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Nouvelle-Écosse, Alba Nuadh New Scotland (English)
Density GDP Total (2006) Per capita Abbreviations Postal ISO 3166-2 Time zone Postal code prefix
17.49 /km² (45.3 /sq mi) Ranked 7th C$31.966 billion C$34,210 (11th) NS CA-NS UTC-4 B
Coat of arms
Flower Mayflower Tree Red Spruce Bird Osprey Website www.gov.ns.ca
Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit
(Latin: One defends and the other conquers)
Rankings include all provinces and territories
Capital Largest city Largest metro Official languages Demonym Government Lieutenant-Governor Premier Federal representation House seats Senate seats Confederation Area Total Land Water (%) Population Total (2009)
Halifax Halifax Halifax Urban Area English Nova Scotian
Mayann E. Francis Rodney MacDonald (PC) in Canadian Parliament 11 10 July 1, 1867 (1st) Ranked 12th 55,283 km2 (21,345 sq mi) 53,338 km2 (20,594 sq mi) 1,946 km2 (751 sq mi) (3.5%) Ranked 7th 939,531 (est.)
Nova Scotia (pronounced /ˌnoʊvəˈskoʊʃə/; Latin for New Scotland; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh; French: NouvelleÉcosse) is a Canadian province located on Canada’s southeastern coast. It is the most-populous province in Atlantic Canada. Its capital, Halifax, is a major economic centre of the region. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest province in Canada with an area of 55,284 km². Its population of 939,531 makes it the fourth-least-populous province of the country, though second-most-densely populated. Nova Scotia’s economy is traditionally largely resource-based, but has diversified since the middle of the 20th century. Industries such as fishing, mining, forestry and agriculture remain very important and have been joined by tourism, technology, film, music, and finance. The province includes several regions of the Mi’kmaq nation of Mi’gma’gi, which covered all of the Maritimes, as well as parts of Maine, Newfoundland and the Gaspé Peninsula. Nova Scotia was already home to the Mi’kmaq people when the first European colonists arrived. In 1604, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement north of Florida at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia. The British Empire obtained control of the region between 1713 and 1760, and established a new capital at Halifax in 1749. In 1867 Nova Scotia was one of the founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation,
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along with New Brunswick, and the Province of Canada (which became the separate provinces of Quebec and Ontario).
is also very foggy in places, with Halifax averaging 196 foggy days per year and Yarmouth 191. The average annual temperatures are: • Spring from 1° to 17°C • Summer from 14° to 25°C • Fall about 5° to 20°C • Winter about -11° to 5°C Due to the ocean’s moderating effect Nova Scotia is the warmest of the provinces in Canada. Nova Scotia also has a fairly wide but not extreme temperature range, a late and long summer, skies that are often cloudy or overcast; frequent coastal fog and marked changeability of weather from day to day. The main factors influencing Nova Scotia’s climate are: • The effects of the westerly winds • The interaction between three main air masses which converge on the east coast • Nova Scotia’s location on the routes of the major eastward-moving storms • The modifying influence of the sea. Because Nova Scotia juts out into the Atlantic, it is prone to tropical storms and hurricanes in the summer and autumn. There have been 33 such storms, including 12 hurricanes, since records were kept in 1871—about once every four years. The last hurricane was category-one Hurricane Kyle in September 2008, and the last tropical storm was Tropical Storm Noel in 2007 (downgraded from Hurricane Noel by the time the storm reached Nova Scotia).
The province’s mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km (40 mi) from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is also part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks, approximately 175 km (109 mi) from the province’s southern coast. Nova Scotia is Canada’s second-smallest province in area (after Prince Edward Island). Nova Scotia is also Canada’s most-southern-centered province even though it does not have the most-southern location in Canada, which is in Ontario. Because part of Ontario stretches far to the north, Ontario’s centre is further north than Nova Scotia’s.
Paleo-Indians camped at locations in present-day Nova Scotia approximately 11,000 years ago. Native are believed to have been present in the area between 1,000 and 5,000 years ago. Mi’kmaq, the First Nations of the province and region, are their direct descendants. It is most widely believed that the Italian explorer John Cabot visited present-day Cape Breton in 1497. The first European settlement in Nova Scotia was established more than a century later in 1604. The French, led by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts established the first capital for the colony Acadia at Port Royal that year at the head of the Annapolis Basin. Also, French fishermen established a settlement at Canso the same year. In 1620, the Plymouth Council for New England, under King James I (of England) & VI (of Scots) designated the whole shorelines of Acadia and the Mid-Atlantic colonies south to the Chesapeake Bay as New England. The first documented Scottish settlement in the Americas was of Nova Scotia in 1621. On 29 September 1621, the charter for the foundation of a colony was granted by James VI to William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling and, in 1622, the first settlers left Scotland. This settlement initially failed because of difficulties in obtaining a sufficient number of skilled emigrants, and in 1624
Map of Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental rather than maritime. The temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. Described on the provincial vehicle-licence plate as Canada’s Ocean Playground, the sea is a major influence on Nova Scotia’s climate. Nova Scotia is known to have cold winters and warm summers. The province is surrounded by three major bodies of water, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east. Rainfall varies from 140 centimetres (55 in) in the south to 100 centimetres (40 in) elsewhere. Nova Scotia
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James VI created a new order of baronets. Admission to this order was obtained by sending six labourers or artisans, sufficiently armed, dressed and supplied for two years, to Nova Scotia, or by paying 3,000 merks to William Alexander. For six months, no one took up this offer until James compelled one to make the first move. In 1627, there was a wider uptake of baronetcies and thus more settlers available to go to Nova Scotia. However, in 1627, war broke out between England and France, and the French re-established a settlement at Port Royal which they had originally settled. Later that year, a combined Scottish and English force destroyed the French settlement, forcing them out. In 1629, the first Scottish settlement at Port Royal was inhabited. The colony’s charter, in law, made Nova Scotia (defined as all land between Newfoundland and New England) a part of mainland Scotland; this was later used to get around the English navigation acts. However, this did not last long: in 1631, under King Charles I, the Treaty of Suza was signed which returned Nova Scotia to the French. The Scots were forced by Charles to abandon their mission before their colony had been properly established, and the French assumed control of the Mi’kmaq and other First Nations territory. In 1654, King Louis XIV of France appointed aristocrat Nicholas Denys as Governor of Acadia and granted him the confiscated lands and the right to all its minerals. English colonists captured Acadia in the course of King William’s War, but England returned the territory to France in the Treaty of Ryswick at the end of the war. The territory was recaptured by forces loyal to Britain during the course of Queen Anne’s War, and its conquest was confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713. France retained possession of Île St Jean (Prince Edward Island) and Île Royale (Cape Breton Island), on which it established a fortress at Louisbourg to guard the sea approaches to Quebec. This fortress was captured by American colonial forces, then returned by the British to France, then ceded again after the French and Indian War of 1755. Thus mainland Nova Scotia became a British colony in 1713, although Samuel Vetch had a precarious hold on the territory as governor from the fall of Acadian PortRoyal (Annapolis Royal) in October 1710. British governing officials became increasingly concerned over the unwillingness of the French-speaking, Roman Catholic Acadians, who were the majority of colonists, to pledge allegiance to the British Crown, then George II. The colony remained mostly Acadian despite the establishment of Halifax as the province’s capital, and the settlement of a large number of foreign Protestants (some French and Swiss but mostly German) at Lunenburg in 1753. In 1755, the British forcibly expelled over 12,000 Acadians in what became known as the Grand Dérangement, or Great Expulsion.
At the same time the British Crown began bestowing land grants in Nova Scotia on favored subjects to encourage settlement and trade with the mother country. In June 1764, for instance, the Boards of Trade requested the King make massive land grants to such Royal favorites as Thomas Pownall, Richard Oswald, Humphry Bradstreet, John Wentworth, Thomas Thoroton and Lincoln’s Inn barrister Levett Blackborne. Two years later, in 1766, at a gathering at the home of Levett Blackborne, an adviser to the Duke of Rutland, Oswald and his friend James Grant were released from their Nova Scotia properties so they could concentrate on their grants in British East Florida. The colony’s jurisdiction changed during this time. Nova Scotia was granted a supreme court in 1754 with the appointment of Jonathan Belcher and a Legislative Assembly in 1758. In 1763 Cape Breton Island became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John’s Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony. The county of Sunbury was created in 1765, and included all of the territory of current day New Brunswick and eastern Maine as far as the Penobscot River. In 1784 the western, mainland portion of the colony was separated and became the province of New Brunswick, and the territory in Maine entered the control of the newly independent American state of Massachusetts. Cape Breton became a separate colony in 1784 only to be returned to Nova Scotia in 1820.
During the colonial period, Nova Scotia issued its own postage stamps printed in England. This distinctive diamond shape (issued between 1851 and 1857) was also used by neighbouring New Brunswick. Ancestors of more than half of present-day Nova Scotians arrived in the period following the Acadian Expulsion. Between 1759 and 1768, about 8,000 New England Planters responded to Governor Charles Lawrence’s request for settlers from the New England colonies.
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that it was no more than the annexation of the province to the pre-existing province of Canada: "...the scheme [confederation with Canada] by them assented to would, if adopted, deprive the people [of Nova Scotia] of the inestimable privilege of self-government, and of their rights, liberty, and independence, rob them of their revenue, take from them the regulation of trade and taxation, expose them to arbitrary taxation by a legislature over which they have no control, and in which they would possess but a nominal and entirely ineffective representation; deprive them of their invaluable fisheries, railroads, and other property, and reduce this hitherto free, happy, and self-governed province to a degraded condition of a servile dependency of Canada." – from Address to the Crown by the Government (Journal of the House of Assembly, Province of Nova Scotia, 1868) A motion passed by the Nova Scotia House of Assembly in 1868 refusing to recognise the legitimacy of Confederation has never been rescinded. Repeal, as anti-confederation became known, would rear its head again in the 1880s, and transform into the Maritime Rights Movement in the 1920s. Some Nova Scotia flags flew at half mast on Dominion Day as late as that time.
Nova Scotia stamp issued 1860. Several years later, approximately 30,000 United Empire Loyalists (American Tories) settled in Nova Scotia (when it comprised present-day Maritime Canada) following the defeat of the British in the American Revolutionary War. Of these 30,000, 14,000 went to New Brunswick and 16,000 went to Nova Scotia. Approximately 3,000 of this group were Black Loyalists, about a third of whom soon relocated themselves to Sierra Leone in 1792 via the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor, becoming the Original settlers of Freetown. Large numbers of Gaelicspeaking Highland Scots emigrated to Cape Breton and the western part of the mainland during the late 18th century and 19th century. About one thousand UlsterScots settled in mainly central Nova Scotia during this time, as did just over a thousand farming migrants from Yorkshire and Northumberland between 1772 and 1775. Nova Scotia was the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January-February 1848 and become selfgoverning through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Pro-Confederate premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation in 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. In the provincial election of 1868, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature. For seven years, William Annand and Joseph Howe led the ultimately unsuccessful fight to convince British imperial authorities to release Nova Scotia from Confederation. The government was vocally against Confederation, contending
According to the 2001 Canadian census the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia is Scottish (29.3%), followed by English (28.1%), Irish (19.9%), French (16.7%), German (10.0%), Dutch (3.9%), First Nations (3.2%), Welsh (1.4%), Italian (1.3%), and Acadian (1.2%). Peoples of European descent thus make up approximately 96.8% of the total population. Almost half of all respondents (47.4%) identified their ethnicity as "Canadian." Top Ten Counties by Population County Halifax (county) 2001 2006 359,183 372,858
Cape Breton 109,330 105,928 (county) Kings County Colchester County Lunenburg County Pictou County 58,866 49,307 47,591 46,965 60,035 50,023 47,150 46,513
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Rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Hants County Language English French Arabic Mi’kmaq German Chinese Dutch Polish Spanish Greek Italian Korean Gaelic 40,513 41,182 32,046 26,277 21,438 15,544 Respondants 832,105 32,540 4,425 4,060 4,045 3,370 2,440 1,570 1,305 1,035 905 860 799 Percentage 92.53% 3.62% 0.49% 0.45% 0.45% 0.37% 0.27% 0.17% 0.15% 0.12% 0.10% 0.10% 0.10%
Cumberland 32,605 County Yarmouth County Annapolis County Shelburne County 26,843 21,773 16,231
In addition, there were also 105 responses of both English and a ’non-official language’; 25 of both French and a ’non-official language’; 495 of both English and French; 10 of English, French, and a ’non-official language’; and about 10,300 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response. Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.
The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 327,940 (37 %); the United Church of Canada with 142,520 (16 %); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 120,315 (13 %).
The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 913,462. Of the 899,270 singular responses to the census question concerning ’mother tongue’ the most-commonly reported languages were:
Nova Scotia’s traditionally resource-based economy has become more diverse in recent decades. The rise of Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in North America was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian shelf. The fishery was pillar of the economy since its development as part of the economy of New France in the 17th century. However, the fishery suffered a sharp decline due to overfishing in the late twentieth century. The collapse of the cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992. Per capita GDP in 2005 was $31,344, lower than the national average per capita GDP of $34,273 and less than half that of Canada’s richest province, Alberta.
Peggys Cove Harbour
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Due, in part, to a strong small-business sector, Nova Scotia now has one of the fastest-growing economies in Canada. Small business makes up 92.2% of the provincial economy. Mining, especially of gypsum, salt and barite, is also a significant sector. Since 1991, offshore oil and gas has become an increasingly important part of the economy. Agriculture remains an important sector in the province. In the central part of Nova Scotia, lumber and paper industries are responsible for much of the employment opportunities. Nova Scotia’s defence and aerospace sector generates approximately $500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the provincial economy annually. Nova Scotia has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the products of international film and television producers. The Nova Scotia tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs. 200,000 cruise ship passengers from around the world flow through the Port of Halifax, Nova Scotia each year. Halifax ranks among the top five most cost-effective places to do business when compared to large international centres in North America, Europe and AsiaPacific.
collected by the federal government using the GST tax system. Nova Scotia has elected three minority governments over the last decade. The Progressive Conservative government of John Hamm, and now Rodney MacDonald, has required the support of the New Democratic Party or Liberal Party since the election in 2003. Nova Scotia’s politics are divided on regional lines in such a way that it has become difficult to elect a majority government. Rural mainland Nova Scotia has largely been aligned behind the Progressive Conservative Party, Halifax Regional Municipality has overwhelmingly supported the New Democrats, with Cape Breton voting for Liberals with a few Progressive Conservatives and New Democrats. This has resulted in a three-way split of votes on a provincewide basis for each party and difficulty in any party gaining a majority. Progressive Conservative Premier Dr. Hamm announced his retirement in late 2005 and was replaced by Rodney MacDonald after MacDonald won a closely contested leadership convention, defeating former finance minister, and the race’s frontrunner, Neil LeBlanc on the first ballot and Halifax businessman Bill Black on the second. MacDonald is the second-youngest premier in Nova Scotia’s history.
Government and politics
Further information: Politics of Nova Scotia, Monarchy in Nova Scotia, and Government of Nova Scotia The government of Nova Scotia is a parliamentary democracy. Its unicameral legislature, the Nova Scotia House of Assembly, consists of fifty-two members. As Canada’s head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is the head of Nova Scotia’s Executive Council, which serves as the Cabinet of the provincial government. Her Majesty’s duties in Nova Scotia are carried out by her representative, the Lieutenant-Governor, currently Mayann E. Francis. The government is headed by the Premier, Rodney MacDonald, who took office February 22, 2006. Halifax is home to the House of Assembly and LieutenantGovernor. The province’s revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also significant. In 2006-07, the Province passed a budget of $6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Federal equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of the provincial revenue. While Nova Scotians have enjoyed balanced budgets for several years, the accumulated debt exceeds $12 billion (including forecasts of future liability, such as pensions and environmental cleanups), resulting in slightly over $897 million in debt servicing payments, or 12.67% of expenses. The province participates in the HST, a blended sales tax
Halifax, provincial capital The last election on June 13, 2006 elected 23 Progressive Conservatives, 20 New Democrats and 9 Liberals, leaving Nova Scotia with a Progressive Conservative minority government. Nova Scotia no longer has any incorporated cities; they were amalgamated into Regional Municipalities in 1996. Halifax, the provincial capital, is now part of the Halifax Regional Municipality, as is Dartmouth, formerly the province’s second largest city. The former city of Sydney is now part of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. The House of Assembly passed a motion in 2004 inviting the Turks and Caicos Islands to join the province, should these Caribbean islands renew their wish to join Canada.  See also: List of Nova Scotia Premiers
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A satellite photo of Nova Scotia. The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act and other acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. The powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council regulations. Nova Scotia has more than 450 public schools for children. The public system offers primary to Grade 12. There are also some private schools in the province. Public education is administered by seven regional school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire Acadien Provincial, which administer French instruction to students for whom the primary language is French. The Nova Scotia Community College system has 13 campuses around the province. The community college, with its focus on training and education, was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province’s former vocational schools. The province has 12 universities and colleges, including Dalhousie University, University of King’s College, Saint Mary’s University (Halifax), Mount Saint Vincent University, NSCAD University, Acadia University, Université Sainte-Anne, Saint Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Cape Breton University, and the Atlantic School of Theology.
The lighthouse situated on Peggys Point, immediately south of Peggys Cove established cultural groups, that are sometimes referred to as the "founding cultures". Originally populated by the Mi’kmaq First Nation, the first European settlers were the French, who founded Acadia in 1604. Nova Scotia was briefly colonized by Scottish settlers in 1620, though by 1624 the Scottish settlers had been removed by treaty and the area was turned over to the French until the mid-18th century. After the defeat of the French and prior expulsion of the Acadians, settlers of English, Irish, Scottish and African descent began arriving on the shores of Nova Scotia. Settlement was greatly accelerated by the resettlement of Loyalists in Nova Scotia during the period following the end of the American Revolutionary War. It was during this time that a large African Nova Scotian community took root, populated by freed slaves and Loyalist blacks and their families, who had fought for the crown in exchange for land. This community later grew when the Royal Navy began intercepting slave ships destined for the United States, and deposited these free slaves on the shores of Nova Scotia. Later, in the 19th century the Irish Famine and, especially, the Scottish Highland Clearances resulted in large influxes of migrants with Celtic cultural roots, which helped to define the dominantly Celtic character of Cape
Despite the small population of the province, Nova Scotia’s music and culture is influenced by several well-
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Breton and the north mainland of the province. This Gaelic influence continues to play an important role in defining the cultural life of the province and around 500 - 2000 Nova Scotians today are fluent in Scottish Gaelic. Nearly all live in Antigonish County or on Cape Breton Island. Modern Nova Scotia is a mix of many cultures. The government works to support Mi’kmaq, French, Gaelic and African-Nova Scotian culture through the establishment of government secretariats, as well as colleges, educational programs and cultural centres. The Province is also eager to attract new immigrants, but has had limited success. The major population centres at Halifax and Sydney are the most cosmopolitan, hosting large Arab populations (in the former) and Eastern European populations (in the latter). Halifax Regional Municipality hosts a yearly multicultural festival. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Cape Breton Regional Municipality Halifax Regional Municipality Sable Island Bay of Fundy - renowned for having the world’s highest tides Kejimkujik National Park List of parks in Nova Scotia List of Nova Scotia counties List of communities in Nova Scotia List of Nova Scotia rivers Symbols of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia House of Assembly List of Nova Scotia lieutenant-governors List of Nova Scotia premiers List of cities in Canada List of Nova Scotia provincial highways List of Canadian provincial and territorial symbols Sunday shopping Same-sex marriage in Nova Scotia List of colleges and universities in Nova Scotia Petroleum Pricing in Nova Scotia Scouting in Nova Scotia Emergency Health Services in Nova Scotia Central Nova Tourist Association Goler clan Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron
Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. Halifax has emerged as the leading cultural centre in the Atlantic region. The city hosts such institutions such as NSCAD University, one of Canada’s leading art, craft and design universities, and the Symphony Nova Scotia, the only full orchestra performing in Atlantic Canada. The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing, and a film industry. Nova Scotia is arguably best known for its music. While popular music from many genres has experienced almost two decades of explosive growth and success in Nova Scotia, the province remains best known for its folk and traditional based music. Nova Scotia’s traditional (or folk) music is Scottish in character, and traditions from Scotland are kept true to form, in some cases more so than in Scotland. This is especially true of the island of Cape Breton, one of the major international centres for Celtic music. On mainland Nova Scotia, particularly in some of the rural villages throughout Guysborough County, Irish-influenced styles of music are commonly played, due to the predominance of Irish culture in many of the county’s villages.
       ^ Statistics Canada. "Canada’s population estimates 2009-26-03". http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/ 090326/t090326a2-eng.htm. Retrieved on 2009-07-04. Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory Ted Harrison (1993). O Canada. Ticknor & Fields. Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada Environment Canada - Atlantic Climate Centre The Climate of Nova Scotia Thomas Blackborne Thoroton was married to an illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Rutland. He and other family members, including Thoroton’s half-brother Levett Blackborne, a barrister, had close business and social relationships with Richard Oswald and James Grant, who were instrumental in the English colonies in East Florida and Nova Scotia. Representation to His Majesty with a List of Several persons for Grants of Lands in Nova Scotia, Representations of the Lords of Trade to the King, June 5, 1764, www.heritage.nf.ca The Florida Historical Quarterly, vol. LIV, No. 4, April 1976, Gainesville, FL
• • • • • • • • • Wikiproject Nova Scotia Portal: Nova Scotia Scotia List of airports in Nova Scotia List of articles on Nova Scotia by topic List of renowned Nova Scotians The Gaelic Language in Canada List of Nova Scotia schools Cape Breton Island 
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 Statistics Canada (2005). "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (Census 2001)". http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/demo26d.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2006 Census)  Religions in Canada  Fish in Crisis. / "The Starving Ocean". http://www.fisherycrisis.com /. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  Government of Nova Scotia (2007). "Economics and Statistics". http://www.gov.ns.ca/finance/statistics/ agency/index.asp. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  ^ Carter, S. (ed.) Migrationnews Canada. 2007-2008 Edition. Oceania Development Group. Retrieved on: October 10, 2008.  Nova Scotia Business Inc. Defence, Security & Aerospace.Retrieved on: October 10, 2008.  Nova Scotia Film Development Corporation Production Statistics for the 12 Month Period Ended March 31, 2008. Retrieved on: October 10, 2008.  Tourism Industry Association of Nova Scotia. Tourism Summit 2008. Retrieved on: October 10, 2008.  Government of Nova Scotia. [http://www.gov.ns.ca/econ/exportstrategy/ docs/Export_Development_Strategy-NS.pdf Going Global, Staying Local: A Partnership Strategy for Export Development]. Retrieved on: October 10, 2008.  Government of Nova Scotia. "Nova Scotia estimates 2006-2007" (PDF). http://www.gov.ns.ca/finance/ budget06/2006-2007%20estimates%20book.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  Government of Nova Scotia (1996). "Education Act". http://www.gov.ns.ca/legislature/legc/statutes/ eductn.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  Nova Scotia Archives (May). "Gaelic Resources". http://www.gov.ns.ca/nsarm/virtual/gaelic/. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  Office of Gaelic Affairs  Nova Scotia Office of Immigration. "Nova Scotia". http://www.novascotiaimmigration.com/. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.  "Nova Scotia Multicultural Festival". 2007. http://www.multifest.ca/. Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
• Choyce, Lesley. Nova Scotia: Shaped by the Sea. A Living History. Toronto: Penguin Books Canada, 1996. 305 pp. • Donovan, Kenneth, ed. Cape Breton at 200: Historical Essays in Honour of the Island’s Bicentennial, 1785-1985. Sydney, N.S.: U. Coll. of Cape Breton Pr., 1985. 261 pp. • Fingard, Judith; Guildford, Janet; and Sutherland, David. Halifax: The First 250 Years Halifax: Formac, 1999. 192 pp. • Girard, Philip; Phillips, Jim; and Cahill, Barry, ed. The Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1754-2004: From Imperial Bastion to Provincial Oracle U. of Toronto Press 2004. • Johnson, Ralph S. Forests of Nova Scotia: A History. Tantallon: Nova Scotia Dept. of Lands and Forests; Four East Publ., 1986. 407 pp. • Loomer, L. S. Windsor, Nova Scotia: A Journey in History. Windsor, N.S.: West Hants Hist. Soc., 1996. 399 pp. • Robertson, Allen B. Tide & Timber: Hantsport, Nova Scotia, 1795-1995. Hantsport, N.S.: Lancelot, 1996. 182 pp. • Robertson, Barbara R. Sawpower: Making Lumber in the Sawmills of Nova Scotia. Halifax: Nimbus; Nova Scotia Mus., 1986. 244 pp.
• Beck, J. Murray. Politics of Nova Scotia. vol 2: 1896-1988. Tantallon, N.S.: Four East 1985 438 pp. • Bickerton, James P. Nova Scotia, Ottawa and the Politics of Regional Development. U. of Toronto Press 1990. 412 pp. • Creighton, Wilfred. Forestkeeping: A History of the Department of Lands and Forests in Nova Scotia, 1926-1969. Halifax: Nova Scotia Dept. of Lands and Forests, 1988. 155 pp. • Earle, Michael, ed. Workers and the State in Twentieth Century Nova Scotia. Fredericton: Acadiensis, 1989. • Frank, David. J. B. McLachlan: A Biography - the Story of a Legendary Labour Leader and the Cape Breton Coal Miners. Toronto: Lorimer, 1999. 592 pp. • Fraser, Dawn. Echoes from Labor’s Wars: The Expanded Edition, Industrial Cape Breton in the 1920s, Echoes of World War One, Autobiography and Other Writings. Wreck Cove, N.S.: Breton Books, 1992. 177 pp. • McKay, Ian. The Quest of the Folk: Antimodernism and Cultural Selection in Twentieth-Century Nova Scotia. McGill-Queen’s U. Pr., 1994. 371 pp. • McKay, Ian. The Craft Transformed: An Essay on the Carpenters of Halifax, 1885-1985. Halifax, N.S.: Holdfast, 1985. 148 pp. • March, William DesB. Red Line: The Chronicle-Herald and Mail-Star, 1875-1954. Halifax, N.S.: Chebucto Agencies, 1986. 415 pp. • Morton, Suzanne. Ideal Surroundings: Domestic Life in a Working-Class Suburb in the 1920s. U. of Toronto Pr., 1995. 201 pp. about Richmond Heights
• Beck, J. Murray. The Government of Nova Scotia University of Toronto Press, 1957, the standard history
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• Sandberg, L. Anders and Clancy, Peter. Against the Grain: Foresters and Politics in Nova Scotia. U. of British Columbia Pr., 2000. 352 pp. • Sandberg, L. Anders, ed. Trouble in the Woods: Forest Policy and Social Conflict in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Fredericton, N.B.: Acadiensis, 1992. 234 pp.
• Gwyn, Julian. Excessive Expectations: Maritime Commerce and the Economic Development of Nova Scotia, 1740-1870 McGill-Queen’s U. Pr., 1998. 291 pp. • Hornsby, Stephen J. Nineteenth-Century Cape Breton: A Historical Geography. McGill-Queen’s U. Pr., 1992. 274 pp. • Johnston, A. J. B. Control and Order in French Colonial Louisbourg, 1713-1758. Michigan State U. Pr., 2001. 346 pp. • Krause, Eric; Corbin, Carol; and O’Shea, William, ed. Aspects of Louisbourg: Essays on the History of an Eighteenth-Century French Community in North America. Sydney, N.S.: U. Coll. of Cape Breton Pr., 1995. 312 pp. • Lanctôt, Léopold. L’Acadie des Origines, 1603-1771 Montreal: Fleuve, 1988. 234 pp. • McKay, Ian. The Craft Transformed: An Essay on the Carpenters of Halifax, 1885-1985. Halifax, N.S.: Holdfast, 1985. 148 pp. • MacKinnon, Neil. This Unfriendly Soil: The Loyalist Experience in Nova Scotia, 1783-1791. McGill-Queen’s U. Pr., 1986. 231 pp. • Mancke, Elizabeth. The Fault Lines of Empire: Political Differentiation in Massachusetts and Nova Scotia, ca. 1760-1830 Routledge, 2005. 214 pp. online • Marble, Allan Everett. Surgeons, Smallpox, and the Poor: A History of Medicine and Social Conditions in Nova Scotia, 1749-1799. McGill-Queen’s U. Pr., 1993. 356 pp. • Pryke, Kenneth G. Nova Scotia and Confederation, 1864-74 (1979) (ISBN 0-8020-5389-0) • Reid, John G. et al. The "Conquest" of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions. U. of Toronto Pr., 2004. 297 pp. • Waite, P. B. The Lives of Dalhousie University. Vol. 1: 1818-1925, Lord Dalhousie’s College. McGill-Queen’s U. Pr., 1994. 338 pp. • Walker, James W. St. G. The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783-1870. (1976). reprint U. of Toronto Pr., 1992. 438 pp • Whitelaw, William Menzies; The Maritimes and Canada before Confederation (1934) online
• Beck, J. Murray. Joseph Howe Volumes I & II : Conservative Reformer 1804-1848; The Briton Becomes Canadian 1848-1873 (1984) • Beck, J. Murray. Politics of Nova Scotia. vol 1 1710-1896 Tantallon, N.S.: Four East 1985 438 pp. • Bell, Winthrop P. The "Foreign Protestants" and the Settlement of Nova Scotia: The History of a Piece of Arrested British Colonial Policy in the Eighteenth Century. (1961). reprint Fredericton, N.B.: Acadiensis for Mount Allison U., Cen. for Can. Studies, 1990. 673 pp. • Brebner, John Bartlet. New England’s Outpost. Acadia before the Conquest of Canada (1927) • Brebner, John Bartlet. The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years (1937) • Byers, Mary and McBurney, Margaret. Atlantic Hearth: Early Homes and Families of Nova Scotia. U. of Toronto Press, 1994. 364 pp. • Campey, Lucille H. After the Hector: The Scottish Pioneers of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Toronto: Natural Heritage Books, 2004. 376 pp. • J. A. Chisholm, ed. Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe 2 vol Halifax, 1909 • Conrad, Margaret and Moody, Barry, ed. Planter Links: Community and Culture in Colonial Nova Scotia. Fredericton, : Acadiensis, 2001. 236 pp. • Conrad, Margaret, ed. Intimate Relations: Family and Community in Planter Nova Scotia, 1759-1800. Fredericton, : Acadiensis, 1995. 298 pp. • Conrad, Margaret, ed. Making Adjustments: Change and Continuity in Planter Nova Scotia, 1759-1800. Fredericton: Acadiensis, 1991. 280 pp. • Cuthbertson, Brian. Johnny Bluenose at the Polls: Epic Nova Scotian Election Battles, 1758-1848. Halifax: Formac, 1994. 344 pp. • Donald A. Desserud; "Outpost’s Response: The Language and Politics of Moderation in EighteenthCentury Nova Scotia" American Review of Canadian Studies, Vol. 29, 1999 online • Faragher, John Mack. A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (2006) • Frost, James D. Merchant Princes: Halifax’s First Family of Finance, Ships, and Steel Toronto: Lorimer, 2003. 376 pp.
Official links • Government of Nova Scotia • Nova Scotia - Come To life (Main gateway website for tourism, immigration, business, etc. links) • Tourism Nova Scotia • Nova Scotia Provincial Parks Other links • Maritime Tourism • Coastal Communities Network current issues and community profiles, coastal information, community development
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• Photographs of War Memorials & Historic Monuments in Nova Scotia
• 360x180° Spherical Panoramic Images of Nova Scotia • Little-Known Portions of Nova Scotia History