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					 Defining Organized Crime
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets
Act (1968)
Unlawful activities of the members of a highly
organized, disciplined association engaged in
supplying illegal goods and services.

FBI
A continuing criminal conspiracy, having an
organized structure, fed by fear and corruption
and motivated by greed.
 Categories of Organized
    Criminal Behavior
Illicit Services
Illicit Goods
Conspiracy
Penetration of Legitimate Business
Extortion
Corruption
  Attributes of Organized Crime
Limited or exclusive membership
Explicit rules and regulations
Nonideological
Structure (Hierarchical)
Specific division of labor
Continuity (self-perpetuation)
Use or threat of violence
Monopolistic
Media Glamour
    Godfather

 The Untouchables

    Mobsters

   Good Fellas

  Boss of Bosses
Explaining Organized Crime
         Alien Conspiracy
      Social Disorganization
        Cultural Deviance
        Ethnic Succession
         Rational Choice
       Psychological Traits
         Learning Theory
      Alien Conspiracy Theory
   Immigration (Ethnic Cohesion ≠ Assimilation)
   Sicilians (prominence of the Mafia)
   Amici degli amici (“friends of friends”)
   NYC - Cosa Nostra (“our thing”)
   ±25 Connected Families (≈ 2000 members)
   Wise guys; made men; good fellas; buttons
   Sicilian-Americans and Sicilian Mafioso are
    autonomous; collaboration began post-WW II
Famous NY Italian Families
    (≈ 50% of La Cosa Nostra)

Genovese (Vito)       Masseria
Gambino (Carlo)       Mineo
Lucchese (Thomas)     Reina
Bonanno (Joseph)      Maranzano
Columbo (Joseph)      Masseria
    The Essence of Mafioso
 State of mind, way of life
 Condition that designates the remedy of
  damage
 Protection against the arrogance of the
  powerful, sturdiness of body, strength and
  serenity of spirit, and the best and most
  exquisite part of life
  Sicilian Mafia Meanings
To protect            Beauty
To act as guardian    Perfection
Friend or companion   Grace
Preservation          Excellence
Power                 Pride
Integrity             Self-Confidence
Strength              Vainglorious behavior
       Italian Immigration
 4 million Italian immigrants (1875-1920)
 80% came from the Mezzogiorno region

 Every prominent Italian-American OC

 Sicily, Naples (Campania) and Calabria
      Southern Italian Culture
   Oppression (foreign and domestic)
 Gabelloto          uomo inteso
 Latifondo

 Cosca

 Omerta (3 Principles of manliness)

  *Vendetta (famiglia or borgata)
 Family patriarch ruled (Capofamiglia)
                 Cosca
        (Unit of the Mafioso)
 Means “leaves of an artichoke”
 Heart of plant is capomafioso (or padrino)

 Patron-client system (not bureaucratic);
  based on kinship et al. (Partito)
 Compadre (custom of comparatico)

 Rispetto
 Don
        Castellammarese War

    Two major Italian OC Groups by 1930:
   Giuseppe (Joe the Boss) Masseria
    Charlie Luciano, Vito Genovese, Frank Costello
    Meyer Lansky and Ben Siegel (non-Italians)
   Salvatore Maranzano (mainly Sicilians)
   Maranzano assassinated
               Joe’s Last Meal
   The Most defining moment in the history of OC
   Masseria convinces Luciano to join his team
   Maranzano wants to unite all Italians / Masseria
    doesn’t cooperate
   Bugs and Meyer Mob plus Luciano hatch a plan
   A fateful dinner
   Goodbye to both bosses
Social Disorganization
      Pathological Materialism
   American preoccupation

   Goal emphasized, not means (secondary)

   Differential Opportunity       Anomie
    Differential Opportunity
 Socioeconomic Stratification = Strain
 Perception of fixed and immutable
  economic structure (Relative Deprivation)



         Subculture Formations (3)
      Anomic Condition
  (Heterogeneous Societies)
       Feeling of Estrangement


             Innovation


Alternative methods to achieve success
     Subculture Formations
Retreat (Drug usage as alternative goal)

Conflict (Acting out as a means of status)

Criminal (Utilitarian adaptation)
         Cultural Deviance
      (Norm Inconsistencies)
Culture Conflict
 Allegiance to subculture norms, often
 conflicting with those of the mainstream

Enterprise Theory
 Serving the unsatisfied needs of societal
 consumers
         Irish Immigration
 1820-1855, 1.5 million immigrants (2)
 Urban Slum Segregation

 Response        Politics (social mobility)
  Taverns (machine politicians)
          Tammany Hall
 Anti-Federalist Society
 Legislative elections; NYC Police

 Five Points Gang

 William March Tweed (state senator)
  Municipal treasury
 Mayor LaGuardia
      Kansas City Machine
 Political machine
  Sophisticated, charming and mild
 Outsiders refuge

 Thomas Joseph Pendergast (tax evasion)
          Ethnic Succession
 Queer Ladder of Mobility (Bell)
 Ethnic group attains legitimate social
  status



   Other deprived ethnic group steps up
Jewish Organized Crime
Arnold “The Brain” Rothstein

 Real Godfather?
  True bureaucratic structure
 The Great Gatsby and Black Sox scandal

 Murdered at age 46 (gunshot to stomach)
          Dutch Schultz
 Bootlegging
 Numbers Rackets (Harlem)

 Slots (Costello)

 Tax Evasion (Dewey)

 Murder Inc. (Anastasia)
            Meyer Lansky
 Born in Russia (1904/1906) – NYC (1911)
  Meeting with Luciano? (2)
 Gambling (Cuba, Haiti, Bahamas)

 Fled to Israel to avoid income tax evasion
  U.S. pressured for his return
      Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel
   1906-1947; Williamsburg section of Brooklyn
   The brawn (Lansky brain) Whiskey shipments;
    Gambling (Luciano)
   California OC Boss
   Eclectic Operations (Las Vegas)
   Flamingo (Murdered)
           The Sociopath
 6’0”, black hair, piercing blue eyes, total charmer,
  sharp dresser, athletic
 Talked the talk and walked the walk, became the
  first “page one” celebrity gangster
            Sociopath Continued…
   Textbook Sociopath
   Took what wanted when wanted – remorse completely alien
   Other people were to be used
   In gangster circles, nickname “Bugsy” was term of
    endearment; honor
   Bugsy earned it early on for his tendency to “go bugs”
   “When we were in a fight Bugsy would never hesitate, he was
    even quicker to take action than those hot-blooded Sicilians,
    the first to start punching and shooting. Nobody reacted
    faster than Benny”.
                                     -- Meyer Lansky
               A Rising Star
   Volstead Act and Prohibition
   Arnold Rothstein chooses his partners
   Bugsy and Lansky start a car and truck
    rental business as cover up
   Going against Masseria
   Taking from Rothstein and Waxey Gordon
   Lives because of Lansky
  Bookmaking and the Wire Service
 Two Wire Services

           - Continental / Regan
           - Trans America / Syndicate
- Bugsy wins over Continental, eliminates Ragan
- Syndicate tries to take over

           “I am gonna run the wire here,
            and it’s all mine.”
                         - Bugsy Siegel
                       The End
   Flamingo becomes profitable
   Things are looking up
   Siegal’s death
   Speculations on Siegal’s death
   Bugsy: Legend or Bum?
   Psychological Traits

Antisocial Personality (or Sociopath)

      Dependent Personality
          Antisocial Personality
    (Dry rot of superego, Cancer of Conscience)

   2-3% of population (80% male; primarily urban settings)
   Genetic and Environmental influences

    Core Clinical Features
    Pathological deceptions and manipulations
    Underdeveloped autonomic nervous system
    Intolerant to frustration (delay of gratification)
    Disregard for the rights of others (little or no remorse)
    Difficulty learning from experience (absence of internal guilt)
    Unstable work and personal relations (exploitation)
    Repeated brushes with law (abuse alcohol or drugs)
     Dependent Personality
              (Inadequate Personality)
Fear of Abandonment or Separation (Clinging Behavior)
Needs others to assume responsibilities for major life areas
Difficulty expressing disagreement
Excessive efforts to obtain nurturance (volunteering)

Outcomes

Resentment (inability to control frustration and anger)
    Rational Choice Theory
Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham

Humans Possess Free Will (Hedonistic)

Choice (cost/benefit)

Deterrence is key to crime control
             Prohibition
 American Temperance Society (1826)
  The Noble Experiment
 Alcohol Hatred or Immigrant Mistrust?

 18th Amendment; Volstead Act (1919)

 Public reaction (Roaring twenties)
  Prohibition repealed (21st) - 1933
Chicago Mob
    Al “Scarface” Capone
 Murder suspicion (Brooklyn to Chicago)
 Benevolent Crime King
  St. Valentine’s Massacre (Hymie Weiss)
 Eliot Ness (Untouchables) – Hoover

 Income Tax (Jake Lansky?) - Frank
  Wilson 11 year sentence; released
  (syphilis)
         Cicero and Capone
Hawthorne Inn and Lexington Hotel

Elections (Gunman); Pineapple Primary (1927 Petition)

The only thing they won’t tolerate in Cicero are Negroes.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1965)
We can walk in outer space, but we can’t walk the
streets of Cicero without the National Guard.

King’s march on Cicero
             Sam Giancana
 1908 to Sicilian Immigrants – 42 Gang
  Chauffeur and Wheelman for Capone
 Selective Service
  79 mob-related murders (9 years) - Outfit
 Nontraditional mentality (no ethnic bias)

 CIA and Castro



   Exile to Mexico and South America (8 yrs)
    Extradition – Mob decision to kill (1974)
    John F. Kennedy & Mob
 House Select Cmt on Assassinations (79)
 Father (Joseph) – Costello & Lansky

 West Virginia Primary
  NJ mobster Skinny D’Mato (Sheriffs)
 Judith Campbell (Giancana); Castro

 Robert Kennedy (Carlos Marcello)
  Lee Harvey Oswald
      Ronald Reagan & OC
 Commission on Organized Crime
 45 appointments resigned (Sleaze Factor)
  10 of 588 Commutation requests
  Focus on OC reduced
 Paul Laxalt (Sen-NV) : Campaign Manager
  Jackie Presser (Economic Advisor)
  Roy Williams (5th Amendment to Senate)
 National Sec. Adviser, CIA Dir., CIA
  Deputy Dir., Ireland Ambassador Nominee
      Richard Nixon & OC
 Office of Price Administration (1943)
 Senator Smathers (OC attorney)
  Campaign: Manager (Choitner) and funds
 Deep Sea fishing (Lansky associate)
  Cuba visits to hotel/casino
 Teamsters Endorsement; Hoffa (Lansky)
  Pardoned Hoffa and other interventions
            Outfit Today
Southern Wisconsin to Northern Indiana

Membership estimates = 30 to 130

White collar mentality (primarily gambling)
            Learning Theory
 High crime rates (community decay)
 Differential Association Theory



    Weak Familial and Communal Influences
    Social Learning (Community Enclaves)
    Enclaves often = only real social control
                      Traditional Model
         Commission                   Boss (Capo, or Paterfamilias)

    Boss of Bosses                                           Counselor
 (Capo di tutti capi)                                      (Consigliere)
                              Underboss (Sottocapo)


           Caporegime Caporegime Caporegime Caporegime Caporegime
                                                                  (or Capodecina)

                                 Soldiers (Soldati)

Police and Public Officials                                 Multistate Control


                      Legitimate Industry    Illegal Activities
              Membership
    “Since I got made I got a million $%^&*
         worshippers hanging around.”

 Italian descent (no females)
 Sponsor (stand-up kid)
  History of criminal activities; antisocial
 Skills valuable to the organization/Earner

 Must participate in a murder
     Rational Theory Quotes
Anyone who stood waiting his turn on the
 American pay line was beneath contempt.

The fact that a guy like Paul Vario would…run the
 risk of getting caught using a stolen credit card
 (muldoon) …Best part of the night…getting
 over on somebody.

We don’t want to be part of your world.
    Member Social Dynamics
“A made guy is considered more honorable.”
 Permitted to attend certain meetings
  No representation (sitdown or table)
 Respect from nonmembers and women
  Family protection
 Law enforcement target
  Competition for limited resources
          American Rules
 Unwritten rational norms (quite intricate)
  Hierarchy is dominant (not Vendetta)
 Never ask for last names
  No unnecessary questions
 No business on phone
  No business specifics in discussion
 No violence on family (except Boss)
         Genovese Family
Giuseppe “Joe the Boss” Masseria
Charles “Lucky” Luciano
Frank Costello
Vito Genovese
Anthony “Fat Tony” Salerno
Vincent “The Chin” Gigante (Prison)
Dominick “Quiet Dom” Cirillo (Acting Boss)
          Charles Luciano
 Native Sicilian (1897) - NYC (10 years old)
  Five Points Gang
 Nickname Origin (NY Times)

 Created the Commission

 Saved Dewey’s Life (Dutch Schultz)
  Imprisoned 30-50 years (Prostitution)
  Deportation (1946); Dewey Clemency
 Formed Sicilian Commission (w/Bonanno)
       Francesco Castiglia
 Native Calabrian (1891)
  Assumed Irish name (Frank Costello)
 King of Slots and Real Estate Dealer
  Political Influence (Senator Huey Long)
  Income Tax Evasion (Conviction)
 Genovese gunman (Gigante) unsuccessful
  Anastasia murdered (Mineo Family Boss)
  Costello retired; Genovese assumed reigns
           Vito Genovese
 Born near Naples (1897) – NYC (Age 15)
 Fled to Italy in 1934 (murder suspicion)
  Became confidant of Benito Mussolini
  Gained confidence of American military
 Returned as fugitive; conspiracy to violate
  narcotics laws (15 yrs)
         Gambino Family
Al Mineo (Masseria clan) – Murdered 1930



Carlo Gambino
Paul Castellano
John Gotti
John Gotti Jr.
          Carlo Gambino
 Native of Palermo (1902) – NYC (Age 19)
 Palermo boyhood friend (Lucchese)
  Followed Lucchese into Maranzano camp
  Connection to Albert Anastasia murder
 WW II millionaire (Ration stamps)

 Heart attack; named Castellano boss
          Paul Castellano

 Son of Sicilian immigrants; 8th grade
 FBI Investigation led to indictment

 Murdered - Sparks Steakhouse (Bilotti)
  John Gotti (elected boss)
                 John Gotti
   Teflon Don
 Sammy “The Bull” Gravano claimed all
  families, except Genovese (Gigante),
  authorized Castellano murder
 Genovese and Gambino families (war)
         Lucchese Family
Gaetano (Tommy) Reina
Gaetano Gagliano (1930-1953)
Gaetano (Thomas) Lucchese (53-67)
Born in Palermo (1900) – NYC (11 yrs old)
Three-Finger Brown (Cubs Mordechai)

Joe DeFrede
       Bonanno Family
Salvatore Maranzano
Joseph Bonanno (Peppino) – Capone

Gaspare DiGregorio

Joey Massino (Current Boss)
         Joseph Bonanno
 Father (Head of Bonanno Sicilian clan)
 Funeral home business

 Agreed to retire in 1964 (kidnapping)
  Treaty violation (return from Haiti)
  “Bananas War”
         Pizza Connection
 FBI Agent Joseph Pistone (Donnie Brasco)
 100 mobsters imprisoned

 $24 million (1980-82) smuggled to Sicily
  to pay for raw opium processing (heroin)
 Drugs sold at pizza parlors
  Merrill Lynch and E.F. Hutton (couriers)
        Columbo Family
Joseph Profaci
Joseph Magliocco (natural causes; 1 year)
Joseph Colombo

Carmine Persico (Imprisoned – Giuliani)
Victor Orena (Acting Boss)
Andrew Russo (Acting Boss)
           Joseph Profaci

Palermo (1897) – Fled 1922 (Mussolini)

Olive Oil King (Godfather inference)
         Joseph Colombo
 Gambino (and Lucchese) murder plot
  Blame placed on Bonanno (and Magliocci)
  Commission reward
 Italian-American Civil Rights League

 News conference (Gallo suspected of
  hiring Jerome Johnson)
 Colombo Wars (Orena, A. Persico, Russo)
The Jamaican Posse
           Known around world as stone cold
           killers; walk into room full of cops
           just to shoot to make a point.

           In the early 1980s, involved in
           cocaine and marijuana smuggling
           as Jamaica developed into a
           transshipment point for drug
           trafficking to the US

           Of the ethnic gangs ruling America’s
           inner cities, none has had the
           impact of the Jamaican posses.
           Spawned in the ghettos of Kingston
           as mercenary street-fighters for the
           island’s politicians, the posses
           began migrating to the United
           States in the early 1980s, just in
           time to catch and ride the crack
           wave as it engulfed the country.
                 Jamaican Posse
The evolution from street gangs to posses was gradual.
Adopted "posse" because of fondness for American western
films and because the word connected the use of violence to
enforce political will and to protect neighborhoods from
intrusion by rival gangs.
           Jamaican Posse
Emerged as a means of social control on island
Strong Jamaican ties (geographical and political)
  Shower Posse (Jamaica Labour Party); 5000
Distribution of Mexican marijuana and crack
  Secondary Organization
  35-40 Groups & ~ 20K Members in U.S.
  Primarily NYC & Miami (~ 20 total cities)
Strong vertical structure (Generals divide money)
Extreme Violence (fascination with firearms)
Few large-scale org remain (low-profile)
  Sell franchises to street gangs (Local Org)
   Gender Make-up: Male               Identification: Identify
   Ethnicity: Jamaican                 with similar political and
   Colors: No formal colors            economic interests.
   Alliances: Working                 Posse identification often
    relationships with West Coast       difficult. Known by
    Street Gangs, Colombians, La        different names in each
    Cosa Nostra, etc.                   city and usually adopt
   Rivals: Blacks, Caribbean           names from home island.
    Hispanic, Puerto Rican,            Posse members known to
    White, Ras Tafarians                falsify documents and
                                        attempt to gain false
                                        credentials of police
                                        officers, federal agents,
                                        military officers, and
                                        intelligence officers.
                     Jamaican Posses
Rat Posse-                                Hot Steppers-
All of whose members have killed          Composed only of Jamaican prison escapees
     Jamaican police officers             who have been convicted of a capital offense.




Shower Posse-                             Spangler-
So named from its practice of showering   Aligned with PNP(People National Party)
   victims with bullets.
The weapons that they choose are expensive and efficient "weapons of

         war", commonly used by worldwide military forces   .
   Jamaican Posse spawned in color and class, repression
    of Jamaican colonial society. Cultivated out of black
    rebellion and struggle against domination. Reputation
    built on and fed by violence; so is their survival.
   Jamaican posses began in late 1960s and 70s as urban
    gangs recruited and armed by politicians to: organize
    local constitutions, distribute political favors, enforce
    party loyalty and turn out votes.
   Abject poverty, rampant marijuana use and political
    corruption that the violent street gangs of Kingston were
    born. Gangs formed within neighborhood boundaries as
    well as political affiliation. Both of Jamaica's major
    political parties, the Jamaican Labour Party (JLP) and the
    Peoples National Party (PNP), used the street gangs to
    influence the electoral process. Victorious candidates
    rewarded gang supporters with neighborhood projects,
    development and basic municipal services.
                           Side Note
   “Posse" has become popular with non-Jamaican gangs, due
    to publicity surrounding Jamaican groups. In many urban
    areas, African-American youth gangs have adopted the term.
    And many of the real Jamaican posses have started calling
    themselves "Massive" to describe their core group, (i.e.,
    Spangler Massive and Dunkirk Massive).

   Jamaican -- The Jamaican Posse underworld (from Kingston)
    has developed a reputation as one of the first nontraditional
    organized crime groups. They basically developed the
    marketing techniques for crack, controlling about 40% of it
    in the U.S. They also engage in kidnapping, murder,
    robbery, and auto theft.
                     The Jamaican Shower Posse
                       Founder of the notorious Shower Posse, Coke
                       believed to have been responsible for 68
                       deaths and the shooting of 13 Jamaican police
                       officers over a 6 month period in 1990.
                       Brought to trial on 14 murders, relied on
                       impeccable connections w/Jamaican govt. to
                       obtain freedom on each charge. When unsure
    Boss               benefactors would come through, he ensured
                       freedom by making key witnesses disappear.
Lester "Jim Brown"     Brown and 60 henchmen captured after a high
Coke                   profile shootout with Jamaican authorities
(1980's-1992)          resulting in his arrest and the implementation
                       of an extradition to the U.S. where he was
                       wanted for murder and trafficking.
                       While awaiting extradition, Coke mysteriously
                       burned to death in a fire as American
                       authorities waited in an adjacent room to take
                       him back to the states.
   Violence has long been the trademark of the street gangs and
    the means by which posses first established various drug
    cartels in America. This proclivity for violence is also what
    alerted law enforcement to the presence of the posses and
    galvanized its efforts. American-born offspring of Jamaican
    Posse and associates just entering drug distribution networks
    are more judicious in the use of violence
   Violence most often directed at individuals perceived to be a
    threat to their illegal ventures; little regard for by-standers.
   Particularly brutal using torture, dismemberment and other
    extreme measures to intimidate rivals and members.
                     Jamaican Terms
   Yardies is term applied to Jamaican-born gangsters operating in Britain
   Massive" to describe their core group, (i.e., Spangler Massive and
    Dunkirk Massive).
   The use of armed gangs and the promotion of violence as strategic
    initiatives to secure or retain political power became known in Jamaica
    as "political tribalism."
   On a daily basis, small quantities of cocaine are taken from the stash
    houses to places used solely for street level sales called "gates" or
    "gatehouses."

   strain of marijuana called "Jamaican Gold"

				
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