Waupaca County Wisconsin Land Purchases

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					PORTFOLIO ID    PORTFOLIO NAME   KNOWLEDGE AREA CODE




               8 Plant Systems                     203
               8 Plant Systems                     203

               8 Plant Systems                     203




               8 Plant Systems                     203




               8 Plant Systems                     203

               8 Plant Systems                     203

               8 Plant Systems                     203
8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems     203




8 Plant Systems     203




8 Plant Systems     203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems     203




8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems     203




8 Plant Systems     203
8 Plant Systems     203




8 Plant Systems     203


8 Plant Systems     203

8 Plant Systems     203

8 Plant Systems     203
8 Plant Systems     203
8 Plant Systems     203




8 Plant Systems     203

8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203
8   Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems     203
8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203


8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203

8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
8 Plant Systems   203




8 Plant Systems   203
KNOWLEDGE AREA NAME




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants


Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants

Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants




Plant Biological Efficiency and Abiotic Stresses Affecting Plants
PROGRAM NAME




Viticulture and Small Fruit Research
Plants & Plant Products

Plants & Plant Products




Plants & Plant Products




Plants & Plant Products

Plants & Plant Products

Plants & Plant Products
Plants & Plant Products
Plants & Plant Products




Plants & Plant Products
Plants & Plant Products




Plant Production
Plant Production

Plant Production

Plant Production
Plant Production
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture




Plants and Their Systems




Management Practices for Sustaining Agriculture in the Northeast




Management Practices for Sustaining Agriculture in the Northeast
Plant Production




Evaluation of pathogen infectivity in stressed plants.




Evaluation of pathogen infectivity in stressed plants.




Evaluation of pathogen infectivity in stressed plants.




Evaluation of pathogen infectivity in stressed plants.




Breeding and Biotechnology


Agriculture and Environmental Sustainability




2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness
2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness




2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness




2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness




2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness
2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness




2. Hawaii's Diversified Tropical Crop Systems for Sustainability and Competitiveness




Biotechnology and Genomics




Plant Breeding
Plant Breeding

Plant Breeding




Plant Breeding


Plant Breeding




Plant Breeding




(PSAS )-Crop Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture Systems




Agronomic and Forage Crops




Agronomic and Forage Crops
Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics




Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics




Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics




Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics




Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics
Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics




Program in Fruit and Vegetable Development, Production and Management




Small Farm Program
Program in the Post Harvest Quality of Fruits and Vegetables
Plant Biology and Biochemistry




Plant Biology and Biochemistry
Home Horticulture
Home Horticulture
Plant Production




Plant Sciences




Plant Sciences
Plant Sciences




Alternative Crop Production


Biotechnology & Genomics

Biotechnology & Genomics

Biotechnology & Genomics
Biotechnology & Genomics
Biotechnology & Genomics




Biotechnology & Genomics

Biotechnology & Genomics
Plants and their Systems
Plants and their Systems
Plants and their Systems
Plants & Plant Products

Plants & Plant Products
Plants & Plant Products
Biotechnology & Genomics




Horticulture Production


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture
Plant Production


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture




Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture

Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Sustainability and Viability of California Agriculture


Program in Plant Pathology
Institute of Biological Chemistry




Institute of Biological Chemistry




Institute of Biological Chemistry

Sustainable Plant Communities

Plant, Animal, and Microbial Genomics




Small Scale Agriculture




Small Scale Agriculture




(PSAS )-Crop Systems - Profitable and Sustainable Agriculture Systems
Greenhouse and Floriculture Systems and Marketing (Extension)




Nutrient Management




Nutrient Management
Nutrient Management




Nutrient Management
Nutrient Management




Nutrient Management




Plant Biological Technologies
Structure and Function of Macromolecules

Structure and Function of Macromolecules




Agricultural Production in a Semi-Arid Environment




Agricultural Production in a Semi-Arid Environment


PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS




PLANT BIOLOGY AND CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
High Latitude Agriculture- AFES




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES


Structure and Function of Macromolecules


Structure and Function of Macromolecules




High Latitude Agriculture- AFES
Commercial and Consumer Horticulture

Commercial and Consumer Horticulture




Commercial and Consumer Horticulture




Potatoes




Potatoes
Commercial and Consumer Horticulture




Plants and Their Systems

Commercial and Consumer Horticulture
New Product Development / Genomics and Cultivar Development


Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection
Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection

Plant Production and Protection
Plant Breeding, Genetics, Biotechnology and Crop Quality




Plant Breeding, Genetics, Biotechnology and Crop Quality




Integrated Production Systems




Other Idaho Commercial Crops




Potatoes
Plant genetic resources, breeding and production systems
Plant genetic resources, breeding and production systems
Plant Production Systems




Plant Production Systems




Plant Production Systems
Plant Production Systems




Plant Production Systems
INSTITUTION NAME 1       INSTITUTION NAME 2   INSTITUTION NAME 3




Florida A&M University
University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas

University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas




University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas




University of Connecticut - Storrs
University of Maine

University of Maine

University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine
University of Maine




Purdue University




University of Massachusetts




University of Massachusetts
University of Maine




Tennessee State University




Tennessee State University




Tennessee State University




Tennessee State University




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff


University of Vermont




University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii




University of Hawaii




University of Hawaii




University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii




University of Hawaii




Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State University   Virginia State University




North Dakota State University
North Dakota State University

North Dakota State University




North Dakota State University


North Dakota State University




North Dakota State University




University of Wyoming




Montana State University




Montana State University
Montana State University




Montana State University




Montana State University




Montana State University




Montana State University
Montana State University




Washington State University




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Washington State University
University of Missouri




University of Missouri
University of Maine
University of Maine
New Mexico State University




Michigan State University




Michigan State University
Michigan State University




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff


University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire




University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire
Iowa State University
Iowa State University
Iowa State University
University of New Hampshire

University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire




University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff


University of California
New Mexico State University


University of California


University of California


University of California




University of California

University of California


University of California


Washington State University
Washington State University




Washington State University




Washington State University

Utah State University

Utah State University




North Carolina A&T State University




North Carolina A&T State University




University of Wyoming
Ohio State University




University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin




University of Wisconsin




Oklahoma State University
Oklahoma State University

Oklahoma State University




University of Nevada




University of Nevada


University of Delaware      Delaware State University


University of Delaware      Delaware State University




University of Delaware      Delaware State University
University of Alaska




University of Alaska


Oklahoma State University


Oklahoma State University




University of Alaska
University of Idaho

University of Idaho




University of Idaho




University of Idaho




University of Idaho
University of Idaho




South Dakota State University

University of Idaho
University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University


University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University
University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University

University of Georgia           Fort Valley State University
Oregon State University




Oregon State University




Oregon State University




University of Idaho




University of Idaho
University of Puerto Rico
University of Puerto Rico
Colorado State University




Colorado State University




Colorado State University
Colorado State University




Colorado State University
INSTITUTION NAME 4   STATE CODE STATE NAME




                     FL         Florida
                     AR         Arkansas

                     AR         Arkansas




                     AR         Arkansas




                     AR         Arkansas

                     AR         Arkansas

                     AR         Arkansas
AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




AR   Arkansas
AR   Arkansas




CT   Connecticut
ME   Maine

ME   Maine

ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
ME   Maine




IN   Indiana




MA   Massachusetts




MA   Massachusetts
ME   Maine




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




TN   Tennessee




AR   Arkansas


VT   Vermont




HI   Hawaii
HI   Hawaii




HI   Hawaii




HI   Hawaii




HI   Hawaii
HI   Hawaii




HI   Hawaii




VA   Virginia




ND   North Dakota
ND   North Dakota

ND   North Dakota




ND   North Dakota


ND   North Dakota




ND   North Dakota




WY   Wyoming




MT   Montana




MT   Montana
MT   Montana




MT   Montana




MT   Montana




MT   Montana




MT   Montana
MT   Montana




WA   Washington




AR   Arkansas
WA   Washington
MO   Missouri




MO   Missouri
ME   Maine
ME   Maine
NM   New Mexico




MI   Michigan




MI   Michigan
MI   Michigan




AR   Arkansas


NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire




NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire
IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa
IA   Iowa
NH   New Hampshire

NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire
NH   New Hampshire




AR   Arkansas


CA   California
NM   New Mexico


CA   California


CA   California


CA   California




CA   California

CA   California


CA   California


WA   Washington
WA   Washington




WA   Washington




WA   Washington

UT   Utah

UT   Utah




NC   North Carolina




NC   North Carolina




WY   Wyoming
OH   Ohio




WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin
WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin
WI   Wisconsin




WI   Wisconsin




OK   Oklahoma
OK   Oklahoma

OK   Oklahoma




NV   Nevada




NV   Nevada


DE   Delaware


DE   Delaware




DE   Delaware
AK   Alaska




AK   Alaska


OK   Oklahoma


OK   Oklahoma




AK   Alaska
ID   Idaho

ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho
ID   Idaho




SD   South Dakota

ID   Idaho
GA   Georgia


GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia

GA   Georgia
OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




OR   Oregon




ID   Idaho




ID   Idaho
PR   Puerto Rico
PR   Puerto Rico
CO   Colorado




CO   Colorado




CO   Colorado
CO   Colorado




CO   Colorado
OUTCOME MEASURE
Greater profitability and competitiveness; Increased value of grape commodities; Improved
cooperation between the industry, state and federal agencies resulting in transfer of
technology that will lead to growth and higher ecnomic returns for Florida Grape Growers;
Increased acreage of grapes for fresh fruit and processing; Better trained graduate and
undergraduate students.
Number Refereed Journal Publications
Number of commercial forage producers who gained awareness related to management
technology




Number of commercial forage producers who gained knowledge related to production
practices




Number of new Master Gardeners trained and certified
Number of participants who changed or adopted a new commercial forage management
practice
Number of participants who changed or adopted a new forage and/or grazing management
practice
Number of clientele who select improved varieties
Number of Master Gardeners who recertified




Business Start Ups
Number of new horticultural businesses and new farmers markets




Increased research funding
# of new potato varieties released from Eastern potato-breeding program
# of potato clones with the best characteristics that will be selected annually for commercial-
scale testing on experiment station and commercial farms
% of Maine potato growers adopting new recommendations (i.e., fertility programs, tissue-
testing tools, crop rotation recommendations)
# of new potato varieties adopted by Maine potato farmers
Adopt appropriate pest management practices
Adopt IPM strategies
Adopt practices that maintain long-term productivity
Adopt practices that maintain profitability
Identify and respond to pest issues
Identify and respond to plant and animal disorders
Improve IPM
Use relevant UMCE web-based resources
Complete the Master Gardener Training
Demonstrate how to analyze records for decision making
Demonstrate how to diagnose pest problems
Demonstrate sustainable gardening practices
Describe alternative pest manage techniques
Describe ecological principles
Describe IPM techniques
Use UM Diagnostic Services




Number of Indiana citizens who increase knowledge of proper landscape and garden
management.




Accurate Research on Tree Fruit Production and sustainability was made available and shared


Accurate Research on Flooding Practices on Resource availability in the culture of the
American Cranberry
New, water-saving irrigation system for commercial greenhouse growers




Number of integrated stress management and disease prevention strategies developed




Number of molecular mechanisms for plant stress identified




Number of stress and disease resistant plants developed




Number of additional growers aware of issue




Production of disease and insect resistant southernpeas

Increase the number of growers who report cost savings from more cost effective and less
toxic pest control due to easy access to pest control information sites. (Action)




Total dollar value of grants and contracts obtained.
Increased awareness of best management practices to promote environmentally responsible
agricultural and landscape management




Adoption of best management practices to promote environmentally responsible agricultural
and landscape management




Number of people completing non-formal education programs




Number of agency professionals, including extension agents who actually implement or
install demonstration or similar programs for clientele education
Number of people who adopt one or more recommended practices




Number of commodities with increased exports




Number of participants gaining biotechnology knowledge




Estimated dollar value new cultivars bring to North Dakota
Changes in breeding priorities that match needs

Addition of new breeding programs or addition of responsibilities to existing programs




Number of teams working together to develop genetic solutions


Number of individuals growing improved cultivars




Number of other breeding programs using NDSU developed germplasm


Pasture land owners and/or managers will be able to recognize indicators of pasture
condition and will possess decision-making skills necessary to make needed management
decisions. Target is number of pasture land owners reporting outcome.




Number of new crops evaluated per year for adaptation potential in Montana




Number of new crops and varieties adopted per year
Documents on new cultivars provided to Montana producers to maintain Montana
producers' dominance in specialty grain markets




The number of new molecular techniques used to enhance breeding results




Average per bushel yield increase of Montana grains while maintaining product quality




Number of elite lines of wheat and barley screened for agronomic and quality characteristics




Number of improved variety recommendations by districts across Montana
Planted acreage percentage increase per year (base 2005) of MSU-released small grains in
Montana




See below under Evaluation.




Outcomes will be measured by number of farmers participating in the program, number of
farmers assistaned with loan applications, amount of loan funds received as a result of
assistance with application, number of farmers assisted in signing up for Conservation
Programs, amount of conservation funds received by clients, number of farmers assisted in
signing up for Price Support (Disaster, NAP, LAP, LDP, DCP) programs, amount of income
clients received by using programs, number of farmers assisted in using CES
recommendations, economic impact from farmers using CES Programs, and number of
farmers informed about alternative enterprises, and number of farers adding alternative
enterprises to their operation.
Please see written paragraph under evaluation.
Enhanced understanding of basic aspects of plant physiology and biochemistry.




Development of plant varieties with improved yield, disease and insect resistance and
drought tolerance.
Access relevant UMCE publications
Describe IPM technologies and benefits
# of research publications




Number of research programs to identify and isolate novel genes, markers and genetic
pathways that can benefit crops important to Michigan agriculture through higher yields,
improved quality, and better insect and disease resistance.




Number of research programs to identify genes and genetic pathways that control plant
response to environmental stresses and develop techniques to insert these pathways into at-
risk plants.
Number of variety trials for crops important to Michigan, including wheat, corn, soybeans
and forages.




1)The number of LRFs that adopt vegetable rotations/planting sequences, and insect control
practices developed by this research; 2) number of LRFs that enter ornamental horticultural
production, and 3) number of contact with clientele at workshop, field days, demonstrations,
etc.


Peer Reviewed Publications

Number of Readers of Peer Reviewed Publications

Number in audience of class or scientific meeting
Number of Graduate students trained in laboratories
Number of postdoctoral fellows trained




Number of grant submissions

Number of meetings/workshops attended
Number of peer reviewed publications.
Number of theses completed.
Number of abstracts published.
Number of Undergraduate students trained and/or performing investigations
Number of presentations/posters at regional, national or international conferences or
workshops
Change in Knowledge in field
Change in policy




Develop monthly columns/articles addressing production trends and concerns

Number of farm owner/operators and managers and allied industry professionals
participating in the programs who gained knowledge of irrigation management practices
# of trained professionals

Number of farm owner/operators and managers and allied industry professionals
participating in the programs who gained knowledge of cultural practices for crop production

Number of acres of agronomic, forage, and orchard crops farmed by farm owner/operators,
participating in the programs, who gained knowledge on irrgation management practices
Number of farm, orchard, landscape and turfgrass owner/operators and allied industry
professionals participating in the programs who gained knowledge of crop and varietal
selection factors and research-based performance data
Number of farm and ranch owner/operators and managers and allied industry profesionals
participating in the programs who intended to try out or adopt the recommended cultural
practices, pest and disease management, or other aspects of comprehensive management
systems for plant and animal production
Number of public and private turfgrass managers participating in the programs who reported
increased favorability toward using recycled water for turf irrigation
Number of tree fruit and nut producers, key decision makers, and governmental agency
representatives participating in the programs who adopted recommended pruning
techniques or other orchard management practices


Increased numbers of publications
Increase numbers of students




External Funding in millions of dollars




Peer reviewed journal articles
Percentage increase in overall crop productivity (based on 1999-2004 average aggregate
output).
Increase in productivity (plant and animal) per year (expressed in percentage terms) due to
enhanced genetical capacity.




# mushroom growers




# lbs and sales in mushroom production


Through research evaluate and determine economic feasibility of producing biofuel crops in
Wyoming. Outcome indicators include number of crop producers implementing trial of
biofuel crops.
Change the way greenhouse businesses currently operate to adopt research-based
information to improve efficiency of production, increase worker safety, decrease
environmental pollution. Evaluation will be done as described for short-term outcomes plus
statistics at the State and Federal levels.




Producers will gain knowledge of nutrient management strategies.




Research and on-farm demonstrations of nutrient management practices will be conducted.
Producers will increase profitability through the implementation of improved nutrient
management strategies.




Producers, agricultural business professionals and others will learn about nutrient/manure
management related regulations.
Producers will gain knowledge of manure management techniques and strategies.




Clients will be provided with effective methods for preparing phosphorus-based nutrient
management plans.




Graduate students graduated
Number of graduate students graduated and postdoctorial associates mentored in structural
biology

Number of manuscripts published




Peer reviewed journal articles, publications, in trade journals, presentations at scientific
meetings, stakeholder, native american and agency presenations.




Peer reviewed journal articles, trade journals, publictions, presentations at scientific
meetings, stakeholder, native american and agency presentations.
Increased number of farmers adopting new crop varieties and integrating innovations in
cultural practices, biological and chemical pest management, harvesting equipment, and
irrigation management into their production systems.
Increased adoption of recommended practices for plant production, management, and
environmental protection by the "Green Industry" (greenhouses, nurseries,
landscapers).

Plant Biology: basic research will lead to improved understanding of plant molecular biology
and allow genetic manipulation of physiological processes important to increasing crop yields
and quality and crop resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
Cost savings by producers utilizing more efficient crop production practices (better varieties,
disease control, nutrient management, irrigation, etc.)




Cost savingsby utilization of in-state animal feeds


Number of new plant varieties developed from research

number of new pesticides developed that replace hazardous or less environmentally safe
alternatives currently in use.




Number of producers utilizing recommended practices for agronomic and horticulture crops.
O: Beginning Master Gardeners will obtain adequate knowledge of horticultural principles to
help or instruct other people.I: Marked increase in knowledge as measured by percentage
increase in before and after test assessments.
O: Increase in Master Gardener retention and contribution.I: Increase in the number of hours
contributed by Master Gardener volunteers.


O: Increase consumer knowledge of sustainable horticultural principles.I: Percentage
adoption of practices as indicated by survey.




O: Adoption of Practices.I: Number adopting practices.




O: Gain in knowledge.I: Percent of people indicating a gain in knowledge after attending an
educational program.
An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.




Number of farmers learning about new crops, varieties, crop management techniques,
forages and biofuels.
O: Improved information availability to green industry professionals via web site.I: Increase
number of web site hits.
Release of new cultivars or germplasms
Number of additional direct extension contacts made by volunteers, staff, or county agents
not receiving federal funds as a direct outcome of the work of federally funded faculty
associated with this planned program.

Number of invited presentations by faculty as a direct result of the success of this program.
Number of Master Gardener certifications granted through this program.
Increase in farm gate value of row and forage crops in Georgia. Reported annually in millions
of dollars.
Increase in farm gate value of fruit and nut crops in Georgia. Reported annually in millions of
dollars.
Increase in farm gate value of vegetable crops in Georgia. Reported annually in millions of
dollars.
Increase in farm gate value of ornamental horticulture crops in Georgia. Reported annually in
millions of dollars.
Percentage of program participants reporting increased knowledge after program
participation.
Percentage of program participants who indicated a plan to adopt one or more of the
practices recommended in this program.
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   Understand pollen flow mechanisms between wheat and its wild relative jointed goatgrass
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   Varieties released (with Plant Variety Protection coverage) for general public and/or
licensed release
<div>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<big><big>&bull;</big></big>
   new research methods and discoveries will be published
With the knowlege produced,

  released varieties will be adopted by growers;
  new research methods will be adopted by the research community

Growers are made aware that environmentally friendly drip and micro sprinkler irrigation
systems produce increased crop yield and crop quality and that less nitrogen is required
when crops are irrigated than with furrow and regular sprinkler irrigation.




O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.




O: An increase in the number of trained graduate students prepared to enter the workforce.
I: Number of M.S. and Ph.D. candidates relevant to this topic team.
Number of stakeholders to adopt the proposed BMPs
Records of the sales of seed of improved cultivars at the Substations.
Economic impact of the change in behavior reported.




Adoption of crop production technology as measured by agricultural statistics.




Percent of participants indicating change in behavior/best practices adopted.
Adoption of improved wheat cultivars




Potential of living mulches to decrease soil erosion.
OUTCOME TYPE        KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 EXTENSION        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 EXTENSION




Action Outcome
Knowledge Outcome                                    10

Knowledge Outcome                                    10




Knowledge Outcome                                    10




Knowledge Outcome                                    10

Action Outcome                                       10

Action Outcome                                       10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10




Condition Outcome   10
Condition Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Action Outcome

Action Outcome

Action Outcome
Condition Outcome
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome      10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome    8




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome




Action Outcome




Action Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome       30


Action Outcome      1




Knowledge Outcome   5
Knowledge Outcome   5




Action Outcome      5




Action Outcome      5




Action Outcome      5
Action Outcome       5




Condition Outcome    5




Knowledge Outcome   10   0




Condition Outcome    0
Knowledge Outcome    0

Knowledge Outcome    0




Knowledge Outcome    0


Action Outcome       0




Action Outcome       0




Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome
Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome




Condition Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome
Condition Outcome




Condition Outcome




Knowledge Outcome   25
Knowledge Outcome
Condition Outcome




Condition Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   12




Knowledge Outcome    4




Condition Outcome    4
Knowledge Outcome    4




Knowledge Outcome        20


Condition Outcome

Condition Outcome

Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome

Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome

Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome
Condition Outcome




Knowledge Outcome        100


Knowledge Outcome    3
Knowledge Outcome   12


Knowledge Outcome    3


Knowledge Outcome    3


Knowledge Outcome    3




Knowledge Outcome    3

Knowledge Outcome    3


Action Outcome       3


Knowledge Outcome
Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome

Condition Outcome   10

Knowledge Outcome    5




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome       5




Action Outcome      25




Knowledge Outcome   25
Action Outcome   25




Action Outcome   25
Action Outcome   25




Action Outcome   25




Action Outcome    0
Action Outcome       0

Knowledge Outcome    0




Knowledge Outcome




Knowledge Outcome


Action Outcome      10   10


Action Outcome      10   10




Condition Outcome   10   10
Action Outcome      0




Action Outcome      0


Condition Outcome   0


Condition Outcome   0




Knowledge Outcome   0
Knowledge Outcome   10

Action Outcome      10




Action Outcome      10




Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome   10




Knowledge Outcome   21

Knowledge Outcome   10
Knowledge Outcome    0   0


Knowledge Outcome    2   0

Action Outcome       2   0
Action Outcome       2   0

Condition Outcome    2   0

Condition Outcome    2   0

Condition Outcome    2   0

Condition Outcome    2   0

Knowledge Outcome    2   0

Knowledge Outcome    2   0
Knowledge Outcome   16




Action Outcome      16




Knowledge Outcome




Action Outcome       0




Action Outcome      10
Action Outcome
Condition Outcome
Condition Outcome   3




Condition Outcome   3




Action Outcome      3
Condition Outcome   3




Knowledge Outcome   3
KA PERCENTAGE - 1862 RESEARCH        KA PERCENTAGE - 1890 RESEARCH        PLAN START YEAR




                                                                     25               2007
                                10                                                    2007

                                10                                                    2007




                                10                                                    2007




                                10                                                    2007

                                10                                                    2007

                                10                                                    2007
10   2007
10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007
 7   2007

 7   2007

 7   2007
 7   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007
10   2007




 8   2007




 6   2007




 6   2007
 7        2007




     30   2007




     30   2007




     30   2007




     30   2007




     30   2007


 0        2007




11        2007
11   2007




11   2007




11   2007




11   2007
11       2007




11       2007




10   0   2007




25       2007
25   2007

25   2007




25   2007


25   2007




25   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10       2007




13       2007




     0   2007
10       2007
11   2007




11   2007
10   2007
10   2007
19   2007




 7   2007




 7   2007
 7        2007




     20   2007


 4        2007

 4        2007

 4        2007
 4        2007
 4        2007




 4        2007

 4        2007
10        2007
10        2007
10        2007
23        2007

23        2007
23         2007
 4         2007




     100   2007


 7         2007
19         2007


 7         2007


 7         2007


 7         2007




 7         2007

 7         2007


 7         2007


 1         2007
19        2007




19        2007




19        2007

10        2007

 5        2007




     17   2007




     17   2007




10        2007
5   2007




    2007




    2007
2007




2007
     2007




     2007




13   2007
 4        2007

 4        2007




32        2007




32        2007


10   10   2007


10   10   2007




10   10   2007
7   2007




7   2007


4   2007


4   2007




7   2007
10   2007

10   2007




10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10       2007




21       2007

10       2007
11   0   2007


 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007
 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007

 2   2   2007
16   2007




16   2007




12   2007




 5   2007




10   2007
25   2007
25   2007
10   2007




10   2007




10   2007
10   2007




10   2007
                        1862 EXTENSION    1890 EXTENSION    1862 RESEARCH
QUANTITATIVE TARGET     OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE   OUTCOME MEASURE




                    0
                  100 y                                     y

                  200 y                                     y




                  200 y                                     y




                  700 y

                      50 y                                  y

                  500 y                                     y
9882 y   y
 500 y




   1y    y
   2y    y




   5     y
   0     y

   2     y

   0     y
   0     y
  92 y
       y
       y
  80   y
 210   y
  70   y
 110   y
1160   y
 263   y
       y
 200   y
 235   y
 680   y
  80   y
  78   y
 160   y




   0y      y




           y




           y
              y




      0




      0




      0




     50




          y




4000000 y     y
300 y   y




 20 y   y




 50 y   y




 15 y   y
      20 y   y




       1y    y




    1000     y




35000000     y
    3     y

    1     y




    7     y


14500     y




   15     y




  100 y




    2     y




    1     y
100   y




  1   y




  0   y




100   y




  5   y
 10       y




  0       y




500   y
  0       y
  0     y




  0     y
170 y
 70 y
  3     y




  5     y




  3     y
   8   y




  10


  25   y

 500   y

6000   y
  25   y
   3   y




  30   y

  55   y
  40   y
  20   y
  30   y
   5   y

  12   y
1000           y
  10           y




  12       y


       y       y
   2           y


       y       y


       y       y


       y       y




       y       y

       y       y


       y       y


  55           y
32    y




 0    y




50    y

 2y   y

 0    y




 0




 0




 3    y
  0y




250 y




200 y
 90 y




200 y
650 y




100 y




 14     y
 5        y

16        y




          y




          y


 0y   y


 0y   y




 0y   y   y
  0   y




  0   y


  0   y


  0   y




850   y
  35 y

9800 y




   6y




 130 y




  75 y
           y




  3180 y   y

  2550 y
    15     y


110000 y

    20 y   y
   500 y

  1740 y

   227 y

   725 y

   656 y

    80 y

    65 y
  0   y




  0   y




  2   y




  2   y




  1   y
110   y
100   y
150000 y




     1y    y




    50 y   y
y   y




y   y
1890 RESEARCH
OUTCOME MEASURE   ACTUAL AMOUNT




y                                    0
                                    88

                                   754




                                   769




                                  1846

                                   625

                                  2575
15523
 1264




   44
    8




    5
    0

    7

    0
    0
   90
   35
 3389
  659
  782
  441
    5
37825
  151
   37
  522
  546
  279
 1657
  130
  309




83419




    0




    0
          0




y         0




y         0




y         0




y         0




y         0


         40




    1319598
   0




  19




2706




   0
     1986




        0




      350




290600000
    1

    1




    7


14500




   76




  241




    5




    0
100




  0




  0




 80




  5
  0




  0




500
  0
   0




   0
3206
   0
  72




  15




   4
       6




y      1


      17

       0

    4200
       9
       3




      12

      43
       0
       0
       0
       6

      16
        0
        0




y      12


      441
       15


    12423


    15000


    18739




      726

      441


     7252


       49
         27




    4951958




         39

          2

          1




y       384




y    186974




          5
   0




1672




  50
242




522
2010




 158




   8
     6

    18




     8




     0


     0


     0




y    0
  0




  0


  0


  0




850
   67

14564




   98




  408




   80
     2




  7350

  5994
    50


125821

     2
   580

  1681

   894

   894

   770

     0

   100
 10




 10




  0




  8




  0
113
100
7000000




      0




     12
0




0
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - ISSUES




Soybean grown on low cation exchange capacity soils (sandy and silt loams) usually requires
phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization to produce maximum yields. The prices of
inorganic P and K fertilizers have gradually increased for the past several years and are
expected to continue to increase as world demand and transportation/production costs
increase. Natural resources produced within the state, such as poultry litter, may be cost-
effective, alternative P and K fertilizer sources for row crops and may offer other benefits
that aid in sustaining long-term agricultural productivity to soils in eastern Arkansas.

Home Gardening is a growing commodity. A train the trainer approach via the Master
Gardener program has been a huge success for several decades. Keeping these volunteers
motivated and engaged is a challenge. Their support has greatly expanded the horticultural
programs across the country. While the consumer horticulture program is strong, we need
better communication skill sets to reach a broader audience.
Soybean is an important commodity in Arkansas and ranks on the top in acreage among all
agricultural crops. Over three million acres of soybean are grown each year, generating
approximately 110 million bushels in total production and $750 million in gross income.
Choosing a proper variety is one of the most important decisions a grower has to make each
growing season. There are many varietal characteristics, such as yield potential, maturity,
disease resistance, herbicide resistance, and seed quality, which need to be considered in
matching the best variety for a particular cropping system or production environment. The
numerous varieties available to Arkansas growers come from publicly funded breeding
programs in the southern states and from private companies.




Cooperative efforts by a team of faculty and staff within the Cooperative Extension Service
have helped the third largest rice producer in the Delta region transition from rice to
wholesale nursery production. The farm, located in Harrisburg, has planted a total of 120
acres of ornamental trees since the spring of 2002 with an estimated wholesale value of $2.5
million. This same team of University experts is also helping a former row crop farmer in
White County transition to ornamental shade tree production. In 2005, field nurseries started
production in Clay and Jackson Counties and container nurseries started production in
Washington and Independence Counties. An additional nursery started container production
in Washington County in 2006.




Salix has become increasingly used in environmental restoration work, providing a cost-
effective material for stabilization and reclamation of disturbed landscapes, as well as for
phytoremediation, bioengineering, and biomass production.
Master Gardener classes around Indiana always fill up quickly. The class on annuals and
perennials can be the highlight of the course. Additionally, these gardeners like to
experiment, so they are interested in learning about underused plants and new
varieties.However, most extension staff in charge of Master Gardener classes have expertise
in agronomy or animal science but not in ornamental plants. Thus, there is a need for a
thorough but enjoyable class on annuals and perennials.


Global competition increases the need for enhanced efficiency of orchard businesses.
Rootstocks dramatically affect efficiency and fruit quality, but results vary greatly with
climate and pest pressure. This project evaluates the performance of tree-fruit rootstocks
with a variety of climates, pest pressures, cultivars, and training system in order to enable
orchardists to develop orchards with the greatest likelihood of economic success and least
likelihood of environmental damage.


Fruit set in cranberry is extremely low, likely due to carbohydrate stress. This project
examines the effect of flooding practices on carbohydrate status and yield in cranberry vines.
Currently, many greenhouse growers over-water and fertilize container-grown ornamental
plants to ensure that they don't die due to drought stress.
Potato (Solanum spp.) the target species of this research is the fourth most important food
crop in the world. As such, any improvements in the the ability to reduce yield losses in a
sustainable manner are important. The integrated pest management strategies being
examined in this project are sustainable.

Knowledge of the nexus between stress and infectivity would be of great benefit in the
development of stress resistant plants. The identification of these components at a
molecular level will lead to a better understanding to the processes and speed the
identification of plants with superior abilities to resist pests.

Development of sustainable improvements in yield are improtant for the portion fo the
world's population that utilizes Solanum as a food source. This research will lead to
development of plants with improved resistance to stresses, thus improving yield.

Completion of the project will aid in the development of integrated pest management
strategies and disease resistant plants. Thus the stakeholders who adopt and use these
methods would benefit the production of potato and other crops


Southernpeas are heavily infected by insects and pests causing yield loss for the limited-
farmers resource farmers in Arkansas




Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun
Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun.




Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun

Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun

Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun.
Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun.




Farming in Hawaii continues to be difficult because of high land costs and competition with
housing needs, high transportation and fuel costs, high cost of feed, water, waste
management, labor and the lack of labor, and threat by invasive species, cheap imports.
Despite these challenges, the industry continues to diversify and expand into specialty niche
markets and, in a few crops, import replacements. Because of the high cost of fuel, an
initiative to investigate biofuels was begun




Citizens lack the knowledge to make informed decisions about biotechnology, research
results need to be brought to a variety of audiences.




Producers, seedsmen, grain merchandisers, processors, crop consultants, plant breeders, and
extension staff interested in new cultivars that bring them increased revenue.
Producers, seedsmen, crop consultants, and extension staff




Producers, crop consultants, and extension staff that look forward to the new cultivars to
promote and grow.


Producers, seedsmen, breeders, crop consultants, and extension personnel




Plant breeders that ask for new varieties and germplasm

Forage-based animal agriculture is the only basic industry found in all 23 Wyoming counties.
Grazing animals convert grass from rangeland and forage (including alfalfa and crop
aftermath) from cultivated lands into marketable products. Therefore practices which
improve pasture conditions are critical for agriculture producers.




Livestock producers need to obtain more value out of grazing regimes and alfalfa and grass
production, especially with the high price of fuel and increasing feed costs, The establishment
of new value-added crops and the development of higher yielding crop varieties are priorities
among agronomic researchers and crop producing stakeholders.




Producers need to continue to evaluate alternative crops due to increasing production costs
and price competition in small grains. Reducing dependence on small grain monocultures can
potentially increase on-farm receipts for Montanans.
The development and acceptance of new cultivars of traditional and non-traditional crops is
important to producers in Montana and other Great Plains states. New disease and insect
resistant wheat and barley cultivars, new cultivars with value-added traits, and new crops
weigh heavily in the priorities of Montana stakeholders. A major effort is underway to
characterize and evaluate wheat and barley germplasm and to increase the utilization of
world germplasm collections.

Reliable yield of a high quality is essential for the long-term marketing of Montana wheat.
The broader impacts of MSU research are a larger food supply for the world, and an
improved ability of Montana farmers to compete in a global marketplace. Future productivity
of the breeding program will be addressed by our efforts to improve our understanding of
the genetics of key traits, and to develop new selection tools.




MSU seeks to maintain its role as a leading university in small grains genetics research. The
agricultural community and allied industries depend on new cultivars of important crops to
remain competitive in the world market place. Researchers evaluate germplasm and identify
traits that produce wheat and barley cultivars that meet increasing world demands for
quality, while maintaining yields for producers.




Global traders want high quality wheat with characteristics that enhance their production of
food products. Bread making characteristics, especially dough strength and extensibility, are
considered when evaluating spring wheat cultivars.




Montana crop producers want improved hard red and hard white winter wheat cultivars that
are adapted to Montana conditions and suitable for both domestic and export markets.
Producers want the highest yielding and most pest resistant barley varieties as well.
Montana crop producers want improved hard red and hard white winter wheat and barley
cultivars that are adapted to Montana conditions, resist pests, and generate higher yields.
Producers anxiously await the new MSU cultivars that are released each year.




Many socially disadvantaged farmers (SDFs) fail to use USDA Programs due to various reasons
such as: past problems with USDA, unfamiliar with USDA programs, or reluctant to visit local
office. This has caused SDFs to lose millions of dollars that could have been used in their
operations and as a result of this, many SDFs have lost their farms. Also most SDFs also do
not use the Cooperative Extension Service (CES). They get their crop and livestock production
information from other farmers or the local farm supply store. As a result, most SDFs do not
use CES recommendations and this may be contribituting to lower yields on their farms. If,
SDFs are to maintain their farms they must use both USDA Programs and CES production
information.
Plant hormones play important roles in nearly all growth and developmental processes in the
life cycle of plants. One of these hormones, auxin, elicits a highly diverse range of growth and
developmental responses. The molecular mechanisms involved in auxin action, including
signal transduction pathways involved in auxin-regulated gene expression, are still largely
unsolved.




Plants are exposed to a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi,
nematodes and protozoa but have evolved multiple defense mechanisms to restrict
pathogen growth. Researchers at MU focus on characterizing resistant genes and
manipulating plant disease resistance signaling pathways in order to engineer durable
pathogen resistance in crop plants.




As the world population increases and the demand for food and fuel relies more heavily on
agricultural products, efficient methods of plant transformation will be required. While
conventional breeding will fulfill part of this need, these techniques are limited to the gene
pool of the species involved. In contrast, the tools of genetic engineering significantly expand
the sources of genes that can be used for variety improvement. Further, current
transformation techniques are not applicable to all plant species.




Research on plant resistance to environmental stress is essential to sustainable agriculture.
Determining how to develop or enhance resistance is a critical research area. Before plant
varieties that are insect- or disease-resistant can be developed, scientists have to find a
source of plant resistance and then determine how to cross-breed plants or isolate the
responsible genes and move them from one plant to another.
Agriculture is one of Michigan's top three industries. The state's agrifood system accounts for
$63.7 billion in total economic activity and more than 1 million jobs. Michigan also has one of
the most diverse agricultural industries in the U.S., from field crops to fruits and horticultural
crops. Conducting variety trials for economically important crops to Michigan are an integral
part of sustaining an economically viable agriculture industry.




The limited resources farmers. To get maximum benefit and profit following proper rotation
and selecting high yielding cultivars for growing alternative crops.

College and University administration, the scientific community, other funding agencies and
proposal reviewers.




Students and scientists in the disciplne who are interested in leading edge information.




The project PI, AES, college and university administration, other funding agencies.

Students and scientists in the discipline who are interested in leading edge information.
In the projects related to plant stress, the primary audience is other scientists and
researchers in plant physiology. Ultimately, this basic research may lead an understanding of
plant stress response that will have applications for growers. UV radiation resonses are of
relevent to ozone layer depletion and therefore of concern to regulators. The crop breeding
research is of direct interest to seed companies and growers interested in disease resistant
and more nutritious varieties; it is also of interest of consumers. The systematics,
phylogeography and effects of invasive seaweeds are of interest to scientists, coastal
managers, regulatory agencies, and aquaculture operations.




Limited-resource and small-scale farmers, and extension agents assisting the above
mentioned stakeholders.




Increasing number of peer-reviewed publications reflects greater faculty productivity, which
is important to institutional and departmental benchmarks and contributes to national
recognition.
Graduate education of top tier students in plant biochemistry, genetics, cell biology and
related fields is needed to produce future scientists who will do basic research in areas of
new food sources, improved food products, new fuel sources, plant protection and crop
improvement.

Extramural funding from federal and non federal agencies comprises the Institute's main
financial resource and is used to pay for supplies, equipment, and salaries for graduate
research assistants and postdoctoral researchers. Approximately 60% of the unit's
expenditures are extramural (grant and development funds). Without extramural funding,
the Institute faculty would be unable to complete their research goals.
Journal articles are of value because they explain research results to the scientific community
and should be, if written properly (and after review and revision), have research results that
may be soundly discussed, reasoned out and replicated. Review also helps limit the
possibility of plagiarism and other unethical activities. Journal articles that are read by the
scientific community can also spur new research and collaborations in areas heretofore
unthought-of by the original researcher. The end result is that journal articles document
research.




With the declining tobacco crop in North Carolina, small scale producers need alternative
crops to provide income from their farms. The mushroom production program is providing a
viable alternative to tobacco crops for small farmers in North Carolina.




Mushroom production is an alternative to tobacco production for small scale farmers. The
level of production is one measure of profits.

Over 80 percent of wheat acres in Wyoming are planted under crop fallow rotations without
any kind of consideration of cropping or tillage practices. Under this system over 75 percent
of the moisture is typically lost to weeds, evaporation and runoff. Further this system
degrades soil structure and causes depletion of organic matter.
Industry is feeling pressure to be sustainable and environment friendly.




Government farm programs, zoning, large farm licenses and state animal feeding operation
permits all require farms to have nutrient management plans. Regulations aside, improving
nutrient management practices can also improve farm profitability and reduce harmful
effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on water quality.




Increasing environmental regulations and public expectations have made proper manure
application a growing issue for the dairy and livestock industry throughout the upper
Midwest region. For-hire manure applicators manage about 4 billion of Wisconsin's 12 billion
gallons of dairy manure each year, making them major partners in environmental protection
and regulatory compliance.
Local conservationists are identifying farmers who could benefit by learning nutrient crediting
and basic requirements of the NRCS 590 Nutrient Management Standard. Interagency
collaborations have formed to deliver Nutrient Management Farmer Education locally and
secure funding for those most in need of nutrient management planning. Focused efforts are
underway to help farmers improve decision-making, develop a nutrient management plan
that fits their operation, and improve long-term sustainability of farm profitability, land use
and water quality.




Proper response to emergency manure spills and runoff can keep a small problem from
becoming a large one, reduce environmental impacts and safeguard health.
Farms that lack adequate storage for manure during winter rely on surface manure
applications to cropland. While proper application supplies valuable nutrients for crop
growth, controversy flares when heavy rains or sudden snowmelt wash unsafe amounts of
nitrogen and phosphorus into private wells or popular fishing areas.




Most farmers are natural stewards of the land, and an array of research-tested best
management practices can help them protect water quality and stay profitable. UW-
Extension provides the technical information and educational delivery expertise for
navigating the regulatory maze, improving farm practices and monitoring the results.

Primary production of food and fiber for our society is dependent upon plant growth and
productivity. Newly developed biological technologies including many techniques for
studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of plant growth are used to determine
effects of abiotic and biotic factors on plant growth and productivity. These biological
technologies are now being used to study abiotic and biotic impacts on plant growth and
productivity and results are being used to develop more productive plants, crops and
methods of managing production systems. Research and education professionals must be
constantly trained to conduct teaching and research functions in the future.
Trained scientists are required to conduct research and teaching programs that provide
increased knowledge of basic biology including molecular biology.
Publication of results of research is the method of determining that research is valid,
significant and that the results will be dissimenated and retained.




Nevada's arid climate makes it hard for farmers to grow non-native crops. Many farmers in
the state rely on alfalfa as their main crop. While alfalfa grows well in Nevada, it uses about
3.5 acre-feet of water per acre each season -- that is, more than 1.1 million gallons of water
for 1 acre of alfalfa. Nevada's farmers need a crop that grows as reliably as alfalfa, but uses
less of the state's limited water supply. Researchers know that wine grapes use little water,
but they needed to overcome the challenges of Nevada's harsh climate.




Drought is the most prominent threat to agricultural production worldwide. Climate models
have indicated that drought episodes will become more frequent because of the long-term
effects of global warming, emphasizing the urgent need to develop adaptive agricultural
strategies for a changing environment. Drought accelerates leaf senescence (aging), leading
to a decrease in canopy size, loss in photosynthesis, and reduced yields. Assuming that
senescence is a type of cell death program that could be inappropriately activated during
drought, the multi-national team's goal was to enhance drought tolerance by delaying
drought-induced leaf senescence.
Agricultural crop production in Alaska is limited by insufficient infrastructure and
transportation. Since farmers can't compete in world markets they are interested in local
niche markets. Reliable information on high value agronomic niche crops such as hulless
barleys and oats, grass seed, and oilseeds as well as horticultural niche crops like flowers,
vegetables and nursery plants is important to local producers trying to fill and sustain the
demand from local markets for niche crops.


Reindeer producers are interested in marketing this high quality lean meat which has a ready
market. Farmed reindeer can't survive on pasture grass alone and a high quality feed was
needed to keep deer in enclosures during caribou herd migrations and to increase
profitability.

Results of molecular research may be used to develop new plant varieties especially using
transgenic techniques.
Increased knowledge of plant and animal cellular activities may provide insights into
processes that could be disrupted to reduce pest ability to reduce plant or animal host
growth.




Horticulture is the largest agricultural industry in Alaska accounting for more than 50 percent
of cash receipts for all agricultural crops in the state and 40 percent of all agricultural
commodities including aquaculture, livestock, and agronomic crops. The value of major
horticultural crop plants in the most populated areas of Alaska is estimated at $20 million.
The primary goal of the Idaho Master Gardener Program is to train volunteers to assist
University of Idaho Extension and communities with home horticulture diagnostics, as well as
provide support for a variety of special community service projects. Payette County had not
reported any trained Master Gardeners in three years due to faculty vacancies which had
decreased the visual exposure of the Extension office and reduced the amount of horticulture
outreach to the community.




People throughout the state rely on Extension-trained master gardeners to help solve
problems, and to provide leadership for environmental issues impacted by horticultural
practices.




Potato producers are continually challenged to remain economically viable in an ever-
changing agricultural environment where costs of equipment and inputs continually rise.
Research on potatoes helps producers obtain maximum yields, thus minimizing their cost to
raise a given unit of potatoes. To increase yield, producers must be continually updated with
new information when it comes available. Keeping producers well informed is the challenge.


Any fruit or vegetable that may end up in the Federal food programs (school lunches,
military, etc) must pass the GAP Audit at the farm level. Because of this, some processed
potato facilities in Idaho are requiring farmers who sell potatoes to them to pass the Audit.
Farmers need to be aware of what kind of records to compile and what documentation is
needed for various sections of the audit matrix.
Native plants have the potential to comprise critical components of water-conserving, low-
input landscapes. Increasing the value and availability of native plants is essential to their
success in commerce and adoption by homeowners. This research is making available native
plant materials with superior adaptation to the difficult climate and poor soils typical of
Idaho's urban areas. The ultimate impact will be reduced use of environmentally harmful
gardening practices and conservation of Idaho's valuable, but limited, water resources.




Small grain, corn, and soybean producers have many choices when considering which
varieties (hybrids) to plant every year. Annually, a number of crop performance trials are
conducted, the data is analyzed, and the results published. Thereafter, a number of
presentations are made at extension meetings by specialists and agronomy educators that
assist growers to identify varieties or hybrids that exhibit superior agronomic performance.
New crop varieties are needed in order to provide a stable, sustainable and healthy supply of
food, fuel and fiber.


New crop varieties are needed in order to provide a stable, sustainable and healthy supply of
food, fuel and fiber. The Pacific Northwest produces 60 percent of the U.S. fall potato crop.




The bean industry in the US faces challenges in production as well as in competition in
international markets. To remain competitive, new varieties with improved qualities are
needed. The UI has an internationally recognized bean breeding program located at the
Kimberly Research and Extension Center.




Storage disease control, especially for late blight, pink rot, dry rot and silver scurf, are of
great concern to the Idaho potato industry, therefore, research effort is focused on disease
control in storage.
New Farmer Program/Market Farm Track

In Boulder County, Colorado, locally grown produce is highly valued by local consumers. In
addition the average age of farmers in the U.S. continues to rise (and is now over 55 years of
age) and many people new to agriculture are interested in learning about farming.




Increasing the intensity of cropping systems by producers in the central great plains.




Irrigation Audits

In the next 25 years, Colorado's population is expected to exceed seven million people, and
an additional 632,000 acre-feet of water will be needed in cities to support their growth. The
growing population relies on limited water resources provided by a semiarid climate. Periodic
droughts, characteristic of the West, limit the total water supply available for outdoor
landscape watering, indoor consumption, manufacturing, agriculture and other uses. In
addition to wasting water, turf and landscape plants, when watered incorrectly, suffer from
disease and insect pressure, which often results in more pesticide applications to combat the
problems.
Wheat was seeded on an estimated 2.4 million acres in fall 2007 in Colorado. Hatcher was
the most popular variety seeded in Colorado and was planted on 22.2 percent of the acreage
for the 2008 crop compared with only 6.5 percent and a fifth place ranking a year earlier.
Jagalene, a private seed company (AgriPro) variety, the second most popular variety, was
seeded on 10.7 percent of the acreage for the 2008 crop, down from 14.2 percent and the
top position for the 2007 crop.




Crop producers need management practices to decrease soil erosion, suppress weeds and
insects, improve soil structure and nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, and nitrogen
fixation. One approach is to employ legumes as a living mulch, i.e., perennial plants used as
cover crops in the production of annual cash crops. Kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum) is a
perennial, rhizomatous legume that has been used successfully in the upper Midwest as a
living mulch in no-till crop production systems.
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - WHAT WAS DONE




Research was initiated at 10 sites between 2004 and 2007 to compare soybean response to
equal P and K rates applied as inorganic P and K fertilizers or poultry litter. The research
objectives were to determine if soybean yields were stimulated by the application of an
organic soil amendment above the response provided by standard fertilization and to
evaluate the availability of P and K in litter. To satisfy these objectives, the P and K nutritional
status of soybean receiving different fertilizer treatments were compared at the R2 growth
stage and grain yield was measured at maturity.


Arkansas will offer a new program to Master Gardener volunteers and agents dealing with
communication skills. Particular training will be done in writing, power point, photography
and editing. Training will benefit local county programs as well as impact the horticulture
program at a statewide level.
The long-term goal of our soybean breeding program is to develop varieties with high
productivity and profitability. Our specific objectives for variety development include high
yield potential, various maturities, multiple and durable disease resistance, stress tolerance,
conventional and herbicide resistance, lodging and shattering resistance, and improved seed
quality. We have established a strong breeding program and an extensive variety-testing
program to assist our soybean producers in selecting the best varieties to grow. Arkansas
soybean producers provide check-off funds administered by the Arkansas Soybean Promotion
Board to support the soybean breeding program.




Since 1999, workshops and materials have been developed to encourage and support the
development of new ornamental horticulture businesses. The cornerstone of these
programs is the 'Starting a New Horticulture Business' workshop, which is followed by more
in-depth workshops in plant materials, plant propagation, and an annual 'tune-up' workshop.
A successful in-service training was conducted for county agents to cover basic ornamental
horticulture topics and resources.
Twenty-one new fact sheets have been developed since 1999 and a new quarterly newsletter
has been initiated to convey information to counties and business clientele in a timely
manner.
Emphasis is being placed on development of the commercial horticulture web site. A large
web project was launched in January 2002 that includes over 900 plant photographs and
comments on the landscape value of these plants. This site will be accessible by businesses
and consumers. Plant Flash Cards were offered for sale in 2007.




Funding provided by the University of Connecticut Research Foundation for $20,000 enabled
research to identify the range of applications of willows toward minimization of negative
anthropogenic impacts on local ecosystems and to study the ecological and cultural
requirements of Salix species for successful plant establishment for phytoremedaition
projects. The study focuses on Salix tolerance of natural and anthropogenic stresses,
including drought and heavy metal contamination in order to reveal genus potential for
phytoremediation and biomass production.
A three-hour class that covers growing annuals, bulbs, perennials, and ornamental grasses
was created. The presentation also includes detailed information on a number of familiar and
unfamiliar plants that are well suited for Indiana. The talk was presented to Master Gardener
classes in fifteen counties (16 talks) from Oct 2006 through Sept 2007. The students are given
detailed handouts, and I always plenty of samples so they can see the plants up close and
personal.


Approximately 250 acres were planted with dwarfing rootstocks during the past year. These
rootstocks as defined and recommended by this project, will reduce pruning and harvest
labor by 50%, increase fruit quality, increase size by 10-20% and enhance the economic
return on acreage by as much as 50%. Further, smaller trees require 70% less pesticide
because of the reduced canopy volume.


Research to examine the flooding practices has brought about a change in knowledge
regarding flood management in MA cranberry production.
In collaboration with researchers from the NE-1017 Multi-State project, an irrigation
automation system was developed for commercial greenhouse growers. This irrigation
system uses capacitance sensors to measure substrate volumetric water content (volume of
water in a given volume of substrate). These measurements are collected via a datalogger
and irrigation is initiated only when the substrate volumetric water drops below a pre-
determined set point.

Infectivity analyses are being conducted for three pathogens on stressed and non-stressed
Solanum plants. This work is being performed among collaborators at Tennessee State
University, University of Idaho, and North Dakota State Univesity.




Molecular analysis of stressed and non-stressed plants challenged with three soft-rot bacteria
are being conducted.




Data collected from other research in this project will be used to develop improved varieties.


At the time of reporting, presentations are being prepared for The Biotechnology Institute
and Potato Association of America.
1. Protocol has been established to transfer insect resistant genes through gene
transformation in southernpea.
2. Field evaluation of southernpea germplasm for the identification of cultivars that resist
insects and pests in southernpea.




CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analyses and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.
CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analyses and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.




CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analysis and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.




CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analyses and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.




CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analyses and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.
CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analyses and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.




CTAHR conducted research and extension activities in nutrient management, cultural and
production methods, pest management, new cultivar development and evaluations, provided
diagnostic and analytical services, assisted industries with industry analyses and/or strategic
planning, risk management, pesticide registration, and marketing and promotion.




A primary venue for biotech research at Virginia Tech is the Fralin Biotechnology Center's well
developed pre college outreach program, especially the Partnership for Research and
Education in Plants (PREP; www.prep.biotech.vt.edu). PREP brings together high school
teachers and research scientists to guide high school students in characterizing genes in
Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant used widely in genetic research and one of the few plants whose
genome has been sequenced. Scientists provide wild type (no altered genes) and mutant
(one disabled gene) seeds and experimental know how to students, and students design
experiments to examine the effects of abiotic stressors (e.g., drought, salinity, soil pH, etc.)
on wild type versus mutant plants, thereby helping to determine the function of each missing
gene.




Released new varieties
Work with new canola breeder to develop marker systems that work on traits of interest.

Began the search to hire a pulse crop breeder




Teams of breeders, pathologists, cereal chemists and entomologists work together to
develop improved cultivars.




Germplasm, including new cultivars, has been shared with public and private breeders, both
domestically and internationally.




Educational programs, newspaper inserts, newsletters and individual consultations with
producers provided educational information on this topic.




Producers are investing in and harvesting more feed crops, including barley hay and forage
legumes. The development and establishment of high-value, alternative crops continues to
gain momentum in Montana with close involvement among research, extension, and
stakeholders.


With the MSU focus on new crop development, several new or improved crops have been
adopted by Montana producers. Also, value-added characteristics are being researched in
small grain varieties that will improve the attractiveness of Montana grains to foreign and
domestic markets.
Barley research continues to focus on the development of high-quality drought tolerant lines
for the malting, feed, and ethanol industries. Continued productivity of our breeding program
will improve our understanding of the genetics of key traits and allow the development of
new selection tools. The broader impacts of the work are a larger food supply for the world,
an improved ability of Montana farmers to compete in a global marketplace, and a
strengthening of export markets for U.S. wheat.
MSU research is examining the degree to which puroindoline proteins control wheat grain
hardness and cereal quality and their effect on end-product quality. Further research will
address the effects that modifying the starch biosynthetic pathway has upon grain hardness,
milling quality, yield, and end-product quality. Researchers are evaluating more efficient
screening, selection and breeding strategies to maximize efficiency and genetic progress in
breeding programs.




Primary breeding objectives include increasing yield potential, improving winter hardiness,
wheat stem sawfly resistance, imidazolinone herbicide tolerance, and enhanced dual-purpose
end-use quality. A recently released solid stem winter wheat cultivar, Genou, has improved
yield potential especially in wheat stem sawfly infested areas of Montana.




MSU has a high throughput of potential lines of winter and spring wheat through our
breeding programs. Successful genetic research will increase the competitiveness of Montana
wheat producers through improved winter wheat cultivars with enhanced yield potential,
pest resistance, and desirable end-use qualities. The Asian noodle market is an important
business opportunity for Montana growers. The quality of noodles made from different
wheat samples is evaluated on entries from the MSU and intrastate nurseries.

About 10 to 15 new varieties are released to growers and the lower yielding or less desirable
varieties may be removed from the recommended lists by district based upon agronomic and
pest responses. This keeps only those varieties that will be the most beneficial for Montana
growers. These decisions are made from a group of MSU faculty, seed growers, seed trade
members, and state agencies.
One or two new cultivars are commercially introduced each year to Montana growers. As
new cultivars are introduced and accepted, the acreage planted of older cultivars (including
those developed at MSU) goes down. New varieties are developed on-going at MSU and are
annually reviewed by MSU and the Montana Wheat and Barley Committee before being
released to the public.




To help SDFs use USDA Programs, and the CES, proposals were written to obtain funds to
employ extension associates to help SDFs use USDA Programs and the CES as well as to assist
SDFs using the holistic approach (their entire operation, marketing, production, economic)
with their operation. Also partnerships were established with several USDA and state
agencies to help in delivering their services to SDFs.
Researchers work to unravel at least a part of the network involved in auxin-regulated gene
expression. Investigators have developed new techniques to analyze transgene and
endogenous gene expression and discovered a domain in Aux/IAA proteins that functions as a
transferable repression domain that is dominant over activation domains.

Gene-for-gene disease resistance is a highly specific plant defense mechanism in which a
particular plant resistance gene governs the resistance response against only those pathogen
strains expressing a corresponding avirulence gene. Scientists use an Arabidopsis resistance
gene called RPS4 to understand the protein action and identify additional proteins that
trigger a plant defense response. Researchers have ascertained the biological relevance of
splice variants of RPS4 encoding truncated RPS4 proteins and identified a second resistance
gene related to RPS4.




Research to develop a novel transformation system that is suitable for large seeded
legumes;exploring ways to increase the amount of plant oil that can be produced and
extracted from the seeds and tissues of certain crops; breed new varieties of blueberry,
strawberry and sour cherry cultivars for Michigan that are resistant to a common array of
biotic and abiotic stresses;and determine how to enhance resistance to plant invaders.




Research to determine foliage thresholds based on the assimilation and storage of carbon;
test remote sensing techniques and stress response detection;understand the genetic
mechanisms by which plants tolerate environmental stresses; examine plant-microbe
interactions; and determine how to enhance resistance to plant invaders.
Research to evaluate environmental databases for predicting the occurrence and severity of
water, nutrient and disease stresses at regional scales; develop cultural controls for plant-
parasitic nematodes; conduct field inoculation trials for wheat and rice; and improve
production efficiency of pot-in-pot production systems for landscape nurseries and Christmas
tree producers in Michigan.




Field and greenhouse experiments, field day, one extension publication and three research
publications.

Study was initiated to identify vegetable rotations for high yields and profit. The treatments
were: Continuous sweet potato - fall greens sequence (SWP followed by SWP); Continuous
squash - fall greens sequence (SQ followed by SQ); Continuous southern peas - fall greens
sequence (SP followed by SP); Continuous sweet corn-southern peas-fall greens (SWC
followed by SWC); SWP rotated with SP; SQ rotated with SP. Boston and Carolina hybrid
cucumber were planted to have 4 leaves. Orange oil was applied using two ratios namely
1:1000 and 1:500. A control plot included in which no orange oil sprayed.

Results of the projects have been published in 17 peer reviewed publications, 3 MS theses,
and 6 PhD Dissertations, and numerous symposium abstracts.
We have no way of assessing this. It should not have been included as an output or outcome
measure.
Project results have been presented in the classroom and at 39 regional, national and
international symposia with audience up to several hundred.




PI have been encouraged by NH AES and college administration to use AES funding to address
immediate issues in agriculture and to conduct research that will increase their ability to
attract additional funding for synergistic studies from other sources.
Project results have been presented in the classroom and at 39 regional, national and
international symposia with audience up to several hundred.
Experiments have been completed to increase our knowledge about plant stress responses.
Breeding programs and field trials have been conducted. Field collections and historic
herbarium collections have been studied and assessed via DNA sequencing. Results have
been disseminated through publications, websites and presentations.

11 training sessions involving 470 participants were conducted.
12 monthly articles/columns on a wide range of horticultural crops production topics were
developed reaching over 1000 stakeholders.
26 farm visits were conduted.
2 research projects, namely Snap bean and Blackberry cultivar evaluation trials were
conducted.




Benchmarks for research productivity were established to emphasize its importance.
Institute faculty previously recruited most of their graduate students from a unit now called
the School of Molecular Biosciences. That unit has reduced their enrollment of students
interested in plant biochemistry and plant genetics/cell biology. At present many of the
faculty recruit students primarily through the Graduate Program in Molecular Plant Sciences.
Many of the applicants to the program do not have the biochemical background or interest
to succeed as researchers at the Institute and tend to enter other more biologically based
laboratories elsewhere in the university. It should be mentioned that direct recruitment into
IBC laboratory programs does occur. Additionally, the Institute takes part in an Integrated
Plant Sciences Retreat and recruitment weekend each February and also houses and helps
support the Molecular Plant Sciences Graduate Program.




IBC faculty continue to submit grant proposals.




As research is completed and understanding is gained, faculty work with graduate students,
research technologists and postdoctoral fellows to write papers for publication.




The mushroom production program is providing a viable alternative to tobacco crops for
small farmers in North Carolina. This is program provided by a faculty person with a split
appointment in research and Extension. Workshops are continually being held to introduce
growers to mushroom production.




Small scale producers collectively had an estimated 93,487 logs in mushroom production in
North Carolina in FY07.


UW is currently comparing soil moisture, nutrient dynamics and economics of four long term
in place conservation cropping systems (to non-till, reduced till, organic and diverse rotation
grain producing systems to conventional crop fallow systems).
Group educational programs, individual visits, workshops, e-mail publications
The statewide Nutrient Management Team researches and updates guidelines to help
farmers prevent loss of nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizers and manure to
groundwater, lakes and streams. Their Nutrient Management Farmer Education (NMFE)
curriculum combines classroom instruction, individual consultation, and on-farm field trials to
engage farmers in designing their own nutrient management plans. UW-Extension
collaborates with county and district conservationists), technical colleges, crop consultants
and agronomists to deliver NMFE locally and secure funding for those who would benefit
most and are most in need of assistance. Lake Superior watershed: Where red clay soils shed
water rapidly during snowmelt and after rain, sheet flow from farmland washes manure and
fertilizer into streams and rivers feeding Lake Superior. Early 2007 meetings in Ashland,
Bayfield, Douglas and Iron counties revealed that very few dairy and beef operators tested
their soil, credited nutrients from manure or legumes, were aware of nutrient needs of their
crops or of spreading restrictions on their fields. Ashland and Bayfield counties agriculture
agent Jason Fischbach collaborated with county and district conservationists to train 21
farmers, calibrate their manure spreaders and inspect manure handling and storage. Only 15
The UW-Extension Statewide Nutrient Management Team Custom Applicator Subgroup --
conservation professional development and training coordinator Kevin Erb, nutrient and pest
management specialist Jim Leverich, youth agricultural safety specialist Cheryl Skjolaas and
agriculture agents Carla Hargrave (Green Lake), Jerry Clark (Chippewa), Matt Hanson (Dodge),
Randy Zogbaum (Columbia), Nick Schneider (Clark), and Ted Bay (Grant)), -- Collaborated with
USDA Dairy Forage Research Center staff and Professional Nutrient Applicators Association of
Wisconsin (PNAAW) to host Manure Tech 2007: the third Upper Midwest Manure Handling
Expo held in Wisconsin and the only one of its kind in the nation.

While farmers and custom applicators may know that decomposing manure produces gases,
they are not aware of the dangers of these gases in confined spaces or how to properly
protect themselves, employees or service providers. After two PNAAW members suffered life-
threatening respiratory injuries from exposure to manure gases, Cheryl Skjolaas incorporated
confined space safety and rescue into level 1 voluntary certification training for PNAAW
professional development. She also trained university agricultural research farm staff,
Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection engineers and NRCS
technicians, and demonstrated monitoring and ventilation equipment for two sessions during
Multi-Agency Land and Water Education Grants (MALWEG) encourage integration of
education into local conservation efforts, targeting Nutrient management. MALWEG
provided $170,000 to fund 11 new projects for training through 2007. UW-Extension
Discovery Farms Outreach Specialist Kevan Klingberg and basin educator Andy Yencha
provide statewide leadership and assistance for local projects led by collaborations among
UW-Extension county educators and Nutrient and Pest Management state specialists, county
and district conservationists, and Technical College staff. Trainers use the Nutrient
Management Farmer Education (NMFE) curriculum of research-based soil fertility, crop
nutrition, soil testing and nutrient crediting materials.

Dodge County: Since 2005, agriculture agent Matt Hanson has trained 72 producers and each
has completed a nutrient management plan. Producers who have implemented plans
estimate an average savings of $8.33 per acre, which would amount to a $263,000 savings for
those farming the 31,500 recently planned acres. Conservatively, Hanson estimates that over
the past 5 years he has helped producers save nearly half a million dollars by using legume
and manure nutrient credits, as well as making informed decisions about commercial
fertilizer purchases. Producers applying proper nutrients to their land are reducing risks of
both nitrogen leaching into groundwater and phosphorus entering surface water. Evaluation
With assistance from UW-Extension agents and conservation professional development and
training coordinator Kevin Erb, counties have begun developing strategies to help farmers
and first responders prepare for emergencies. Of 10 counties attending a December 2006
training, Manitowoc, Outagamie and Oconto revised and produced materials, Waupaca and
Winnebago began developing a brand new response planning document. Joint trainings
extend proper spill response education locally.

Langlade, Oconto, Outagamie and Waupaca counties: live action manure spill response
demonstrations were held in July, August and September 2007 in partnership with local
emergency government, Land Conservation and NRCS. Around 200 farmers, agency staff, first
responders and professional manure applicators learned ways to contain and deal with
manure runoff. Live action demos showcase what happens when dealing with real life. At the
Oconto County demonstration, sand meant to stop downstream movement eroded as
quickly as trainers could shovel, sparking a lively discussion among participants of other ways
to deal with manure in a roadside ditch.

Manitowoc County: Dairy and livestock agent Scott Gunderson worked with Jerry Halverson,
director of the county Soil and Water Conservation Department, to produce the Manitowoc
County Manure Spill and Run-off Emergency Response Plan guide, reaching 125 farmers and
During 2007, UW Discovery Farms conducted research on 8 private farms, studying nutrient
management; correct material, rate, timing and placement to grow productive, profitable
crops while minimizing surface water contamination. Since 2003, Discovery Farms
researchers have also monitored surface water runoff from cropland with late-winter manure
applied, a cooperative effort with the U.S. Geological Survey and livestock producers.
Outreach Specialist Kevan Klingberg and USGS colleagues compiled 4 years of manure /
snowmelt runoff data, presented results at the 2007 American Society of Agronomy, Crops
and Soil Science annual meeting, and release cautionary statewide news alerts calling
producer's attention to critical times to avoid manure applications due to impending
snowmelt. Such on-farm research trials identify, implement and monitor best practices for
UW-Extension Nutrient Management Farmer Education and custom manure applicator
certification trainings : http://www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org

SNAP-Plus nutrient management and soil loss assessment software compares field data to
identify areas of critical need with the most potential for improvement using best
management practices. SNAP calculations are a cornerstone of the NMFE curriculum,
strengthening partnership with the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and
The UW Discovery Farms conducts applied research through a statewide network of diverse
owner-operated commercial farms, drawing on the expertise of state specialists from UW-
Madison, UW-Platteville, UW-River Falls and UW-Stevens Point, as well as the U.S. Geological
Survey as an independent science-based partner. This collaboration provides real farm data
on farm practices, nutrient applications, and runoff water quality to continue calibrating and
fine-tuning the Wisconsin Phosphorus Index.

SNAP RUSLE2 Phosphorus Index: Wisconsin Phosphorus Index (PI) ranks fields on their
potential to deliver phosphorus to lakes and streams, where algae growth is limited by the
amount of phosphorus in the water. SNAP-Plus nutrient management and soil loss
assessment software compares field data to identify areas of critical need with the most
potential for improvement using best management practices. SNAP-Plus calculates:
* Crop nutrient recommendations for all fields on a farm, taking into account legume
nitrogen and manure nutrient credits consistent with University of Wisconsin
recommendations.
* RUSLE2-based soil loss assessment for determining whether fields applied with fertilizer or
manure meet tolerable soil loss (T) requirements. Phosphorus Index equations use the annual
erosion rate of a field and the P concentration in eroded sediment. Erosion rate is calculated
using the latest version of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, RUSLE2. Sediment P is
estimated using routine soil test P and organic matter.




Graduate education programs to confer M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in various disciplines are
maintained and faculty mentor and train the graduate students. Science graduate degrees
are based on conduct of research and publication of results. The research work conducted is
funded through state, federal and grants programs.
M.S. and Ph.D. training programs are conducted in various of the disciplinary departments
and graduate students were successfully graduated.
Research results were submitted through various written venues including peer review
journals, books and meeting procedures.


In order to understand the synthesis of the RNA network (a chemical "blueprint" for protein
product under the direction of DNA) responsible for controlling berry development, a
technique used to measure the activities of thousands of genes at once (mRNA expression
profiling) was conducted on Cabernet Sauvignon berries using the Affymetrix GeneChip(r)
Vitis oligonucleotide microarray, spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea
size berries, through the onset of ripening (veraison), to mature berries. To understand the
effect of the regulatory processes in RNA synthesis that ultimately influences the sensory
properties of wine, we profiled metabolites (unique chemical fingerprints that specific
cellular processes leave behind) in parallel with mRNA expression profiling.




The research team (University of Nevada; UC, Davis; RIKEN, Japan; Technion, Israel; and
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) generated transgenic plants (plants that possess
gene(s) transferred from different species) expressing an isopentenyltransferase gene driven
by a stress- and maturation-induced promoter. Transgenic plants along with control plants
were allowed to grow for 40 days, and then were subjected to 15 days without water. After
the drought treatment, plants were re-watered for seven days. The control plants did not
recover and died. However, transgenic plants recovered and resumed their growth.
The water content of control plants was severely reduced during the drought period,
reaching a value of < 60%. However, the water content of the transgenic plants was merely
reduced from 92% to 86% during drought and returned to control levels after re-watering,
showing that the transgenic plants were superior to the control plants in maintaining leaf
water potential during drought, even though they partially wilted.
1)Identity hulless barley and oat cultivars that can be grown in Alaska with a reasonable
assurance of a successful harvest, 2) make final selections from the hulled feed barley cross
and the hulless barley cross for eventual release as named varieties, 3) make and test
selections from the original Sunwheat selections, 4) test new cultivars of barley, oats, and
wheat from other northern regions, and 5) evaluate effectiveness of irrigation for improving
crop yields and quality in interior Alaska.




The biomass production and nutritional profile of two pasture grasses were evaluated.
Research scientists are conducting work to determine cellular processes involved in
vernalization of wheat. Determination of the processes could lead to changes at the cellular
level to adapt wheat cultivars to colder or warmer climates.


Research is being conducted to determine cellular processes.




Four horticulture specialties are emerging as the most important research focus areas to
support commercial enterprises in Alaska: organic and sustainable horticulture; controlled
environment horticulture especially season extension and moderation using high tunnels;
field-grown cut flower production and Alaska wild berry cultivation and management for food
and neutraceutical industries.
To assess goal achievement, pre- and post-class surveys and quizzes were administered to 30
students in Spring of 2007. The survey asked nine questions about habits and perceptions of
gardening activities and knowledge. The quiz contained 20 challenging True/False questions
designed to be difficult for an average gardener. Topics in the quiz were covered in the
course lectures. Pre- and post-survey and quiz results were compared.




Pre- and post-tests of technical knowledge, confidence, and attitudes about environmental
issues show that nearly everyone who completes the Master Gardener course acquires
significant new knowledge and is better able to serve the public good.




The Spudvine newsletter has been regularly disseminated since 1991 and was distributed to
415 producers and others in 2006. To assess the usefulness of the information, a survey was
developed and administered in January 2007 asking readers if they learned anything from the
articles published in 2006, and more importantly, if they changed any farming practices in
2006 as a result of reading a particular article.

Working in conjunction with University of Idaho potato specialists, Extension Educators from
Twin Falls and Minidoka Counties compiled a list of materials for producers to use. Beginning
with the Audit Matrix, each section is referenced with the required documentation sheet, and
if needed, additional required documentation is noted. This information has been developed
into a notebook that will allow producers to have all the information in one place, easily
accessible and understandable.
Project objectives: 1) evaluate native plants for low-water landscape use, 2) distribute
superior plant materials, and 3) demonstrate the efficacy of water conserving landscape
styles. Evaluations were made on perennials, shrubs, and trees established in 2006 and
additional accessions were established in 2007. Genera established included Acer, Agastache,
Amelanchier, Aquilegia, Aster, Castilleja, Chamaebatiaria, Clematis, Cornus, Ericameria,
Erigeron, Eriogonum, Hymenoxys, Lupinus, Monardella, Papaver, Penstemon, Philadelphus,
Rhus, Salvia, Sphaeralcea, Stanleya, Symphoricarpos, and several Poaceae. Native plant
accessions were obtained through collection activities within the state of Idaho and seed
purchases from intermountain professional collectors. New accessions were planted into a
greenhouse in February-April 2007 and transplanted to the field in May.

In 2007, the SDSU Crop Performance Testing Program conducted yield trials at 13 winter
wheat, eight spring wheat and oat, seven spring barley, and six corn and soybean locations in
SD. At each location superior crop varieties and hybrids were identified and reported in two
Extension Circulars (EC774 - Small grains and field peas with 2,600 copies; and EC775 -
Soybean variety performance trials-2007 results with 2,300 copies and one Agricultural
Experiment Station Circular (C253 - Corn: 2007 Precision planted performance trials with
2,450 copies) that were distributed to producers and agri-business clientele. In addition, the
soybean (EC775) and corn (C253) results were also printed as a seed guide and distributed to
14,000 subscribers in the Tri-State Neighbor farm magazine.
The crop variety subprogram conducted experiments and activities to develop new potato
varieties with high quality yield and resistance to major pests and diseases for the Pacific
Northwest industry, including preliminary and advanced potato variety trials and seed
increases for future trials, parental evaluation, crossing, multi-years selections and testing.
Investigators are also working on development of new types of wheat cultivars with kernel
attributes designed for specific end products. Investigators in the genetics subprogram
specifically conducted molecular breeding, germplasm screening and evaluation for potato
and wheat variety development. Activities in wheat genetics include gene discovery,
chromosome manipulation and gene transfer, and gene flow. Classical and contemporary
breeding genetics tools will be used to determine the genetic basis of economically important
traits. Investigators will also study gene migration, via pollen, seed and vegetative
propagules, from transgenic glyphosate resistant creeping bentgrass seed production fields
into adjacent areas.




Investigators developed new varietals of potato, wheat and barley.




The UI bean breeding program focused on variety testing of pinto and great northern
varieties (replicated trials to generate essential data for PVP in addition to the Western
Regional Bean Trial and in the North American Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery) as requested
by the Idaho Bean Commission. Varieties were screened and tested for agronomic
properties, disease resistance and seed quality.




Significant effort was placed on evaluating various products in the control of pink rot, late
blight, and azoxystrobin for silver scurf and dry rot control in commonly grown varieties.
The CSU Extension-Boulder County New Farmer program provides an opportunity for
mentorship with seasoned growers and a reality check on the business and marketing needs
of operating a small farm. Intermediate and experienced farmers energized the learning
environment. Sessions explored content useful to all levels of experience. New farmers
learned in this community of farmer students and teachers.




Research and extension progams have conducted field trials to develop more intensive crop
rotations through reduced tillage to increase the efficiency of water capture and plant use.




Landscape irrigation audits have been done in the Grand Valley of Western Colorado (Mesa
County) for the past three years. The basic level audit is an inspection of the irrigation system
to determine needed repairs. A map of the property with the location of heads, irrigation
zones and any problems with the heads is provided to the clients. Turf and soil problems
were identified and corrective procedures detailed. Handout material on turf care was
provided each participant along with guidance on how to irrigate based on visual symptoms.
The Colorado wheat crop was valued at over $500 M last year and Hatcher, planted on
500,000 acres this year, with an average expected yield advantage over the average of all
other varieties of 3 bu/ac, will conservatively result in 1,500,000 more bushels of wheat
production than if Hatcher was not grown.
he objective of this project was to demonstrate the benefits of using a kura clover living
mulch system for no-till crop production under furrow-irrigated conditions in Colorado. A
preliminary study conducted in 2006 found significant reductions of 85% or more in the
concentration of sediment in irrigation tailwater from living mulch compared to
conventionally-tilled plots. Results also indicated that minimum tillage in addition to
herbicides may be necessary to reduce competition from the clover. In 2007, corn was grown
under furrow irrigation using living mulch and conventional practices at Fruita, Colorado. All
plots were sprayed with a broadcast application of glyphosate and dicamba in April to
provide early season suppression of the clover. Corn was seeded into the kura clover living
mulch following application of 3 suppression treatments: no-till plus band spray with pre-
plant herbicide in 25 cm bands, strip-till in 25 cm bands, or no-till (no additional suppression
at time of seeding). In addition, each suppression treatment was replicated 3 times within
each block and received either 0, 84, or 168 kg/ha of nitrogen in an effort to determine the
contribution of nitrogen from the clover. The highest corn yield was 11.7 Mg/ha in the strip-
tilled treatment that received 168 kg N/ha. This was in comparison to 9.4 and 10.9 Mg/ha in
QUALITATIVE OUTCOME - RESULTS




Soybean yields were not benefited by inorganic fertilizer or poultry litter at six sites, but at
four sites soybean receiving poultry litter produced significantly greater yields (10-18%) than
soybean fertilized with equal rates of inorganic P and K fertilizers. Soybean at three of the
four responsive sites did not respond to P and K fertilization suggesting that another
component of poultry litter may be stimulating soybean yields on some silt loam soils used
for rice and soybean production. Considering the rising costs of inorganic fertilizer, the value
of the P and K in poultry litter is economically attractive with litter having the added value of
other micronutrients, nitrogen, and organic matter. Although the reason for increased yield
of soybean fertilized with poultry litter is not currently known and the yield benefit does not
appear to be consistent among soils, application of poultry litter based on soil and crop P
requirements may aid in building the fertility status and productivity of soils in eastern
Arkansas and reducing micronutrient deficiencies row crops.




This effort will impact the state by strengthening our volunteers and our program. It will also
enable counties to have better rapport with their local newspapers and other media outlets.
With proper training, the volume of work should improve and increase.
More than 20 varieties have been released from the University of Arkansas' soybean
breeding program and had significant impact on Arkansas soybean production. Growing a
high-yielding variety does not cost more than growing an average variety. Every bushel of
extra soybean yield produced by growing the high-yielding variety is a net income to the
growers. Higher yields from new and improved varieties should translate into higher profits
to Arkansas soybean producers, particularly when productions costs are high. Varieties with
disease resistance and stress tolerance will also prevent yield loss under unfavorable
production conditions. In addition, public programs supply thoroughly-tested varieties with
low cost seeds that can be saved for planting, which provides additional savings for the
growers. Three new conventional varieties (Osage, UA4805, and Ozark) have been recently
released to the public. They all have high yield potential, good disease resistance, and
excellent local adaptation. Foundation seeds are available for commercial production.




The statewide plant evaluation program currently has 105 plants under intensive review for
landscape performance at 3 sites across Arkansas.
CES faculty in agriculture economics and horticulture are have completed an economic
impact survey. This first ever survey of horticulture in Arkansas documented the economic
contribution of horticulture to Arkansas agriculture.




This research is in progress. It is anticipated that the results will facilitate the selection of
species for different applications such as phytoremediation, revegetation, and biomass
production to ensure the compatibility of candidate species to specific site conditions, to
optimize species performance and to meet project objectives.
The feedback on these classes has been overwhelmingly positive. Of 182 students
responding, all agreed or strongly agreed that the presentations would help them grow
herbaceous plants in their home gardens and that they learned new information about
herbaceous plants in the class. All except five responded that they would change the way
they grow herbaceous plants.
How did the students respond? "The information was excellent. I enjoyed every single minute
and learned a lot of new things." "Thank you for a great class! I am thinking about my garden
and what is needed next." "I look forward to the new season because of the facts and tips I
learned." "Gave me many ideas for my garden." "Loved the pictures and color brought life to
presentation." "I learned a lot from her. I am very excited about next year's flowerbeds and
gardens." "If you did not want to garden before your class, you would after listening to you!"
"I am so ready to get started!" WOW I want to learn more!"




The net effect of the planting in 2007 is to reduce the amount of spray material in total by
about 250,000 gallons per year in MA.

Growers are moving harvest later into the fall, holding floods for shorter times and
monitoring temperature in flood waters. As a result, detrimental effects are minimized and
crop potential is maximized without change in material inputs to the bogs.
Using this system, herbaceous perennials (Gaura lindhiemeri, Coreopsis verticillata, and
Sunny Border Blue Veronica) and annuals (petunia, Catharanthus roseus, and Salvia
splendens) were irrigated with as little as 1-2 L of water throughout the entire production
cycle. No non-point source pollution from fertilizer leachate is released when plants are
irrigated with this irrigation system. Irrigation recommendations were developed for all six
plants listed above. Further, it was determined that the area of the uppermost fully expanded
leaf of petunia correlates to substrate volumetric water content. Thus, leaf area may be used
to detect early symptoms of drought stress in commercial greenhouse production.




Research is in progress.




Infectivity data are currently being collected for 'Norchip' (heat resistant) and 'Atlantic' (heat
sensitive) varieties of Solanum.




Activities not at this stage yet.


It is expected that information will be communicated to approximately 50 stakeholders at
above-referenced meetings.

- Established the efficient regeneration in southernpea
- Priliminary field evaluations has narrowed down the number of southernpea cultivars with
characteristics such as podmaturity, pod placement, pod color etc.




Grants and contracts most probably should have been listed as an output, not an outcome
measure. We will need to make adjustment in next year's plan of work.
Over 2000 trained cooperators have learned to implement and manage the fruit fly
management program for their specific local management area of interest. Macnut growers
learned that different cultivars have different fertilizer requirements. In support of the
increased plantings and production of specialty tropical fruit crops such as litchi and
rambutan, researchers and extension workers are cataloging the insect and disease problems
that are being found on the crop and educating growers. Work is progressing on nutrient
requirements of these crops and relating to flowering and production. Rambutan is native to
S.E. Asia, where it fruits only once a year. Research has shown that alternating wet/dry
conditions trigger flowering. Rambutan in Hawaii, therefore, fruits two and even three times
a year depending on rainfall. This knowledge helps growers plan for their field and marketing
operations.




Semi-annual bioassays of diamond back moth for insecticide resistance in different locales
alert farmers on which insecticides are being compromised by resistance d
evelopment. Thirty-two growers in three growing areas participate and benefit from this
activity thus saving time, money and crop by avoiding ineffective insecticides.Growers have
adopted recommended fertilization recommendations of a ratio of 2N-1P-3K as being ideal
for litchi (cv. Kaimana) grown in Hawaii. Phosphorous calibration studies provided data which
led to the revision of P fertilizer recommendations which have resulted in reduced P
applications by at least 30 vegetable farmers.
Virtually all Oahu flower growers (105) have adopted pesticide rotation procedures to
minimize the development of resistance, IPM methods to reduce pesticide usage, and are
more aware of cost of different operations to reduce their production costs.
Semi-annual bioassays of diamond back moth for insecticide resistance in different locales
alert farmers on which insecticides are being compromised by resistance development.
Thirty-two growers in three growing areas participate and benefit from this activity thus
saving time, money and crop by avoiding ineffective insecticides.Growers have adopted
recommended fertilization recommendations of a ratio of 2N-1P-3K as being ideal for litchi
(cv. Kaimana) grown in Hawaii. Phosphorous calibration studies provided data which led to
the revision of P fertilizer recommendations which have resulted in reduced P applications by
at least 30 vegetable farmers.
Virtually all Oahu flower growers (105) have adopted pesticide rotation procedures to
minimize the development of resistance, IPM methods to reduce pesticide usage, and are
more aware of cost of different operations to reduce their production costs.


Over 320 commercial growers and 561 community cooperators have adopted and taken over
full responsibility in the area-wide program impacting over 15,000 acres for the management
of fruit flies statewide. Examples of crop loss reduction: zucchini from 60% to 2% (one grower
resulted in 130,000 pounds of additional production per crop); melons from 30 to 40% to 2%
and reduced OP insecticides by 75 to 100%; persimmons from 40% to less than 1%. Benefits
to industry, currently estimated at $2.6 million per year, are projected to increase to $6
million by 2011. Coffee grown in Kau placed 6th and 9th best in a 2007 Specialty Coffee
Association of America competition against other world-class coffee. This previously
unknown coffee production area has brought attention to coffee grown in areas of Hawaii
other than Kona and greatly increasing prices to as high as $30.50 a pound and being sold in
retail shops such as Neiman Marcus.




Through PREP and similar education efforts, scientists developed a cohesive research
program that will yield comprehensive insights into the integration of science and education
by investigating:1.)how and in what ways research collaborations among high school
students, their teachers, and scientists serve as complex, social, and situated environments
for fostering students' acquisition of scientific reasoning skills, and 2.) How and in what ways
these collaborations serve as mechanisms for legitimate peripheral participation by students
and teachers in the scientific community and by scientists in the pre college learning
community.

This research and related programs are funded primarily by the National Institutes of Health
(NIH) and National Science Foundation ($500,000 in 2007; more than $2.0 million to date).

Faller Wheat est. $250,000,000
Lariat and Stampede pinto bean $17,600,000
Sheyenne non-transgenic soybean $4,500,000
RG7008RR soybean $1,000,000
Pinnacle two-rowed barley $17,500,000
Seedsmen, plant breeders, and extension staff that look forward to new canola cultivars
developed using marker assisted selection.
Offered the job to one of the applicants, but the offer was termed down. The search for the
pulse breeder will continue in early 2008.

Examples of teams include wheat breeders and pathologists working together to develop
cultivars resistant to Fusarium head blight (FHB). Barley breeder and pathologist working
together to develop cultivars resistant to FHB. Soybean breeder and pathologist working
together to develop cultivars resistant to soybean cyst nematode. Potato breeder and
pathologists working together to develop cultivars resistant to multiple pathogens. Barley
breeder and cereal chemist working together to develop cultivars with improved resistance
to pre-harvest sprouting.


Released new varieties accepted by producers and end users. Materials include Pinnacle two-
rowed barley, six corn inbreds and 3 germplasm lines, Faller wheat, and Lariat and Stamped
pinto bean

Examples of sharing includes soybean germplasm with three private companies in the U.S.;
corn germplasm shared with 11 private companies and 18 public breeders; wheat germplasm
with Hessian fly resistance shared with public breeders; dry bean germplasm shared with
public breeders in NE, CO, MI, and USDA-ARS; and durum wheat germplasm shared with two
domestic private breeders and one international private breeder.




Participants in educational activities reported increased awareness and knowledge gained.

MSU researchers have presented more information directly to producers and provided
publication references and reviews. Crop diversity studies continue to show promise for
increasing on-farm receipts while reducing a monoculture of small grains. Some examples of
new crops and alternative varieties of new crops include winter and spring peas, canola, corn,
lentil, mustard, sunflower, triticale, and chickpea, which are included in long-term rotation
studies and plant adaptation trials.
Crop diversity studies continue to show promise for winter and spring peas, canola, corn,
lentil, mustard, sunflower, triticale, and chickpea. Montana Agricultural Statistics show that
new crops have been adopted based on the increasing acres of chickpeas and lentils.
Priorities in developing higher disease and insect resistance in wheat and barley, greater
nutritional value for forages, and more efficient use of natural resources (especially water)
are being met.
A solid stem winter wheat cultivar, Genou, released by MSU in 2004, has improved yield
potential, especially in wheat stem sawfly-infested areas of Montana. Genou is the top winter
wheat variety planted in Montana, jumping from 13th position in 2006 to 1st in 2007. The
variety accounts for 16.1 percent of the states acreage total. MSU recently released four new
feed, forage, and malt barley varieties for Montanas production environments that will
provide added-value to growers throughout the Northern Plains. Successful genetic research
is increasing the competitiveness of Montana wheat producers through improved winter
wheat cultivars with enhanced yield potential, pest resistance, and desirable end-use
qualities. MSU is also participating in the wheat CAP program.

We have found that increased seed starch enzyme levels are associated with increased yield
in both wheat and rice. Our research provides methods to analyze all lines of wheat to detect
novel gene expression related to postharvest resistance, which could lead to new strategies
for postharvest protection. Continued productivity of our breeding program will improve our
understanding of the genetics of key traits and allow the development of new selection tools.

Based on average planted acreage and prices, development of an improved winter wheat
cultivar which produces an additional one bushel per acre either by enhanced yield or
reduced yield loss to disease, insects, or environmental stresses, potentially impacts the
Montana economy by $5–$6 million, annually. Research results are distributed to farmers,
colleagues, and stakeholders through technical and non-technical publications, through the
release of germplasm, and through new genomics tools and techniques. We have
consistently maintained a positive statewide yield increase of 0.5 bushels per acre for spring
wheat and winter wheat over the last 10 years.

We have been able to evaluate wheat varieties and conduct quality testing across different
Montana environments with new varieties entering the market every four to five years. Our
understanding of the genetic control of traits like winterhardiness, feed quality, malting
quality, and drought tolerance has been developed and extended through genetic diversity
experiments. The broader impacts of the work are a larger food supply for the world, an
improved ability of Montana farmers to compete in a global marketplace, and a
strengthening of export markets for U.S. wheat. Faculty screening of potential lines occurs
annually through the Cereal Quality Laboratory.

As wheat and barley varieties are developed, information is reviewed by MSU researchers
and the Montana Wheat and Barley Committee for inclusion in the years recommendations.
These recommendations are made available to growers and seed distributors each year. New
varieties are developed on-going at MSU and are annually reviewed by MSU and other
industry and State partners before releasing to the public.
As wheat and barley varieties are developed, information is reviewed by MSU researchers
and recommendations for the year. Two new wheat cultivars (Genou and Choteau) were
planted on 353,000 acres and 594,100 acres respectively in 2007, an increase of collectively
over 417,800 acres from 2006. Genou was first planted in 2006 and Choteau was planted on
40,900 acres in 2005. Other MSU varieties (McNeal, Rampart, and Vanguard) were planted
on fewer acres in 2006 and 2007 being replaced by Genou and Choteau. Therefore the actual
total net percentage increase per year of MSU-released small grains remained about zero.
Breeding and development of potato varieties that are more efficient in nitrogen use (Pacific
Northwest Potato Variety Development Program, PNWPVD) has reduced the use of nitrogen,
resulting in less nitrate contamination of ground water. The potential economic savings to
NW potato growers was estimated to be $1.3 million or $72 per acre in 2006. Varieties
released by this collaborative program accounted for 26% and 32% of potato acreage in the
Pacific Northwest and WA in 2007, respectively. Farm-gate value of these new varieties in
WA in 2007 is estimated to be $160,000,000. It is estimated that the potato varieties
developed by the PNWPVD program have returned $39 for every dollar (research &
institutional) invested.

Other researchers in this program have identified the process that causes sun burning in
apples, and have developed a product that reduces this disorder significantly. This discovery
has the potential to save fruit growers literally tens of millions of dollars annually. It is
estimated that the patented apple sunburn protectant (RAYNOX‚®) alone saved the industry
several million dollars during the past three growing seasons. The invention of RainGard to
Six in the protection of were placed cracking/splitting is also expected to have tremendous
aid extension associatescherries from in six areas of the state which had a high concentration
of SDFs. These extension associates worked directly with approximately 130 SDFs to provide
them with knowledge on USDA loans. As a result 57 SDFs submitted applications and received
$6,028,696 in operating loan funds. Another 10 SDFs submitted their application and were
denied for having an unacceptable credit history, however, the staff worked with these
participants to help them start rebuilding their credit history.

The extension associates also informed 25 SDFs about the EQIP Program. As a result, 12
individuals signed up for the program and received $252,618 for land improvement practices
(irrigation wells and land leveling). Two SDFs signed up for the Conservation Reserve
Program and received 10 year rental payments and cost share funds (90%) and a $100 per
acre signing bonus to install filter strips on approximately 7 acres of land.

The extension associates also advised approximately 100 SDFs to start using the CES crop
production recommendations. As a result approximately 50 SDFs began using CES
recommended soybean varieties. This resulted in a 20 percent yield increase for the
producers. Also 35 SDFs are currently using the CES weed Control Manuals to select
herbicides to use in controlling weeds on their farms.
Results have provided new insight into mechanisms involved in auxin-responsive gene
expression. The novel transcription factors provide new tools to modify plant growth and
development in response to auxin or some other chemical.




Understanding the way plant resistance proteins work can be used to improve engineering of
durable innate pathogen resistance in crop plants, with significant benefits to sustainable
agricultural production and the environment.




Dry bean experiments have been initiated to introduce and express the bar gene that
provides resistance to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium. Evidence suggests that this novel
transformation system, referred to as electrotransformation, is a promising method of plant
transformation that will enable the modification of dry bean and perhaps other species. This
discovery has resulted in the award of a U.S. patent.

A regulatory gene that signals the gene expression required to convert sugars into the
building blocks of fatty acids -- the main ingredient of oil -- was identified. Research is
underway to transfer the gene to the rutabaga plant to see if a line can be developed that
produces oil in the root.

A new set of 10-12 elite selections of northern highbush blueberry hybrids are ready for
distribution to trialing partners and a new cultivar (MSU47) is ready to be released.
Researchers discovered the active signaling process of the plant hormone jasmonate and and
the key regulatory proteins (JAZ proteins) involved in plant insect/disease resistance,
representing a significant advance in the understanding of a major plant hormone and how it
works.

A novel component of the plant defense pathway that orchestrates defenses against P.
syringae -- a plant pathogen which can infect a wide range of plant species -- has been
identified. To date, there are no reports linking this component with resistance against this
type of bacteria, but the work had laid the foundation for a new paradigm in plant-microbe
interactions.
Research on types of growing media to facilitate tree growth and help reduce container
weight in container-based nursery production systems found that an 80-20 mixture of pine
bark and peat moss works best for most trees. Several nurseries in Michigan have installed
these systems or have expanded their container-based production operations.

A corn model developed by MSU has been incorporated into a modeling applications
framework that allows corn phenology (including yields) in relation to environmental
variables to be displayed over the entire north central region of the U.S. over a 30 year time
span.

Sweet potato yields increased in continuous SWP sequences for both varieties at UAPB.
Sweet corn yields in continuous SWC sequences increased for both varieties. Cumulative
squash yields after harvest time #7 and total squash production were higher in 2007 than in
2006 in continuous SQ sequences. There was a trend for lower fresh and dry peas yields in
SWC and SP sequences, and higher fresh and dry peas yields in SWP and SQ sequences.
Boston and Carolina hybrid cucumber were planted and orange oil was applied to both
cucumber varieties. The spray (1:1000) of orange oil extremely well controlled population of
whitefly in Boston variety, compared to Carolina variety. The results of spray (1:500) of
orange oil showed similar to 1:1000, but the higher concentration of the orange oil caused
deformation of leaves on both Boston and Carolina varieties. Boston cucumber was adopted
better than Carolina cucumber in Arkansas, but Boston one was more susceptible to
greenhouse whitefly than Carolina one.
In addition to disseminating knowledge, publications are an indication of productivity. They
enhance the reputation of the NH AES and increase the competitiveness of research
proposals for further studies.


Presentation of research result in the classroom and at scientific meetings are an important
way of distributing new knowledge in a timely fashion.




Submission of proposals to competitive programs in the USDA and other funding agencies is a
way of leveraging AES formula funds. It has allowed us to find additional resources to solve
issues that are central to the mission of the AES.
Presentation of research result in the classroom and at scientific meetings are an important
way of distributing new knowledge in a timely fashion.
Plant stress research has led to the discovery of new genes involved in UV stress response.
Iron deficiency was found to produce a decrease in chlorophyll levels and photosynthetic rate
and decreases in anti-oxidants used to defend against oxidative stress. Addition of iron salts
to the media resulted in rapid recovery.

The breeding programs resulted in several new varieties of squash and melons with improved
disease resistance and enhance flavor and nutritional qualities.

Two new species of the red seaweed Porphyra have been discribed from the North Atlantic.
Three Asian species of Porphyra have invaded the coast of New England; two are abundant
and widespead and grow as epiphytes on native intertidal species.
No policy changes were reported by PIs


Over 1470 stakeholders received knowledge in current horticultural crops production
techniques through training, news articles and farm visits. 6 snap bean cultivars and 10
blackberry cultivars were evaluated for adaptation by limited-resource and small-scale
farmers.




Overall productivity for peer-reviewed publications in 2007 was similar to 2006.
Recruitment of some top tier students is occurring but not to the extent that Institute faculty
would prefer and could finance. Efforts to collaborate with other units such as Chemistry are
in progress, to help bring in top students with strong biochemistry backgrounds. The result is
that at present, the unit is not reaching its enrollment goal.




Extramural income in fiscal year 2007 ($4,951,958) has increased by $1.45 million since fiscal
year 2006 ($3,498,351).

The average number of peer reviewed journal publications per faculty in 2007 is 4.3 (9
faculty). For 2006 the amount was 5.44 and for 2005, 5.22.
The reduction in publications may be partially due to the death of one of the faculty
members in 2007 (Clarence A. Ryan). The Institute had also expected to hire one-to-two
new faculty members in 2007, but the hires have been delayed until late 2008. This is
expected to affect 2008 figures as well.




There are now 384 mushroom growers in the state and the state has been designated as a
mushroom-growing state by USDA. The growers were surveyed to determine their specific
needs and also their use of the workshops and the value to their production. Seventy-four
percent of the growers responding to the survey indicated that they had benefits from the
workshops in getting them started and being successful in mushroom growing.

The estimated number of logs in mushroom production in North Carolina in FY07 was 93,487.
With an average yield of two pounds per log, the estimated pounds of mushroom production
was 186,974. The mushrooms sell at an average price of $10 per poung; this resulted in sales
of $186,974. This represents an average of $4,869 per mushroom producer.




This study will allow us to improve management approaches at a time when many producers
are considering intensified production due to higher prices brought on by biofuels.
Growers' interest on the issue is on the raise based on number of questions received by the
professionals and educators in our team. We did not have a quantitative target for 2007


Collaboration with partners extends to Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and
Consumer Protection endorsement of the NMFE curriculum as the only mechanism for
certifying farmers to write their own nutrient management plans. A key point in this process
is that producers voluntarily participate in small group and one-on-one activities, using their
own information and management goals to develop their own nutrient management plan.
The end product is a plan the farmer can understand and follow as a result of participating. In
2007, Multi-Agency Land and Water Education Grants (MALWEG) funded trainings for more
than 300 at-risk farmers planning 77,000 acres in 23 counties, not including nutrient
management planning begun in four counties of the Lake Superior watershed. Since 2000,
more than 1,900 producers farming around 570,000 acres in 42 counties have received in-
depth education on nutrient management planning. An estimated 80 percent developed or
helped develop a nutrient management plan for their operation that meets all local, state
and federal regulations.




More than 500 custom manure applicators, farmers, industry and agency staff attended the
Expo from 18 states and 4 Canadian Provinces. As a result of attending education sessions,
farmers learned or planned to adopt: using soil moisture content to govern manure
application, adjusting application practices to control ammonia release, using GPS
technology, training applicators to use variable rate technology, manure application on no-
till, staying off wet soil, using drag hose equipment, mapping manure applications, managing
manure applications on alfalfa, equipment options for manure application, impact of manure
application on soil compaction, using the SNAP computer program, new safety products, and
the importance of agitating manure pits.
n/a




Farmers and custom applicators have already put to work skills and knowledge gained at a
UW-Extension training to respond properly to manure spills.

Langlade County: A small leak developed on a dairy manure storage facility. Using the
materials provided at a joint UW-Extension and land conservation training, the farmer
immediately reported the situation to the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and took
steps to prevent manure from leaving the site. The DNR report indicates that the farmer took
all of the proper steps and no enforcement action is expected.

Waupaca County: When a dragline ruptured during application, releasing about 1,000 gallons
across the road and into roadside ditches, the farmer and custom manure applicator
immediately reported the incident and quickly contained and cleaned up the spill, power
washing the road and scraping the ditches. No enforcement is expected.
DATCP endorses the NMFE curriculum as the only mechanism for certifying farmers to write
their own nutrient management plans. Using SNAP+ and the Wisconsin phosphorus index for
nutrient management planning provides producers greater flexibility to comply with
regulations based on the NRCS 590 Nutrient Management Standard. Between Nov. 19 and
Dec. 31, 2007 the Snap+ web site processed 16,500 requests for information, of which 378
were for software downloads and 1,861 were for the users manual. SNAP and Wisconsin P
Index information: http://www.snapplus.net

Following the cautionary 2007 snowmelt alert, radio stations, newspapers and producers
contacted Klingberg requesting similar timely cautions for snowmelt 2008. Panuska and Good
are supporting Department of Natural Resources P Index development for Total Maximum
Daily Loads, a primary DNR and U.S. EPA water quality program.




In 2007, three classes of producers, mostly dairy operators, received 12 hours of in-depth
instruction on the latest version of Snap-Plus nutrient management planning software.
Participants entered their own farm data into Snap-Plus and discovered limitations on some
of their fields for manure spreading, especially on high-phosphorus fields. Producers
commonly found excessive high soil phosphorus levels in fields where manure has been
spread repeatedly. Using SNAP+ and the Wisconsin phosphorus index for nutrient
management planning provides producers greater flexibility to comply with regulations based
on the NRCS 590 Nutrient Management Standard.




Graduate students completed degree programs and move into research, education and
extension positions with federal, state and private agencies.
Six, M.S. and/or Ph.D., students had graduate degrees conferred last year.

Research results were published in at least 18 peer reviewed science journals.


These results reveal the first high-resolution picture of the set of chemical "blueprints" for
protein dynamics that occur during seven stages of grape berry development. This work also
establishes an extensive catalog of gene expression patterns for future investigations aimed
at the dissection of the synthesis of RNA regulatory hierarchies that govern berry
development in a widely grown cultivar of wine grape.
More importantly, this analysis identified a set of previously unknown genes potentially
involved in critical steps associated with fruit development that now can be subjected to
functional testing.




Results showed that the suppression of drought-induced leaf senescence resulted in
outstanding drought tolerance. The plants had vigorous growth after a long drought period
that killed the control plants. These plants had minimal yield loss when watered with only
30% of the amount of water used under control conditions.
These results are exciting because they indicate that, in addition to increased drought
tolerance, the expression of this isopentenyltransferase gene in plants, with the simultaneous
increased water use efficiency, could facilitate the development of transgenic crops able to
grow with reduced irrigation without significant yield penalties, contributing to significant
savings in irrigation water.
Varieties were evaluated at Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, Alaska. Weather data was
collected daily for precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures, and evaporation at
each location. Periodic soil temperature and moisture readings within the root zone were
made. Physiologic growth stage information, height, lodging, and disease incidence for each
plot was recorded. At harvest, yield and test weights for each plot were determined. This
information along with long term weather records allow us to predict the likelihood of a
given variety maturing in a given location. Variety Trials conducted are on feed barley, hard
red spring wheat, and oilseeds including Polish canola, Oriental and brown mustards, yellow
mustard, and Camelina from northern Canadian and U.S. Alaskan varieties (Otal spring feed
barley, Thual hulless barley, Ingal hard red spring wheat, and Reward Polish canola) were
included for comparison.

Recommendations can be made to reindeer producers that Kentucky bluegrass has a better
nutritional profile and is palatable to reindeer. However, smooth bromegrass may be more
profitable since it can be used for pasture and hay production. In previous reporting periods it
was determined that use of local feed can save as much as 50% in the cost of reindeer rations
when the deer are ranched.

Research to date has resulted in publication of descriptions of cellular processes but no new
varieties.
Research results have been published describing basic plant and animal cellular processes
affected at the molecular level but no new biologically active molecules have been
discovered that may be used to manage biological systems.


Objectives are to evaluate annual flower and perennial landscape plant materials from
commercial sources, botanical gardens and wild collections; identify plants suitable for use in
the greenhouse/nursery/landscape industry through multi-year trials; conduct experiments
with field-grown peonies for fresh cut flowers for export markets; establish cultivated fields
for lingonberry and Alaska bog blueberry and evaluate wild-collected germplasm for fruit
production in Alaska. In Controlled Environment research to develop and evaluate plant
responses to water delivery, plant uptake, and runoff, while accounting for optimization of
micronutrient, media pH, and EC levels, and to enhance technology transfer and research in
light integral control for tomato, salad greens and potted ornamental plants.
The program trained 30 new Master Gardeners in 2007. Students average post-test scores
were 89%, up from 62%. Assuming the 22 participants, with ideas for summer projects,
complete their 30 hours of special volunteer service, they will have provided $12,420
($18.00/hr) of services to their communities. It costs approximately $1,860 ($30.00/hr plus
food and travel costs for instructors) to provide the initial training, resulting in a $10,560
benefit in a single year. In addition, these Master Gardeners are highly motivated, technically
adept, and aware of recommendations of sustainable and IPM techniques. They answered
138 requests for diagnostics or identification on insects, diseases, and plants and wrote 7
articles on various interesting horticultural topics for Payette County. In addition, they are
aware of, and can recommend, other County Extension offerings such as 4-H Youth
Development and Extension Nutrition Programs.




Results of the reader survey showed that 95% of the producers on the list read at least one of
the newsletter articles published in 2006 and 44% said they often use information, and 11%
said they use information all the time in making decisions about their farming operation.
Nearly 61% of the producers said the information was important or very important to them.
The timely research based information presented in Spudvine articles can impact producers
and the potato industry as a whole and provide benefits to growers who adopt the
recommended best management practices. The survey showed that the Spudvine newsletter
is a valuable resource to Idaho potato producers and the potato industry.


Extension educators have talked about the GAP Audit at speaking opportunities throughout
the summer. More thorough presentations will take place during the Extension Winter
Schools, primarily the potato school, and Idaho Irrigation Equipment Conference. Also, the
notebook has been submitted to the Idaho Potato Council for recommendation, approval,
and possible funding for distribution.
Several species of perennials and shrubs demonstrated good adaptation and outstanding
horticultural value, including Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass), Festuca arizonica
(Arizona fescue), Poa secunda (big bluegrass), Sporobolus wrightii (big sacaton), Descampsia
caespitosa (tufted hair grass), Salvia pachyphylla (big purple sage), Sphaeralcea caespitosa
(tufted globemallow), Penstemon humilis (hot rocks penstemon), Penstemon cyananthus
(Wasatch penstemon), Penstemon ambiguous (gilia beardtongue), Penstemon venustus
(Venus penstemon), Penstemon virens (front range beardtongue), Penstemon pinifolius
(pineleaf penstemon), Penstemon glabrescens (Crandall's beardtongue), Penstemon
attenuates (sulfur penstemon), Penstemon rostriflorus (Bridge's penstemon), Eriogonum
umbellatum (sulfur buckwheat), Eriogonum corymbosum (crispleaf buckwheat), Eriogonum
compositum (arrowleaf buckwheat), Eriogonum ovalifolium (oval-leaf buckwheat), Agastache
urticifolia (giant hyssop), Agastache cana (hummingbird mint), Agastache rupestris (licorice
mint), Aquilegia scopulorum (Utah columbine), and Chamaebatiaria millefolium (desert
fernbush). Seed of four outstanding plant accessions, including Ericameria nauseosa,
Agatache urticifolia, Eriogonum compositum, and Eriogonum corymbosum were distributed
to native plant nurseries and growers. Results of this research were transferred to

On average the superior varieties (hybrids) out yielded the other entries in the test by 5
bushels for spring and winter wheat, 8 bushel for barley, and 10 bushel per acre for oats. In
soybeans, the superior varieties out yielded other entries in the test by 5 bushels per acre;
while in corn the superior hybrids out yielded the other entries by 18 bushels per acre. On
average crop producers increased their gross profits by $51.10(10.22 x 5) per acre for winter
wheat; by $61.85 (12.37 x 5) for spring wheat; $31.50 (3.15 x 10) for oats; $34.64 (4.33 x 8)
for barley; $61.30 (12.26 x 5) for soybean; and $98.64 (5.48 x 18) per acre for corn by
planting superior varieties (hybrids) compared to other entries they could have selected from
the performance trial information.
The TriState Potato Program, which includes OSU, Washington State University, University of
Idaho and USDA/ARS, plays and important economic role in the potato industry. OSU has
released nine varieties since 1995 and is currently in the process of releasing three additional
lines; the TriState Potato program is currently releasing another fourteen. Several selections
in the Oregon program appear to offer significant improvements over currently available
varieties. The program also includes promising clones with late blight, virus, or nematode
resistances. Eventual releases with these characteristics will offer economic advantages for
lower input production costs and reduced use of environmentally unfriendly protectants. The
Oregon wheat quality program worked with the Oregon wheat breeding program to select
for improved wheat quality to enhance export competitiveness of Oregon wheat. This
program contributed to the release of 3 wheat varieties: Goetze, Norwest 553 and Tubbs06
and the potential placement of two more lines. These new varieties are now leading in terms
of acreage and performance in the Pacific Northwest; the lines help reduce economic losses
from grassy weeds, increase management options, and further increase production
efficiency. Investigators are also engaged in fundamental studies to further scientific


These new varieties are now leading in terms of acreage and performance in the Pacific
Northwest




Two new high quality slow darkening pinto cultivars, namely Kimberly and Shoshone and two
high quality great northern cultivars, namely Hungerford and Sawtooth were released in 2007
for production in Idaho and other western states. In addition to resistance to bean common
mosaic virus and rust, the two pinto cultivars are the first slow darkening bean ever
developed in the USA. Similarly, the two great northern cultivars possess excellent seed
qualities unmatched thus far by any private and public cultivars in that market class.

Efforts of UI scientists provided the initial concept and research of post-harvest application of
azoxystrobin that is being pursued by the registrant for registration. The registrant is relying
upon UI research results and advice for further development of the post-harvest product.
These products and potential products provide useful tools for a storage manager's toolbox.
Whereas prior to this time, there were few products available and with limited efficacy.
Results
New farmers who participated in the program gained a better understanding of the
operational details of growing and marketing their product.

Participants said:
- I think having the varying scales of operation was useful. It gave beginners or those of us
who were not ready to become fully immersed in farming a hopeful perspective. Therefore I
think that it is very important to have that range for those who for whatever reason don't
find it feasible to go full force into farming.
- Success in farming isn't just about knowledge and experience--it's about the people doing
the work and the work they put into it.
 -I'll be selling flour at the market this year, the classes made me open my mind up to new
possibilities
- I will be thinking more proactively about product and think of my operation more as a
business.
 -I will touch base with some of the other farmers more often with questions and ideas. It's
very helpful knowing more about the specifics of their operations.
- will consider paid labor more than I had before.
 -building up infrastructure gradually and inexpensively, focusing market efforts on quality
and adding some specialty items, develop plan for restaurant sales in the future.
 -market research and good record keeping rate a higher priority now.
-I have already started record keeping based on the NFP for the 2008 season. I feel
empowered and in control as does my boss.


The cropping systems developed benefit producers managing about 1,500,000 acres in CO.
This area has been converted from wheat-fallow to wheat-summer crop-fallow systems. This
conversion increased net return by $22,275,000 per year under normal precipitation
conditions in the dryland cropping regions of eastern Colorado.




• Problems found during the basic level irrigation audit typically cause overwatering of a lawn
by 20 to 70 percent for an accumulated average of 40 percent. In the Grand Valley, this
equates to an overapplication of 2.3 acre-feet of water per one acre of turf.
• A 2007 survey of those audited indicates that:

-43 % of the people responding to the survey have completed the suggested repairs.
-39 % said they had the repairs started but not completed.
-8 % were not able to get them started or completed because it was too late in the season.
-4 % said they did not do the repairs.
-70 % saw an improvement in their lawn.
-10 % said it was too soon to tell.
-11 % did not see an improvement.
-93 % said information received was helpful.
At a market price of $5/bu for 2008 wheat, Hatcher could result in an increase of value of
over $7 M- in a single year! Wheat improvement is a total team effort involving many
talented CSU researchers and dedicated extension agents working in close collaboration with
an incredible Colorado wheat industry and wheat grower organizations.
Results to date illustrate several environmental and economic benefits associated with
integrating perennial living mulches into annual cropping systems. Sediment load reductions
of over 85% in tailwater from furrow-irrigated fields point to less soil erosion which should
translate to improved water quality for downstream users. Producers should also experience
more efficient use of applied nutrients since fewer will be carried off the end of the field with
the sediment. This has both environmental and economic benefits. Maintaining or increasing
yields comparable to conventional practices while using fewer inputs of inorganic fertilizers,
especially nitrogen, also has both environmental and economic benefits. Corn yields were
actually higher in the living mulch plots that were strip-tilled and received 168 kg/ha of
nitrogen compared to conventionally grown corn that received 336 kg/ha of nitrogen.
Assuming a current price for nitrogen of $1.10/kg, a producer could potentially save up to
$185/ha and have the same or higher corn yields. Looking at it another way, corn yield
averaged 2.26 Mg/ha higher in the living mulch plots that were strip tilled compared to those
in which corn was grown conventionally when both were fertilized with 168 kg/ha of
nitrogen. At a current price of $165/Mg, this equates to additional gross income of about

				
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