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					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of Presidents of the United States

List of Presidents of the United States
twenty-fourth president. Of the individuals elected as president, four died in office of natural causes, one resigned, and four were assassinated. The first president was George Washington, who was inaugurated in 1789 after a unanimous Electoral College vote. William Henry Harrison spent the shortest time in office at 32 days. At over twelve years, Franklin D. Roosevelt spent the longest time in office, and is the only president to serve more than two terms. The current president is Barack Obama; he became president on January 20, 2009. The White House, the president’s home and office The President of the United States is the head of state and the head of government of the United States. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government as a whole, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States by influence and recognition. The president is also the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. armed forces. The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College (or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to any person). Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected to the office of the president more than twice.[1] Upon death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumes the office. This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as president following the ratification of the United States Constitution, which took effect in 1789. For American leaders before this ratification, see President of the Continental Congress. The list does not include any Acting Presidents under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. There have been forty-three people sworn into office, and forty-four presidencies, due to the fact that Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted chronologically as both the twenty-second and the

Presidents
• Parties None Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican

Notes
[1] The numerals indicate the consecutive time in office served by a single person. For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president (not the first and second). Gerald Ford assumed the presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon, serving out the remainder of what would have been Nixon’s second term. The fact that Ford was not voted into office does not affect the numbering, which makes him the 38th president. In addition, under this numbering Grover Cleveland is counted twice, having served non-consecutive terms. [2] ^ Died in office of natural causes. [3] ^ Resigned. [4] Former Democrat who ran for Vice President on Whig ticket. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841. [5] ^ Assassinated. [6] ^ Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson were, respectively, a Republican and a Democrat who ran on the National Union ticket in 1864.

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#[n
1]

List of Presidents of the United States
President Took office Left office March 4, 1797 Party

1

George Washing- April 30, ton 1789
[2][3][4][5]

No party

2

John Adams
[6][7][8][9]

March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801

Federalis

3

Thomas Jefferson March 4, [10][11][12][13] 1801

March 4, 1809

Democra Republic

4

James Madison
[14][15][16][17]

March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817

Democra Republic

5

James Monroe
[18][19][20][21]

March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825

Democra Republic

6

John Quincy Adams
[22][23][24][25]

March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829

Democra Republic National Republic

2

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7

List of Presidents of the United States
Andrew Jackson
[26][27][28][29]

March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837

Democra

8

Martin Van Buren
[30][31][32][33]

March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841

Democra

9

William Henry Harrison
[34][35][36][37]

March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841[n 2]

Whig

10

John Tyler
[38][39][40][41]

April 4, 1841

March 4, 1845

Whig No party
4]

11

James K. Polk
[42][43][44][45]

March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849

Democra

3

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12

List of Presidents of the United States
Zachary Taylor
[46][47][48][49]

March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850[n 2]

Whig

13

Millard Fillmore
[50][51][52][53]

July 9, 1850

March 4, 1853

Whig

14

Franklin Pierce
[54][55][56][57]

March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857

Democra

15

James Buchanan March 4, [58][59][60][61] 1857

March 4, 1861

Democra

16

Abraham Lincoln March 4, [62][63][64][65] 1861

April 15, 1865[n 5]

Republic National Union[n 6

17

Andrew Johnson
[66][67][68][69]

April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869

Democra National Union[n 6

4

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18

List of Presidents of the United States
Ulysses S. Grant March 4, [70][71][72][73] 1869 March 4, 1877

Republic

19

Rutherford B. Hayes
[74][75][76][77]

March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881

Republic

20

James A. Garfield March 4, [78][79][80][81] 1881

September Republic 19, 1881[n
5]

21

Chester A. Arthur
[82][83][84][85]

September March 4, 19, 1881 1885

Republic

22

Grover Cleveland March 4, [86][87][88][89] 1885

March 4, 1889

Democra

23

Benjamin Harris- March 4, on 1889
[90][91][92][93]

March 4, 1893

Republic

24

Grover Cleveland March 4, (2nd term) 1893
[86][87][88][89]

March 4, 1897

Democra

5

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25

List of Presidents of the United States
William McKinley
[94][95][96][97]

March 4, 1897

September Republic 14, 1901[n
5]

26

Theodore Roosevelt
[98][99][100][101]

September March 4, 14, 1901 1909

Republic

27

William Howard Taft
[102][103][104][105]

March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913

Republic

28

Woodrow Wilson March 4, [106][107][108][109] 1913

March 4, 1921

Democra

29

Warren G. Hard- March 4, ing 1921
[110][111][112][113]

August 2, 1923[n 2]

Republic

30

Calvin Coolidge
[114][115][116][117]

August 2, 1923

March 4, 1929

Republic

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31

List of Presidents of the United States
Herbert Hoover
[118][119][120][121]

March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933

Republic

32

Franklin D. Roosevelt
[122][123][124][125]

March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945[n 2]

Democra

33

Harry S. Truman April 12, [126][127][128][129] 1945

January 20, 1953

Democra

34

Dwight D. Eisen- January hower 20, 1953
[130][131][132][133]

January 20, 1961

Republic

35

John F. Kennedy
[134][135][136][137]

January 20, 1961

November Democra 22, 1963[n
5]

36

Lyndon B. Johnson
[138][139][140][141]

November January 22, 1963 20, 1969

Democra

7

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37

List of Presidents of the United States
Richard Nixon
[142][143][144][145]

January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974[n 3]

Republic

38

Gerald Ford
[146][147][148][149]

August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977

Republic

39

Jimmy Carter
[150][151][152][153]

January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981

Democra

40

Ronald Reagan
[154][155][156][157]

January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989

Republic

8

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41

List of Presidents of the United States
George H. W. Bush
[158][159][160][161]

January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993

Republic

42

Bill Clinton
[162][163][164][165]

January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001

Democra

43

George W. Bush
[166][167][168][169]

January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009

Republic

44

Barack Obama
[170][171][172]

January 20, 2009

Incumbent

Democra

See also
• List of educational institutions named after U.S. presidents • List of United States Presidents by military rank • List of Vice Presidents of the United States • Presidential $1 Coin Program • Timeline of Presidents of the United States

References
[1] "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/ exhibits/charters/ constitution_amendments_11-27.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-01. [2] The White House (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/georgewashington/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[3] "The First President: 1789–1797 George Washington "Father of his Country"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ washington_george.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [4] "George Washington – Independent Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/washington. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [5] "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [6] "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [7] "The Second President: 1797–1801 John Adams "Following in the Footsteps"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/adams_john.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [8] "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/adams. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [9] "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [10] "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/thomasjefferson/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [11] "The Third President: 1801–1809 Thomas Jefferson "The Renaissance Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ jefferson_thomas.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [12] "Thomas Jefferson – DemocraticRepublican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History.

List of Presidents of the United States
http://www.history.com/presidents/ jefferson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [13] "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [14] "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/jamesmadison/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [15] "The Fourth President: 1809–1817 James Madison "The Nation Builder"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/madison_james.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [16] "James Madison – DemocraticRepublican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ madison. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [17] "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [18] "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [19] "The Fifth President: 1817–1825 James Monroe "The Era of Good Feelings"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/monroe_james.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [20] "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ monroe. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [21] "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved on January 12, 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[22] "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/johnquincyadams/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [23] "The Sixth President: 1825–1829 John Quincy Adams "Born to Lead"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ adams_johnquincy.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [24] "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ johnqadams. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [25] "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [26] "Biography of Andew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/andrewjackson/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [27] "The Seventh President: 1829–1837 Andrew Jackson "Old Hickory"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/jackson_andrew.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [28] "Andrew Jackson – DemocraticRepublican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ jackson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [29] "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [30] "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/martinvanburen/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [31] "The Eighth President: 1837–1841 Martin Van Buren "The Red Fox"".

List of Presidents of the United States
American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ vanburen_martin.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [32] "Martin Van Buren – DemocraticRepublican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ vanburen. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [33] "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=8. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [34] "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/williamhenryharrison/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [35] "The Ninth President: 1841–1841 William Henry Harrison "Old Tippecanoe"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ harrison_william.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [36] "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/williamhenryharrison. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [37] "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=9. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [38] "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/johntyler/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [39] "The Tenth President: 1841–1845 John Tyler "His Accidency"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/tyler_john.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[40] "John Tyler – No Party – 10th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/tyler. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [41] "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [42] "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/jamespolk/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [43] "The Eleventh President: 1845–1849 James Knox Polk "The Dark Horse"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/polk_james.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [44] "James Polk – Democratic Party – 11th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/polk. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [45] "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [46] "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/zacharytaylor/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [47] "The Twelfth President: 1849–1850 Zachary Taylor "Old Rough-and-Ready"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/taylor_zachary.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [48] "Zachary Taylor – WHIG Party – 12th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/taylor. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [49] "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/

List of Presidents of the United States
president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [50] "Biography of Millard Fillmore". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/millardfillmore/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [51] "The Thirteenth President: 1850–1853 Millard Fillmore "Forgotten Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [52] "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/fillmore. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [53] "Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 – March 8, 1874)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=13. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [54] "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [55] "The Fourteenth President: 1853–1857 Franklin Pierce "Overwhelmed by Events"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/fillmore_millard.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [56] "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/pierce. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [57] "Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=14. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [58] "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/jamesbuchanan/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [59] "The Fifteenth President: 1857–1861 James Buchanan "An American Hero"". American Heritage. Forbes.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ buchanan_james.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [60] "James Buchanan – Democratic Party – 15th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/buchanan. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [61] "James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=15. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [62] "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [63] "The Sixteenth President: 1861–1865 Abraham Lincoln "The Great Emancipator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ lincoln_abraham.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [64] "Abraham Lincoln – Republic, National Union Party – 16th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ lincoln. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [65] "Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=16. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [66] "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/andrewjohnson/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [67] "The Seventeenth President: 1865–1869 Andrew Johnson "Between North and South"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/johnson_andrew.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [68] "Andrew Johnson – National Union Party – 17th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/

List of Presidents of the United States
presidents/andrewjohnson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [69] "Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=17. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [70] "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/ulyssessgrant/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [71] "The Eighteenth President: 1869–1877 Ulysses Simpson Grant "The Hero as Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/grant_ulysses.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [72] "Ulysses S. Grant – National Union Party – 18th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/grant. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [73] "Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=18. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [74] "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [75] "The Nineteenth President: 1877–1881 Rutherford Birchard Hayes "Striving For A Fresh Start"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ hayes_rutherford.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [76] "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/hayes. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [77] "Rutherford B. Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
president.asp?PresidentNumber=19. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [78] "Biography of James Garfield". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/jamesgarfield/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [79] "The Twentieth President: 1881–1881 James Abram Garfield "The Preacher"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [80] "James Garfield – Republican Party – 20th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/garfield. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [81] "James A. Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=20. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [82] "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/chesterarthur/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [83] "The Twenty-First President: 1881–1885 Chester Alan Arthur "The SelfReformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/garfield_james.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [84] "Chester A. Arthur – Republican Party – 21st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/arthur. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [85] "Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=21. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [86] ^ "Biography of Grover Cleveland". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/grovercleveland/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [87] ^ "The Twenty-Second President: 1885–1889 The Twenty-Fourth President: 1893–1897 Grover Cleveland

List of Presidents of the United States
"The Self-Reformer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ cleveland_grover.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [88] ^ "Grover Cleveland – Democratic Party – 22nd and 24th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ cleveland. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [89] ^ "Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=22. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [90] "Biography of Benjamin Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/benjaminharrison/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [91] "The Twenty-Third President: 1889–1893 Benjamin Harrison "Presidential Grandson"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ cleveland_grover.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [92] "William Henry Harrison – Whig Party – 23rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/benjaminharrison. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [93] "Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=23. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [94] "Biography of William McKinley". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/williammckinley/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [95] "The Twenty-Fifth President: 1897–1901 William McKinley "Bridge to a New Century"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ mckinley_william.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[96] "William McKinley – Republican Party – 25th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/mckinley. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [97] "William McKinley (January 29, 1843 – September 14, 1901)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=24. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [98] "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/theodoreroosevelt/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [99] "The Twenty-Sixth President: 1901–1909 Theodore Roosevelt "The Giant in the Bully Pulpit"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ roosevelt_theodore.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [100]Theodore Roosevelt – Republican, Bull " Moose Party – 26th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ teddyroosevelt. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [101]Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – " January 6, 1919)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=25. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [102]Biography of William Howard Taft". " Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/williamhowardtaft/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [103]The Twenty-Seventh President: " 1909–1913 William Howard Taft "Reluctant Leader"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/taft_william.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [104]William Howard Taft – Republican Party " – 27th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/taft. Retrieved on January 12 2009.

List of Presidents of the United States
[105]William Howard Taft (September 15, " 1857 – March 8, 1930)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=26. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [106]Biography of Woodrow Wilson". " Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/woodrowwilson/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [107]The Twenty-Eighth President: " 1913–1921 Woodrow Wilson "Prophet Without Honor"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ wilson_woodrow.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [108]Woodrow Wilson – Democratic Party – " 28th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/wilson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [109]Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – " February 3, 1924)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=27. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [110]Biography of Warren G. Harding". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/warrenharding/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [111]The Twenty-Ninth President: 1921–1923 " Warren Gamaliel Harding "Prophet Without Honor"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/harding_warren.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [112]Warren Harding – Republican Party – " 29th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/wilson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [113]Warren G. Harding (November 2, 1865 " – August 2, 1923)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=28. Retrieved on January 12, 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[114]Biography of Calvin Coolidge". " Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/calvincoolidge/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [115]The Thirtieth President: 1923–1929 " Calvin Coolidge "The New Englander"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/coolidge_calvin.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [116]Calvin Coolidge – Republican Party – " 30th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/wilson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [117]Calvin Coolidge (July 4, 1872 – January " 5, 1933)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=29. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [118]Biography of Herbert Hoover". " Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/herberthoover/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [119]The Thirty-First President: 1929–1933 " Herbert Clark Hoover "The Great Engineer"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/hoover_herbert.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [120]Herbert Hoover – Republican Party – " 31st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/wilson. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [121]Herbert Hoover (August 10, 1874 – " October 20, 1964)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=30. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [122]Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". " Whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/franklindroosevelt/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [123]The Thirty-Second President: " 1933–1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt "New Dealer and Global Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/

List of Presidents of the United States
people/presidents/ roosevelt_franklin.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [124]Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic " Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [125]Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 " – April 12, 1945)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=31. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [126]Biography of Harry S Truman". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/harrystruman/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [127]The Thirty-Third President: 1945–1953 " Harry S. Truman "The Buck Stopped Here"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/truman_harry.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [128]Harry S. Truman – Democratic Party – " 33rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/fdr. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [129]Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – " December 26, 1972)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=32. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [130]Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/dwightdeisenhower/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [131]The Thirty-Fourth President: 1953–1961 " Dwight David Eisenhower "I Like Ike"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ eisenhower_dwight.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [132]Dwight D. Eisenhower – Democratic " Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ eisenhower. Retrieved on January 12 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[133]Dwight D. Eisenhower (October 14, " 1890 – March 28, 1969)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=33. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [134]Biography of John F. Kennedy". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/johnfkennedy/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [135]The Thirty-Five President: 1961–1963 " John Fitzgerald Kennedy "Inspiring A Generation"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/kennedy_john.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [136]John F. Kennedy – Republican Party " Party – 35th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ kennedy. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [137]John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – " November 22, 1963)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=34. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [138]Biography of Lyndon B. Johnson". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/lyndonjohnson/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [139]The Thirty-Sixth President: 1963–1969 " Lyndon Baines Johnson "So Close To Greatness"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/johnson_lyndon.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [140]Lyndon B. Johnson – Democratic Party – " 36th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/kennedy. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [141]Lyndon B. Johnson (August 27, 1908 – " January 22, 1973)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=35. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [142]Richard M. Nixon". Whitehouse.gov. " March 12, 2007.

List of Presidents of the United States
http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/richardnixon/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [143]The Thirty-Seventh President: " 1969–1974 Richard Milhous Nixon "The Road to Watergate"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/nixon_richard.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [144]Richard Nixon – Republican Party – 37th " President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/nixon. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [145]Richard M. Nixon (January 9, 1913 – " April 22, 1994)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=36. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [146]Biography of Gerald R. Ford". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/geraldford/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [147]The Thirty-Eighth President: 1974–1977 " Gerald Rudolph Ford "A Time for Healing"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ford_gerald.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [148]Gerald Ford – Republican Party – 38th " President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/ford. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [149]Gerald R. Ford (July 14, 1913 – " December 26, 2006)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=37. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [150]Biography of Jimmy Carter". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/jimmycarter. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [151]The Thirty-Ninth President: 1977–1981 " James Earl Carter "Not a Politician"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/ford_gerald.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[152]Jimmy Carter – Democratic Party – 39th " President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/ford. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [153]Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924 – )". " American Presidents: Life Portrait. CSPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=38. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [154]Biography of Ronald Reagan". " Whitehouse.gov. June 25, 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/ronaldreagan/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [155]The Fortieth President: 1981–1989 " Ronald Wilson Reagan "The Great Communicator"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/reagan_ronald.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [156]Ronald Reagan – Republican Party – " 40th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/ford. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [157]Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June " 5, 2004)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=39. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [158]Biography of George Herbert Walker " Bush". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/georgehwbush/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [159]The Forty-First President: 1989–1993 " George Herbert Walker Bush "The Last Cold Warrior"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/bush_george_sr.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [160]George H. W. Bush – Republican Party – " 41st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/georgebush. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [161]George Bush (June 12, 1924 – )". " American Presidents: Life Portrait. CSPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/

List of Presidents of the United States
president.asp?PresidentNumber=40. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [162]Biography of William J. Clinton". " Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/williamjclinton/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [163]The Forty-Second President: 1993–2001 " William Jefferson Clinton "Prosperity And Turmoil"". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/clinton_bill.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [164]Bill Clinton – Democratic Party – 42nd " President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/billclinton. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [165]Bill Clinton (August 19, 1946 – )". " American Presidents: Life Portrait. CSPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=41. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [166]Biography of President George W. " Bush". Whitehouse.gov. February 25, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/ presidents/georgewbush/. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [167]The Forty-Third President: " 2001–present George Walker Bush". American Heritage. Forbes. http://www.americanheritage.com/ people/presidents/bush_george_jr.shtml. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [168]George W. Bush – Republican Party – " 43rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/georgewbush. Retrieved on January 12 2009. [169]George W. Bush (July 6, 1946 – )". " American Presidents: Life Portrait. CSPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=42. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. [170]President Barack Obama". " Whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/ administration/president_obama/. Retrieved on January 20 2009. [171]Barack Obama – Democratic Party – " 44th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/ presidents/obama. Retrieved on January 12 2009.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[172]Barack Obama (August 4, 1961 – )". " American Presidents: Life Portrait. CSPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/ presidents/ president.asp?PresidentNumber=43. Retrieved on January 12, 2009. • • • •

List of Presidents of the United States
American Heritage People: The Presidents American Presidents – History Channel American Presidents: Life Portraits The Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies – Grand Valley State University • POTUS: Presidents of the United States – Internet Public Library

External links
• Whitehouse.gov: The Presidents

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