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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian language
Lithuanian Lietuvių kalba Spoken in Lithuania, Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Brazil, Canada, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, Ireland, Uruguay, USA, Spain, France [1] Europe 3.5 million (Lithuania) 500,000 (Abroad) 4-5 million (Worldwide)[1] 144th Indo-European Balto-Slavic Baltic Eastern Lithuanian Lithuanian variant of Latin alphabet

Region Total speakers Ranking Language family

Writing system

Official status Official language in Regulated by Lithuania, Union European

The oldest surviving manuscript in Lithuanian (around 1503), rewritten from 15th century original text Anyone wishing to hear how IndoEuropeans spoke should come and listen to a Lithuanian peasant. —Antoine Meillet Lithuanian still retains many of the original features of the nominal morphology found in the common ancestors of the Indo-European languages, and has therefore been the focus of much study in the area of Indo-European linguistics. Studies in the field of comparative linguistics have shown it to be the most conservative living Indo-European language.[2][3] Lithuanian and other Baltic languages passed through Proto-Balto-Slavic stage, during which Baltic languages developed numerous exclusive and non-exclusive lexical, morphological, phonological and accentual isoglosses with Slavic languages, which represent their closest living Indo-European relative. Moreover, with Lithuanian being so archaic in phonology, Slavic words can often be

Commission of the Lithuanian Language

Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 lt lit lit

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union. There are about 2.96 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania and about 170,001 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language, closely related to Latvian, although they are not mutually intelligible. It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script.



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Lithuanian language
considered dialects of a single language. At a minimum, transitional dialects existed until the 14th or 15th century, and perhaps as late as the 17th century. Also, the 13th- and 14thcentury occupation of the western part of the Daugava basin (closely coinciding with the territory of modern Latvia) by the German Sword Brethren had a significant influence on the languages’ independent development. The earliest surviving written Lithuanian text is a translation dating from about 1503–1525 of the Lord’s Prayer, the Hail Mary and the Nicene Creed written in the Southern Aukštaitijan dialect. Printed books existed after 1547, but the level of literacy among Lithuanians was low through the 18th century and books were not commonly available. In 1864, following the January Uprising, Mikhail Muravyov, the Russian Governor General of Lithuania, banned the language in education and publishing, and barred use of the Latin alphabet altogether, although books printed in Lithuanian continued to be printed across the border in East Prussia and in the United States. Brought into the country by book smugglers despite the threat of stiff prison sentences, they helped fuel a growing nationalist sentiment that finally led to the lifting of the ban in 1904. Jonas Jablonskis (1860-1930) made significant contributions to the formation of the standard Lithuanian language. The conventions of written Lithuanian had been evolving during the 19th century, but Jablonskis, in the introduction to his Lietuviškos kalbos gramatika, was the first to formulate and expound the essential principles that were so indispensable to its later development. His proposal for Standard Lithuanian was based on his native Western Aukštaitijan dialect with some features of the eastern Prussian Lithuanians’ dialect spoken in Lithuania Minor. These dialects had preserved archaic phonetics mostly intact due to the influence of the neighbouring Old Prussian language, while the other dialects had experienced different phonetic shifts, however the most archaic features are found in the South Aukštaitija dialect such as -tau, -tai usage instead of -chiau, -tum or in instead of į or the endings -on, -un instead of -ą, -ų. Lithuanian has been the official language of Lithuania since 1918. During the Soviet occupation (see History of Lithuania), it was used in official discourse along with Russian which, as

First Lithuanian book (1547) The Simple Words of Catechism by Martynas Mažvydas

A map of European languages (1741) with the first verse of the Lord’s Prayer in Lithuanian deduced from Lithuanian by regular sound laws. According to some glottochronological speculations the Eastern Baltic languages split from the Western Baltic ones between 400 AD and 600 AD. The differentiation between Lithuanian and Latvian started after 800 AD; for a long period they could be


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the official language of the USSR, took precedence over Lithuanian.

Lithuanian language
dielects form Dzūkian(Dzūkai) dialect due to intense usage of dz sound instead of dzh). Each subdialect is divided into smaller units speeches (šnektos). Standard Lithuanian is derived mostly from Western Aukštaitian dialects, including the Eastern dialect of Lithuania Minor. Influence of other dialects is more significant in the vocabulary of standard Lithuanian.

Lithuanian is one of two living Baltic languages, along with Latvian. An earlier Old Prussian Baltic language was extinct by the 19th century; the other Western Baltic languages, Curonian and Sudovian, went extinct earlier. The Baltic languages form their own distinct branch of the Indo-European languages.

Lithuanian uses the Latin alphabet supplemented with diacritics. It is composed of 32 letters. The collation order presents one surprise: "Y" is occurs between "Į" (I nosinė) and "J" because "Y" represents a long vowel /iː/. A Ą B C Č D E Ę Ė F G H I Į Y J K L M N a ą b c č d e ę ė f g h i į y j k l m n Lithuanian writing system is largely phonemic, i.e., one letter usually corresponds to a single phoneme. Nevertheless, there are a few exceptions, for example, the letter i represents either the vowel [ɪ] of English lit or softens the preceding consonant (iu = ü, io = ö, etc.). A macron can be used to mark and vowel length, and acute, grave, and tilde diacritics are used for pitch accent. However, these are generally not written, except in dictionaries, grammars, and where needed for clarity. In addition, the following digraphs are used, but are treated as sequences of two letters for collation purposes. It should be noted that the "Ch" digraph represents a velar fricative, while the others are straightforward combinations of their component letters. Dz dz [dz](dzė), Dž dž [dʒ](džė), Ch ch [x](cha).

Geographic distribution
Lithuanian is spoken mainly in Lithuania. It is also spoken by ethnic Lithuanians living in today’s Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, as well by sizable emigrant communities in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, France, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Russia proper, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, Spain and France. 2,955,200 people in Lithuania (including 3,460 Tatars), or about 80% of the 1998 population, are native Lithuanian speakers; most Lithuanian inhabitants of other nationalities also speak Lithuanian to some extent. The total worldwide Lithuanian-speaking population is about 4,000,000 (1993 UBS).

Official status
Lithuanian is the state language of Lithuania and an official language of the European Union.

The Lithuanian language has two dialects (tarmės): Aukštaičių (Aukštaitian, Highland Lithuanian), Žemaičių/Žemaitiu (Samogitian, Lowland Lithuanian), See maps at [2]. There are significant differences between standard Lithuanian and Samogitian. The modern Samogitian dialect formed in the 13th-16th centuries under the influence of the Curonian language. Lithuanian dialects are closely connected with ethnographical regions of Lithuania Dialects are divided into subdialects (patarmės). Both dialects have 3 subdialects. Samogitian is divided into West, North and South; Aukštaitian into West (Soduviečiai), South (Dainaviai) and East (South and East

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Lithuanian has 12 written vowels. In addition to the standard Roman letters, the ogonek (’little tail’) accent (conventionally known as the caudata) is used to indicate long vowels, and is a historical relic of a time when these vowels were nasalized (as ogonek vowels are in modern Polish), and at an even earlier time had made diphthongs with an ’n’ sound (now done only in South Aukštaitijan dialects).


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Majuscule Minuscule IPA A a ɐ aː B b b C c ts Č č tʃ D d d Ą ą aː E e ɛ æː F f f G g ɡ H h ɣ Ę ę æː Ė ė eː I i ɪ Į į iː Y y iː

Lithuanian language
O o ɔ oː R r r S s s Š š ʃ U u ʊ Ų ų uː Ū ū uː

Majuscule Minuscule IPA

J j j

K k k

L l l

M N m m n n

P p p

T t t

V v ʋ

Z z z

Ž ž ʒ

labial plosives fricatives affricates nasal liquid rhotic trill Front Long High Close-mid Low-mid Low iː eː æː æ̠ ɐ̟ lateral glide ʋ voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced m p b f

dental t d




velar k ɡ

s z ts dz n l

ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ

x ɣ

j r Central Short i̠ Back Long uː oː ɐː languages and not present in the Latvian language. Unreleased stops are common in the Lithuanian language over released plosives. (Adapted from 1982_1/82_1_02.htm with necessary changes according to Lithuanian Language Encyclopedia[4]) Short u̟ o̟

Lithuanian uses 20 consonant characters, drawn from the Roman alphabet. In addition, the digraph "Ch" represents a voiceless velar fricative (IPA [x]); the pronunciation of other digraphs can be deduced from their component elements.

Each consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ] - [b],[dʲ] [d], [ɡʲ] - [ɡ] and so on). The consonants [f x ɣ] and their palatalized versions are only found in loanwords. The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized, a feature common to East Slavic

Lithuanian has six long vowels and five short ones. Length has traditionally been considered the distinctive feature, though short vowels are also more centralized and long vowels more peripheral: (Adapted from 1982_1/82_1_02.htm and .)


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stressless or tilde ai ei au eu ie oi ui uo ɨeˑ ɵiˑ ʉiˑ ʉoˑ æ̠uˑ æ̠iˑ acute stress ɐ̂ˑi æ̂ˑi ɐ̂ˑu æ̂ˑu îˑe ôˑi ûˑi ûˑo

Lithuanian language

Lithuanian is traditionally described as having eight diphthongs, ai au ei eu oi ui ie uo. However, some approaches (i.e. Schmalstieg 1982) treat them as vowel sequences rather than diphthongs; indeed, the longer component depends on the type of stress, whereas in diphthongs the longer segment is fixed. When not stressed, as in ai /ai/, it is the second element of the sequence which is longer, [æ̠iˑ]. This is also the case with the stress written with a tilde, aĩ /aˈi/. However, with the "acute" stress, it is the first element which is longer, in addition to the falling pitch: ái /ˈai/, [ɐ̂ˑi]. The full set is as follows:

syllables that distinguish them from unaccented heavy syllables. The distinguishing feature appears to be a negative one, that they do not have a falling tone.[5] If diphthongs (and indeed long vowels) are treated as sequences of vowels, then a single stress mark is sufficient for transcription: áusta /ˈausta/ = [ˈâˑʊstɐ] "to cool" vs. aũsta /aˈusta/ = [ɐˈuˑstɐ] "to come"; kóse /ˈkoose/ = [ˈkôːsæ] "porridge" vs. kõse /koˈose/ = [koˈoˑsæ] "to sour".

Change and variation
The changes and variation in Lithuanian phonetics include diachronic changes of a quality of a phoneme, alternations, dialectal variation, variation between corresponding sounds of individual inflectional morphemes of the same grammatical category, which is at the same time qualitative and quantitative, diachronic and synchronic. • The diachronic qualitative phonemic changes include o [oː] ← ā (a narrowing of a more open vowel), uo ← ō turnings. • Among examples of the variation between sounds of different inflectional morphemes of a certain grammatical category there is historical shortening of a declensional ending a in some positions: motina (nom. sg.-instr. sg.) ’mother’ ← *mātina ← *mātinā, *mātinās → motinos (gen. sg.). Synchronous variation between shorter (more recent) and longer (more archaic) personal endings in verbs, depending on final position: keliu ’I am lifting; I lift (something)’ – keliuosi ’I get up; I am getting up’ (reflexive); keli ’you are lifting’ – keliesi ’you get up’; keliame ’we are lifting’ – keliamės ’we get up’. • Examples of alternation include variation between d, t and palatalized dž, č

Pitch accent
Lithuanian has a simple tone system, often called pitch accent.[5] In lexical words, one syllable will be tonically prominent. A heavy syllable—that is, a syllable containing a long vowel, diphthong, or a sonorant coda—may have one of two tones, falling (written with an acute accent) or rising (written with a tilde). Light syllables (syllables with short vowels and optionally also obstruent codas; pitch accent written with as a grave accent), do not have the two-way contrast of heavy syllables. The two-way contrast in heavy syllables can be illustrated with kóse "porridge" vs. kõse "to sour"; áusta "to cool" vs. aũsta "to come"; drímba "lout" vs. drĩmba "to fall"; káltas "chisel" vs. kãltas "guilty". Kóse is perceived as having a falling pitch ([kôːsæ] or [kóòsæ]), and indeed acoustic measurement strongly supports this. However, while kõse is perceived as having a rising pitch ([kǒːsæ] or [kòósæ]), this is not supported acoustically; measurements do not find a consistent tone associated with such


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Lithuanian language

respectively: nom. sg. pat-s ’myself; sverti sveriu svėriau svėrimas himself; itself’ (masculine gender), gen. sg. pat-ies, dat. sg. pač-iam; jaučiu ’I feel’, gerti geriu gėriau gėrimas gėrimas a jauti ’you feel’; girdžiu ’I hear’, girdi ’you drink, hear’. Variation between a lengthened, a beverage uttered in a falling, lengthened tone and a durti duriu dūriau dūrimas short a and e alike (only if these sounds end a syllable), variation between a long, vyti veju vijau vijimas uttered in a falling, lengthened tone and a short i at an ending of a word, depending on accentual position: vãkaras [’ʋaːkɐrɐs] nominative ’an evening’, vakarè [ʋɐkɐr’ɛ] locative ’in the evening’; radinỹs [rɐdɪn’iːs] nom. ’a finding, a find’, rãdinio [’raːdɪnʲoː] visti vysta viso (III visimas genitive (from ràsti [’rɐstɪ] ’to find’); (III p.) p.) pãtiekalas ’a dish, course’, patiekalaĩ nom. plural. (from patiẽkti ’to serve (a dish)’); veisti veisiu veisiau veisimas vèsti ’to lead; to marry’ vedìmas (a noun for an action) vẽdamas (participle) ’who is being led; married’; baltinỹs ’cloth which is being whitened’, baltìnis ’white; (dial.) vysti vysta vyto (III vytimas white of the egg’ (derivatives from baltas (III p.) p.) ’white’). Variation in sounds takes place in word formation. Some examples: The examples in the table are given as an infinitive present past a noun other related related meaning word tense, tense, of nounoverview, the short formation comprises short (for an many words notadjectives infinitive) given here, for example, any I I an nouns verb can have an adjective made by the same person, person, action pattern: sverti – svarus ’valid; ponderous’; singular singular svirti – svarùs ’slopable’; vyti – vajùs ’for rasti randu radau radimas to find whom it is characteristic to chase or to be I am I found a finding chased’; pilti – pilùs ’poury’; but for example finding; visti – vislùs ’prolific’ (not visus, which could I find conflict with an adjective of a similar form busti bundu budau budimas budrus to wake visas ’all, entire’). Many verbs, besides a vigilant noun derivative with the ending -ìmas, can pulti puolu puoliau puolimas pulkas to begin have different derivatives of the same meana swarm (on); to ing: pilti – pylìmas, pylà, pỹlis (they mean the act of the verb: a pouringattack (of any non solid pilti pilu pyliau pylimas pylimas a pilis the first two have meanings that a pilnas full to pour material)); mound, castle look almost identical but (any non are drawn apart an solid from a pilvas a link with the verb: pylimas ’a direct embankment an embankment’, pylà ’pelting; spankmaterial) bank, belly ing, whipping’; the word svõris ’a weight’, for kilti kylu kilau kilimas kelias a kilnus to arise, lift example, does not have the(for meaning of an act road noble of weighing.aThere are alsooneself) many other derivkelis atives and patterns of derivation. lift knee kelti keliu kėliau kėlimas to raise, kalva a (something)
hill Grammar kalnas




ch a




a a






The Lithuanian language is a highly inflected a language in which the relationships between mountain parts of speech and their roles in a sentence to slope are expressed by numerous inflections.


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There are two grammatical genders in Lithuanian - feminine and masculine. There is no neuter gender per se, but there are some forms which are derived from the historical neuter gender, notably attributive adjectives. There are five noun and three adjective declensions. Nouns and other parts of nominal morphology are declined in seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative. In older Lithuanian texts three additional varieties of the locative case are found: illative, adessive and allative. The most common are the illative, which still is used, mostly in spoken language, and the allative, which survives in the standard language in some idiomatic usages. The adessive is nearly extinct. These additional cases are probably due to the influence of FinnoUgric languages with which Baltic languages have had a long-standing contact (FinnoUgric languages have a great variety of noun cases a number of which are specialised locative cases). Lithuanian has a free, mobile stress, and is also characterized by pitch accent. The Lithuanian verbal morphology shows a number of innovations. Namely, the loss of synthetic passive (which is hypothesized based on the more archaic though longextinct Indo-European languages), synthetic perfect (formed via the means of reduplication) and aorist; forming subjunctive and imperative with the use of suffixes plus flexions as opposed to solely flections in , e. g., Ancient Greek; loss of the optative mood; merging and disappearing of the -t- and -ntmarkers for third person singular and plural, respectively (this, however, occurs in Latvian and Old Prussian as well and may indicate a collective feature of all Baltic languages). On the other hand, the Lithuanian verbal morphology retains a number of archaic features absent from most modern IndoEuropean languages (but shared with Latvian). This includes the synthetic formation of the future tense with the help of the -s- suffix; three principal verbal forms with the present tense stem employing the -n- and -st- infixes. There are three verbal conjugations. All verbs have present, past, past iterative and future tenses of the indicative mood, subjunctive (or conditional) and imperative moods (both without distinction of tenses) and infinitive. These forms, except the infinitive, are conjugative, having two singular, two

Lithuanian language
plural persons and the third person form common both for plural and singular. Lithuanian has the richest participle system of all Indo-European languages, having participles derived from all tenses with distinct active and passive forms, and several gerund forms. In practical terms, the rich overall inflectional system renders word order less important than in more isolating languages such as English. A Lithuanian speaker may word the English phrase "a car is coming" as either "atvažiuoja automobilis" or "automobilis atvažiuoja". Lithuanian also has a very rich word derivation system and an array of diminutive suffixes. The first prescriptive grammar book of Lithuanian was commissioned by the Duke of Prussia, Frederick William, for use in the Lithuanian-speaking parishes of East-Prussia. It was written in Latin and German by Daniel Klein and published in Königsberg in 1653/ 1654. The first scientific Compendium of Lithuanian language was published in German in 1856/57 by August Schleicher, a professor at Prague University. In it he describes Prussian-Lithuanian which later is to become the "skeleton" (Buga) of modern Lithuanian. Today there are two definitive books on Lithuanian grammar: one in English, the "Introduction to Modern Lithuanian" (called "Beginner’s Lithuanian" in its newer editions) by Leonardas Dambriūnas, Antanas Klimas and William R. Schmalstieg, and another in Russian, Vytautas Ambrazas’ "Грамматика литовского языка" ("The Grammar of the Lithuanian Language"). Another recent book on Lithuanian grammar is the second edition of "Review of Modern Lithuanian Grammar" by Edmund Remys, published by Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, Chicago, 2003.


The Grand Dictionary of the Lithuanian language, consisting of 20 tomes containing more than half a million headwords


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Lithuanian language
fact was puzzling to many linguists prior to the middle of the 19th century, but was later influential in the re-creation of the Proto Indo-European language. In any event, the history of the earlier relations between Baltic and Slavic languages and a more exact genesis of the affinity between the two groups remains in dispute.

Indo-European vocabulary
Lithuanian is considered one of the most conservative modern Indo-European languages. This conservativism becomes especially apparent when Lithuanian is compared to a Germanic or a Romance language, as languages of these groups have greatly simplified their inflectional systems or levelled out declension altogether. Slavic languages are, on the other hand, more similar to Lithuanian. Lithuanian retains cognates to many words found in classical languages, such as Sanskrit and Latin. These words are descended from Proto-Indo-European. A few examples are the following: • Lith. and Skt. sūnus (son) • Lith. and Skt. avis and Lat. ovis (sheep) • Lith. dūmas and Skt. dhumas and Lat. fumus (smoke) • Lith. antras and Skt. antaras (second, the other) • Lith. vilkas and Skt. vrkas and Lat. lupus (wolf) • Lith. ratas and Lat. rota (wheel) • Lith. senis and Lat. senex (an old man) • Lith. vyras and Lat. vir (a man) • Lith. angis and Lat. anguis (a snake in Latin, a species of snakes in Lithuanian) • Lith. linas and Lat. linum (flax, compare with English ’linen’) • Lith. ariu and Lat. aro (I plow) • Lith. jungiu and Lat. iungeo (I join) • Lith. gentys and Lat. gentes (tribes) • Lith. mėnesis and Lat. mensis and Skt masa (month) • Lith. dantys and Lat. dentes and Skt dantas (teeth) • Lith. naktys and Lat. noctes and Skt. naktam (nights, in Skt sg night is given) • Lith. sėdime and Lat. sedemus (we sit) This even extends to grammar, where for example Latin noun declensions ending in -um often correspond to Lithuanian -ų. Many of the words from this list share similarities with other Indo-European languages, including English. On the other hand, the numerous lexical and grammatical similarities between Baltic and Slavic languages suggest an affinity between these two language groups. However, there exist a number of Baltic (particularly Lithuanian) words, notably those that are similar to Sanskrit or Latin, which lack counterparts in Slavic languages. This

Loan words
In a 1934 book entitled Die Germanismen des Litauischen. Teil I: Die deutschen Lehnwörter im Litauischen, K. Alminauskis found 2,770 loan words, of which about 130 were of uncertain origin. The majority of the loan words were found to have been derived from the Polish, Belarussian, and German languages, with some evidence that these languages all acquired the words from contacts and trade with Prussia during the era of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[6] Loan words comprised about 20% of the vocabulary used in the first book printed in the Lithuanian language in 1547, Martynas Mažvydas’s Catechism.[7] The majority of loan words in the 20th century arrived from the Russian language.[8] Towards the end of the 20th century a number of English language words and expressions entered the spoken vernacular of city dwellers, especially the younger ones.[9] The Lithuanian government has an established language policy which encourages the development of equivalent vocabulary to replace loan words.[10] However, despite the government’s best efforts to avoid the use of loan words in the Lithuanian language, many English words have become accepted and are now included in Lithuanian language dictionaries. [11][12] In particular, words having to do with new technologies have permeated the Lithuanian vernacular, including such words as: • • monitorius (vaizduoklis) (computer monitor) • faksas (fax) • kompiuteris (computer) • failas (aplankas) (electronic file) It is estimated that the number of foreign words, particularly of a technical nature, that have been adapted to the Lithuanian language might reach 70% or more.[13] Other common foreign words have also been adopted by the Lithuanian language. Some of these include: • • taksi (taksis) (taxi)


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• pica (pizza) • alkoholis (alcohol) These words have been modified to suit the grammatical and phonetic requirements of the Lithuanian language, but their foreign roots are obvious.

Lithuanian language
enciklopedijų leidybos inst., 1999. pp. 497 - 498. ISBN 5-420-01433-5 [5] ^ Phonetic invariance and phonological stability: Lithuanian pitch accents Grzegorz Dogil & Gregor Möhler, 1998[1] [6] Ways of Germanisms into Lithuanian. N. Cepiene, Acta Baltico-Slavica, 2006 [7] Martynas Mažvydas’ Language. Zigmas Zinkevičius, 1996. Accessed October 26, 2007. [8] Slavic loanwords in the northern subdialect of the southern part of west high Lithuanian. V. Sakalauskiene, Acta Baltico-Slavica 2006. Accessed October 26, 2007. [9] The Anglicization of Lithuanian. Antanas Kilmas, Lituanus, Summer 1994. Accessed October 26, 2007. [10] State Language Policy Guidelines 2003–2008. Seimas of Lithuania, 2003. Accessed October 26, 2007. [11] English to Lithuanian online dictionary [12] LingvoSoft-Online-English-LithuanianDictionary|Linvozone English to Lithuanian online dictionary [13] Lithuanian Language discussion • Leonardas Dambriūnas, Antanas Klimas, William R. Schmalstieg, Beginner’s Lithuanian, Hippocrene Books, 1999, ISBN 0-7818-0678-X. Older editions (copyright 1966) called "Introduction to modern Lithuanian". • Remys, Edmund, Review of Modern Lithuanian Grammar, Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, Chicago, 2nd revised edition, 2003. • Klimas, Antanas. "Baltic and Slavic revisited". Lituanus vol. 19, no. 1, Spring 1973 . 73_1_02.htm. Retrieved on October 23 2007. • Zigmas Zinkevičius, "Lietuvių kalbos istorija" ("History of Lithuanian Language") Vol.1, Vilnius: Mokslas, 1984, ISBN 5-420-00102-0. • Remys, Edmund, General distinguishing features of various Indo-European languages and their relationship to Lithuanian, Indogermanische Forschungen, Berlin, New York, 2007.

• Lithuanian: lietuviškai (language) lietuvių (nationality) lietuvis (masculine), lietuvė (feminine) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hello (informally): labas Goodbye (informally): iki! Please: prašau Thank you: ačiū That one: tas (masculine), ta (feminine) How much (does it cost)?: kiek kainuoja? Yes: taip No: ne Sorry: atsiprašau I don’t understand: nesuprantu Do you speak English?: Kalbate angliškai? Where is ...?: Kur yra ...? Tea: arbata Coffee: kava Milk: pienas How much? : Kiek? Example : pavyzdys Examples : pavyzdžiai

See also
• Martynas Mažvydas • Lithuanian dictionaries • Samogitian language

[1] ^ Ethnologue report for language code:lit [2] Zinkevičius, Z. (1993). Rytų Lietuva praeityje ir dabar. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidykla. pp. 9. ISBN 5-420-01085-2. "...linguist generally accepted that Lithuanian language is the most archaic among live Indo-European languages..." [3] Lithuanian Language. Encyclopedia Britannica. [4] Lithuanian Language Encyclopedia (in Lithuanian), Vilnius: Mokslo ir


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Lithuanian language
• Lithuanian bilingual dictionaries • The Historical Grammar of Lithuanian language • Latvian and Lithuanian language with Japanese translation • Summer School of Lithuanian at Vilnius University • Lithuanian Out Loud - Lithuanian lessons in a podcast series • 2005 analysis of Indo-European lingustic relationships • French-Lithuanian dictionary free online 36000 entries • Lithuanian proverbs

External links
• Learning Lithuanian in an online Lithuanian school • Lithuanian linguistics • Ethnologue report for Lithuanian • Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian • Free English-Lithuanian traveler dictionary for print out • Lithuanian English Dictionary from Webster’s Online Dictionary - the Rosetta Edition • Online Searchable Dictionary - searchable • English-Lithuanian-German dictionaries and dialogues

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