy                                                                                                                       bonds of a small high-energy
in living systems                                                                                                                       compound called ATP.

                                                                                                                                        All matter tends toward more
                                                                                                                                        disorganized states. Living systems
                                                                                                                                        require a continuous input of energy
                                                                                                                                        to maintain their chemical and
                                                                                                                                        physical organizations. With death,
Matter and energy                                                                                                                       and the cessation of energy input,
in living systems                                                                                                                       living systems rapidly disintegrate.*
                                                                                                                                        Most of the cells in a human contain
                                                                                                                                        two copies of each of 22 different
                                                                                                                                        chromosomes. In addition, there is a
                                                                                                                                        pair of chromosomes that
                                                                                                                                        determines sex: a female contains
                                                                                                                                        two X chromosomes and a male
                                                                                                                                        contains one X and one Y
                                                                                                                                        chromosome. Transmission of
                                                                                                                                        genetic information to offspring
                                                                                                                                        occurs through egg and sperm cells
                                                                                         Understand Mendel's laws of                    that contain only one representative
                                                                                         heredity (e.g., genes and alleles;             from each chromosome pair. An
                                                                                         genotype versus phenotype;                     egg and a sperm unite to form a new
                                                                                         segregation and independent                    individual. The fact that the human
                                                                                         assortment; and dominant versus                body is formed from cells that
                                                                                         recessive traits). Understand how              contain two copies of each
                                                                                         Mendel's laws relate to the                    chromosome -- and therefore two
                                                                                         movement of chromosomes to                     copies of each gene -- explains
                                                     The information passed from parents gametes during meiosis and                     many features of human heredity,
Molecular basis of                                   to offspring is coded in DNA        understand the chromosomal basis               such as how variations that are
heredity             Genetics                        molecules.                          of sex determination.                          hidden in one generation can be
                                                                                                                                        In all organisms, the instructions for
                                                                                                                                        specifying the characteristics of the
                                                                                                                                        organism are carried in DNA, a large
                                                                                                                                        polymer formed from subunits of four
                                                                                                                                        kinds (A, G, C, and T). The chemical
                                                                                                                                        and structural properties of DNA
                                                                                                                                        explain how the genetic information
                                                     New heritable characteristics can         Know the chemical and structural         that underlies heredity is both
                                                     result from new combinations of           properties of DNA in heredity and        encoded in genes (as a string of
                                                     existing genes or from mutations of       protein synthesis (e.g., DNA             molecular "letters") and replicated
                                                     genes in reproductive cells. Changes      synthesis, transcription, translation;   (by a templating mechanism). Each
Molecular basis of                                   in other cells of an organism cannot      mRNA and the genetic code; and           DNA molecule in a cell forms a
heredity             Molecular basis of heredity     be passed on to the next generation.      effects of mutations).                   single chromosome.
                                                     Heritable characteristics can be
                                                     observed at molecular and whole-
                                                     organism levels-in structure,
                                                     chemistry, or behavior. These
                                                     characteristics strongly influence
                                                     what capabilities an organism will        Understand how recombinant DNA
                                                     have and how it will react, and           technology allows scientists to
Molecular basis of                                   therefore influence how likely it is to   analyze the structure and function of
heredity                                             survive and reproduce.                    genes.
                                                     Life on earth is thought to have
                                                     begun as simple, one-celled
                                                     organisms about 4 billion years ago.
                                                     During the first 2 billion years, only
                                                     single-cell microorganisms existed,
                                                     but once cells with nuclei developed
                                                     about a billion years ago,
Molecular basis of                                   increasingly complex multicellular
heredity             Origin of life                  organisms evolved.


                                                                                                                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   3
                                                                          Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                     Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                         Knowledge and Skills for                      National Science Education                Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success                                    Standards                                 (PASS)                           Project
                                                     The sorting and recombination of
                                                     genes in sexual reproduction results
                                                     in a great variety of possible gene
Molecular basis of                                   combinations from the offspring of
heredity                                             any two parents.*
                                                     Genes are segments of DNA
                                                     molecules. Inserting, deleting, or
                                                     substituting DNA segments can alter
                                                     genes. An altered gene may be
                                                     passed on to every cell that develops
                                                     from it. The resulting features may
                                                     help, harm, or have little or no effect
Molecular basis of                                   on the offspring's success in its
heredity                                             environment.

                                                        Evolution builds on what already
                                                        exists, so the more variety there is,                                             Species evolve over time. Evolution
                                                        the more there can be in the future.                                              is the consequence of the
                                                        But evolution does not necessitate                                                interactions of (1) the potential for a
                                                        long-term progress in some set                                                    species to increase its numbers, (2)
                                                        direction. Evolutionary changes            Understand the theory of evolution     the genetic variability of offspring due
                                                        appear to be like the growth of a          (e.g., the Earth's present-day life    to mutation and recombination of
                                                        bush: Some branches survive from           forms evolved from earlier, distinctly genes, (3) a finite supply of the
                                                        the beginning with little or no change,    different species). Know that genetic resources required for life, and (4)
Natural selection                                       many die out altogether, and others        change among individuals of            the ensuing selection by the               Demonstrates knowledge and
and biological                                          branch repeatedly, sometimes giving        populations is the raw material for    environment of those offspring better      applied understand of heredity and
evolution            Evolution                          rise to more complex organisms.            evolution of new forms.                able to survive and leave offspring.       biological evolution
                                                                                                                                          Natural selection and its evolutionary
                                                        The theory of natural selection                                                   consequences provide a scientific
                                                        provides a scientific explanation for      Understand the concept of natural      explanation for the fossil record of
                                                        the history of life on earth as            selection (differential survival and   ancient life forms, as well as for the
Natural selection                                       depicted in the fossil record and in       reproduction of chance inherited       striking molecular similarities            Demonstrates knowledge and
and biological                                          the similarities evident within the        variants, depending upon               observed among the diverse species         applied understand of natural
evolution                                               diversity of existing organisms.           environmental conditions).             of living organisms.                       selection and adaptation
                                                        Molecular evidence substantiates the
                                                        anatomical evidence for evolution
                                                        and provides additional detail about                                                                                                                              Investigate and examine the scientific
Natural selection                                       the sequence in which various lines                                                                                                                               evidence used to develop theories
and biological                                          of descent branched off from one                                                                                                                                  for evolution, speciation, adaptation,
evolution                                               another.                                                                                                                                                          and biological diversity
                                                        The basic idea of biological evolution
Natural selection                                       is that the earth's present-day
and biological                                          species developed from earlier,
evolution                                               distinctly different species.
                                                        Natural selection provides the
                                                        following mechanism for evolution:
                                                        Some variation in heritable
                                                        characteristics exists within every
                                                        species, some of these
                                                        characteristics give individuals an
                                                        advantage over others in surviving
                                                        and reproducing, and the
                                                        advantaged offspring, in turn, are
                                                        more likely than others to survive and
Natural selection                                       reproduce. The proportion of
and biological                                          individuals that have advantageous
evolution                                               characteristics will increase.
                                                        Natural selection leads to organisms
                                                        that are well suited for survival in
                                                        particular environments. Chance
                                                        alone can result in the persistence of
                                                        some heritable characteristics having
                                                        no survival or reproductive
                                                        advantage or disadvantage for the
Natural selection                                       organism. When an environment
and biological                                          changes, the survival value of some
evolution                                               inherited characteristics may change.

                                                        Like many complex systems,                                                                                                                                        Explain how organisms interact with
                                                        ecosystems tend to have cyclic                                                                                                                                    their environment and with other
                                                        fluctuations around a state of rough                                                                                                                              organisms, and compare and
                                                        equilibrium. In the long run, however,                                                                                                                            contrast the complex factor (biotic
                                                        ecosystems always change when                                                      Energy flows through ecosystems in                                             and abiotic) that affect living
                                                        climate changes or when one or                                                     one direction, from photosynthetic                                             organisms' interaction in biomes,
Populations and                                         more new species appear as a result                                                organisms to herbivores to                                                     ecosystems, communities, and
ecosystems                                              of migration or local evolution.                                                   carnivores and decomposers.                                                    populations

                                                        Human beings are part of the earth's
                                                        ecosystems. Human activities can,
Populations and                                         deliberately or inadvertently, alter the
ecosystems                                              equilibrium in ecosystems.


                                                                                                                                                                                                    * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    4
                                                                   Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                          Knowledge and Skills for                 National Science Education                Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy          University Success                       Standards                                 (PASS)                           Project

                                                  Ecosystems can be reasonably
                                                  stable over hundreds or thousands of
                                                  years. As any population of
                                                  organisms grows, it is held in check
                                                  by one or more environmental
                                                  factors: depletion of food or nesting
                                                  sites, increased loss to increased
                                                  numbers of predators, or parasites. If
                                                  a disaster such as flood or fire
                                                  occurs, the damaged ecosystem is
                                                  likely to recover in stages that
Populations and                                   eventually result in a system similar
ecosystems        Populations                     to the original one.

                                                                                                                                    Multicellular animals have nervous
                                                                                                                                    systems that generate behavior.
                                                                                                                                    Nervous systems are formed from
                                                                                                                                    specialized cells that conduct signals
                                                                                                                                    rapidly through the long cell
                                                                                                                                    extensions that make up nerves. The
                                                                                                                                    nerve cells communicate with each
                                                                                                                                    other by secreting specific excitatory
                                                                                                                                    and inhibitory molecules. In sense
                                                                                                                                    organs, specialized cells detect light,
                                                                                                                                    sound, and specific chemicals and
Regulation and                                                                                                                      enable animals to monitor what is
behavior          Animal behavior                                                                                                   going on in the world around them.
                                                                                                                                    Organisms have behavioral
                                                                                                                                    responses to internal changes and to
                                                                                                                                    external stimuli. Responses to
                                                                                                                                    external stimuli can result from
                                                                                                                                    interactions with the organism's own
                                                                                                                                    species and others, as well as
                                                                                                                                    environmental changes; these
                                                                                                                                    responses either can be innate or
                                                                                                                                    learned. The broad patterns of
                                                                                                                                    behavior exhibited by animals have
                                                                                                                                    evolved to ensure reproductive
                                                                                                                                    success. Animals often live in
                                                                                                                                    unpredictable environments, and so
                                                                                                                                    their behavior must be flexible
Regulation and                                                                                                                      enough to deal with uncertainty and
behavior                                                                                                                            change. Plants also respond to
                                                                                                                                    Like other aspects of an organism's
                                                                                                                                    biology, behaviors have evolved
                                                                                                                                    through natural selection. Behaviors
                                                                                                                                    often have an adaptive logic when
Regulation and                                                                                                                      viewed in terms of evolutionary
behavior                                                                                                                            principles.
                                                                                                                                    Behavioral biology has implications
                                                                                                                                    for humans, as it provides links to
Regulation and                                                                                                                      psychology, sociology, and
behavior                                                                                                                            anthropology.

                                                  The genetic information encoded in
                                                  DNA molecules provides instructions
                                                  for assembling protein molecules.
                                                  The code used is virtually the same
                                                  for all life forms. Before a cell
                                                  divides, the instructions are
                                                  duplicated so that each of the two
                                                  new cells gets all the necessary
Reproduction                                      information for carrying on.
                                                                                           Understand the processes of cell
                                                                                           division (mitosis and meiosis),
                                                                                           particularly as those processes relate
                                                                                           to production of new cells and to
                                                                                           passing on genetic information
Reproduction                                                                               between generations.




                                                                                                                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   5
                                                                     Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                       Knowledge and Skills for                   National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy       University Success                         Standards                                (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                                                     Cells can differentiate, and complex
                                                                                                                                     multicellular organisms are formed
                                                                                                                                     as a highly organized arrangement
                                                                                                                                     of differentiated cells. In the
                                                                                                                                     development of these multicellular
                                                                                                                                     organisms, the progeny from a single
                                                                                                                                     cell form an embryo in which the
                                                                                                                                     cells multiply and differentiate to
                                                                                                                                     form the many specialized cells,
                                                                                                                                     tissues and organs that comprise the
                                                                                                                                     final organism. This differentiation is
                                                                                                                                     regulated through the expression of
Reproduction                                                                                                                         different genes.
                                                                                                                                     Most cell functions involve chemical
                                                                                                                                     reactions. Food molecules taken into
                                                                                                                                     cells react to provide the chemical
                                                                                             Know the importance of both water       constituents needed to synthesize
                                                    A living cell is composed of a small and the element carbon to cells, and other molecules. Both breakdown
                                                    number of chemical elements mainly further understand that cells have            and synthesis are made possible by
                                                    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, four important types of                      a large set of protein catalysts, called
                                                    phosphorous, and sulfur. Carbon          macromolecules (carbohydrates,          enzymes. The breakdown of some of
                                                    atoms can easily bond to several         lipids, proteins and nucleic acids)     the food molecules enables the cell
                                                    other carbon atoms in chains and         that are each different in chemical     to store energy in specific chemicals
Structure and                                       rings to form large and complex          properties and have specific            that are used to carry out the many
function in cells   Cell structure and processes    molecules.                               functions in cells.                     functions of the cell.
                                                                                                                                     Cells have particular structures that
                                                                                                                                     underlie their functions. Every cell is
                                                                                                                                     surrounded by a membrane that
                                                                                                                                     separates it from the outside world.
                                                                                                                                     Inside the cell is a concentrated
                                                                                                                                     mixture of thousands of different
                                                    Every cell is covered by a membrane                                              molecules which form a variety of
                                                    that controls what can enter and                                                 specialized structures that carry out
                                                    leave the cell. In all but quite                                                 such cell functions as energy
                                                    primitive cells, a complex network of                                            production, transport of molecules,
                                                    proteins provides organization and       Know that in order to be alive, cells   waste disposal, synthesis of new
Structure and                                       shape and, for animal cells,             must exchange materials with their      molecules, and the storage of
function in cells                                   movement.                                environment or with other cells.        genetic material.
                                                    Within every cell are specialized
                                                    parts for the transport of materials,
                                                    energy transfer, protein building,
                                                    waste disposal, information
                                                    feedback, and even movement. In          Know that different types of
                                                    addition, most cells in multicellular    organisms (plants versus animals)
Structure and                                       organisms perform some special           have different cellular specializations
function in cells                                   functions that others do not.            suited for the organism's lifestyle.
                                                    The many body cells in an individual
                                                    can be very different from one
                                                    another, even though they are all
                                                    descended from a single cell and
                                                    thus have essentially identical
                                                    genetic instructions. Different parts of                                                                                                                   Understand that specific genes
                                                    the instructions are used in different                                                                                                                     regulate the functions performed by
Structure and                                       types of cells, influenced by the cell's Understand that both unity and                                                                                    structures within the cells of multi-
function in cells                                   environment and past history.            diversity exist among cells.                                                                                      cellular organisms
                                                    Most cells function best within a
                                                    narrow range of temperature and
                                                    acidity. At very low temperatures,
                                                    reaction rates are too slow. High
                                                    temperatures and/or extremes of                                                  Cell functions are regulated.
                                                    acidity can irreversibly change the                                              Regulation occurs both through
                                                    structure of most protein molecules.                                             changes in the activity of the
                                                    Even small changes in acidity can                                                functions performed by proteins and
                                                    alter the molecules and how they                                                 through the selective expression of
                                                    interact. Both single cells and                                                  individual genes. This regulation
                                                    multicellular organisms have                                                     allows cells to respond to their
Structure and                                       molecules that help to keep the cell's                                           environment and to control and
function in cells   Homeostasis*                    acidity within a narrow range.                                                   coordinate cell growth and division.
                                                    The work of the cell is carried out by
                                                    the many different types of
                                                    molecules it assembles, mostly
                                                    proteins. Protein molecules are long,
                                                    usually folded chains made from 20
                                                    different kinds of amino-acid
                                                    molecules. The function of each                                                  Cells store and use information to
                                                    protein molecule depends on its                                                  guide their functions. The genetic
                                                    specific sequence of amino acids                                                 information stored in DNA is used to
Structure and                                       and the shape the chain takes is a                                               direct the synthesis of the thousands
function in cells                                   consequence of attractions between                                               of proteins that each cell requires.




                                                                                                                                                                                         * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   6
                                                                              Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                  Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                                    Knowledge and Skills for             National Science Education            Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy                    University Success                   Standards                             (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                                                            Plant cells contain chloroplasts, the
                                                                                                                                            site of photosynthesis. Plants and
                                                                                                                                            many microorganisms use solar
                                                                                                                                            energy to combine molecules of
                                                                                                                                            carbon dioxide and water into
                                                                                                                                            complex, energy rich organic
                                                                                                       Know that cells transform energy     compounds and release oxygen to
                                                                                                       (ultimately obtained from the sun)   the environment. This process of
                                                                                                       from one form to another through the photosynthesis provides a vital
Structure and                                                                                          processes of photosynthesis and      connection between the sun and the
function in cells   Photosynthesis                                                                     respiration.                         energy needs of living systems.

                                                           Complex interactions among the
                                                           different kinds of molecules in the
                                                           cell cause distinct cycles of activities,
                                                           such as growth and division. Cell
                                                           behavior can also be affected by
Structure and                                              molecules from other parts of the
function in cells                                          organism or even other organisms.
                                                                                                       Know that all living systems are
                                                                                                       composed of cells, which are the
                                                                                                       fundamental units of life, and that
Structure and                                                                                          organisms may be unicellular or
function in cells                                                                                      multicellular.
                                                                                                       Know that such exchanges involve a
                                                                                                       variety of mechanisms for
                                                                                                       transporting materials across a
                                                                                                       membrane, including diffusion,
Structure and                                                                                          osmosis, and transport involving
function in cells                                                                                      specialized membrane proteins.
                                                                                                       Understand the chemical reactions
                                                                                                       involved in cell functions (e.g., food
                                                                                                       molecules taken into cells are
                                                                                                       broken down to provide the energy
                                                                                                       and chemical constituents needed to
                                                                                                       synthesize other molecules, and that
Structure and                                                                                          enzymes facilitate the breakdown
function in cells                                                                                      and synthesis of molecules).
                                                                                                       Know that while all cells share basic
                                                                                                       features (e.g., a plasma membrane
                                                                                                       and genetic material in the form of
Structure and                                                                                          DNA), there are 46 different types of
function in cells                                                                                      cells (prokaryotic and eukaryotic).
                                                                                                       Know that within multicellular
                                                                                                       organisms there are different types
Structure and                                                                                          of cells and that these cells perform
function in cells                                                                                      different functions for the organism.
                                                                                                       Know that in eukaryotic cells, the
                                                                                                       organization of DNA into
                                                                                                       chromosomes is key to both
                                                                                                       duplication and distribution of the
Structure and                                                                                          genetic information to new cells or
function in cells                                                                                      organisms.
                                                                                                       Know that these processes lead to
Structure and                                                                                          the production of ATP, which all cells
function in cells                                                                                      absolutely require for cell work.
Structure and
function in
organisms           Plant development, growth, structure
Structure and
function in
organisms           Homeostasis*
Structure and
function in
organisms           Body systems
                                                                                                                                                                            Demonstrates knowledge and
Structure and                                                                                                                                                               applied understand of
function in                                                                                                                                                                 characteristics, structures, and
organisms                                                                                                                                                                   functions or organisms
PHYSICAL
SCIENCE




                                                                                                                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   7
                                                                   Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                       Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                   ACT College Readiness Standards                                        Knowledge and Skills for               National Science Education            Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic              for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy        University Success                     Standards                             (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                                                 Matter is made of minute particles
                                                                                         Know the structure of an atom. For called atoms, and atoms are
                                                   Atoms are made of a positive          example: that negative electrons        composed of even smaller
                                                   nucleus surrounded by negative        occupy most of the space in the         components. These components
                                                   electrons. An atom's electron         atom, neutrons and positive protons have measurable properties, such as
                                                   configuration, particularly the       make up the nucleus of the atom,        mass and electrical charge. Each
                                                   outermost electrons, determines how protons and neutrons are almost two atom has a positively charged
                                                   the atom can interact with other      thousand times heavier than an          nucleus surrounded by negatively
                                                   atoms. Atoms form bonds to other      electron, that the electric force       charged electrons. The electric force
                                                   atoms by transferring or sharing      between the nucleus and electrons between the nucleus and electrons
Atomic structure   Atomic structure                electrons.*                           holds the atom together.                holds the atom together.
                                                                                         Know the constituent particles that
                                                                                         make up atoms (i.e., protons,           The atom's nucleus is composed of
                                                                                         neutrons and electrons) and have a protons and neutrons, which are
                                                                                         general understanding of physical       much more massive than electrons.
                                                                                         locations of each (i.e., protons and    When an element has atoms that
                                                                                         neutrons in the core nucleus and        differ in the number of neutrons,
                                                                                         electrons in a cloud far away from      these atoms are called different
Atomic structure                                                                         the nucleus).                           isotopes of the element.
                                                   The nucleus, a tiny fraction of the
                                                   volume of an atom, is composed of
                                                   protons and neutrons, each almost
                                                   two thousand times heavier than an Understand how the electronic
                                                   electron. The number of positive      configuration of atoms governs the
                                                   protons in the nucleus determines     chemical properties of an element.
                                                   what an atom's electron               For example that elements with          Each kind of atom or molecule can
                                                   configuration can be and so defines similar electronic configurations have gain or lose energy only in particular
                                                   the element. In a neutral atom, the   similar properties, elements interact discrete amounts and thus can
                                                   number of electrons equals the        with one another on the atomic level absorb and emit light only at
                                                   number of protons. But an atom may by transferring or sharing the             wavelengths corresponding to these
                                                   acquire an unbalanced charge by       outermost electrons to form             amounts. These wavelengths can be
Atomic structure                                   gaining or losing electrons.          covalent, ionic or metallic bonds.      used to identify the substance.*
                                                   Scientists continue to investigate
                                                   atoms and have discovered even
                                                   smaller constituents of which
Atomic structure                                   neutrons and protons are made.
                                                   Neutrons have a mass that is nearly
                                                   identical to that of protons, but
                                                   neutrons have no electric charge.
                                                   Although neutrons have little effect
                                                   on how an atom interacts with others,
                                                   they do affect the mass and stability
                                                   of the nucleus. Isotopes of the same
                                                   element have the same number of
                                                   protons (and therefore of electrons)
Atomic structure                                   but differ in the number of neutrons.
                                                                                                                                 In some materials, such as metals,
                                                                                                                                 electrons flow easily, whereas in
                                                                                                                                 insulating materials such as glass
                                                                                                                                 they can hardly flow at all.
                                                                                                                                 Semiconducting materials have
                                                                                                                                 intermediate behavior. At low
                                                                                                                                 temperatures some materials
                                                                                                                                 become superconductors and offer
                                                                                                                                 no resistance to the flow of
Atomic structure                                                                                                                 electrons.*
                                                   Atoms often join with one another in
                                                   various combinations in distinct
                                                   molecules or in repeating three-
                                                   dimensional crystal patterns. An      Understand that molecules are
                                                   enormous variety of biological,       composed of atoms in unique and
                                                   chemical, and physical phenomena consistent arrangements, and that
                                                   can be explained by changes in the atoms or molecules may form solids
Atoms and                                          arrangement and motion of atoms       by building up repeating patterns
molecules                                          and molecules.                        (e.g., crystal structures or polymers).

                                                                                                                                   Atoms interact with one another by
                                                   When elements are listed in order by   Understand that atoms, molecules         transferring or sharing electrons that
                                                   the masses of their atoms, the same    and ions have a set of physical and      are furthest from the nucleus. These
Atoms and                                          sequence of properties appears over    chemical properties that control their   outer electrons govern the chemical
molecules                                          and over again in the list.*           behaviors in a range of states.*         properties of the element.*




                                                                                                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   8
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                        Knowledge and Skills for                National Science Education             Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success                             Standards                              (PASS)                           Project
                                                     Electromagnetic forces acting within
                                                     and between atoms are vastly
                                                     stronger than the gravitational forces
                                                     acting between the atoms. At the
                                                     atomic level, electric forces between
                                                     oppositely charged electrons and
                                                     protons hold atoms and molecules
                                                     together and thus are involved in all
                                                     chemical reactions. On a larger
                                                     scale, these forces hold solid and
                                                     liquid materials together and act
                                                     between objects when they are in
Atoms and                                            contact-as in sticking or sliding
molecules                                            friction.*


                                                                                                                                      A large number of important
                                                                                                                                      reactions involve the transfer of
                                                                                                                                      either electrons (oxidation/reduction
                                                                                                                                      reactions) or hydrogen ions
                                                                                                                                      (acid/base reactions) between
                                                                                                                                      reacting ions, molecules, or atoms.
                                                                                                                                      In other reactions, chemical bonds
                                                        Atoms are made of a positive                                                  are broken by heat or light to form
                                                        nucleus surrounded by negative                                                very reactive radicals with electrons
                                                        electrons. An atom's electron                                                 ready to form new bonds. Radical
                                                        configuration, particularly the                                               reactions control many processes
                                                        outermost electrons, determines how                                           such as the presence of ozone and                                           Understand that all matter is made
                                                        the atom can interact with other                                              greenhouse gases in the                                                     up of atoms which may be
                                                        atoms. Atoms form bonds to other                                              atmosphere, burning and processing                                          combined, and relate the structural
                   Chemical bonding, equations and      atoms by transferring or sharing                                              of fossil fuels, the formation of                                           characteristics of atoms to the
Chemical reactions nomenclature, reactions              electrons.*                            Understand acid and base chemistry. polymers, and explosions.                                                      principles atomic bonding
                                                        Electromagnetic forces acting within
                                                        and between atoms are vastly
                                                        stronger than the gravitational forces
                                                        acting between the atoms. At the
                                                        atomic level, electric forces between
                                                        oppositely charged electrons and
                                                        protons hold atoms and molecules
                                                        together and thus are involved in all                                         Chemical reactions occur all around
                                                        chemical reactions. On a larger                                               us, for example in health care,
                                                        scale, these forces hold solid and                                            cooking, cosmetics, and
                                                        liquid materials together and act                                             automobiles. Complex chemical
                                                        between objects when they are in                                              reactions involving carbon-based
                                                        contact-as in sticking or sliding                                             molecules take place constantly in
Chemical reactions                                      friction.*                                                                    every cell in our bodies.
                                                                                                                                      Chemical reactions can take place in
                                                                                                                                      time periods ranging from the few
                                                                                                                                      femtoseconds (10-15 seconds)
                                                        The rate of reactions among atoms                                             required for an atom to move a
                                                        and molecules depends on how                                                  fraction of a chemical bond distance
                                                        often they encounter one another,                                             to geologic time scales of billions of
                                                        which is affected by the                                                      years. Reaction rates depend on how
                                                        concentration, pressure, and                                                  often the reacting atoms and
                                                        temperature of the reacting                                                   molecules encounter one another,
                                                        materials. Some atoms and                                                     on the temperature, and on the
                                                        molecules are highly effective in                                             properties--including shape--of the
Chemical reactions                                      encouraging the interaction of others.                                        reacting species.
                                                                                                                                      The physical properties of
                                                                                                                                      compounds reflect the nature of the                                         Understand physical and chemical
                                                                                               Know that substances react             interactions among its molecules.                                           changes at the particle level, and
                                                                                               chemically in characteristic ways with These interactions are determined by                                        analyze and explain the factors that
                                                                                               other substances to form new           the structure of the molecule,                                              affect physical and chemical
                                                                                               substances (compounds) with            including the constituent atoms and Demonstrates knowledge and              changes, and how matter and
                                                                                               different characteristics and          the distances and angles between       applied understand of chemical and   energy are conserved in a closed
Chemical reactions Elements, compounds, mixtures                                               properties. the mole concept and its them.
                                                                                               Understand                                                                    physical change                      system
                                                                                               applications. For example moles in
                                                                                               chemical equations and formulas
                                                                                               and molar mass, relative mass,
                                                                                               molar volume and Avogadro's
Chemical reactions                                                                             number.
                                                                                               Understand the meaning and uses of
                                                                                               chemical equations and employ such
                                                                                               equations to quantify relationships
                                                                                               between products and reactants.
                                                                                               Examples of the meaning and use of
                                                                                               a chemical equation include mass
                                                                                               balance, molar or molecular
                                                                                               quantities, conservation of mass and
Chemical reactions                                                                             atoms.




                                                                                                                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   9
                                                                      Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                       Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                       Knowledge and Skills for             National Science Education             Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy       University Success                   Standards                              (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                                                Atoms interact with one another by
                                                                                                                                transferring or sharing electrons that
                                                                                                                                are furthest from the nucleus. These
                                                                                                                                outer electrons govern the chemical
Chemical reactions                                                                                                              properties of the element.*
                                                                                                                                Bonds between atoms are created
                                                                                                                                when electrons are paired up by
                                                                                                                                being transferred or shared. A
                                                                                                                                substance composed of a single kind
                                                                                                                                of atom is called an element. The
                                                                                                                                atoms may be bonded together into
                                                                                                                                molecules or crystalline solids. A
                                                                                                                                compound is formed when two or
                                                                                                                                more kinds of atoms bind together
Chemical reactions                                                                                                              chemically.
                                                                                                                                Catalysts, such as metal surfaces,
                                                                                                                                accelerate chemical reactions.
                                                                                                                                Chemical reactions in living systems
                                                                                                                                are catalyzed by protein molecules
Chemical reactions                                                                                                              called enzymes.
                                                                                                                                Chemical reactions may release or
                                                                                                                                consume energy. Some reactions
                                                                                                                                such as the burning of fossil fuels
                                                                                                                                release large amounts of energy by
                                                                                                                                losing heat and by emitting light.
                                                                                                                                Light can initiate many chemical
                                                                                                                                reactions such as photosynthesis
Chemical reactions                                                                                                              and the evolution of urban smog.
                                                                                                                                Carbon atoms can bond to one
                                                                                                                                another in chains, rings, and
                                                                                                                                branching networks to form a variety
                                                                                                                                of structures, including synthetic
                                                                                                                                polymers, oils, and the large
Chemical reactions                                                                                                              molecules essential to life.

                                                                                                                                The total energy of the universe is
                                                                                                                                constant. Energy can be transferred
                                                                                                                                by collisions in chemical and nuclear
                                                                                                                                reactions, by light waves and other
                                                                                                                                radiations, and in many other ways.
                                                                                           Know conservation laws of energy     However, it can never be destroyed.                                          Understand that total energy is
                                                                                           (and the conversion of energy from   As these transfers occur, the matter Demonstrates knowledge and              conserved; analyze decreases and
Conservation of                                                                            one form to another), mass and       involved becomes steadily less        applied understand of interaction of   increases in energy during transfers,
matter and energy                                                                          momentum.                            ordered.*                             energy and matter                      in terms of total energy conservation*

                                                                                                                                 As matter and energy flows through
                                                                                                                                 different levels of organization of
                                                                                                                                 living systems--cells, organs,
                                                                                                                                 organisms, communities--and
                                                                                                                                 between living systems and the
                                                                                           Understand the conservation of        physical environment, chemical
                                                                                           energy and the First Law of           elements are recombined in different
                                                                                           Thermodynamics (i.e., energy          ways. Each recombination results in
                                                                                           cannot be created or destroyed but storage and dissipation of energy into
                                                                                           only changed from one form to         the environment as heat. Matter and
Conservation of                                                                            another) and understand that energy energy are conserved in each
matter and energy                                                                          must be transferred via work or heat. change.*

                                                     There are two kinds of charges-
                                                     positive and negative. Like charges
                                                     repel one another, opposite charges
                                                     attract. In materials, there are almost
                                                     exactly equal proportions of positive
                                                     and negative charges, making the
                                                     materials as a whole electrically                                          Between any two charged particles,
                                                     neutral. Negative charges, being                                           electric force is vastly greater than
                                                     associated with electrons, are far                                         the gravitational force. Most
                                                     more mobile in materials than                                              observable forces such as those
                                                     positive charges are. A very small                                         exerted by a coiled spring or friction
                                                     excess or deficit of negative charges                                      may be traced to electric forces
Electricity and                                      in a material produces noticeable       Understand series and parallel     acting between atoms and
magnetism            Electrical circuits             electric forces.                        circuits.                          molecules.*




                                                                                                                                                                                      * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic     10
                                                                      Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                            Knowledge and Skills for                  National Science Education                Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy            University Success                        Standards                                 (PASS)                           Project
                                                  Different kinds of materials respond
                                                  differently to electric forces. In
                                                  conducting materials such as metals,
                                                  electric charges flow easily, whereas
                                                  in insulating materials such as glass,
                                                  they can move hardly at all. At very                                                 The electric force is a universal force
                                                  low temperatures, some materials                                                     that exists between any two charged
                                                  become superconductors and offer           Know that materials that contain          objects. Opposite charges attract
                                                  no resistance to the flow of current.      equal amounts of positive and             while like charges repel. The
                                                  In between these extremes,                 negative charges are electrically         strength of the force is proportional
                                                  semiconducting materials differ            neutral, but that a very small excess     to the charges, and, as with
                                                  greatly in how well they conduct,          or deficit of negative charges in a       gravitation, inversely proportional to
Electricity and                                   depending on their exact                   material produces noticeable              the square of the distance between
magnetism                                         composition.                               electrical forces.                        them.
                                                  Magnetic forces are very closely
                                                  related to electric forces and can be
                                                  thought of as different aspects of a
                                                  single electromagnetic force. Moving
                                                  electric charges produce magnetic
                                                  forces and moving magnets produce          Understand magnetic and electric          Electricity and magnetism are two
                                                  electric forces. The interplay of          fields and the relationship between       aspects of a single electromagnetic
                                                  electric and magnetic forces is the        those fields, and that these fields can   force. Moving electric charges
                                                  basis for electric motors, generators,     be thought of as different aspects of     produce magnetic forces, and
                                                  and many other modern                      a single electromagnetic field            moving magnets produce electric
                                                  technologies, including the                (moving electric charges produce          forces. These effects help students
Electricity and                                   production of electromagnetic              magnetic fields and moving magnets        to understand electric motors and
magnetism         Magnetism                       waves.                                     produce electric fields).                 generators.
Electricity and                                                                              Understand the laws governing
magnetism                                                                                    electrical and magnetic forces.
                                                                                             Understand the relationship between
Electricity and                                                                              electrical currents and magnetic
magnetism                                                                                    fields.
Electricity and                                                                              Understand basic principles of
magnetism                                                                                    electricity and magnetism.

                                                                                                                                    The total energy of the universe is
                                                     Transformations of energy usually                                              constant. Energy can be transferred
                                                     produce some energy in the form of                                             by collisions in chemical and nuclear
                                                     heat, which spreads around by                                                  reactions, by light waves and other
                                                     radiation or conduction into cooler                                            radiations, and in many other ways.
                                                     places. Although just as much total                                            However, it can never be destroyed.                                            Understand that total energy is
                                                     energy remains, its being spread out Understand how energy can be              As these transfers occur, the matter                                           conserved; analyze decreases and
Energy transfer                                      more evenly means less can be        transferred from one form to              involved becomes steadily less                                                 increases in energy during transfers,
and entropy       Heat and work                      done with it.                        another.                                  ordered.*                                                                      in terms of total energy conservation*
                                                                                                                                    Everything tends to become less
                                                                                                                                    organized and less orderly over time.
                                                                                             Understand the concept of entropy      Thus, in all energy transfers, the
                                                                                             and the Second Law of                  overall effect is that the energy is
                                                                                             Thermodynamics (i.e., why engines spread out uniformly. Examples are
                                                                                             and refrigerators are not 100 percent the transfer of energy from hotter to
                                                     Whenever the amount of energy in        efficient, as well as the concept that cooler objects by conduction,
                                                     one place or form diminishes, the       disorder, in general, increases as     radiation, or convection and the
Energy transfer                                      amount in other places or forms         some energy is always lost into non- warming of our surroundings when
and entropy                                          increases by the same amount.           usable forms).                         we burn fuels.

                                                     Heat energy in a material consists of
                                                     the disordered motions of its atoms
                                                     or molecules. In any interactions of
                                                     atoms or molecules, the statistical                                               All matter tends toward more
                                                     odds are that they will end up with                                               disorganized states. Living systems
                                                     less order than they began-that is,                                               require a continuous input of energy
                                                     with the heat energy spread out                                                   to maintain their chemical and
                                                     more evenly. With huge numbers of                                                 physical organizations. With death,
Energy transfer                                      atoms and molecules, the greater                                                  and the cessation of energy input,
and entropy                                          disorder is almost certain.                                                       living systems rapidly disintegrate.*

                                                     When energy of an isolated atom or
                                                     molecule changes, it does so in a
                                                     definite jump from one value to
                                                     another, with no possible values in
                                                     between. The change in energy
                                                     occurs when radiation is absorbed or
                                                     emitted, so the radiation also has
                                                     distinct energy values. As a result,
                                                     the light emitted or absorbed by
                                                     separate atoms or molecules (as in a
Energy transfer                                      gas) can be used to identify what the
and entropy                                          substance is.*




                                                                                                                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   11
                                                                      Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                       Knowledge and Skills for                National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy       University Success                      Standards                                (PASS)                           Project
                                                    Different energy levels are
                                                    associated with different
                                                    configurations of atoms and
                                                    molecules. Some changes of
                                                    configuration require an input of
Energy transfer                                     energy whereas others release
and entropy                                         energy.

                                                                                                                                Objects change their motion only
                                                                                                                                when a net force is applied. Laws of
                                                                                                                                motion are used to calculate
                                                                                                                                precisely the effects of forces on the
                                                                                                                                motion of objects. The magnitude of
                                                                                                                                the change in motion can be
                                                                                                                                calculated using the relationship F =
                                                                                                                                ma, which is independent of the
                                                                                                                                nature of the force. Whenever one
                                                                                                                                object exerts force on another, a
                                                     The change in motion of an object is                                       force equal in magnitude and            Demonstrates knowledge and           Identify various forces and their
                                                     proportional to the applied force and Know what mass is and how it differs opposite in direction is exerted on the applied understand of motions and    relative magnitudes, and explain
Forces and motion Force and motions                  inversely proportional to the mass.   from weight and inertia.             first object.                           forces                               everyday situations in terms of force

                                                                                          Understand Newton's laws as a
                                                                                          classical description of motion, for
                                                                                          example that a force is required to
                                                                                          alter an object's motion, in the                                                                                   Understand the effects of balanced
                                                                                          absence of force, or when forces are                                                                               and unbalanced forces on the
                                                     All motion is relative to whatever   balanced, no change in motion is                                                                                   motion of objects along a straight
                                                     frame of reference is chosen, for    observed, forces are additive and the                                                                              line, and explain the effects of
                                                     there is no motionless frame from    motion of an object is determined by                                                                               unbalanced forces in changing
Forces and motion                                    which to judge all motion.           the cumulative effect.                                                                                             direction of motion of objects
                                                     Whenever one thing exerts a force
                                                     on another, an equal amount of
Forces and motion                                    force is exerted back on it.
                                                                                                                                  Between any two charged particles,
                                                                                                                                  electric force is vastly greater than
                                                                                                                                  the gravitational force. Most
                                                                                                                                  observable forces such as those
                                                                                                                                  exerted by a coiled spring or friction
                                                                                                                                  may be traced to electric forces
                                                                                                                                  acting between atoms and
Forces and motion                                                                                                                 molecules.*

                                                                                                                                  All energy can be considered to be
                                                                                          Understand the distinction between      either kinetic energy, which is the
                                                                                          kinetic (thermal, translational and     energy of motion; potential energy,
                                                                                          vibrational) and potential              which depends on relative positions;
                                                                                          (gravitational and electrostatic)       or energy contained by a field, such
Forms of energy     Kinetic and potential energy                                          energy.                                 as electromagnetic waves.
                                                                                                                                  Heat consists of random motion and
                                                                                                                                  the vibrations of atoms, molecules,
                                                                                                                                  and ions. The higher the
                                                                                          Understand specific heat, thermal       temperature, the greater the atomic
Forms of energy                                                                           and electrical conductivity.            or molecular motion.

                                                                                          Understand the relationship between
                                                                                          heat and temperature, for example:
                                                                                          that heat energy consists of the
                                                                                          random motion and vibration of
                                                                                          atoms, molecules and ions; and the
                                                                                          higher the temperature, the greater
Forms of energy                                                                           the atomic or molecular motion.
                                                                                                                                  Gravitation is a universal force that
                                                                                                                                  each mass exerts on any other
                                                                                          Understand general concepts related     mass. The strength of the
                                                     Gravitational force is an attraction to gravitational force (e.g., every     gravitational attractive force between
                                                     between masses. The strength of the object exerts gravitational force on     two masses is proportional to the
                                                     force is proportional to the masses  every other object, and this force      masses and inversely proportional to
                                                     and weakens rapidly with increasing depends on the mass of the objects       the square of the distance between
Gravity             Gravitation                      distance between them.               and their distance from one another)    them.
                                                     Energy is released whenever the                                              Radioactive isotopes are unstable
                                                     nuclei of very heavy atoms, such as                                          and undergo spontaneous nuclear
                                                     uranium or plutonium, split into                                             reactions, emitting particles and/or
                                                     middleweight ones, or when very                                              wavelike radiation. The decay of any
                                                     light nuclei, such as those of                                               one nucleus cannot be predicted, but
                                                     hydrogen and helium, combine into                                            a large group of identical nuclei
                                                     heavier ones. The energy released in                                         decay at a predictable rate. This
                                                     each nuclear reaction is very much                                           predictability can be used to estimate
Nuclear reactions                                    greater than the energy given off in                                         the age of materials that contain
and forces                                           each chemical reaction.                                                      radioactive isotopes.



                                                                                                                                                                                        * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   12
                                                                           Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                     Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                               Knowledge and Skills for                  National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy               University Success                        Standards                                (PASS)                           Project

                                                                                                                                            The nuclear forces that hold the
                                                                                                                                            nucleus of an atom together, at
                                                                                                                                            nuclear distances, are usually
                                                                                                                                            stronger than the electric forces that
                                                                                                                                            would make it fly apart. Nuclear
                                                                                                                                            reactions convert a fraction of the
                                                                                                                                            mass of interacting particles into
                                                                                                                                            energy, and they can release much
                                                                                                                                            greater amounts of energy than
                                                                                                                                            atomic interactions. Fission is the
                                                         The forces that hold the nucleus of                                                splitting of a large nucleus into
                                                         an atom together are much stronger                                                 smaller pieces. Fusion is the joining
                                                         than the electromagnetic force. That                                               of two nuclei at extremely high
                                                         is why such great amounts of energy                                                temperature and pressure, and is the
Nuclear reactions                                        are released from the nuclear                                                      process responsible for the energy of
and forces                                               reactions in the sun and other stars.                                              the sun and other stars.
Position and
motion              Mass movements
Position and
motion              Momentum

                                                                                                  Understand the general concepts
                                                                                                  related to the theory of special
                                                                                                  relativity. For example in contrast to
                                                                                                  moving objects, the speed of light is
                                                                                                  the same for all observers, no matter
                                                                                                  how they or the light source happen
Position and                                                                                      to be moving and that nothing can
motion                                                                                            travel faster than the speed of light.*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Describe the average speed,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       direction of motion, average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       acceleration of objects (e.g.,
Position and                                                                                                                                                                                                           increasing, decreasing, or constant
motion                                                                                                                                   In some materials, such as metals,                                            acceleration
                                                                                                                                         electrons flow easily, whereas in
                                                                                                                                         insulating materials such as glass
                                                                                                                                         they can hardly flow at all.
                                                                                                                                         Semiconducting materials have
                                                         The configuration of atoms in a                                                 intermediate behavior. At low
                                                         molecule determines the molecule's                                              temperatures some materials
                                                         properties. Shapes are particularly                                             become superconductors and offer Demonstrates knowledge and
Properties of                                            important in how large molecules                                                no resistance to the flow of       applied understand of structures and
substances          Properties of solutions              interact with others.                    Know the meaning of density.           electrons.*                        properties of matter*
                                                                                                                                         An element is composed of a single
                                                                                                  Understand the structure of the        type of atom. When elements are
                                                                                                  Periodic Table. For example that       listed in order according to the
                                                                                                  elements are arranged in sequence number of protons (called the atomic
                                                                                                  by increasing atomic number, the       number), repeating patterns of
                                                                                                  similar properties that arise          physical and chemical properties
                                                                                                  periodically in this arrangement       identify families of elements with
                                                                                                  motivate the grouping of elements      similar properties. This "Periodic
                                                         When elements are listed in order by     into columns that share common         Table" is a consequence of the
                                                         the masses of their atoms, the same      properties, this arrangement is useful repeating pattern of outermost
Properties of                                            sequence of properties appears over      for predicting the properties of       electrons and their permitted                                           Examine the basis for the structure
substances          The Periodic Table                   and over again in the list.*             elements and compounds.                energies.                                                               and use of the Periodic Table

                                                                                                  Understand that atoms, molecules
                                                                                                  and ions have a set of physical and
Properties of                                                                                     chemical properties that control their
substances                                                                                        behaviors in a range of states.*
Properties of                                                                                     Understand principles of ideal gas
substances                                                                                        behavior.
                    States, classes, and properties of
States of matter    matter
                                                         Electromagnetic forces acting within
                                                         and between atoms are vastly
                                                         stronger than the gravitational forces
                                                         acting between the atoms. At the
                                                         atomic level, electric forces between
                                                         oppositely charged electrons and
                                                         protons hold atoms and molecules
                                                         together and thus are involved in all
                                                         chemical reactions. On a larger
                                                         scale, these forces hold solid and
                                                         liquid materials together and act
                                                         between objects when they are in
                                                         contact-as in sticking or sliding
States of matter                                         friction.*




                                                                                                                                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   13
                                                                      Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                   Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                   ACT College Readiness Standards                                            Knowledge and Skills for                  National Science Education                 Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic              for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy            University Success                        Standards                                  (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                              Know that states of matter depend
                                                                                              on molecular arrangement and
                                                                                              freedom of motion. For example: in
                                                                                              the solid state, molecules are
                                                                                              packed tightly together with their
                                                                                              motion restricted to vibrations, in the
                                                                                              liquid state, molecules have higher
                                                                                              energy and are more loosely
                                                                                              packed, sliding freely past each
                                                                                              other, in the gaseous state,
                                                                                              molecules are less restricted and
States of matter                                                                              move freely.

                                                                                                                                        Solids, liquids, and gases differ in the
                                                                                                                                        distances and angles between
                                                                                                                                        molecules or atoms and therefore
                                                                                                                                        the energy that binds them together.
                                                                                                                                        In solids the structure is nearly rigid;
                                                                                                                                        in liquids molecules or atoms move
                                                                                                                                        around each other but do not move
                                                                                                                                        apart; and in gases molecules or
                                                                                                                                        atoms move almost independently of
States of matter                                                                                                                        each other and are mostly far apart.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Demonstrates knowledge and
                                                                                                                                                                                   applied understand of structures and
States of matter                                                                                                                                                                   properties of matter*

                                                   Accelerating electric charges                                                     Electromagnetic waves result when a
                                                   produce electromagnetic waves                                                     charged object is accelerated or
                                                   around them. A great variety of                                                   decelerated. Electromagnetic waves
                                                   radiations are electromagnetic             Know the characteristic properties of include radio waves (the longest
                                                   waves: radio waves, microwaves,            sound, and electromagnetic waves; wavelength), microwaves, infrared
                                                   radiant heat, visible light, ultraviolet   that these waves have energy; that     radiation (radiant heat), visible light,                                             Using wave properties such as wave
                                                   radiation, x rays, and gamma rays.         such waves can transfer energy         ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and                                                   length, reflection, refraction,
                                                   These wavelengths vary from radio          when they interact with matter; and    gamma rays. The energy of                                                            transmission, absorption, scattering
                                                   waves, the longest, to gamma rays,         that characteristic properties include electromagnetic waves is carried in                                                  and inference, describe water waves
                                                   the shortest. In empty space, all          wavelength, frequency, amplitude,      packets whose magnitude is                                                           and sound, relating ideas of
Vibrations and                                     electromagnetic waves move at the          speed, absorption, reflection and      inversely proportional to the                                                        frequency, wave length and speed,
waves              Sound and light                 same speed-the "speed of light."           refraction.                            wavelength.                                                                          and by relating energy to amplitude
                                                                                              Know that electromagnetic waves
                                                                                              result when a charged object is
                                                                                              accelerated and that the energy of     Waves, including sound and seismic
                                                                                              electromagnetic waves is carried in waves, waves on water, and light
                                                                                              wave packets whose energy is           waves, have energy and can transfer
Vibrations and                                                                                inversely proportional to the          energy when they interact with
waves                                                                                         wavelength.                            matter.
                                                                                                                                     Each kind of atom or molecule can
                                                                                              Know the range of the                  gain or lose energy only in particular
                                                                                              electromagnetic spectrum, for          discrete amounts and thus can
                                                                                              example radio waves, microwaves,       absorb and emit light only at
                                                                                              infrared radiation, visible light,     wavelengths corresponding to these
Vibrations and                                                                                ultraviolet radiation, x-rays and      amounts. These wavelengths can be
waves                                                                                         gamma rays.                            used to identify the substance.*
                                                   Waves can superpose on one
                                                   another, bend around corners,
                                                   reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by
                                                   materials they enter, and change
                                                   direction when entering a new
                                                   material. All these effects vary with
                                                   wavelength. The energy of waves
Vibrations and                                     (like any form of energy) can be
waves                                              changed into other forms of energy.        Understand basic principles of optics.
                                                   The observed wavelength of a wave
                                                   depends upon the relative motion of
                                                   the source and the observer. If either
                                                   is moving toward the other, the
                                                   observed wavelength is shorter; if         Understand the general concepts
                                                   either is moving away, the                 related to the theory of special
                                                   wavelength is longer. Because the          relativity. For example in contrast to
                                                   light seen from almost all distant         moving objects, the speed of light is
                                                   galaxies has longer wavelengths            the same for all observers, no matter
                                                   than comparable light here on earth,       how they or the light source happen
Vibrations and                                     astronomers believe that the whole         to be moving and that nothing can
waves              Waves                           universe is expanding.                     travel faster than the speed of light.*




                                                                                                                                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    14
                                                                           Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                       Knowledge and Skills for                     National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success                                 Standards                                (PASS)                           Project
                                                     When energy of an isolated atom or
                                                     molecule changes, it does so in a
                                                     definite jump from one value to
                                                     another, with no possible values in
                                                     between. The change in energy
                                                     occurs when radiation is absorbed or
                                                     emitted, so the radiation also has
                                                     distinct energy values. As a result,
                                                     the light emitted or absorbed by
                                                     separate atoms or molecules (as in a
Vibrations and                                       gas) can be used to identify what the
waves                                                substance is.*
                                                                                           Know that the physical properties of
Vibrations and                                                                             matter and waves are scalar or
waves                                                                                      vector quantities.
EARTH SCIENCE
Biogeochemical
cycles               Geochemical cycles
Biogeochemical
cycles               Water cycle
                                                                                                 Are familiar with environmental
                                                                                                 processes (e.g., the carbon and
                                                                                                 nitrogen cycles) and their role in
Biogeochemical                                                                                   processing matter crucial for
cycles                                                                                           sustaining life.
                                                                                                                                        The atoms and molecules on the
                                                                                                                                        earth cycle among the living and
Biogeochemical                                                                                                                          nonliving components of the
cycles                                                                                                                                  biosphere.

                                                                                                                                        The earth is a system containing
                                                                                                                                        essentially a fixed amount of each
                                                                                                                                        stable chemical atom or element.
                                                                                                                                        Each element can exist in several
                                                                                                                                        different chemical reservoirs. Each
                                                                                                                                        element on earth moves among
                                                                                                                                        reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans,
Biogeochemical                                                                                                                          atmosphere, and organisms as part
cycles                                                                                                                                  of geochemical cycles.

                                                                                                                                        Movement of matter between
                                                                                                                                        reservoirs is driven by the earth's
                                                                                                                                        internal and external sources of
                                                                                                                                        energy. These movements are often
                                                                                                                                        accompanied by a change in the
                                                                                                                                        physical and chemical properties of
                                                                                                                                        the matter. Carbon, for example,
                                                                                                                                        occurs in carbonate rocks such as
                                                                                                                                        limestone, in the atmosphere as
                                                                                                                                        carbon dioxide gas, in water as
                                                                                                                                        dissolved carbon dioxide, and in all
Biogeochemical                                                                                                                          organisms as complex molecules
cycles                                                                                                                                  that control the chemistry of life.
Characteristics of
the Earth system     Earth's resources

                                                                                                 Know that the earth is a body in
                                                                                                 space whose environmental system
                                                                                                 (the atmosphere, lithosphere,
                                                                                                 cryosphere, hydrosphere and
                                                                                                 biosphere) depends largely on the
                                                                                                 sun for light and heat and that the
Characteristics of                                                                               current environment (e.g., geography
the Earth system                                                                                 and climate) is subject to change.
                                                         Life is adapted to conditions on the
                                                         earth, including the force of gravity
                                                         that enables the planet to retain an
                                                         adequate atmosphere, and an
                                                         intensity of radiation from the sun
Earth’s                                                  that allows water to cycle between
atmosphere           Earth's atmosphere                  liquid and vapor.




                                                                                                                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   15
                                                                        Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                      ACT College Readiness Standards                                           Knowledge and Skills for               National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                 for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy           University Success                     Standards                                (PASS)                           Project

                                                      Weather (in the short run) and
                                                      climate (in the long run) involve the
                                                      transfer of energy in and out of the
                                                      atmosphere. Solar radiation heats
                                                      the land masses, oceans, and air.
                                                      Transfer of heat energy at the
                                                      boundaries between the
                                                      atmosphere, the land masses, and
                                                      the oceans results in layers of
                                                      different temperatures and densities
                                                      in both the ocean and atmosphere.         Understand that relationships exist
                                                      The action of gravitational force on      among the earth (geology and soil
                                                      regions of different densities causes     science), the water (hydrology and
                                                      them to rise or fall-and such             oceanography) and the atmosphere
                                                      circulation, influenced by the rotation   (meteorology and atmospherics),
Earth’s                                               of the earth, produces winds and          and that the relationship is best
atmosphere                                            ocean currents.*                          exemplified by the water cycle.*
                                                      Plants alter the earth's atmosphere
                                                      by removing carbon dioxide from it,
                                                      using the carbon to make sugars and
                                                      releasing oxygen. This process is
Earth’s                                               responsible for the oxygen content of
atmosphere                                            the air.

                                                                                                                                       Geologic time can be estimated by
                                                                                                                                       observing rock sequences and using                                         Know the importance of fossils in
                                                                                                                                       fossils to correlate the sequences at                                      documenting life and environmental
                                                                                                                                       various locations. Current methods                                         changes over time, and understand
                                                                                                                                       include using the known decay rates                                        that fossils and radioactive elements
                                                                                                                                       of radioactive isotopes present in                                         can be used to correlated and
                                                                                                Are familiar with the history of the   rocks to measure the time since the                                        determine the sequence of geologic
Earth’s history       Fossils and geological time                                               Earth.                                 rock was formed.                                                           events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Describe the components and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  relationships of the earth system,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and explain how patterns and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  arrangements of landform, oceans,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and atmosphere are determined by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  natural forces and how the theory of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  plate tectonics accounts for
Earth’s history                                                                                                                                                                                                   movement over time*

                                                      The solid crust of the earth-including
                                                      both the continents and the ocean
                                                      basins-consists of separate plates                                               Interactions among the solid earth,
                                                      that ride on a denser, hot, gradually                                            the oceans, the atmosphere, and
                                                      deformable layer of the earth. The                                               organisms have resulted in the
                                                      crust sections move very slowly,                                                 ongoing evolution of the earth
                                                      pressing against one another in                                                  system. We can observe some
                                                      some places, pulling apart in other                                              changes such as earthquakes and
                                                      places. Ocean-floor plates may slide                                             volcanic eruptions on a human time
                                                      under continental plates, sinking                                                scale, but many processes such as
                                                      deep into the earth. The surface                                                 mountain building and plate
Earth’s surface                                       layers of these plates may fold,       Understand the processes of               movements take place over
features              Earthquakes and volcanoes       forming mountain ranges.*              volcanism and erosion.                    hundreds of millions of years.
                                                                                             Understand that relationships exist
                                                                                             among the earth (geology and soil
                                                                                             science), the water (hydrology and
                                                                                             oceanography) and the atmosphere
                                                                                             (meteorology and atmospherics),
Earth’s surface                                                                              and that the relationship is best
features              Weathering and erosion*                                                exemplified by the water cycle.*
                                                      Earthquakes often occur along the
                                                      boundaries between colliding plates,
                                                      and molten rock from below creates
                                                      pressure that is released by volcanic
                                                      eruptions, helping to build up
                                                      mountains. Under the ocean basins,
                                                      molten rock may well up between
                                                      separating plates to create new
                                                      ocean floor. Volcanic activity along
                                                      the ocean floor may form undersea
                                                      mountains, which can thrust above
Earth’s surface                                       the ocean's surface to become
features                                              islands.*

                                                      The slow movement of material                                                    The outward transfer of earth's
                                                      within the earth results from heat                                               internal heat drives convection
                                                      flowing out from the deep interior                                               circulation in the mantle that propels
Energy in the Earth                                   and the action of gravitational forces                                           the plates comprising earth's surface
system                                                on regions of different density.                                                 across the face of the globe.*


                                                                                                                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   16
                                                                        Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                       Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success               Standards                                (PASS)                           Project
                                                    At times, environmental conditions
                                                    are such that plants and marine
                                                    organisms grow faster than
                                                    decomposers can recycle them back
                                                    to the environment. Layers of energy-
                                                    rich organic material have been                                  Earth systems have internal and
                                                    gradually turned into great coal beds                            external sources of energy, both of
                                                    and oil pools by the pressure of the                             which create heat. The sun is the
                                                    overlying earth. By burning these                                major external source of energy.
                                                    fossil fuels, people are passing most                            Two primary sources of internal          Demonstrates knowledge and
                                                    of the stored energy back into the                               energy are the decay of radioactive      applied understand of structure,     Understand many forms of energy as
Energy in the Earth                                 environment as heat and releasing                                isotopes and the gravitational energy    energy, and change in the earth's    they are found in common situations
system                                              large amounts of carbon dioxide.                                 from the earth's original formation.     system                               on earth and in the universe
                                                                                                                     Heating of earth's surface and
                                                                                                                     atmosphere by the sun drives
                                                                                                                     convection within the atmosphere
Energy in the Earth                                                                                                  and oceans, producing winds and
system                                                                                                               ocean currents.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Describe how regular and
                                                                                                                                                                                                   predictable motions of objects in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                   solar system account for such
                                                                                                                                                                                                   phenomena as the day, year, phases
                                                                                                                                                                                                   of the moon, eclipses, season and
                                                                                                                                                                                                   ocean tides, and understand that
                                                                                                                                                                                                   earth, planets, sun, and the rest of
                                                                                                                                                                                                   the celestial bodies in the universe
Motion of the Earth                                                                                                                                                                                are continuing to evolve because of
and Moon                                                                                                                                                                                           interactions between matter and
Plate tectonics       Plate tectonics
                                                      The solid crust of the earth-including
                                                      both the continents and the ocean
                                                      basins-consists of separate plates
                                                      that ride on a denser, hot, gradually
                                                      deformable layer of the earth. The
                                                      crust sections move very slowly,
                                                      pressing against one another in
                                                      some places, pulling apart in other
                                                      places. Ocean-floor plates may slide
                                                      under continental plates, sinking
                                                      deep into the earth. The surface
                                                      layers of these plates may fold,
Plate tectonics                                       forming mountain ranges.*
                                                      Earthquakes often occur along the
                                                      boundaries between colliding plates,
                                                      and molten rock from below creates
                                                      pressure that is released by volcanic
                                                      eruptions, helping to build up
                                                      mountains. Under the ocean basins,
                                                      molten rock may well up between
                                                      separating plates to create new
                                                      ocean floor. Volcanic activity along
                                                      the ocean floor may form undersea
                                                      mountains, which can thrust above
                                                      the ocean's surface to become
Plate tectonics                                       islands.*
                                                                                                                     The outward transfer of earth's
                                                                                                                     internal heat drives convection
                                                                                                                     circulation in the mantle that propels
                                                                                                                     the plates comprising earth's surface
Plate tectonics                                                                                                      across the face of the globe.*
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Understand that patterns of
                                                                                                                                                                                                   movement in the plates that
                                                                                                                                                                                                   comprise the earth's surface are the
                                                                                                                                                                                                   result of outward transfer of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                   earth's internal heat and that
                                                                                                                                                                                                   historical patterns of movement can
                                                                                                                                                                                                   be identified from clues in rock
                                                                                                                                                                                                   formations; describe how volcanoes
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and earthquakes in Washington
Plate tectonics                                                                                                                                                                                    State occur because of this action
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Describe the components and
                                                                                                                                                                                                   relationships of the earth system,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and explain how patterns and
                                                                                                                                                                                                   arrangements of landform, oceans,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and atmosphere are determined by
                                                                                                                                                                                                   natural forces and how the theory of
                                                                                                                                                                                                   plate tectonics accounts for
Plate tectonics                                                                                                                                                                                    movement over time*




                                                                                                                                                                              * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   17
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                  Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                              Knowledge and Skills for               National Science Education                Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy              University Success                     Standards                                 (PASS)                           Project
                                                    The formation, weathering,
                                                    sedimentation, and reformation of
                                                    rock constitute a continuing "rock
                                                    cycle" in which the total amount of
                                                    material stays the same as its forms
Rock cycle                                          change.
Rocks, minerals,
and soil            Rocks, minerals
Rocks, minerals,
and soil            Weathering and erosion*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Correlate the chemical composition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of earth materials- rocks, soils,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        water, gases of the atmosphere- with
Rocks, minerals,                                                                                                                                                                                                        properties that determine their use to
and soil                                                                                                                                                                                                                humans

                                                       Weather (in the short run) and
                                                       climate (in the long run) involve the
                                                       transfer of energy in and out of the
                                                       atmosphere. Solar radiation heats
                                                       the land masses, oceans, and air.
                                                       Transfer of heat energy at the
                                                       boundaries between the
                                                       atmosphere, the land masses, and
                                                       the oceans results in layers of
                                                       different temperatures and densities                                             Global climate is determined by the
                                                       in both the ocean and atmosphere.                                                energy transfer from the sun at and
                                                       The action of gravitational force on                                             near the earth's surface. This energy
                                                       regions of different densities causes                                            transfer is influenced by dynamic
                                                       them to rise or fall-and such                                                    processes such as cloud cover and                                               Correlate global climate to energy
                                                       circulation, influenced by the rotation                                          the earth's rotation, and static                                                transfer by the sun, cloud cover, the
Seasons, weather,                                      of the earth, produces winds and                                                 conditions such as the position of                                              earth's rotation, and positions of
and climate       Weather and climate                  ocean currents.*                                                                 mountain ranges and oceans.                                                     mountain ranges and oceans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Understand that the solar system is
                                                                                                                                                                                  Demonstrates knowledge and            in a galaxy in an expanding universe
                                                                                                                                                                                  applied understand of relationships   composed of immense numbers of
The Solar System    Solar system                                                                                                                                                  within the solar system               stars and celestial bodies
                                                                                                                                        The sun, the earth, and the rest of
                                                                                                                                        the solar system formed from a
                                                                                                                                        nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6
                                                                                                                                        billion years ago. The early earth was
                                                                                                 Are familiar with the history of the   very different from the planet we live
The Solar System                                                                                 solar system.                          on today.
                                                       The stars differ from each other in
                                                       size, temperature, and age, but they
                                                       appear to be made up of the same
                                                       elements that are found on the earth
                                                       and to behave according to the same
                                                       physical principles. Unlike the sun,
                                                       most stars are in systems of two or
The Sun and other                                      more stars orbiting around one
stars                                                  another.
                                                                                                                                        Stars produce energy from nuclear
                                                                                                                                        reactions, primarily the fusion of
                                                                                                                                        hydrogen to form helium. These and
                                                                                                                                        other processes in stars have led to
The Sun and other                                                                                                                       the formation of all the other
stars                                                                                                                                   elements.

                                                       On the basis of scientific evidence,
                                                       the universe is estimated to be over
                                                       ten billion years old. The current
                                                       theory is that its entire contents
                                                       expanded explosively from a hot,
                                                       dense, chaotic mass. Stars
                                                       condensed by gravity out of clouds of
                                                       molecules of the lightest elements
                                                       until nuclear fusion of the light
                                                       elements into heavier ones began to                                              Early in the history of the universe,
                                                       occur. Fusion released great                                                     matter, primarily the light atoms
                                                       amounts of energy over millions of                                               hydrogen and helium, clumped
                                                       years. Eventually, some stars                                                    together by gravitational attraction to
                                                       exploded, producing clouds of heavy                                              form countless trillions of stars.
                                                       elements from which other stars and                                              Billions of galaxies, each of which is
                                                       planets could later condense. The                                                a gravitationally bound cluster of
                                                       process of star formation and                                                    billions of stars, now form most of
The universe                                           destruction continues.                                                           the visible mass in the universe.




                                                                                                                                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    18
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                         Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                       Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success               Standards                                (PASS)                           Project
                                                       Increasingly sophisticated technology
                                                       is used to learn about the universe.
                                                       Visual, radio, and x-ray telescopes
                                                       collect information from across the
                                                       entire spectrum of electromagnetic
                                                       waves; computers handle an
                                                       avalanche of data and increasingly
                                                       complicated computations to
                                                       interpret them; space probes send
                                                       back data and materials from the
                                                       remote parts of the solar system;
                                                       and accelerators give subatomic
                                                       particles energies that simulate
                                                       conditions in the stars and in the
                                                       early history of the universe before
The universe         Stars, galaxies, and the universe stars formed.
                                                       Mathematical models and computer
                                                       simulations are used in studying
                                                       evidence from many sources in order
                                                       to form a scientific account of the
The universe                                           universe.

                                                                                                                        The origin of the universe remains
                                                                                                                        one of the greatest questions in
                                                                                                                        science. The "big bang" theory
                                                                                                                        places the origin between 10 and 20
                                                                                                                        billion years ago, when the universe
                                                                                                                        began in a hot dense state;
                                                                                                                        according to this theory, the universe
The universe                                                                                                            has been expanding ever since.
Water in the Earth
system               Groundwater
Water in the Earth
system               Lakes, rivers, and oceans
FOUNDATIONAL
SKILLS FOR
SCIENCE
                                                        A system in equilibrium may return to
                                                        the same state of equilibrium if the
                                                        disturbances it experiences are
                                                        small. But large disturbances may
                                                        cause it to escape that equilibrium                                                                      Demonstrates knowledge and
Constancy and                                           and eventually settle into some other                                                                    applied understanding of evolution
change                                                  state of equilibrium.                                                                                    and equilibrium
                                                        Things can change in detail but
                                                        remain the same in general (the
                                                        players change, but the team
                                                        remains; cells are replaced, but the
                                                        organism remains). Sometimes
                                                        counterbalancing changes are
                                                        necessary for a thing to retain its                                                                      Demonstrates knowledge and
Constancy and                                           essential constancy in the presence                                                                      applied understanding of change,
change                                                  of changing conditions.                                                                                  constancy, and measurement
                                                        Along with the theory of atoms, the
                                                        concept of the conservation of matter
                                                        led to revolutionary advances in
                                                        chemical science. The concept of
                                                        conservation of energy is at the heart
                                                        of advances in fields as diverse as
Constancy and                                           the study of nuclear particles and the
change                                                  Graphs the equations are useful
                                                        study of and origin of the universe.
                                                        (and often equivalent) ways for
Constancy and                                           depicting and analyzing patterns of
change                                                  change.
                                                        In evolutionary change, the present
                                                        arises from the materials and forms
Constancy and                                           of the past, more or less gradually,
change                                                  and in ways that can be explained.
                                                        In many physical, biological, and
                                                        social systems, changes in one
                                                        direction tend to produce opposing
                                                        (but somewhat delayed) influences,
Constancy and                                           leading to repetitive cycles of
change                                                  behavior.




                                                                                                                                                                                 * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   19
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                         Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education               Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success                 Standards                                (PASS)                           Project
                                                    Most systems above the molecular
                                                    level involve so many parts and
                                                    forces and are so sensitive to tiny
                                                    differences in conditions that their
                                                    precise behavior is unpredictable,
                                                    even if all the rules for change are
                                                    known. Predictable or not, the
                                                    precise future of a system is not
                                                    completely determined by its present
                                                    state and circumstances but also
                                                    depends on the fundamentally
Constancy and                                       uncertain outcomes of events on the
change                                              atomic scale.
                                                    The strongly held traditions of
                                                    science, including its commitment to
                                                    peer review and publication, serve to
                                                    keep the vast majority of scientists
                                                    well within the bounds of ethical
                                                    professional behavior. Deliberate
                                                    deceit is rare and likely to be                                    Scientists have ethical traditions.
                                                    exposed sooner or later by the                                     Scientists value peer review, truthful
                                                    scientific enterprise itself. When                                 reporting about the methods and
                                                    violations of these scientific ethical                             outcomes of investigations, and
                                                    traditions are discovered, they are                                making public the results of work.
                                                    strongly condemned by the scientific                               Violations of such norms do occur,
                                                    community, and the violators then                                  but scientists responsible for such
                                                    have difficulty regaining the respect                              violations are censured by their
Ethics in science                                   of other scientists.                                               peers.
                                                    Current ethics in science hold that
                                                    research involving human subjects
                                                    may be conducted only with the
                                                    informed consent of the subjects,
                                                    even if this constraint limits some
                                                    kinds of potentially important
                                                    research or influences the results.
                                                    When it comes to participation in
                                                    research that could pose risks to                                                                           Identifies philosophical or ethical
                                                    society, most scientists believe that a                                                                     questions and issues associated with
                                                    decision to participate or not is a                                                                         a scientific theory, discovery, body of
                                                    matter of personal ethics rather than                                                                       research, or scientific writing (when
Ethics in science                                   professional ethics.                                                                                        applicable)


                                                                                                                                                                Compares and analyzes opposing
                                                                                                                                                                views of a controversial scientific
Ethics in science                                                                                                                                               issue.
                                                       Check graphs to see that they do not
                                                       misrepresent results by using
Evaluating                                             inappropriate scales or by failing to
arguments                                              specify the axes clearly.
                                                       Insist that the critical assumptions
                                                       behind any line of reasoning be
                                                       made explicit so that the validity of
                                                       the position being taken-whether
Evaluating                                             one's own or that of others-can be
arguments                                              judged.
                                                       Be aware, when considering claims,
                                                       that when people try to prove a point,
                                                       they may select only the data that
Evaluating                                             support it and ignore any that would
arguments                                              Notice andit.
                                                       contradict criticize arguments based
                                                       on the faulty, incomplete, or
                                                       misleading use of numbers, such as
                                                       in instances when (1) average results
                                                       are reported, but not the amount of
                                                       variation around the average, (2) a
                                                       percentage or fraction is given, but
                                                       not the total sample size (as in "9 out
                                                       of 10 dentists recommend..."), (3)
                                                       absolute and proportional quantities
                                                       are mixed (as in "3,400 more
                                                       robberies in our city last year,
                                                       whereas other cities had an increase
                                                       of less than 1%), or (4) results are
                                                       reported with overstated precision
Evaluating                                             (as in representing 13 out of 19
arguments                                              students as 68.42%).




                                                                                                                                                                                 * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   20
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                         Knowledge and Skills for                     National Science Education              Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy University Success                                   Standards                               (PASS)                           Project
                                                    Suggest alternative ways of
                                                    explaining data and criticize
                                                    arguments in which data,
                                                    explanations, or conclusions are
                                                    represented as the only ones worth
                                                    consideration, with no mention of
                                                    other possibilities. Similarly, suggest
                                                    alternative trade-offs in decisions and
                                                    designs and criticize those in which
Evaluating                                          major trade-offs are not
arguments                                           acknowledged.
                                                       Wonder how likely it is that some
Evaluating                                             event of interest might have occurred
arguments                                              just by chance.
                                                       Suggest alternative ways of
                                                       explaining data and criticize
                                                       arguments in which data,
                                                       explanations, or conclusions are
                                                       represented as the only ones worth
                                                       consideration, with no mention of
                                                       other possibilities. Similarly, suggest
                                                       alternative trade-offs in decisions and
                                                       designs and criticize those in which
Evaluating                                             major trade-offs are not
arguments                                              acknowledged.
                                                       Wonder how likely it is that some
Evaluating                                             event of interest might have occurred
arguments                                              just by chance.
                                                                                                 Assess the likely validity of the
                                                                                                 content of articles and continue to
                                                                                                 build independent judgment about
Evaluating                                                                                       the validity of scientific reports in
arguments                                                                                        general.
                                                                                                                                                                                 Evaluates opposing views of a
                                                                                                                                                                                 controversial scientific issue, using
Evaluating                                                                                                                                                                       scientific criteria as a basis for
arguments                                                                                                                                                                        judgment
                                                                                                                                                                                 Identifies observations, information,
                                                                                                                                                                                 data, and/or assumptions used to
Evaluating                                                                                                                                                                       support scientific claims or
arguments                                                                                                                                                                        arguments
                                                                                                                                                                                 Identifies scientists, authors, or
                                                                                                                                                                                 organizations cited or quoted in text
Evaluating                                                                                                                                                                       in support of scientific claims or
arguments                                                                                                                                                                        arguments

                                                       Learn quickly the proper use of new
                                                       instruments by following instructions
Manipulation and                                       in manuals or by taking instructions
observation                                            from an experienced user.
                                                       Troubleshoot common mechanical
                                                       and electrical systems, checking for
                                                       possible causes of malfunction, and
                                                       decide on that basis whether to
Manipulation and                                       make a change or get advice from
observation                                            an expert before proceeding.
                                                       Use computers for producing tables
Manipulation and                                       and graphs and for making
observation                                            spreadsheet calculations.
                                                       Use power tools safely to shape,
Manipulation and                                       smooth, and join wood, plastic, and
observation                                            soft metal.
                                                                                                                                         In history, diverse cultures have
                                                                                                                                         contributed scientific knowledge and
                                                                                                                                         technologic inventions. Modern
                                                                                                                                         science began to evolve rapidly in
                                                                                                                                         Europe several hundred years ago.
                                                                                                                                         During the past two centuries, it has
                                                                                                                                         contributed significantly to the
                                                                                                                                         industrialization of Western and non-
                                                       Modern science is based on                                                        Western cultures. However, other,
                                                       traditions of thought that came                                                   non-European cultures have
                                                       together in Europe about 500 years                                                developed scientific ideas and solved
                                                       ago. People from all cultures now                                                 human problems through
People in science                                      contribute to that tradition.                                                     technology.
                                                       The early Egyptian, Greek, Chinese,
                                                       Hindu, and Arabic cultures are
                                                       responsible for many scientific and
                                                       mathematical ideas and
People in science                                      technological inventions.



                                                                                                                                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   21
                                                                    Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                        Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                           Knowledge and Skills for                National Science Education          Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy           University Success                      Standards                           (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Research, interpret, and defend
                                                                                                                                                                                                         scientific investigation, conclusions,
                                                                                      Construct logical and coherent                                                                                     or arguments; use data logic and
                                                                                      arguments that demonstrate an                                                                                      analytical thinking as investigative
Presenting and                                    Use tables, charts, and graphs in   understanding of causation and of                                                 Clearly and completely restates  tools; express ideas through oral,
supporting                                        making arguments and claims in oral the various levels of abstraction             Communicate and defend a scientific scientific claims or arguments   written, and mathematical
arguments                                         and written presentations.*         involved in science.                          argument.*                          presented*                       expression*
                                                                                      Solve scientific problems using the
                                                                                      step-by-step approach known as the
Problem-solving                                                                       scientific method.
                                                                                                                                    Individuals and society must decide
                                                                                                                                    on proposals involving new research
                                                                                          Know ways in which science and            and the introduction of new
                                                                                          society influence each other. For         technologies into society. Decisions
                                                                                          example, that scientific methods and      involve assessment of alternatives,
                                                                                          the knowledge they produce may            risks, costs, and benefits and
                                                                                          influence how people think about          consideration of who benefits and
                                                                                          themselves and their world,               who suffers, who pays and gains,
                                                  Funding influences the direction of     technology can contribute to the          and what the risks are and who
                                                  science by virtue of the decisions that solution of an individual or              bears them. Students should
                                                  are made on which research to           community problem, social and             understand the appropriateness and
                                                  support. Research funding comes         economic forces strongly influence        value of basic questions--"What can
Science,                                          from various federal government         which science and technology              happen?"--"What are the odds?"--
technology, and                                   agencies, industry, and private         programs are pursued, invested in         and "How do scientists and                                               Identify and analyze factors that limit
society                                           foundations.                            and used                                  engineers know what will happen?"                                        the extent of scientific investigation*
                                                                                                                                    Progress in science and technology                                       Analyze how the scientific enterprise
                                                  Progress in science and invention                                                 can be affected by social issues and                                     and technological advances
                                                  depends heavily on what else is                                                   challenges. Funding priorities for                                       influence and are influenced by
Science,                                          happening in society, and history                                                 specific health problems serve as                                        human activity (e.g. societal,
technology, and                                   often depends on scientific and                                                   examples of ways that social issues                                      environmental, economical, political,
society                                           technological developments.                                                       influence science and technology.                                        or ethical considerations)

                                                  Scientists can bring information,
                                                  insights, and analytical skills to bear
                                                  on matters of public concern. Acting
                                                  in their areas of expertise, scientists
                                                  can help people understand the
                                                  likely causes of events and estimate
                                                  their possible effects. Outside their
                                                  areas of expertise, however,
                                                  scientists should enjoy no special
                                                  credibility. And where their own
                                                  personal, institutional, or community                                             Scientists are influenced by societal,
                                                  interests are at stake, scientists as a                                           cultural, and personal beliefs and
Science,                                          group can be expected to be no less                                               ways of viewing the world. Science is
technology, and                                   biased than other groups are about                                                not separate from society but rather
society                                           their perceived interests.                                                        science is a part of society.
                                                                                            Understand that a host of perplexing
                                                                                            new problems is generated by our                                                                                 Analyze how scientific knowledge
                                                                                            society's new powers (e.g.,                                                                                      and technological advances
                                                                                            population management,                  Occasionally, there are advances in                                      discovered and developed by
Science,                                                                                    environmental protection and            science and technology that have                                         individuals and communities in all
technology, and                                                                             regulation of weapons of mass           important and long-lasting effects on                                    cultures of the world contributed to
society                                                                                     destruction).                           Science and society.
                                                                                                                                    science and technology are pursued                                       changes in societies
                                                                                                                                     for different purposes. Scientific
                                                                                                                                     inquiry is driven by the desire to
                                                                                                                                     understand the natural world, and
                                                                                                                                     technological design is driven by the
                                                                                                                                     need to meet human needs and
                                                                                                                                     solve human problems. Technology,
                                                                                                                                     by its nature, has a more direct effect
                                                                                                                                     on society than science because its
                                                                                                                                     purpose is to solve human problems,
                                                                                                                                     help humans adapt, and fulfill
                                                                                            Understand that interactions between human aspirations. Technological
                                                                                            science and technology have led to solutions may create new problems.
                                                                                            refined tools (e.g., precision           Science, by its nature, answers
                                                                                            instruments, measuring techniques, questions that may or may not
                                                                                            data processors, etc.), and the          directly influence humans.                                              Study and analyze challenges or
                                                                                            means for a safer, more comfortable Sometimes scientific advances                                                problems from a local, regional,
Science,                                                                                    life for more people (e.g., electricity, challenge people's beliefs and                                          national, or global contexts in which
technology, and                                                                             transportation, medical advances,        practical explanations concerning                                       science/technology can be or has
society                                                                                     etc.).                                   various aspects of the world.                                           been used to design a solution
                                                                                                                                     Science often advances with the
                                                                                            Know that technology is the              introduction of new technologies.
                                                                                            systematic use of materials, energy, Solving technological problems often
                                                                                            and information to design, build,        results in new scientific knowledge.
                                                                                            maintain and operate devices,            New technologies often extend the
Science,                                                                                    processes and systems with a goal        current levels of scientific
technology, and                                                                             of serving individual and societal       understanding and introduce new
society                                                                                     human needs.                             areas of research.



                                                                                                                                                                                        * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    22
                                                                    Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                           Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                           Knowledge and Skills for               National Science Education              Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy           University Success                     Standards                               (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                                                   Understanding basic concepts and
                                                                                                                                   principles of science and technology
                                                                                                                                   should precede active debate about
                                                                                                                                   the economics, policies, politics, and
                                                                                                                                   ethics of various science- and
                                                                                                                                   technology-related challenges.
Science,                                                                                                                           However, understanding science
technology, and                                                                                                                    alone will not resolve local, national,
society                                                                                                                            or global challenges.
                                                                                                                                   Technological knowledge is often not
                                                                                                                                   made public because of patents and
                                                                                                                                   the financial potential of the idea or
                                                                                                                                   invention. Scientific knowledge is
Science,                                                                                                                           made public through presentations at
technology, and                                                                                                                    professional meetings and
society                                                                                                                            publications in scientific journals.
                                                                                                                                   Science and technology are
                                                                                                                                   essential social enterprises, but
                                                                                                                                   alone they can only indicate what
                                                                                                                                   can happen, not what should
Science,                                                                                                                           happen. The latter involves human
technology, and                                                                                                                    decisions about the use of
society                                                                                                                            knowledge.
                                                  Science disciplines differ from one
                                                  another in what is studied,
                                                  techniques used, and outcomes
                                                  sought, but they share a common
                                                  purpose and philosophy, and all are       Understand that science involves
                                                  part of the same scientific enterprise.   different types of work in many
                                                  Although each discipline provides a       different disciplines. For example,
                                                  conceptual structure for organizing       different disciplines of science
                                                  and pursuing knowledge, many              approach investigations in different
                                                  problems are studied by scientists        ways, such as using different
                                                  using information and skills from         questions, methods and evidence;
                                                  many disciplines. Disciplines do not      contributions from different
                                                  have fixed boundaries, and it             disciplines are often required to
                                                  happens that new scientific               complete an investigation; when
                                                  disciplines are being formed where        traditional disciplines meet, new
                                                  existing ones meet and that some          branches of science are often
Scientific                                        subdisciplines spin off to become         formed, such as geophysics and
collaboration                                     new disciplines in their own right.       molecular biology.
                                                  Scientists in any one research group
                                                  tend to see things alike, so even
                                                  groups of scientists may have trouble
                                                  being entirely objective about their
                                                  methods and findings. For that
                                                  reason, scientific teams are expected
                                                  to seek out the possible sources of
                                                  bias in the design of their
                                                  investigations and in their data
                                                  analysis. Checking each other's
Scientific                                        results and explanations helps, but
collaboration                                     that is no guarantee against bias.

                                                                                                                                   Individuals and teams have
                                                                                                                                   contributed and will continue to
                                                                                                                                   contribute to the scientific enterprise.
                                                                                                                                   Doing science or engineering can be
                                                                                                                                   as simple as an individual conducting
                                                                                                                                   field studies or as complex as
                                                                                                                                   hundreds of people working on a
                                                                                                                                   major scientific question or
                                                                                                                                   technological problem. Pursuing
                                                                                                                                   science as a career or as a hobby
Scientific                                                                                                                         can be both fascinating and
collaboration                                                                                                                      intellectually rewarding.
                                                                                            Understand the interrelationships
Scientific                                                                                  among scientific concepts and
collaboration                                                                               across the sciences.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Understand and correctly use
                                                                                                                                                                              Precisely uses terminology, symbols,      specific principles, organizations,
                                                                                            Translate knowledge of scientific                                                 notations, and formulas to report         concepts, terminology, and notations
Scientific        Understand basic scientific                                               writings and terminology into non-                                                results, identify patterns in data, and   are dependent on the field of science
communication     terminology                                                               scientific language.                                                              propose explanations                      selected
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research, interpret, and defend
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scientific investigation, conclusions,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        or arguments; use data logic and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        analytical thinking as investigative
                                                  Use tables, charts, and graphs in                                                                                    Clearly and completely restates                  tools; express ideas through oral,
Scientific                                        making arguments and claims in oral                                              Communicate and defend a scientific scientific claims or arguments                   written, and mathematical
communication                                     and written presentations.*                                                      argument.*                          presented*                                       expression*




                                                                                                                                                                                               * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic       23
                                                                            Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                   Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                                   Knowledge and Skills for                National Science Education             Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy                   University Success                      Standards                              (PASS)                           Project

                                                         Write clear, step-by-step instructions
                                                         for conducting investigations,
Scientific                                               operating something, or following a
communication                                            procedure.
                                                         Participate in group discussions on
                                                         scientific topics by restating or
                                                         summarizing accurately what others
                                                         have said, asking for clarification or
Scientific                                               elaboration, and expressing
communication                                            alternative positions.
                                                         Use and correctly interpret relational
                                                         terms such as if . . . then . . . , and,
                                                         or, sufficient, necessary, some,
Scientific                                               every, not, correlates with, and
communication                                            causes.
Scientific                                                                                          Understand scientific writings and
communication                                                                                       terminology used in scientific texts.
                                                                                                                                            Use technology and mathematics to
Scientific                                                                                                                                  improve investigations and
communication                                                                                                                               communications.*
Scientific
communication                                                                                                                                                                      Uses own words, avoiding plagiarism

                                                                                                                                                                                   Summarizes information, allowing
                                                                                                                                                                                   readers to understand the essence
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                         of the article, study, report, theory,
communication                                                                                                                                                                      presentation, or text in a brief reading
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                         Communicates findings with clarity,
communication                                                                                                                                                                      coherence, and conciseness
                                                                                                                                                                                   Communicates investigative methods
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                         with clarity, coherence, and
communication                                                                                                                                                                      conciseness

                                                                                                                                                                                   Communicates questions,
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                         hypotheses, and rationale with
communication                                                                                                                                                                      clarity, coherence, and conciseness
                                                                                                                                                                                   Communicates results using
                                                                                                                                                                                   pictures, diagrams, and graphic
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                         displays that are clear, neat,
communication                                                                                                                                                                      accurate, and informative
                                                                                                                                            Scientists rely on technology to
                                                                                                                                            enhance the gathering and
                                                                                                                                            manipulation of data. New
                                                                                                                                            techniques and tools provide new
                                                                                                                                            evidence to guide inquiry and new
                                                                                                                                            methods to gather data, thereby
                                                                                                                                            contributing to the advance of
Scientific data                                                                                                                             science. The accuracy and precision
collection/                                              Use computers for producing tables                                                 of the data, and therefore the quality Uses technology/software to
analysis/                                                and graphs and for making                                                          of the exploration, depends on the     accurately collect, analyze and
interpretation                                           spreadsheet calculations.                                                          technology used.                       display data
                                                                                                                                                                                   Organizes and transforms data in
                                                                                                                                                                                   scientifically accepted displays, with
Scientific data                                                                                                                                                                    formats, layouts, scales, and
collection/                                                                                                                                                                        graphics that highlight data and
analysis/         Translate information into a table,                                                                                                                              emphasize relationships to be              Records data in an organized format
interpretation    graph or diagram                                                                                                                                                 analyzed and interpreted                   (e.g. tables)
Scientific data
collection/       Analyze given information when
analysis/         presented with new, complex
interpretation    information
Scientific data
collection/       Analyze given information when
analysis/         presented with new, simple
interpretation    information
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/         Compare or combine data from a
interpretation    complex data presentation
Scientific data
collection/       Compare or combine data from a
analysis/         simple data presentation (e.g. order
interpretation    or sum data from a table)
Scientific data
collection/       Compare or combine data from a
analysis/         simple data presentation with data
interpretation    from a complex data presentation




                                                                                                                                                                                                    * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic     24
                                                                 Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                            Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                   Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education   Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy   University Success         Standards                    (PASS)                           Project
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/         Compare or combine data from two
interpretation    or more complex data presentations
Scientific data   Compare or combine data from two
collection/       or more simple data presentations
analysis/         (e.g. categorize data from a table
interpretation    using a scale from another table)
Scientific data   Determine how the value of one
collection/       variable changes as the value of
analysis/         another variable changes in a
interpretation    complex data presentation*
Scientific data   Determine how the value of one
collection/       variable changes as the value of
analysis/         another variable changes in a simple
interpretation    data presentation*
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/         Find basic information in a brief body
interpretation    of text
Scientific data
collection/       Identify and/or use a complex (e.g.
analysis/         nonlinear) mathematical relationship
interpretation    between data
Scientific data
collection/       Identify and/or use a simple (e.g.
analysis/         linear) mathematical relationship
interpretation    between data
Scientific data
collection/       Identify basic features of a table,
analysis/         graph, or diagram (e.g. headings,
interpretation    units of measurement, axis labels)
                  Select a single piece of data
Scientific data   (numerical or nonnumerical) from a
collection/       simple data presentation (e.g. a table
analysis/         or graph with tow or three variables;
interpretation    a food web diagram)
Scientific data   Select data from a complex data
collection/       presentation (e.g. a table or graph
analysis/         with more than three variables, a
interpretation    phase diagram)
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/         Select two or more pieces of data
interpretation    from a simple data presentation
Scientific data
collection/                                                                                                                                 Collect sufficient data to study
analysis/                                                                                                                                   questions, relationships, or
interpretation                                                                                                                              hypotheses
Scientific data                                                                                                                             Correctly uses appropriate
collection/                                                                                                                                 measurement tools and units to
analysis/                                                                                                                                   clarify observable characteristics and
interpretation                                                                                                                              make comparisons
Scientific data                                                                                                                             Explicitly analyzes patterns in results
collection/                                                                                                                                 to explain questions, hypotheses,
analysis/                                                                                                                                   and relationships, and to support
interpretation                                                                                                                              conclusions
Scientific data                                                                                                                             Objectively observes, and records
collection/                                                                                                                                 details, properties, and patterns,
analysis/                                                                                                                                   avoiding interpretation and opinion in
interpretation                                                                                                                              most cases

                                                                                                                                            Provides clear and detailed scientific
Scientific data                                                                                                                             analyses and interpretations of
collection/                                                                                                                                 relationships, including those
analysis/                                                                                                                                   involving interaction, dependency,
interpretation                                                                                                                              correlation or causation
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/                                                                                                                                   Uses instruments and equipment
interpretation                                                                                                                              correctly and responsibly
                                                                                                                                            Uses scientifically accepted
Scientific data                                                                                                                             methods, procedures, and
collection/                                                                                                                                 equipment or resources precisely to
analysis/                                                                                                                                   generate accurate data sets from
interpretation                                                                                                                              complex procedures.
Scientific data                                                                                                                             Evaluates technology-based means
collection/                                                                                                                                 of data collection and makes
analysis/                                                                                                                                   appropriate decisions about their use
interpretation                                                                                                                              and limitations



                                                                                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   25
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                  Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                                Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education            Admissions Standards System          Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy                University Success         Standards                             (PASS)                               Project
Scientific data                                                                                                                                                   Orders and classifies objects/events
collection/                                                                                                                                                       using logical comparisons of
analysis/                                                                                                                                                         similarities and/or differences in
interpretation                                                                                                                                                    properties
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/                                                                                                                                                         Supports and justifies interpretations
interpretation                                                                                                                                                    with specific data and results
Scientific data                                                                                                                                                   Recognizes and explains the
collection/                                                                                                                                                       limitations of the observed
analysis/                                                                                                                                                         relationships and the potential
interpretation                                                                                                                                                    influences of other factors
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Constructs, labels, and interprets
                                                                                                                                                                                                           representational tools such as:
                                                                                                                                                                                                           diagrams (e.g. vector, free-body,
                                                                                                                                                                                                           electron dot, flow chart, etc),
Scientific data                                                                                                                                                                                            schematics (e.g. circuit, light ray,
collection/                                                                                                                                                                                                etc), chemical equations, charts and
analysis/                                                                                                                                                                                                  maps, data tables, and physical
interpretation                                                                                                                                                                                             models)
Scientific data                                                                                                                                                                                            Correctly constructs and interprets
collection/                                                                                                                                                                                                graphs (e.g. Decibel scale, Richter
analysis/                                                                                                                                                                                                  scale, pH 2d., scale, gene
interpretation                                                                                                                                                                                             frequencies)
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/                                                                                                                                                                                                  Correctly interprets verbal
interpretation                                                                                                                                                                                             information into a diagram
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/                                                                                                                                                                                                  Graphs a data set using appropriate
interpretation                                                                                                                                                                                             range and domain
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sketches graphs that predict and/or
interpretation                                                                                                                                                                                             describe experimental trends
Scientific data
collection/
analysis/                                                                                                                                                                                                  Uses curve fitting regimes to identify
interpretation                                                                                                                                                                                             trends or patterns
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Formulate and revise scientific
                                                                                                                                                                                                           explanations and models using logic
                                                                                                                            Formulate and revise scientific                                                and evidence; recognize and analyze
Scientific                                                                                                                  explanations and models using logic                                            alternative explanations and
explanations                                                                                                                and evidence.                                                                  predictions
                                                        The basic idea of mathematical
                                                        modeling is to find a mathematical
                                                        relationship that behaves in the same
                                                        ways as the objects or processes
                                                        under investigation. A mathematical
                                                        model may give insight about how                                                                                                                   Use mathematics, computers, and/or
                                                        something really works or may fit                                                                                                                  related technology to model the
Scientific                                              observations very well without any                                                                                                                 behavior of object, events, or
explanations                                            intuitive meaning.                                                                                                                                 processes

                                                                                                                            Scientific explanations must adhere
                                                                                                                            to criteria such as: a proposed
                                                                                                                            explanation must be logically
                                                                                                                            consistent; it must abide by the rules
                                                                                                                            of evidence; it must be open to
                                                                                                                            questions and possible modification; Demonstrates knowledge and
Scientific                                                                                                                  and it must be based on historical     applied understanding of evidence,
explanations                                                                                                                and current scientific knowledge.      models, and explanation
                                                                                                                            Scientific explanations must meet
                                                                                                                            certain criteria. First and foremost,
                                                                                                                            they must be consistent with
                                                                                                                            experimental and observational
                                                                                                                            evidence about nature, and must
                                                        The usefulness of a model can be                                    make accurate predictions, when
                                                        tested by comparing its predictions to                              appropriate, about systems being
                                                        actual observations in the real world.                              studied. They should also be logical,
                                                        But a close match does not                                          respect the rules of evidence, be
                                                        necessarily mean that the model is                                  open to criticism, report methods and
Scientific                                              the only "true" model or the only one                               procedures, and make knowledge
explanations                                            that would work.                                                    public.
                  Determine whether given information
Scientific        supports or contradicts a complex
explanations      hypothesis and why




                                                                                                                                                                                   * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic      26
                                                                         Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                              Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                ACT College Readiness Standards                                                 Knowledge and Skills for               National Science Education             Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic           for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy                 University Success                     Standards                              (PASS)                           Project

                Determine whether given information
Scientific      supports or contradicts a simple
explanations    hypothesis whether new information
                Determine or conclusion and why
Scientific      supports or weakens a model and
explanations    why
                Determine which models is (are)
Scientific      supported or weakened by new
explanations    information
Scientific      Identify key issues or assumptions in
explanations    a model
Scientific      Identify similarities and differences
explanations    between models
Scientific      Identify strengths and weaknesses in
explanations    one or more models
                Select a complex hypothesis,
                prediction, or conclusion that is
Scientific      supported by a data presentation or
explanations    model
                Select a complex hypothesis,
                prediction, or conclusion that is
Scientific      supported by two or more data
explanations    presentations or models

                Select a data presentation or a
Scientific      model that supports or contradicts a
explanations    hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion
                Select a simple hypothesis,
                prediction, or conclusion that is
Scientific      supported by a data presentation or
explanations    a model
                Select a simple hypothesis,
                prediction, or conclusion that is
Scientific      supported by two or more data
explanations    presentations or models
Scientific      Use new information to make a
explanations    prediction based on a model

                                                        Computers have greatly improved
                                                        the power and use of mathematical
                                                        models by performing computations
                                                        that are very long, very complicated,
                                                        or repetitive. Therefore computers
                                                        can show the consequences of
                                                        applying complex rules or of
                                                        changing the rules. The graphic
                                                        capabilities of computers make them
                                                        useful in the design and testing of
Scientific                                              devices and structures and in the
explanations                                            simulation of complicated processes.
Scientific                                                                                                                             Recognize and analyze alternative
explanations                                                                                                                           explanations and models.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Propose, revise, and evaluate the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    possible constraints, applications,
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                          and consequences of solutions to a
explanations                                                                                                                                                                                                        problem or challenge
                                                                                                Design and conduct scientific
                                                                                                investigations during which they
                                                                                                formulate and test hypotheses
                                                                                                (formulate and clarify the method;
                                                                                                identify the controls and variables;
                                                                                                collect, organize, display and                                                                                      Design, conduct, and evaluate
                                                                                                analyze data; make revisions of                                                                                     systematic and complex scientific
                                                                                                hypotheses, methods and                                                                                             investigations, using appropriate
Scientific                                                                                      explanations; present the results;     Design and conduct scientific                                                technology, multiple measures and
investigation                                                                                   and seek critiques from others).       investigations.                                                              safe approaches

                                                        Hypotheses are widely used in                                                                                         Independently develops clear and
                                                        science for choosing what data to                                                                                     concise questions and/or hypotheses
                                                        pay attention to and what additional                                                                                  (or re-frames them from general
                                                        data to seek, and for guiding the       Think creatively when developing                                              topics) that address and apply
Scientific      Determine the hypothesis for an         interpretation of the data (both new    hypotheses and estimating potential    Identify questions and concepts that   concepts, data and research
investigation   experiment                              and previously available).              results.*                              guide scientific investigations.       appropriate to a field of science




                                                                                                                                                                                             * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   27
                                                                          Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                      Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                ACT College Readiness Standards                                                   Knowledge and Skills for                  National Science Education                Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic           for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy                   University Success                        Standards                                 (PASS)                           Project

                                                        Sometimes, scientists can control
                                                        conditions in order to obtain
                                                        evidence. When that is not possible
                                                        for practical or ethical reasons, they
                                                        try to observe as wide a range of
Scientific                                              natural occurrences as possible to
investigation   Identify a control in an experiment     be able to discern patterns.

                                                                                                                                            Scientists conduct investigations for a
                                                                                                                                            wide variety of reasons. For example,
                                                        Investigations are conducted for                                                    they may wish to discover new
                                                        different reasons, including to                                                     aspects of the natural world, explain
                                                        explore new phenomena, to check                                                     recently observed phenomena, or
                                                        on previous results, to test how well a                                             test the conclusions of prior
Scientific                                              theory predicts, and to compare                                                     investigations or the predictions of
investigation                                           different theories.                                                                 current theories.
                                                        There are different traditions in
                                                        science about what is investigated                                                  Scientists in different disciplines ask
                                                        and how, but they all have in                                                       different questions, use different
                                                        common certain basic beliefs about                                                  methods of investigation, and accept
                                                        the value of evidence, logic, and                                                   different types of evidence to support
                                                        good arguments. And there is                                                        their explanations. Many scientific
                                                        agreement that progress in all fields                                               investigations require the
                                                        of science depends on intelligence,                                                 contributions of individuals from
Scientific                                              hard work, imagination, and even                                                    different disciplines, including
investigation                                           chance.                                                                             engineering.
Scientific      Understand a simple experimental
investigation   design
Scientific      Understand the methods and tools
investigation   used in a simple experiment
Scientific      Understand a complex experimental
investigation   design
Scientific      Understand the methods and tools
investigation   used in a complex experiment
                Understand the methods and tools
Scientific      used in a moderately complex
investigation   experiment
Scientific      Identify similarities and differences
investigation   between experiments
Scientific      Identify an alternate method for
investigation   testing a hypothesis
                Determine the experimental
Scientific      conditions that would produce
investigation   specified results
                                                                                                  Conduct experiments to find
Scientific                                                                                        solutions to a testable scientific
investigation                                                                                     question.
                                                                                                  Inquire about their place in the
                                                                                                  universe and question their own
Scientific                                                                                        scientific knowledge and beliefs
investigation                                                                                     beyond mere curiosity.*
Scientific                                                                                        Show willingness to question existing
investigation                                                                                     results.*
                                                                                                  Generate and weigh new options and
Scientific                                                                                        questions as a result of the inquiry
investigation                                                                                     undertaken.
Scientific                                                                                        Design and refine a testable scientific
investigation                                                                                     question.
                                                                                                                                            Use technology and mathematics to
Scientific                                                                                                                                  improve investigations and
investigation                                                                                                                               communications.*

                                                                                                                                            Scientists usually inquire about how
                                                                                                                                            physical, living, or designed systems
                                                                                                                                            function. Conceptual principles and
                                                                                                                                            knowledge guide scientific inquiries.
                                                                                                                                            Historical and current scientific
                                                                                                                                            knowledge influence the design and
                                                                                                                                            interpretation of investigations and
                                                                                                                                            the evaluation of proposed
Scientific                                                                                                                                  explanations made by other
investigation                                                                                                                               scientists.
                                                                                                                                            Mathematics is essential in scientific
                                                                                                                                            inquiry. Mathematical tools and
                                                                                                                                            models guide and improve the
                                                                                                                                            posing of questions, gathering data,
Scientific                                                                                                                                  constructing explanations and
investigation                                                                                                                               communicating results.




                                                                                                                                                                                                   * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   28
                                                               Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                          Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                ACT College Readiness Standards                                   Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education   Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic           for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy   University Success         Standards                    (PASS)                           Project
Scientific                                                                                                                                Applies logical scientific model
investigation                                                                                                                             methods

                                                                                                                                          Correctly applies concepts,
                                                                                                                                          information, theories, and research
Scientific                                                                                                                                specific to a field of science to justify
investigation                                                                                                                             and explain relationships investigated
                                                                                                                                          Describes and explains practical
                                                                                                                                          investigative designs that provide
                                                                                                                                          data sufficient to address questions,
Scientific                                                                                                                                examine scientific relationships
investigation                                                                                                                             and/or validly test hypotheses
                                                                                                                                          Describes procedures that can be
Scientific                                                                                                                                followed, replicated, and analyzed
investigation                                                                                                                             for sources of bias and error
                                                                                                                                          Analyzes and critiques investigations
Scientific                                                                                                                                for flaws, limitations, and sources of
investigation                                                                                                                             error or bias
                                                                                                                                          Focuses investigations on
                                                                                                                                          relationships involving interaction,
Scientific                                                                                                                                dependency, correlation, or
investigation                                                                                                                             causation
                                                                                                                                          Determines areas of inquiry and
                                                                                                                                          frames scientific problems that are
                                                                                                                                          focused, worthy of investigation, able
Scientific                                                                                                                                to be investigated, and representative
investigation                                                                                                                             of a chosen field of science
                                                                                                                                          Investigate through research and/or
                                                                                                                                          inquiry, important principles, theories,
Scientific                                                                                                                                and relationships from a field of
investigation                                                                                                                             science
                                                                                                                                          Provides focused rationale for
                                                                                                                                          investigation using relevant
                                                                                                                                          background information,
Scientific                                                                                                                                appropriately apply terminology,
investigation                                                                                                                             concepts, theories, and research
                                                                                                                                          Builds precision, flexibility, and
                                                                                                                                          appropriate adjustments into the
                                                                                                                                          structure of investigative designs,
Scientific                                                                                                                                which can be monitored and
investigation                                                                                                                             adjusted when appropriate
                                                                                                                                          Suggest investigative design through
Scientific                                                                                                                                clarity of questions/hypotheses and
investigation                                                                                                                             supporting background information
                                                                                                                                          Clearly describes scientific methods
                                                                                                                                          that are logical, precise, safe, ethical,
Scientific                                                                                                                                and consistent with accepted
investigation                                                                                                                             scientific practices


Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            Identify and analyze factors that limit
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         the extent of scientific investigation*

                                                                                                                                                                                      Study and analyze questions and
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            related concepts that guide scientific
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         investigations


Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            Research, model, simulate, and test
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         alternative solutions to a problem

                                                                                                                                                                                      Use information, skills and
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            investigative processes employed in
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         a field of science.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Compare, contrast, and critique
                                                                                                                                                                                      divergent results from scientific
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            investigation based on scientific
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         arguments and explanations
                                                                                                                                                                                      Investigate through research and/or
                                                                                                                                                                                      inquiry, important principles, theories,
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            and relationships from a field of
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         science
                                                                                                                                                                                      Research, interpret, and defend
                                                                                                                                                                                      scientific investigation, conclusions,
                                                                                                                                                                                      or arguments; use data, logic, and
                                                                                                                                                                                      analytical thinking as investigative
                                                                                                                                                                                      tools; express ideas through oral,
Scientific                                                                                                                                                                            written, and mathematical
investigation                                                                                                                                                                         expression*




                                                                                                                                                           * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic           29
                                                                       Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                    Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                  ACT College Readiness Standards                                               Knowledge and Skills for                 National Science Education                 Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic             for Science                          Benchmarks for Science Literacy          University Success                       Standards                                  (PASS)                           Project
Scientific        Predict the results of an additional
investigations/   trial or measurement in an
repeatability     experiment
                  Identify an additional trial or
Scientific        experiment that could be performed
investigations/   to enhance or evaluate experimental
repeatability     results
                                                                                                                                         Usually, changes in science occur as
                                                                                                                                         small modifications in extant
                                                                                                                                         knowledge. The daily work of
                                                                                                                                         science and engineering results in
                                                                                                                                         incremental advances in our
                                                                                                                                         understanding of the world and our
                                                     From time to time, major shifts occur                                               ability to meet human needs and
                                                     in the scientific view of how the world                                             aspirations. Much can be learned
                                                     works. More often, however, the                                                     about the internal workings of
                                                     changes that take place in the body                                                 science and the nature of science
                                                     of scientific knowledge are small                                                   from study of individual scientists,
                                                     modifications of prior knowledge.                                                   their daily work, and their efforts to
Scientific                                           Change and continuity are persistent                                                advance scientific knowledge in their
knowledge                                            features of science.                                                                area of study.
                                                     No matter how well one theory fits
                                                     observations, a new theory might fit
                                                     them just as well or better, or might
                                                     fit a wider range of observations. In
                                                     science, the testing, revising, and        Understand that science and the
                                                     occasional discarding of theories,         theories of science are not absolute
                                                     new and old, never ends. This              and should be questioned and
                                                     ongoing process leads to an                challenged. This includes the ideas
                                                     increasingly better understanding of       that new theories will continue to
                                                     how things work in the world but not       replace current or older ones,                                                                                                Know that science involves testing,
                                                     to absolute truth. Evidence for the        scientific theories must stand up to     Because all scientific ideas depend                                                  revising, and occasionally discarding
                                                     value of this approach is given by the     the scrutiny of the entire scientific    on experimental and observational                                                    theories; understand that scientific
                                                     improving ability of scientists to offer   community, and acceptable                confirmation, all scientific knowledge                                               inquiry and investigation leads to a
Scientific                                           reliable explanations and make             validation includes reproduction and     is, in principle, subject to change as                                               better understanding of the natural
knowledge                                            accurate predictions.                      internal consistency.                    new evidence becomes available.                                                      world and not to absolute truth


                                                                                                Know that investigations and public      Results of scientific inquiry--new
                                                                                                communication among scientists           knowledge and methods--emerge
                                                                                                must meet certain criteria in order to   from different types of investigations
                                                                                                result in new understanding and          and public communication among
                                                                                                methods. For example: arguments          scientists. In communicating and
                                                                                                must be logical and demonstrate          defending the results of scientific
                                                                                                consistency between natural              inquiry, arguments must be logical
                                                                                                phenomena revealed by                    and demonstrate connections
                                                                                                investigations and the historical body   between natural phenomena,
                                                                                                of scientific evidence and the           investigations, and the historical body
                                                                                                methods and procedures used to           of scientific knowledge. In addition,
                                                                                                obtain evidence must be clearly          the methods and procedures that
                                                                                                reported and reproducible to             scientists used to obtain evidence
Scientific                                                                                      enhance opportunities for further        must be clearly reported to enhance
knowledge                                                                                       investigation.                           opportunities for further investigation.
                                                     New ideas in science are limited by
                                                     the context in which they are
                                                     conceived; are often rejected by the
                                                     scientific establishment; sometimes        Know that scientists throughout          The historical perspective of scientific
                                                     spring from unexpected findings; and       history have had many difficulties       explanations demonstrates how
                                                     usually grow slowly, through               convincing their contemporaries to       scientific knowledge changes by            Correctly outlines the general
Scientific                                           contributions from many                    acknowledge what are now generally       evolving over time, almost always          historical development of a theory (or
knowledge                                            investigators.                             accepted scientific ideas.               building on earlier knowledge.             body of research)
                                                     Scientists assume that the universe                                                 Science distinguishes itself from
                                                     is a vast single system in which the                                                other ways of knowing and from
                                                     basic rules are the same                                                            other bodies of knowledge through
                                                     everywhere. The rules may range                                                     the use of empirical standards,            Correctly describes influential
                                                     from very simple to extremely                                                       logical arguments, and skepticism,         aspects of the scientific, historical,
                                                     complex, but scientists operate on         Have an overall understanding of         as scientists strive for the best          social, and/or cultural context in
Scientific                                           the belief that the rules can be           how scientific concepts, definitions,    possible explanations about the            which a scientific theory (or body of
knowledge                                            discovered by careful, systematic          and applications fit together.           natural world.                             research was developed)
                                                                                                Know about the central features of
                                                                                                historical traditions and
                                                                                                contemporary events that relate to                                                  Correctly and completely identifies
Scientific                                                                                      and influence the development of                                                    the major components or ideas of a
knowledge                                                                                       scientific inquiry.                                                                 scientific theory (or body of research)
                                                                                                Understand how scientific processes                                                 Correctly identifies and explains the
Scientific                                                                                      operate and how those processes                                                     scientific concepts, principles, or
knowledge                                                                                       relate to one another.                                                              theories involved and applied




                                                                                                                                                                                                     * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic      30
                                                                     Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                 Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                   ACT College Readiness Standards                                            Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education              Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic              for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy            University Success         Standards                               (PASS)                           Project

                                                   In the short run, new ideas that do
                                                   not mesh well with mainstream ideas
                                                   in science often encounter vigorous
                                                   criticism. In the long run, theories are
                                                   judged by how they fit with other
                                                   theories, the range of observations
                                                   they explain, how well they explain
Scientific                                         observations, and how effective they
knowledge                                          are in predicting new findings.

                                                                                                                                                                 Correctly identifies major contributors
                                                                                                                                                                 and proponents [of a scientific theory
Scientific                                                                                                                                                       (or body of research)] and their
knowledge                                                                                                                                                        contributions or support
                                                                                                                                                                 Discusses important social, cultural,
                                                                                                                                                                 or historical implications of a
                                                                                                                                                                 scientific theory, discovery, body of
Scientific                                                                                                                                                       research or scientific writing (when
knowledge                                                                                                                                                        applicable)
                                                                                                                                                                 Examines the thinking and processes
                                                                                                                                                                 used by scientists to investigate a
Scientific                                                                                                                                                       phenomenon, develop a theory, or
knowledge                                                                                                                                                        test a hypothesis
                                                                                                                                                                 Identifies the major scientific
Scientific                                                                                                                                                       implications of a theory, discovery,
knowledge                                                                                                                                                        body of research, or scientific writing
                                                                                                                                                                 Objectively identifies major critics
Scientific                                                                                                                                                       and criticisms [of a scientific theory
knowledge                                          A system usually has some                                                                                     (or body of research)]
                                                   properties that are different from
                                                   those of its parts, but appear                                                                                Demonstrates knowledge and
                                                   because of the interaction of those                                                                           applied understanding of systems,
Systems thinking                                   parts.                                                                                                        order, and organization

                                                   Even in some very simple systems, it
                                                   may not always be possible to
                                                   predict accurately the result of
Systems thinking                                   changing some part or connection.
                                                   The successful operation of a
                                                   designed system usually involves
                                                   feedback. The feedback of output
                                                   from some parts of a system to input
                                                   of other parts can be used to
                                                   encourage what is going on in a
                                                   system, discourage it, or reduce its
                                                   discrepancy from some desired
                                                   value. The stability of a system can
                                                   be greater when it includes
Systems thinking                                   appropriate feedback mechanisms.

                                                   Understanding how things work and
                                                   designing solutions to problems of
                                                   almost any kind can be facilitated by
                                                   systems analysis. In defining a
                                                   system, it is important to specify its
                                                   boundaries and subsystems, indicate
                                                   its relation to other systems, and
                                                   identify what its input and its output
Systems thinking                                   are expected to be.
                                                   Because different properties are not
                                                   affected to the same degree by
                                                   changes in scale, large changes in
                                                   scale typically change the way that
                                                   things work in physical, biological, or
Systems thinking                                   social systems.
                                                   As the number of parts of a system
                                                   increases, the number of possible
                                                   interactions between pairs of parts
Systems thinking                                   increases much more rapidly.
Technological                                                                                                            Communicate the problem, process,
design                                                                                                                   and [technological] solution.
Technological                                                                                                            Evaluate the [technological] solution
design                                                                                                                   and its consequences.
Technological                                                                                                            Implement a proposed
design                                                                                                                   [technological] solution.
                                                                                                                         Propose [technological] designs and
Technological                                                                                                            choose between alternative
design                                                                                                                   solutions.



                                                                                                                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   31
                                                                     Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                     Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                    ACT College Readiness Standards                                         Knowledge and Skills for                    National Science Education   Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic               for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy         University Success                          Standards                    (PASS)                           Project
MATH
FOUNDATIONAL
SKILLS FOR
SCIENCE
                                                                                            Add, subtract, multiply and divide
Addition/                                                                                   with a high, consistent degree of
subtraction                                                                                 accuracy.*
                                                                                            Understand that a curve drawn in a
                                                                                            certain location is fully equivalent to a
Analytic geometry                                                                           set of algebraic equations.
                                                                                            Possess the ability to represent a
                                                                                            geometrical figure (e.g., a triangle or
                                                                                            a circle) on a plane using a set of
                                                                                            equations, as in descriptive
Analytic geometry                                                                           geometry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Provides evidence of understanding
                                                                                                                                                                                                       surface area to volume
                                                                                                                                                                                                       relationships/ratios (e.g. negative
Analytic geometry                                                                                                                                                                                      feedback loop)

                                                    Describe spatial relationships in
                                                    geometric terms such as
Communicating                                       perpendicular, parallel, tangent,
about mathematics                                   similar, congruent, and symmetrical.*
                                                                                            Understand the use of written
                                                                                            symbols and the limitations on
                                                                                            appropriate uses of such symbols
Communicating                                                                               (e.g., equal signs, parentheses and
about mathematics                                                                           superscript).
                                                    Choose appropriate summary
                                                    statistics to describe group
                                                    differences, always indicating the Understand descriptive statistics
                                                    spread of the data as well as the  (e.g., mean, median, mode and
Data distribution                                   data's central tendencies.         standard deviation).
                                                    Compare data for two groups by
                                                    representing their averages and
Data distribution                                   spreads graphically.
                                                    Use computer spreadsheet,
Data organization                                   graphing, and database programs to
and display                                         assist in quantitative analysis.
                                                                                       Understand and use data
Data organization                                                                      represented in various ways (e.g.,
and display                                                                            charts, tables, plots and graphs).
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Analyzes data with an understanding
                                                                                                                                                                                                       of measurement principles including:
                                                                                                                                                                                                       dimensional analysis, significant
                                                                                                                                                                                                       figures, scientific notation, error
                                                                                                                                                                                                       analysis and error propagation,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       statistical analysis, reasoning,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       including rationale behind
                                                                                                                                                                                                       experimental error, and analysis of
Data organization                                                                                                                                                                                      the closeness of fit of data to a
and display                                                                                                                                                                                            function

                                                                                            Know when it is possible to simplify,
                                                                                            solve, substitute in or evaluate
                                                                                            equations and expressions and when
                                                                                            it is not. For example, expand, but
                                                                                            not solve, the expression (x 1)(x +4);
                                                                                            substitute a = 2, b = 4 into the
                                                                                            formula a2 + b2 = c2; solve the
                                                                                            equation 0 = (x +3)(x+1); and
Equations and                                                                               evaluate the function f(x)=(x+1)(x+4)
inequalities                                                                                at x = -1.
                                                    Trace the source of any large
                                                    disparity between an estimate and
Estimation                                          the calculated answer.

                                                                                            Know how to make estimates and
                                                                                            approximations and when to use
Estimation                                                                                  those approaches to solve problems.
                                                    Express and compare very small and
Exponents/                                          very large numbers using powers-of- Use exponents and scientific
logarithms/roots                                    ten notation. large numbers in
                                                    Representing                        notation.
                                                    terms of powers of ten makes it
                                                    easier to think about them and to
Exponents/                                          compare things that are greatly
logarithms/roots                                    different.
Expressions                                                                             Simplify rational expressions.




                                                                                                                                                                                  * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   32
                                                                             Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                        Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                     ACT College Readiness Standards                                               Knowledge and Skills for                National Science Education   Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic                for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy               University Success                      Standards                    (PASS)                           Project
                                                                                                   Know the definition of a
                                                                                                   mathematical expression (a
                                                                                                   statement using numbers and
                                                                                                   symbols to represent mathematical
Expressions                                                                                        ideas and real world situations).
                                                                                                   Understand various types of
                                                                                                   functions (e.g., direct and inverse
                                                                                                   variation, polynomial, radical, step
                                                                                                   and sinusoidal), and have a deep
                                                                                                   understanding of exponential and
Functions                                                                                          logarithmic functions.
                                                                                                   Are familiar with the concept of
Functions                                                                                          continuity.

Likelihood/                                                                                                                                                                                               Applies simple statistics (e.g.,
chance/certainty                                                                                                                                                                                          probability as it pertains to genetics)

Measurement                                                 Consider the possible effects of
estimation                                                  measurement errors on calculations.
                                                                                                   Add, subtract, multiply and divide
Multiplication/                                                                                    with a high, consistent degree of
division                                                                                           accuracy.*
                                                                                                   Understand the real number system
Number systems                                                                                     and its properties.
                                                                                                   Know the difference between
                                                                                                   accuracy and precision, as well as
Precision/           Understand precision and accuracy                                             how to use significant digits
accuracy             issues                                                                        appropriately.
                                                            Make up and write out simple
                                                            algorithms for solving problems that
Problem-solving                                             take several steps.

                                                            Find answers to problems by
                                                            substituting numerical values in
                                                            simple algebraic formulas and judge
                                                            whether the answer is reasonable by
                                                            reviewing the process and checking
Problem-solving                                             against typical values.
                                                                                                   Use various strategies to approach
                                                                                                   problem-solving situations and to
Problem-solving                                                                                    revise solution processes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Uses quantitative reasoning to
                                                                                                                                                                                                          describe natural phenomena and
                                                                                                                                                                                                          solve scientific problems (e.g. linear,
                                                                                                                                                                                                          inverse, quadratic, trigonometric,
Problem-solving                                                                                                                                                                                           exponential, logarithmic)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Correctly interprets information
                                                                                                                                                                                                          symbolically, mathematically, and
Problem-solving                                                                                                                                                                                           numerically

                                                                                                  Use proportional reasoning to solve
                                                            Use ratios and proportions, including problems (e.g., equivalent fractions,                                                                   Provides evidence of recognizing
Ratio/ proportion/                                          constant rates, in appropriate        equal ratios, constant rate of change,                                                                  proportional and inverse proportional
percent                                                     problems.                             proportions and percents).                                                                              relationships
                                                                                                  Understand ratios, proportions and
Ratio/ proportion/                                                                                percents and how each is related to
percent                                                                                           the other.
Ratio/ proportion/
percent                                                     Make and interpret scale drawings.
Reasoning and
predicting from      Interpolate between data points in a
data                 table or graph
Reasoning and
predicting from                                                                                    Understand that predictions based
data                                                                                               on sample data are inferential.
                                                                                                   Represent functions, patterns and
                                                                                                   mathematical relationships using a
Representing                                                                                       variety of models (e.g., statements,
problems                                                                                           formulas, and graphs).
                                                                                                   Use formal notation to describe
Sequences and                                                                                      applications of sequences and
series                                                                                             series.
                                                                                                   Know the definitions of sine, cosine
                                                                                                   and tangent in relation to right
                                                                                                   triangle geometry and similarity
Trigonometry                                                                                       relations.
                                                                                                   Select and use appropriate units to
Units of                                                                                           express measurements for real-
measurement                                                                                        world problems.


                                                                                                                                                                                     * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    33
                                                                          Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                                                                  Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                 ACT College Readiness Standards                                                  Knowledge and Skills for                 National Science Education             Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic            for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy                  University Success                       Standards                              (PASS)                           Project

                                                                                                  Understand the differences between
                                                                                                  the metric and the traditional U.S.
                                                                                                  measurement system and are able
Units of                                                                                          to perform simple conversions
measurement                                                                                       between the two.
Units of
measurement                                                                                       Use unit analysis in problem solving.
                 Determine how the value of one
                 variable changes as the value of
                 another variable changes in a
Variables        complex data presentation*
                 Determine how the value of one
                 variable changes as the value of
                 another variable changes in a simple
Variables        data presentation*
                                                                                                  Know ways that variables can be
                                                                                                  used (e.g., as a placeholder for an
                                                                                                  unknown, such as x + 2 = 9, or to
                                                                                                  represent a range of values, such as -
Variables                                                                                         3m - 8).
                                                                                                  Understand vectors and how they
                                                                                                  can be used (e.g., representing
Vectors                                                                                           velocity and force).
                                                                                                  Use operations on vectors (e.g.,
                                                                                                  vector addition and scalar
Vectors                                                                                           multiplication).
                                                        Recall immediately the relations
Whole numbers/                                          among 10, 100, 1000, 1 million, and
place value/                                            1 billion (knowing, for example, that 1
numeration                                              million is a thousand thousands).
HABITS OF MIND

                                                                                                  Accept failure and ambiguity as part
Perseverance                                                                                      of the experimentation process. for
                                                                                                  Engage in the scientific process
                                                                                                  long period of time as hypotheses
Perseverance                                                                                      are tested and re-tested.
Perseverance                                                                                      Persist in the quest for solutions.

                                                                                                  Take risks to understand the
Perseverance                                                                                      intricacies and mysteries of science.
                                                                                                  Understand that scientific learning is
                                                                                                  an ongoing scholarly activity that
                                                                                                  requires time, sustained
                                                                                                  engagement, reflective study skills,
Perseverance                                                                                      patience, and persistence.
Time/task
management                                                                                        Know how and when to ask for help.
Time/task                                                                                         Manage time according to course
management                                                                                        expectations.
                                                        Know why curiosity, honesty,
                                                        openness, and skepticism are so
                                                        highly regarded in science and how
                                                        they are incorporated into the way
                                                        science is carried out; exhibit those                                              Creativity, imagination, and a good                                      Analyze and explain why curiosity,
Values and                                              traits in their own lives and value       Act on curiosity to develop a scientific knowledge base are all required in                                       honesty, openness, and skepticism
attitudes                                               them in others.                           knowledge base.                          the work of science and engineering.                                     are integral to scientific inquiry
                                                        View science and technology
                                                        thoughtfully, being neither
Values and                                              categorically antagonistic nor
attitudes                                               uncritically positive.
Values and
attitudes                                                                                         Are capable of experimental thinking.
Values and                                                                                        Show willingness to question existing
attitudes                                                                                         results.*
                                                                                                  Inquire about their place in the
                                                                                                  universe and question their own
Values and                                                                                        scientific knowledge and beliefs
attitudes                                                                                         beyond mere curiosity.*
                                                                                                  Address the questions such as, "Do I
Values and                                                                                        know for sure?" and "How do I
attitudes                                                                                         know?".
                                                                                                  Think creatively when developing
Values and                                                                                        hypotheses and estimating potential
attitudes                                                                                         results.*
                                                                                                  Exercise scientific common sense
Values and                                                                                        (e.g., healthy skepticism) when
attitudes                                                                                         reading scientific literature.




                                                                                                                                                                                               * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic   34
                                                               Comparative Analysis of Science College/Workplace Readiness Standards

                                                                                                                                          Oregon State’s Proficiency-based Washington Competency-based
                ACT College Readiness Standards                                   Knowledge and Skills for   National Science Education   Admissions Standards System      Admissions Standards Pilot
Topic           for Science                     Benchmarks for Science Literacy   University Success         Standards                    (PASS)                           Project

                                                                                                                                                                            Achieves a level of scientific literacy
                                                                                                                                                                            that is a foundation for informed
Values and                                                                                                                                                                  citizenship and further learning in the
attitudes                                                                                                                                                                   sciences and other disciplines
OTHER

                                                                                                                                                                            Investigate the scientific,
                                                                                                                                                                            mathematical, and technological
                                                                                                                                                                            knowledge, training, and experience
Career                                                                                                                                                                      needed for occupational/career
goals/options                                                                                                                                                               areas of interest




                                                                                                                                                       * This statement appears verbatim under more than one topic    35

				
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