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For the bird, see macaw. Aomen redirects here. For the island in the Pacific Ocean, see Aomen (Bikini Atoll). For a topic outline on this subject, see List of basic Macau topics. For other uses, see Macau (disambiguation).
Macau Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China[1] ?????????????? Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China Largest freguesia (population) Official languages Demonym Government Chief Executive President of the Court of Final Appeal President of the Legislative Assembly Edmund Ho Hau Wah Sam Hou Fai Freguesia de Nossa Senhora de Fátima Chinese, Portuguese[2] Macanese


Susana Chou

Legislature Establishment Portugaladministered trading post Portuguese colony Transfer of sovereignty to the PRC Area Total Water (%)

Legislative Assembly 1557

December 1, 1887 December 20, 1999


Regional Emblem

Anthem: March of the Volunteers

29.2 km2 (not ranked) 11.27 sq mi 0 520,400[3] (167th) 431,000 17,310/km2 (1st) 44,784/sq mi 2006 estimate US$17,600 m (99th) 2007 estimate US$15,997 m (94th) US$36,357[4] ▬0.909[5] (high) (25th) Macanese pataca (MOP$) (MOP) MST (UTC+8) left .mo 853

Population 2007 (1st qtr) estimate 2000 census Density GDP (PPP) Total GDP (nominal) Total Per capita HDI (2004) Currency Time zone Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code

Coordinates: 22°10′00″N 113°33′00″E / 22.166667°N 113.55°E / 22.166667; 113.55


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The Macau Special Administrative Region, (simplified Chinese: ???????; traditional Chinese: ???????, Cantonese Yale: O Mun Dak Bit Hang Jeng Kui, Portuguese: Região Administrativa Especial de Macau), commonly known as Macau or Macao (pronounced /məˈkaʊ/, traditional Chinese: ??; simplified Chinese: ??; pinyin: Aòmén; Jyutping: ou3 mun4), is one of the two special administrative regions of the People’s Republic of China, the other being Hong Kong. Macau lies on the western side of the Pearl River Delta, bordering Guangdong province in the north and facing the South China Sea in the east and south.[6] The territory has thriving industries such as textiles, electronics and toys, and a notable tourist industry. This makes it one of the richest cities in the world.[7] Macau was both the first and last European colony in China.[8][9] Portuguese traders first settled in Macau in the 16th century and subsequently administered the region until the handover on December 20, 1999. The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and the Basic Law of Macau stipulate that Macau operates with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2049, fifty years after the transfer.[10] Under the policy of "one country, two systems", the Central People’s Government is responsible for the territory’s defense and foreign affairs, while Macau maintains its own legal system, police force, monetary system, customs policy, immigration policy, and delegates to international organisations and events.[10][11]

the region now called Macau came under the jurisdiction of Panyu county, in the Nanhai prefecture of the province of Guangdong.[12] The first recorded inhabitants of the area were people seeking refuge in Macau from invading Mongols during the Southern Song Dynasty.[14] Under the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD), fishermen migrated to Macau from Guangdong and Fujian provinces. But Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century.[15] In 1535, Portuguese traders obtained the rights to anchor ships in Macau’s harbours and to carry out trading activities, though not the right to stay onshore.[16] Around 1552–1553, they obtained temporary permission to erect storage sheds onshore, in order to dry out goods drenched by sea water[17]; they soon built rudimentary stone houses around the area now called Nam Van. In 1557, the Portuguese established a permanent settlement in Macau, paying an annual rent of 500 taels of silver.[17]

Before the Portuguese settlement in the early 16th century, Macau was known as Haojing (Oyster Mirror) or Jinghai (Mirror Sea).[12] The name Macau is thought to be derived from the A-Ma Temple, a temple built in 1448 dedicated to Matsu — the goddess of seafarers and fishermen. It is said that when the Portuguese sailors landed at the coast just outside the temple and asked the name of the place, the natives replied "A-Ma-Gao" (Bay of A-Ma). The Portuguese then named the peninsula Macau.[13]

Ruins of St. Paul’s Cathedral, by George Chinnery (1774–1852). The cathedral was built in 1602 and destroyed by fire in 1835. Only the southern stone façade remains today. As more Portuguese settled in Macau to engage in trading, they made demands for selfadministration; but this was not achieved until the 1840s.[18] In 1576, Pope Gregory XIII established the Roman Catholic Diocese of Macau.[19] In 1583, the Portuguese in Macau were permitted to form a Senate to handle various issues concerning their social and

The recorded history of Macau can be traced back to the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC), when


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the so-called 12-3 incident, 6 people were killed and more than 200 people were injured.[25][26] On January 28, 1967, the Portuguese government issued a formal apology. This marked the beginning of equal treatment and recognition of Chinese identity and of de facto Chinese control of the colony, as an official apology implicitly recognized that administration of Macau continued only as tolerated by the Communist government of the Chinese mainland.[26] Shortly after the leftist military coup of 1974 in Lisbon, the new Portuguese government determined to relinquish all its overseas possessions. In 1976, Lisbon redefined Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" and granted it a large measure of administrative, financial, and economic autonomy. Three years later, Portugal and China agreed to regard Macau as "a Chinese territory under (temporary) Portuguese administration".[14][27] The Chinese and Portuguese governments commenced negotiations on the question of Macau in June 1986. The two signed a Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration the next year, making Macau a special administrative region (SAR) of China.[28] The Chinese government assumed formal sovereignty over Macau on December 20, 1999.[29]

Macau, ca. 1870 economic affairs under strict supervision of the Chinese authority,[20] but there was no transfer of sovereignty.[14] Macau prospered as a port but was the target of repeated failed attempts[21] by the Dutch to conquer it in the 17th century. Following the Opium War (1839–42), Portugal occupied Taipa and Coloane in 1851 and 1864 respectively. In 1887, the Qing government was forced to sign the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Amity and Commerce, under which China ceded to Portugal the right of "perpetual occupation and government of Macau", and Portugal pledged to seek China’s approval before transferring Macau to another country; Macau officially became a Portuguese colony.[14] In 1928, after the Qing Dynasty had been overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, the Kuomintang (KMT) government officially notified Portugal that it was abrogating the Treaty of Amity and Commerce[22]; the two powers signed a new Sino-Portuguese Friendship and Trade Treaty in place of the abrogated treaty. Making only a few provisions concerning tariff principles and matters relating to business affairs, the new treaty did not alter the sovereignty of Macau and Portuguese government of Macau remained unchanged.[23] After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the Beijing government declared the Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Amity and Commerce to be invalid as an “unequal treaty” imposed by foreigners on China. However, Beijing was not ready to settle the treaty question, leaving the maintenance of “the status quo” until a more appropriate time.[24] Influenced by the Cultural Revolution in mainland China and by general dissatisfaction with Portuguese government, riots broke out in Macau in 1966. In the most serious,

Government and politics

Headquarters of the Government of Macau, previously the Governor’s House until 1999. The Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration and the Basic Law, Macau’s constitution promulgated by China’s National People’s Congress in 1993, specify that Macau’s social and economic system, lifestyle, rights, and freedoms are to remain unchanged for at least 50 years after the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1999.[10] Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Macau enjoys a high degree of


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a 300-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organisations, and central governmental bodies.[38] The basic and original framework of the legal system of Macau, based largely on Portuguese law or Portuguese civil law system, is preserved after 1999. The territory has its own independent judicial system, with a high court. Judges are selected by a committee and appointed by the chief executive. Foreign judges may serve on the courts.[39] Macau has a three-tier court system: the Court of the First Instance, the Court of the Second Instance and the Court of Final Appeal.[40] In February 2009 the Legislative Assembly passed a security bill based on the withdrawn security legislation previously introduced in Hong Kong. [41] Democracy advocates fear that the bill’s overly broad drafting could lead to abuses; a concern which has been heightened after a number of prominent supporters of democracy in Hong Kong were denied entry into Macau in the run-up to the bill’s passage.[42]

Office building of the Legislative Assembly of Macau. autonomy in all areas except in defence and foreign affairs.[10] Macau officials, rather than PRC officials, run Macau through the exercise of separate executive, legislative, and judicial powers, as well as the right to final adjudication.[30] Macau maintains its own separate currency, customs territory, immigration and border controls, and police force.[31][32] The Macau government is headed by the chief executive, who is appointed by the central government upon the recommendation of an election committee, whose three hundred members are nominated by corporate and community bodies. The recommendation is made by an election within the committee.[33] The chief executive’s cabinet comprise five policy secretaries and is advised by the Executive Council that has between seven and eleven members.[34] Edmund Ho Hau Wah, a community leader and former banker, is the first chief executive of the Macau SAR, replacing General Vasco Rocha Vieira at midnight on December 20, 1999. Ho is currently serving his second term of office.[35] The Chief executive and his cabinet have their offices in the Macau Government Headquarters, located in the former area of the St. Lawrence Parish. The legislative organ of the territory is the Legislative Assembly, a 29-member body comprising 12 directly elected members, ten indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and seven members appointed by the chief executive.[36] Any permanent residents at or over 18 years of age are eligible to vote in direct elections.[37] For indirect election, it is only limited to organisations registered as "corporate voters" and


The map of Macau, showing Macau Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa and Coloane. Macau is situated 60 kilometres (37 mi) southwest of Hong Kong and 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Guangzhou.[6][43] It consists of the Macau Peninsula itself and the islands of Taipa and Coloane. The peninsula is formed by the Zhujiang (Pearl River) estuary on the


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September) the climate is warm to hot and humid with rain and occasional typhoons.[45]

Employed population by occupation 2007[49] Occupation Senior officials/managers Professionals Technicians Landscape of Penha Hill in Macau. east and the Xijiang (West River) on the west.[43] It borders the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone in mainland China. The main border crossing between Macau and China is known as the Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) on the Macau side, and the Gongbei checkpoint on the Zhuhai side.[44] Macau Peninsula was originally an island, but a connecting sandbar gradually turned into a narrow isthmus, thus changing Macau into a peninsula. Land reclamation in the 17th century transformed Macau into a peninsula with generally flat terrain, though numerous steep hills still mark the original land mass.[43] Alto de Coloane is the highest point in Macau, with an altitude of 170.6 metres (559.7 ft).[6] With a dense urban environment, Macau has no arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland. Macau has a humid subtropical climate, with average humidity between 75% and 90%.[45] Seasonal climate is greatly influenced by the monsoons and therefore temperature difference between summer and winter is significant. The average annual temperature of Macau is 22.3 °C (72.1 °F).[46] July is the warmest month, with average temperature being 28.6 °C (83.5 °F). The coolest month is January, with average temperature 14.5 °C (58.1 °F).[45] Located in the coastal region of south of China, Macau has ample rainfall, with average annual precipitation being 2,030 millimetres (79.9 in).[47] However, winter is mostly dry due to the monsoon from mainland China. Autumn in Macau (October to December) is sunny and warm with low humidity. Winter (January to March) is relatively cold but sunny. In spring (April to June), the humidity starts to increase and in summer (July to Clerks Service & sale workers Craft & similar workers no. (’000) 14.6 9.9 28.1 83.7 63.2 33.7

Workers in agriculture/fishery 0.8

Nightview of Macau Tower, a communication and entertainment tower that has various restaurants, theaters, shopping malls and a variety of adventurous activities. Macau’s economy is based largely on tourism, much of it geared toward gambling. Other chief economic activities in Macau are export-geared textile and garment manufacturing, banking and other financial


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Macau has grown to 18.7 million visitors in 2005 and 22 million visitors in 2006,[54] with over 50% of the arrivals coming from mainland China and another 30% from Hong Kong. Macau is expected to receive between 24 and 25 million visitors in 2007.[55] Since the Handover, Triad underworld violence, a deterring factor for tourists, has virtually disappeared, to the benefit of the tourism sector. Starting in 1962, the gambling industry had been operated under a government-issued monopoly license by Stanley Ho’s Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau. The monopoly ended in 2002, and several casino owners from Las Vegas attempted to enter the market. With the opening of the Sands Macau, the largest casino in the world as measured by total number of table games,[56] in 2004 and Wynn Macau in 2006,[57] gambling revenues from Macau’s casinos were for the first time greater than those of Las Vegas Strip (each about $6 billion),[58][59] making Macau the highestvolume gambling centre in the world.[60] In 2007, Venetian Macau, at the time the second (now third) largest building in the world, opened its doors to the public, followed by MGM Grand Macau. Numerous other hotel casinos, including Galaxy Cotai Megaresort and Ponte 16, are also to be opened in the near future. In 2002, the Macau government ended the monopoly system and six casino operating concessions and subconcessions are granted to Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau, Wynn Resorts, Las Vegas Sands, Galaxy Entertainment Group, the partnership of MGM Mirage and Pansy Ho (daughter of Stanley Ho), and the partnership of Melco and PBL. Today, there are 16 casinos operated by the STDM, and they are still crucial in the casino industry in Macau, but in 2004, the opening of the Sands Macau ushered in the new era.[56][61][62] Macau is an offshore financial centre, a tax haven, and a free port with no foreign exchange control regimes.[63][64][65] The offshore finance business is regulated and supervised by the Monetary Authority of Macau,[66] while the regulation and supervision of the offshore non-finance business is mainly controlled by the Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute.[67] In 2007, Moody’s Investors Service upgraded Macau’s foreign and local currency government issuer

The central business district of Macau. The building shown is the BNU tower. services.[7] The clothing industry has provided about three quarters of export earnings, and the gaming, tourism and hospitality industry is estimated to contribute more than 50% of Macau’s GDP, and 70% of Macau government revenue.[34] Macau is a founding member of the WTO and has maintained sound economic and trade relations with more than 120 countries and regions, with European Union and Portuguese-speaking countries in particular; Macau is also a member of the IMF.[50] World Bank classifies Macau as a high income economy[51] and the GDP per capita of the region in 2006 was US$28,436. After the Handover in 1999, there has been a rapid rise in the number of mainland visitors due to China’s easing of travel restrictions. Together with the liberalization of Macau’s gaming industry in 2001 that induces significant investment inflows, the average growth rate of the economy between 2001 and 2006 was approximately 13.1% annually.[52] In a World Tourism Organization report of international tourism statistics for 2006, Macau ranked 21st in terms of tourist arrivals and 24th in terms of tourism receipts.[53] From 9.1 million visitors in 2000, arrivals to


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ratings to ’Aa3’ from ’A1’, citing its government’s solid finances as a large net creditor. The rating agency also upgraded Macau’s foreign currency bank deposit ceiling to ’Aa3’ from ’A1’.[68] As prescribed by the Macau Basic Law, the government follows the principle of keeping expenditure within the limits of revenues in drawing up its budget, and strive to achieve a fiscal balance, avoid deficits and keep the budget commensurate with the growth rate of its gross domestic product. All the financial revenues of the Macau Special Administrative Region shall be managed and controlled by the Region itself and shall not be handed over to the Central People’s Government. The Central People’s Government shall not levy any taxes in the Macau Special Administrative Region.[69]


Ruins of St. Paul’s, the façade of what was originally the Cathedral of St. Paul built in 1602. Chinese; another 2% is of mixed Chinese/Portuguese descent, an ethnic group often referred to as Macanese.[70] According to the 2006 by-census, 47% of the residents were born in mainland China, of whom 74.1% born in Guangdong and 15.2% in Fujian. Meanwhile, 42.5% of the residents were born in Macau, and those born in Hong Kong, the Philippines and Portugal shared 3.7%, 2.0% and 0.3% respectively.[70] The growth of population in Macau mainly relies on immigrants from mainland China and the influx of overseas workers since its birth rate is one of the lowest in the world.[72] According to a recent survey conducted by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Macau is the top country/region for life expectancy at birth with an average of 84.33 years,[73] while its infant mortality rate ranks among the lowest in the world.[74] Both Chinese (Cantonese) and Portuguese are Macau’s official languages.[75] Standard Macanese Portuguese is identical to European Portuguese. Other languages such as Mandarin, English and Hokkien are also spoken by some local communities.[76] The Macanese language, a distinctive creole generally known as Patuá, is still spoken by several dozen Macanese.[77] Most Chinese in Macau are profoundly influenced by their own tradition and culture, of which Chinese folk religion, that includes the faiths of Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, forms an integral part.[34] Macau has a sizable Christian community; Roman Catholics and Protestants constitute 7% and 2% of the population respectively. In

Residents’ usual language spoken at home[70] Language Cantonese Percentage of population 85.7%

Other 6.7% Chinese dialects Portuguese Mandarin English Others 6.6% 3.2% 1.5% 2.3%

A-Ma Temple, a temple built in 1448 dedicated to the goddess Matsu. Macau is the most densely populated region in the world, with a population density of 18,428 persons per square kilometre (47,728/ sq mi).[71] 95% of Macau’s population is


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Many signs and establishments make use of Chinese and Portuguese names with English becoming commonplace as well. addition, 17% of the population follows distilled original Mahayana Buddhism.[78] Having an economy driven by tourism, 14.6% of Macau’s workforce is employed in restaurants and hotels, and 10.3% in the gambling industry.[76] With the opening of several casino resorts and other major constructions underway, it is reported that many sectors experience a shortage of labour. The government responds by importing labour from other neighboring regions. Currently the number of imported labours stands at a record high of 98,505 (Q2 2008), representing more than a quarter of the labour force in Macau.[79] Some local workers complain about the lack of jobs due to the influx of cheap imported labour. Some also claim that the problem of illegal labour is severe.[80] Another concern is the widening of income inequality in the region: Macau’s Gini coefficient, a popular measure of income inequality where a low value indicates a more equal income distribution, rises from 0.43 in 1998 to 0.48 in 2006. It is higher than those of other neighbouring regions, such as mainland China (0.447), South Korea (0.316) and Singapore (0.425).[81]

The administrative building of the University of Macau, the first modern university in the region. population aged 15–29, has a literacy rate of above 99%.[70] Currently, there is only one school in Macau where Portuguese is the medium of instruction. Macau does not have its own universal education system; non-tertiary schools follow either the British, the Chinese, or the Portuguese education system. There are currently 10 tertiary educational institutions in the region, four of them being public.[34] In 2006, the Programme for International Student Assessment, a world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildren’s scholastic performance coordinated by OECD, ranked Macau as the fifth and sixth in science and problem solving respectively.[82] Nevertheless, education levels in Macau are low among high income regions. According to the 2006 by-census, among the resident population aged 14 and above, only 51.8% has a secondary education and 12.6% has a tertiary education.[70] As prescribed by the Basic Law of Macau Chapter VI Article 121, the Government of Macau shall, on its own, formulate policies on education, including policies regarding the educational system and its administration, the language of instruction, the allocation of funds, the examination system, the recognition of educational qualifications and the system of academic awards so as to promote educational development. The government shall also in accordance with law, gradually institute a compulsory education system. Community organisations and individuals may, in accordance with law, run educational undertakings of various kinds.[69]

A fifteen-year free education is currently being offered to residents, that includes a three-year kindergarten, followed by a sixyear primary education and a six-year secondary education. The literacy rate of the territory is only 93.5%. The illiterates are mainly among the senior residents aged 65 or above; the younger generation, for example the


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Macau is served by one major public hospital, the Hospital Conde S. Januário, and one major private hospital, the Hospital Kiang Wu, both located in Macau Peninsula, as well as a university hospital called Macau University of Science and Technology Hospital in Cotai. In addition to hospitals, Macau also has numerous health centres providing free basic medical care to residents. Consultation in traditional Chinese medicine is also available.[83] Currently none of the Macau hospitals is independently assessed through international healthcare accreditation. There are no western-style medical schools in Macau and thus all aspiring physicians in Macau have to obtain their education and qualification elsewhere.[34] Local nurses are trained at the Macau Polytechnic Institute and the Kiang Wu Nursing College.[84][85] Currently there are no training courses in midwifery in Macau. The Health Bureau in Macau is mainly responsible for coordinating the activities between the public and private organisations in the area of public health, and assure the health of citizens through specialised and primary health care services, as well as disease prevention and health promotion.[86] The Macau Centre for Disease Control and Prevention was established in 2001, which monitors the operation of hospitals, health centres, and the blood transfusion centre in Macau. It also handles the organisation of care and prevention of diseases affecting the population, sets guidelines for hospitals and private health care providers, and issues licences.[87]

Trishaw used to be a major public mode of transport in Macau. But now it is only for sightseeing purposes. for passengers travelling between Macau and Hong Kong, while the Yuet Tung Terminal in the Inner Harbour serves those travelling between Macau and cities in mainland China, including Shekou and Shenzhen.[89] Macau has one active international airport, known as Macau International Airport located at the eastern end of Taipa and neighbouring waters. Since currently there are no regular direct passenger-flights between mainland China and Taiwan, the airport serves as a transient avenue for the passengers travelling between the two regions.[90][91] It is the primary hub for Viva Macau and Air Macau. In 2006, the airport handled about 5 million passengers.[92]

The mixing of the Chinese and Portuguese cultures and religious traditions for more than four centuries has left Macau with an inimitable collection of holidays, festivals and events. The biggest event of the year is the Macau Grand Prix in November,[93] when the main streets in Macau Peninsula are converted to a racetrack bearing similarities with the Monaco Grand Prix. Other annual events include Macau Arts festival in March,[94] the International Fireworks Display Contest in September,[95] the International Music festival in October and/or November,[96] and the Macau International Marathon in December.[97] The Lunar Chinese New Year is the most important traditional festival and celebration normally takes place in late January or early February.[98][99] The Pou Tai Un Temple in Taipa is the place for the Feast of Tou Tei,

In Macau traffic moves on the left. Macau has a well-established public transport network connecting the Macau Peninsula, Cotai, Taipa Island and Coloane Island. Buses and taxis are the major modes of public transport in Macau. Currently two companies, namely Transmac and Transportas Companhia de Macau, operate franchised public bus services in Macau.[88] The trishaw, a hybrid of the tricycle and the rickshaw, is also available, though it is mainly for sightseeing purposes. The Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal provides cross-border transportation services


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The Statue of Guan Yin, a blend between the traditional images of the goddess Guan Yin and Holy Mary. the Earth god, in February. The Procession of the Passion of Our Lord is a well-known Catholic rite and journey, which travels from Igreja de Santo Agostinho to Igreja da Sé Catedral‎, also taking place in February.[43] AMa Temple, which honours the Goddess Matsu, is in full swing in April with many congratulant worshippers during the A-Ma festival. To look on dancing dragons at the Feast of the Drunken Dragon and twinklingclean Buddhas at the Feast of Bathing of Lord Buddha in May is common. In Coloane Village, the Taoist god Tam Kong is also honoured on the same day.[43] Dragon Boat festival is brought into play on Nam Van Lake in June and Hungry Ghosts’ festival, in late August and/or early September every year. All events and festivities of the year end with Winter Solstice in December.[97] Local cooking in Macau consists of a blend of Cantonese and Portuguese cuisines.[100] Many unique dishes resulted from the spice blends that the wives of Portuguese sailors used in an attempt to replicate European dishes. Its ingredients and seasonings include those from Europe, South America, Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, as well as Portuguese pavement (calçada) at Largo do Senado local Chinese ingredients.[101] Typically, Macanese food is seasoned with various spices and flavours including turmeric, coconut milk, cinnamon and bacalhau, giving special aromas and tastes.[102] Famous dishes include Galinha à Portuguesa, Galinha à Africana (African chicken), Bacalhau, Macanese Chili Shrimps and stir-fry curry crab. Pork chop bun, ginger milk and Portuguese-style egg tart are also very popular in Macau.[103] Macau preserves many historical properties in the urban area. The Historic Centre of Macau, which includes some twenty-five historic monuments and public squares, was officially listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on July 15, 2005 during the 29th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Durban, South Africa.[104]

See also


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Macau 88/23/dc/en/. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [12] ^ Macau Yearbook 2007, 517. [13] Fung, 298. [14] ^ "The entry "Macau history" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. macauweb/Encyclopedia/html/ 44907.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. [15] Chan, 3-4. [16] Fung, 5-6. [17] ^ Fung, 7. [18] <Historical figures of Macau>, by CCTV [19] "The entry "Catholic" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. macauweb/Encyclopedia/html/ 11502.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. [20] <Historical figures of Macau> by CCTV [21] History of the Qing (???) [22] Macau Yearbook 2007, 518. [23] Fung, 409-410. [24] Fung, 410-411. [25] "The entry "12-3 Incident" in Macau Encyclopedia" (in Chinese). Macau Foundation. macauweb/Encyclopedia/html/ 08701.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. [26] ^ Lo Shiu-hing (December 1989). "Aspects of Political Development in Macau". The China Quarterly 120: 837–851. doi:10.1017/ S030574100001849X. [27] Fung, 418. [28] Fung, 424. [29] Macau Yearbook 2007, 519-520 [30] "Basic Law of Macau Chapter II: Relationship between the Central Authorities and the Macau Special Administrative Region". Government Printing Bureau. 1999/leibasica/index_uk.asp#c2. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. [31] "Basic Law of Macau Chapter V: The Economy". Government Printing Bureau. 1999/leibasica/index_uk.asp#c5. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. [32] "Basic Law of Macau Chapter VII: External Affairs". Government Printing Bureau. 1999/leibasica/index_uk.asp#c7. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.

[1] As reflected in the Chinese text of the Macau emblem, the text of the Macau Basic Law, and the Macau Government Website, the full name of the territory is the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. Although the convention of "Macau Special Administrative Region" and "Macau" can also be used. [2] The Macau Basic Law states that the official languages are "Chinese and Portuguese." It does not explicitly specify the standard for "Chinese". While Standard Mandarin and Simplified Chinese characters are used as the spoken and written standards in mainland China, Cantonese and Traditional Chinese characters are the long-established de facto standards in Macau. [3] "Estimates of population". Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. index.asp?src=/english/indicator/ e_dem_indicator_1.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-04. [4] "Gross domestic product (GDP) and percapita GDP". Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. indicator/e_pib_indicator_1.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. [5] "2007 Macau in Figures". Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. english/indicator/e_mn_indicator.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-03. [6] ^ Macau Yearbook 2007, 475. [7] ^ Chan, 12-13. [8] Fung, 5. [9] "Macau and the end of empire". BBC News. asia-pacific/566301.stm. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [10] ^ "Content of Basic Law of Macau". University of Macau. main.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [11] "Joint declaration of the Government of the People’s Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macau". GPB Govt of Macau.


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[33] "Election of the Chief Executive". Government Printing Bureau. country/153/climate/Far-East-Asia/ Macau.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. 2004/14/lei03_en.asp#c4a32. Retrieved [46] "100 years of Macau Climate". Direcção on 2006-09-05. dos Serviços Meteorológicos e [34] ^ Macau 2007 Yearbook. Government Geofísicos. Information Bureau of Macau SAR. 2007. centenary2/index_four.htm. Retrieved on ISBN 978-99937-56-09-5. 2006-09-05. [35] "Edmund Ho Wins Election for 2nd [47] The Weather Channel for Macau, China Term". Xinhua News Agency. "The Weather Channel for Macau,". e/105438.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [36] "Introduction of the Legislative Assembly businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/ of the Macau Special Administrative graph/CHXX0512?from=search The Region". The Legislative Assembly of Weather Channel for Macau, China. Macau. Retrieved on 2007-11-12. en.htm#Composition. Retrieved on [48] "WMO - Macau, China". 2006-09-05. [37] "List of Suffrage". CIA - The World c00156.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-12. Factbook. [49] "Employed population by occupation". publications/the-world-factbook/fields/ Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of 2123.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. the Macau Government. [38] "Polls favor indirect vote of Macau’s next chief executive". (Source: indicator/e_ie_indicator_8.html. Xinhua)People’s Daily Online. Retrieved on 2007-12-27. [50] "CIA the world factbook". CIA the World 200403/31/eng20040331_139074.shtml. Factbook - Macau. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. library/publications/the-world-factbook/ [39] Sam Hou Fai. "Brief Introduction of print/mc.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. Judicial System of Macau SAR". [51] High Income Group "Income Group UNESCO. High Income, World Bank". World Bank. eng/law/4judicialSystem.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-05. ECR?contentMDK=20421402&sitePK=239419#High [40] "Background Note: Macau High Income Group. Retrieved on Government". Bureau of East Asian and 2007-11-15. Pacific Affairs, U.S. Department of State. [52] "Economic statistics from Monetary Authority of Macau". AMCM. 7066.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. [41] economic_statistics/economic.htm. 90776/90785/6601685.html Retrieved on 2007-12-23. [42] [53] UNWTO World Tourism Barameter country,,,,MAC,4562d8cf2,49a660b913,0.html "UNWTO World Tourism Barameter". here World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO). [43] ^ "Macau Geography". June 2007. pdf/barometer/unwto_barom07_2_en.pdf macau/macau-overview/macauUNWTO World Tourism Barameter. geography.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-01-16. 2008-01-06. [54] "Vistor arrivals by place of residence". [44] Yan. "Zhuhai Gongbei Checkpoint Opens Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of Earlier". New Guangdong newsgd. the Macau Government. zhuhai/news/200603030050.htm. english/indicator/e_tur_indicator_1.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-06. Retrieved on 2006-09-05. [45] ^ "Macau Climate, Temp, Rainfall and [55] "Macau expected to receive between 24 Humidity". Nexus Business Media and 25 million tourists in 2007". Limited. MacauHub.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia news.php?ID=2999. Retrieved on 2007-03-15. [56] ^ "Sands Macau-is the largest casino in the world". Ready Bet Go. Retrieved on 2006-08-24. [57] "Wynn Fine-Tuning Details at 600-Room Macau Resort". Gaming News. article.cfm?contentId=160162. Retrieved on 2006-09-05. [58] "Macau, a tiny special administrative region of China, appears to have overtaken the famous Las Vegas Strip as the world’s top gambling destination". BBC News - Business. 6083624.stm. Retrieved on 2006-10-25. [59] "Vegas vs. Macau, who will win?". BusinessWeek Online (June 8 2006). content/jun2006/ pi20060608_011406.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-09. [60] David Barboza. "Asian Rival Moves Past Las Vegas". New York Times. business/worldbusiness/ 24macao.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved on 2007-01-24. [61] "Monopoly on Macau’s Gambling Industry to End". People’s Daily. 200112/16/eng20011216_86803.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. [62] "Gambling empire bets on rebranding". doc/2004-07/30/content_353166.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. [63] Luis Pereira. "Offshore Operation in Macau". Macau Business. index.php?id=666. Retrieved on 2007-09-05. [64] Errico and Musalem (1999). "Countries, Territories, and Jurisdictions with Offshore Financial Centers". IMF. oshore/2000/eng/back.htm#table1. Retrieved on 2006-09-05. [65] "Macau Currency".

macau/macau-overview/macaucurrency.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. [66] Monetary Authority of Macau "The homepage of Monetary Authority of Macau". The Monetary Authority of Macau, the Govt. of Macau SAR. Monetary Authority of Macau. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. [67] IPIM "The Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute". The Macau Trade and Investment Promotion Institute, the Govt. of Macau SAR. IPIM. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. [68] Hemscott "the web site of Hemscott and Empowering Inverstors". Hemscott. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. [69] ^ "Content - Basic Law of Macau". University of Macau. main.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-25. [70] ^ Global Results of By-Census 2006. Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of the Macau Government. 2007. [71] "United Nations World Population Prospects (2004 revision)". UN Statistics Division. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [72] "Rank Order - Birth rate". CIA - The World Factbook. library/publications/the-world-factbook/ rankorder/2054rank.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. [73] "Rank Order - Life expectancy at birth". CIA - The World Factbook. the-world-factbook/rankorder/ 2102rank.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-01. [74] "Rank Order - Infant mortality rate". CIA - The World Factbook. the-world-factbook/rankorder/ 2091rank.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. [75] "Solution of Transition-Related Issues Essential to Sino-Portuguese Cooperation". People’s Daily Online. english/199912/17/ eng19991217O101.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-07.


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[76] ^ "Macau Overview". CIA - The World organization/e_legis_fs.htm. Retrieved on Factbook. 2007-11-13. publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ [88] Macau Yearbook 2007, 453-454. mc.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. [89] Macau Yearbook 2007,458. [77] Fernandes, Senna (2004). Maquista [90] Chan, 58. Chapado: Vocabulary and Expressions in [91] Fung, 198. Macau’s Portuguese Creole. Macau: [92] Macau Yearbook 2007, 467-468. Miguel de and Alan Baxter. [93] "Grand Prix Macau". Macau Grand Prix [78] "Background Note: Macau Profile". U.S. Committee. State Department. r/pa/ei/bgn/7066.htm. Retrieved on app/home/mgpc/en. Retrieved on 2008-01-07. 2008-01-04. [79] "Principal statistical indicators". [94] "Events and Festivals"., Statistics and Census Service (DSEC) of Inc.. the Macau Government. macau/events_festivals/march.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. english/indicator/e_piem_indicator.html. [95] "Events and Festivals"., Retrieved on 2007-12-27. Inc.. [80] "Rare Macau protest turns violent". BBC macau/events_festivals/september.html. News - Business. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. hi/asia-pacific/6611245.stm. Retrieved on [96] "Events and Festivals"., 2007-12-27. Inc.. [81] "Profile of China: The problems behind macau/events_festivals/october.html. Macau’s prosperity" (in Chinese). BBC Retrieved on 2008-01-04. Chinese. [97] ^ "Events and Festivals"., trad/hi/newsid_7160000/ Inc.. newsid_7165400/7165442.stm. Retrieved macau/events_festivals/december.html. on 2008-01-15. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. [82] "PISA 2006 Science Competencies for [98] "Events and Festivals"., Tomorrow’s World". Inc.. macau/events_festivals/february.html. 0,3343,en_32252351_32236191_39718850_1_1_1_1,00.html. 2008-01-04. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-01-10. [99] "Macau Festivals & Events". [83] "Macau Factsheet". The Govt. of Macau SAR. CFA10_E.html. Retrieved on macau/macau-festivals-&-events/ 2007-11-13. index.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. [84] "Macau Polytechnic Institute General [100]Food in Macau"., Inc.. " Information". Macau Polytechnic Institute. macau/food/main.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-12-03. 2008-01-04. [85] "Homepage of the College of Nursing [101]Macanese Cuisine". " and Midwifery". College of Nursing and Midwifery, Macau. macanese-cuisine.htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. cmain.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. [102]Discovering Macau - fabulous food spice " [86] "The introduction of Health Bureau, route and early fusion cuisine". Macau SAR". The Govt. of Macau SAR. bladesign/macau.discovered.htm. introduction/e_introduce_fs.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-07. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. [103]Macau Dining". " [87] "The policy and functions of the department of health, Macau SAR". The cityguides/macau/dining.htm. Retrieved Govt. of Macau SAR. on 2007-06-07. [104]Mostar, Macau and Biblical vestiges in " Israel are among the 17 cultural sites


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inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List". UNESCO. en/news/135. Retrieved on 2006-09-05.

International Business Publications, USA. ISBN 0739764519.

• Chan, S. S. (2000). The Macau Economy. Publications Centre, University of Macau. ISBN 99937-26-03-6. • Fung, Bong Yin (1999) (in Chinese). Macau: a General Introduction. Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co. Ltd.. ISBN 962-04-1642-2. • Godinho, Jorge (2007). Macau business law and legal system. LexisNexis, Hong Kong. ISBN 9789628937271. • Government Information Bureau (2007). Macau Yearbook 2007. Government Information Bureau of the Macau SAR. ISBN 978-99937-56-09-5.

External links
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Further reading
• Cremer (Editor) (1988). Macau: City of Commerce and Culture. Univ of Washington Pr. ISBN 0295966084. • De Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe - Person, Culture and Emotion in Macau. Berg Publishers. ISBN 0826457495. • Eayrs, James (2003). Macau Foreign Policy and Government Guide.

Government • Portal of the government of Macau • Government Information Bureau • Macau Yearbook • Cultural Affairs Bureau General information • Macau entry at The World Factbook • Macau from UCB Libraries GovPubs • Macau at the Open Directory Project • Wikimedia Atlas of Macau • Country Study: Macau from the United States Library of Congress (August, 2000) • Dr Howard M Scott "Macau" Travel • Macau Government Tourist Office • Macau City Guide • Macau travel guide from Wikitravel Special Education and Child Development • Macau Child Development Association

Retrieved from "" Categories: Macau, Cities in China, Port cities and towns in China, Coastal settlements, Former Portuguese colonies, Historic Jewish communities, Pearl River Delta, 1999 establishments, Chinese-speaking countries and territories, Portuguese-speaking countries, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 14:15 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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