Putra Lrt Marketing Objectives and Strategies by reb13440

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                                                                              Consulting Engineers
                                                                              and Planners A/S

                                                                              NIRAS
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                                                                              Reg. No. 37295728 Denmark
                                                                              F.R.I, FIDIC
CATALOGUE OF PROGRAMS FOR REDUCING ENERGY
CONSUMPTION IN THE MALAYSIAN TRANSPORTATION
SECTOR




A report prepared by
Dr Moazzem Hossain,
Dr Scott Kennedy and
Ms Anne Christoffersen


under the


Malaysian-Danish Environmental Cooperation Programme

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Component

9 May 2006




The views expressed in this document, which has been reproduced without
formal editing, are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the
views of the Government of Malaysia nor DANIDA.




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1.    Background
      In the recently published 9MP, much attention has been paid to urban trans-
      port. The development of urban transport will focus on encouraging a modal
      shift from private transport to public transport. The target is to achieve a
      modal target 30% for public transport in urban area by year 2010.1
      Also the government recently stated that the fuel subsidy savings, to a high
      extent, are to be allocated to enhancement of the public transport system in
      Malaysia.

      This catalogue should be considered as a review of potential programmes
      that cover both the energy efficiency aspect (by increased use of public
      transport) and the emergence of renewable fuels in the Malaysian road-based
      transport sector. In the formulation of the programmes it has been of great
      importance that the proposed programmes are realistic both from a technical
      point of view as well as viable within a Malaysian context.

1.1   Composition
      The catalogue is composed to reflect the authors‟ conception of the biggest
      improvement potentials (in other words, the „lowest-hanging fruits‟). Some
      of the suggested programmes are correlated to one another, others can be
      seen as „partial‟ improvement policies. The six programmes are described
      briefly within this document in terms of the programme‟s objectives, ap-
      proach and – where possible - estimated costs related to its completion. The
      programmes are attached in more detailed versions as appendices to this
      document:

           Programme I – Increased Use of Public Transport

           Programme II - Development of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

           Programme III - Increased Use of Alternative Fuel Technologies

           Programme IV - Strategic Improvement of Vehicle Efficiency

           Programme V - Road to Rail Passenger Transport along North-South
            Corridor

           Programme VI - Improvement of Pedestrian Network

      It should be noted that the cost estimates stated in the proposed pro-
      grammes are made on an overall basis, and thus should be subject to a
      more detailed elaboration.




      1
        During the last 20 years the modal share of public transport in urban area declined
      from 34% to 16%.


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2.    Programme I – Increased Use of Public Transport
2.1   Objectives
      The purpose of the programme is to increase the modal share of public
      transport to 30% and 50% by 2010 and 2020 respectively; primarily in the
      large urban centers (Klang Valley, Penang and Johor Bahru) to maximize
      energy saving potentials.

      By this, the increasing problems related to urban congestion, air pollution
      and safety problems etc. can be alleviated; and a significant reduction in fuel
      consumption caused by the rapidly growing car population can be obtained.

      The objectives can be reached in many different ways; this programme is set
      within a scope of only two systems for an intermediate time schedule:

           Emphasis on establishing a state-of-the-art Bus Rapid Transport (BRT)2
            system for most cities and on extending and integrating existing LRT
            and commuter rail within the Klang Valley.

           Development of a pedestrian network in integration with the BRT and
            rail-based system to support transit user accessibility




      Figure 1: Example of BRT system and pedestrian facilities (Curitiba, Brazil)


2.2   Approach and Estimates
      The following approach is recommended to ensure an integrated and effi-
      cient public transport system in the urban areas:

      1 – Institutional and Regulatory Body Strengthening

           Formation of an overall Regional Transport Authority (RTA) to regulate
            and coordinate planning, operation and monitoring of public transport.
            Establishment of RTA is to be seen as a precondition for an orderly and
            sustainable development of the public transport system in the urban re-
            gions as it will work as a think tank for region‟s transport development.
      2
       A BRT system is in this context defined as a transport system with a service quality
      and reliability similar to the existing PUTRA LRT system


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           Improvement of planners‟ understanding of urban travel demand pat-
            terns by technical development of an origin-destination matrix for vari-
            ous urban regions. By this the decision making for the development of
            future urban transport initiatives will also be improved.

      It is assessed that the above steps can be realized within a budget of ap-
      proximately RM 100 mill.

      2a – Implementation (Short Term)

           Enhancement of operational coordination among different public trans-
            port operators by installing intelligent transport system (ITS) in the lar-
            ger urban areas (e.g. single ticketing, linking timed transfer of trips, real
            time public transport information system, etc.). Installation of ITS is
            rather easily implemented as this is a development of an existing infra-
            structure.

           Improvement of physical linkages between transport modes (e.g. cov-
            ered/guided walkways, park and ride facilities, bus stops integration and
            beautification) to encourage the use of the existing inter-modal terminals
            in the urban areas.

      The short term step is believed to be reached with a budget of approximately
      RM 300 mill. (focusing on the three largest urban regions).

      2b – Implementation (Intermediate Term)

           Development of a state-of-the-art Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system in
            the larger urban areas. A satisfying service would require a necessary
            range of BRT lines to be approx. 1,000 km. BRT are to be planned and
            integrated with existing transport systems (e.g. LRT and commuter rail
            within Klang Valley); this can be ensured when it is managed by RTA.

           Development of urban pedestrian path network to support the transit user
            accessibility (for example enhancement of sidewalk network within all
            LRT/BRT stops, design of „walking routes‟ to improve connectivity in
            high density urban areas,)

      The development of the BRT infrastructure can be reached with a budget of
      RM 10 bill (at a cost of RM 10 mill./km). Enhancement of pedestrian facili-
      ties is to be implemented within a budget of approximately RM 1 bill.

3.    Programme II – Development of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)
3.1   Objectives
      The purpose of the second programme is to improve the traffic flow by in-
      creasing the road network capacity and operating speed by a traffic man-
      agement (optimised traffic signal operation, ramp metering etc.).




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      Through ITS-assisted traffic management, the increasing problems related to
      urban congestion, air pollution and safety problems etc. can be alleviated;
      and a significant reduction in fuel consumption caused by the rapidly grow-
      ing car population can be obtained.

      The programme is set within an intermediate time schedule for the larger
      urban areas (Klang Valley, Penang and Johor Bahru):

           Emphasis of development of national ITS policy and guidelines to en-
            sure intra-regional as well as inter-regional operation planning and coor-
            dination

           Development of human resources in traffic management and ITS
            through collaboration between transport authorities and local universities

3.2   Approach and Estimates

      Evaluation of ITS in Malaysia
           Evaluation of existing ITS operation and traffic management in Klang
            Valley to assess the installed technologies, the effectiveness of data ac-
            quisition, storage and communication technology. The evaluation may
            be followed by a feasibility study of ITS installation needs in other large
            cities like Penang and JB

           Establishing ITS policy and Standards through a national committee
            with members from RTA‟s, highway authorities, operators, universities
            and industries. On basis of the evaluation, the committee will formulate
            and prepare a national ITS architecture, guidelines and standards
      These initiatives would be implemented with a budget of approx. RM 3 mill.

      Development of ITS in Malaysia
           On basis of the national ITS policy, ITS installations are to be targeted
            for Penang and JB along with the installation of missing pieces in KL.
            ITS should be implemented in larger urban regions within five years
           involvement of local universities and industries from first phase of in-
            stallation to promote human resource and industrial development in ITS
            sector. Examples for such research and development are vehicle track-
            ing, traffic call centers, sensors. This will ensure cheaper and more read-
            ily available system in subsequent installations
           ITS application in signal operation, ramp metering, dynamic route guid-
            ance to drivers, prompt incident detection and management, and real
            time route-based information to travellers can improve traffic flow and
            save up to 11% of fuel consumption (experience in Japan).




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           For the commercial vehicles and trucks, vehicle sensors and control
            technology to enable automatic cruise control can be installed. An ap-
            propriate speed/acceleration pattern monitored through such on-board
            units have proved to be able to reduce fuel consumption by 3-6%
      It is estimated that the development of ITS in 10 largest Malaysian cities can
      be implemented within a budget of approx. RM 500 mill.


4.    Programme III – Increased Use of Alternative Fuel Technologies
4.1   Objectives
      The programme falls in line with the recently launched National Biofuel
      Policy; its purpose is to diversify the fuel consumption by introducing alter-
      native renewable fuels.3

      Three fuel technologies are introduced, each achieving different percentage
      shares of the total fuel consumption in the road transport sector by the year
      2020 by targeting specific segments in the sector:
           Bio-diesel – introduced in blends of palm diesel and fossil diesel. The
            target segment will be heavy-duty vehicles, followed by introduction in
            light-duty vehicles (10% of total diesel consumption)

           Bio-ethanol – introduced in low-percentage blends with fossil petrol.
            The feedstock for the bio-ethanol should be empty fruit bunches from
            the oil palm industry (5% of total petrol consumption)

           Natural Gas – concentrating primarily for fleets following specific routes
            in high-density areas (e.g. buses and taxis) due to infrastructural limita-
            tions

      In the long run the introduction of alternative fuels will reduce the need to
      consume an equivalent amount of the fossil fuels. This will benefit the bal-
      ance of trade and conserve foreign exchange for the country.

4.2   Approach and Estimates

      1 – Consensus Building
           Establishment of a network with relevant key institutions (MPOB,
            Petronas (for NGV), car manufacturers, relevant authorities responsible
            for defining and implementing fuel standards/issuing operation licenses)
            ensuring unanimity for the overall objective and long-run purpose of the
            specific fuel technology.

      3
       The National Policy in Biofuel only focuses on the prevalence of the so-called Envo
      Diesel, developed by MPOB, a fuel blend made from 95% fossil diesel and 5% proc-
      essed palm oil. Thus this is not a „traditional‟ biodiesel, which is a fuel blend of fossil
      diesel and methyl esters derived from, for instance, palm oil.


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      2 – Formulation of Targets and Implementation of Fuel Standards
           Establish targets for progressive increase of the three alternative fuels in
            fuel mix through 2020

           Develop fuel standards and ensure the long-run purpose of the specific
            fuel technology. Develop differentiated tax structures (e.g. implementa-
            tion of road tax reduction schemes)

      3 – Encourage use of alternative fuels
           Increase awareness of alternative fuels among general public as well as
            companies to generate demand for the alternative fuels (e.g. through
            marketing campaigns)

           Incentives for enhancing the use of bio-fuel (e.g. cooperation with car
            industries to extend guarantees on vehicle kits)

      It is estimated that costs for the promotion of alternative fuel technologies,
      i.e. expenditures for R&D, development of infrastructure, test driving of
      vehicles etc.) can be done within a budget of RM 50 mill.


5.    Programme IV – Strategic Improvement of Vehicle Efficiency
5.1   Objectives
      This programme focuses on strategic improvements of the average fuel effi-
      ciency across the entire vehicle fleet. This can be done by establishing fuel
      efficiency standards disaggregated by vehicle class, by promoting high effi-
      ciency vehicle technologies and to raise awareness among the general public
      about the benefits of high efficiency vehicle technologies.

      In the past, as petrol price was relatively cheap, there had been little, if any,
      improvement in fuel efficiency among locally manufactured vehicles. In
      addition, there was little demand for higher efficiency vehicles among the
      Malaysian public.


      The trend towards larger and more powerful vehicles (as incomes rise),
      combined with the increasing size of the fleet, will further strain the supply
      of fossil-based transport fuels.




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      Figure 2: Diagram of fuel input-output in a traditional vehicle engine showing the
      huge potential
      As the potential improvements in existing well-known technologies is huge,
      the primarily focus of the programme is on gradual improvement in average
      fleet efficiency for all vehicle categories (both private and heavy duty trans-
      port). A secondary focus will be on promotion and awareness raising about
      new high efficiency vehicle technologies such as:
           Diesel engines for private cars
           Hybrid Electric Vehicles (combination of combustion engine and elec-
            tric motor and battery. Potential reduction of fuel consumption by 60%
            (at maximum)
           Other fuel-saving technologies (e.g. Low-resistance Tyres, Low-heat
            Gain Glazing, etc.)


5.2   Approach
      1 – Initial Analyses
      Relevant stakeholders (Ministry of Transport, car industry etc.) are brought
      together and establish fuel efficiency standards for various vehicle classes:
           Study international experiences on fuel standards
           Determine current and forecasted fuel-efficiency of vehicles according
            to class (information on realistic driving cycles, technological change)
           Cost-benefit analysis for implementation of new standards over different
            scenarios (including fuel savings, increased production costs, administra-
            tive costs, etc.)
           Formulate standards and testing procedures, enforcement mechanisms,
            roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders




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      2 – Promotion of High Efficiency and Fuel-Saving Vehicle Technologies
           Exhibitions to be held in the larger urban areas on high efficiency vehi-
            cles with participation from local and foreign car manufacturers
           Establish tax incentive schemes for high efficiency vehicle technologies
            (this may also include automotive parts and accessories such as tyres, air
            conditioning, window glazing, etc.)

      It is expected that these strategic initiatives can be held within a budget of
      RM 2 mill.

6.    Programme V – Rail Passenger Transport along N-S Corridor
6.1   Objectives
      The dominant form of passenger and freight transport along the north-south
      corridor is by road. An improvement of the capacity and service quality of
      the rail connection along this route has potential for significant energy sav-
      ings. The focus of the programme is the Kuala Lumpur – Singapore route for
      passenger service currently provided by KTM Bhd, which has the most
      number of passengers for inter-city service route.

      The purpose of the programme is to encourage a higher use of rail transport
      for intercity passenger travel and hereby reducing the energy consumed per
      person-km travelled.

6.2   Approach
      The programme comes in 2 stages: a campaign to raise people‟s awareness
      of the rail as an alternative to road, followed up by proposals for improve-
      ment plans to attract more passengers.

      1 – Identification Phase
           Consultation of relevant parties to determine the following aspects: A
            detailed analysis of both existing and potential users‟ perception of inter-
            city travel, including essential infrastructure and service improvements
            based on passenger‟s preferences; a definition of target population for
            the programme

      The identification phase can be completed within a budget of RM 1 mill.

      2 – Master Plan
           The identification phase above is to be followed up by a master plan for
            the line section: formulation of targets (e.g. a passenger increase of 25%
            by year 2015); service improvements (e.g. increase speed, fewer stops),
            higher comfort (new rolling stock); infrastructure Improvement (track
            alignment, signalling system, train control systems); integration with
            road and air transport facilities




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      Preparation of master plan for the line section in question is estimated to be
      completed within a budget of RM 8 mill.

      3 – Implementation and Promotion
           Obviously, upgrading a rail section is connected with very high invest-
            ment needs; thus investments must be allocated from the government,
            eventually in cooperation with private partnership.

           The physical upgrading of the line section should be followed up by
            well-organized promotion campaigns based on information obtained
            during Step 1: design of promotional material for various media; deter-
            mination of discounts/promotions etc.

      The costs for the physical upgrading of the line section depends on various
      parameters (such as technical equipment, service etc.) and must be investi-
      gated in further detail before any cost estimate can be determined.


7.    Programme VI – Improvement of Pedestrian Network
7.1   Objective
      The main objective of this programme is to reduce the number of intra-city
      trips by private cars and to decrease traffic congestion by enhancing intra-
      city pedestrian connectivity through improved pedestrian infrastructure and
      priority.

      The potential is huge for transferring the short intra-city trips in the larger
      cities from private transport to other modes. The potential is relatively easily
      obtainable by improving the conditions for pedestrians (in Western countries
      up to 1/3 of short intra-city trips (< 3 km) in larger urban areas are made by
      foot or bicycles).




      Figure 3: Example of pedestrian network




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      The programme focuses on the following areas: improve pedestrian infra-
      structure network (sidewalks, covered walkways) and implementation of
      pedestrian priority among all stakeholders responsible for the planning and
      development of high-density urban areas.

7.2   Approach
      1 – Formulation of Pedestrian Policy
            Definition of targets and strategies for the development of the pedes-
             trian infrastructure in larger cities. National guidelines and standards
             should be designed.

      2 – Development of Pedestrian Network
            Enhance an attractive and continued sidewalk network within a radius
             of 300 m of all LRT stops in Kuala Lumpur (for example by widening
             sidewalks, buffers between sidewalk and road, erecting a shaded cover,
             planting trees).
            Develop sidewalk network within 100 m radius of all major bus stops in
             KL, Penang, and JB (including upgrading of existing waiting areas, e.g.
             covered waiting/seating area)
            Improve overall connectivity by planning “walking routes” through
             high density urban areas as well as commercial areas, making it easy to
             access multiple services by foot

            Emphasize pedestrian priority by maintaining relatively narrow road-
             ways, low-speed traffic, and sufficient number of zebra crossings in
             high-density commercial zones

      The physical development of a pedestrian network depends on various pa-
      rameters (such as technical equipment, service) and must be investigated in
      further detail before any cost estimate can be determined.




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Appendix A – Programme I

 Programme                     Increased use of public transport
 Programme No.                 1
 Sector                        Transport
 Sub-Sector                    Public Transport, Traffic Management, Urban Infrastructure, Land-use planning.


 Period                        5 years (2006 – 2010)
 Estimated Cost                       1. Short-term: within 1 year: approx. RM 200-300 mill.
                                      2. Intermediate: within 5 years: approx. RM 11 bill.


 Objectives                          To increase the modal share of public transport throughout Malaysia to 30%
                                      and 50% by 2010 and 2020 respectively, through enhancements in infrastruc-
                                      ture and service quality for bus rapid transit and rail based public transport sys-
                                      tems
                                     Significant reduction in fuel consumption by rapidly growing car population
                                      through implementation of above modal shift
                                     To alleviate/control increasing urban congestion, air pollution and safety prob-
                                      lem through promotion of environment friendly public transport systems


 Background /                  The transportation sector was the biggest energy user in 2003, consuming approxi-
 Rationale                     mately 41% of the nation‟s energy demand; an increase of 9% from the previous
                               year. The sector‟s share of petroleum consumption was even higher at 67% of all
                               petroleum products. Rising demand compounded with fuel subsidies and a sustained
                               increase in oil prices have set the transport sector on an unsustainable course posing
                               a threat to national energy security.

                               To reduce energy consumption in urban transport sector, without hindering eco-
                               nomic growth and quality of life, a sustainable urban transport system is required to
                               be developed. Sustainability should be gauged from economy, energy consumption
                               level, environment and safety point of views. Newly emerging bus rapid transit
                               (BRT) based system can offer energy efficient mass urban travel at an affordable
                               price both in terms of implementation and subsequent operations.

                               A comparison of the energy consumption of various modes shows significant poten-
                               tial of energy savings by increasing the modal share of public transport:

                                     Road transport: approx. 3MJ/person-km in a single occupancy car
                                      (~0.09l/person-km)
                                     Bus transport: approx. 0.5MJ/person-km for a bus with 20 passengers
                                      (~0.014 l/person-km)
                                     Rail based urban transport (e.g. LRT): approx. 1/3 of bus transport


 Baseline                            Rapid Growth in Vehicle Stock: A vehicle stock size of 12,819,248 (48% of
                                      them are motorcycles) at the end of 2003 with a compounded growth rate of
                                      around 9%
                                     Large Proportion of Cars: About 5.5 million cars, approximately 75% of them
                                      in urban areas




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                                     High share of Private Transport: Modal split of approx. 86% car based and
                                      14% public transport based in urban areas
                                     High Transport Demand: Yearly 4,667 million car trips in urban areas (Popula-
                                      tion>10,000) resulting approx. 79,339 million veh-km of travel and about 9550
                                      million litres of fuel consumption


 Scope                         The objectives can be reach in many different ways; this programme is set within a
                               scope of only two systems which within a intermediate time schedule makes the
                               target reachable in an efficient way:
                                     Emphasis on establishing a state-of-the-art Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) systems
                                      for most cities and on extending and integrating existing LRT and commuter
                                      rail within Klang Valley. A BRT system is in this context defined as a transpor-
                                      tation system with a service quality and reliability similar to the existing PU-
                                      TRA LRT system available to most of the urban neighborhoods in Malaysia
                                     Developing a pedestrian network in integration with the BRT and rail based
                                      system to support transit user accessibility
                                     Focus initially on large urban centers such as Klang Valley, Penang and Johor
                                      Bharu to maximize energy savings


 Approach &                    The following approach is being recommended to ensure an integrated and efficient
 Methodology                   public transport system in the urban areas:
                               Step 1 – Institutional and Regulatory body Strengthening
                                      a.    Formation of an overall Regional Transport Authority (RTA) with respon-
                                            sibility to regulate and coordinate planning, operation, and monitoring of
                                            public transport (Phase I covering Klang Valley (eventually also Penang
                                            and JB). Establishment of RTA is to be seen as a precondition for an or-
                                            derly and sustainable development of the public transport system in the re-
                                            spective urban regions as it will work as a think tank for region‟s transport
                                            development, and thus this should be established as early as possible.
                                            The RTA should consist of representatives from relevant authorities (both
                                            ministry and all local Majlis (MoT, MEWC, EC) and from the existing op-
                                            erators within the respective regions (e.g. Klang Valley that would be ur-
                                            ban rail operators KTMB< KTM Komuter>, Rapid KL <PUTRA LRT,
                                            STAR LRT>, KL Monorail and ERL (KLIA express rail link), urban bus
                                            operator (Rapid KL and others). It can have a governing body (including
                                            the region‟s parliament members or one of them nominated by PM) and
                                            executive body setup (with transport professionals and managers). Scope of
                                            RTA may include long/intermediate/short range transport planning; sug-
                                            gesting transport infrastructure needs; contracting and implementation of
                                            transit operation and collection concessions; setting and monitoring trans-
                                            port service standards; continued research and development.
                                            RTA infrastructure needs: Can start in a refurbished vacant government
                                            building or in a rented place initially. Later on its physical facility needs
                                            can be overlapped/integrated with the simultaneous development of ITS
                                            based Traffic Management Center (TMC). But as a planning body it would
                                            require computer and relevant software facilities in addition to the TMC fa-
                                            cilities. Also RTA should have a plan to develop required human resources
                                            for its capacity building. Initial installation cost might include furnishing,
                                            computers, data communication devices, software and monitoring logistics.
                                            First step could be the formation of a governing body following the enact-
                                            ment of supportive bill in Parliament. The governing body will appoint



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                                            chief and deputy chief executives as a start of the field installation process.
                                            The executives can then give the shape of RTA organization and acquire
                                            the required tools and accessories.
                                            Budget: RM 45 mill. for Klang Valley (RM 90 mill. for all three regions)
                                      b.    Development of an origin-destination matrix for various urban regions (10
                                            larger Malaysian cities can be targeted for the first phase). This technical
                                            development would improve planners‟ understanding of urban travel de-
                                            mand pattern and by that improve decision support in the development of
                                            future urban transport initiatives.
                                            The work should be managed by the above mentioned RTA with assistance
                                            from local universities and transport consultants.
                                            Budget: RM 2.5 mill for Klang Valley (RM 10 mill for 10 largest urban re-
                                            gions)


                               Step 2a – Implementation of Improvements – Short Term
                                      a.    Operational coordination among different public transport operators should
                                            be enhanced by installing intelligent transport system in the larger urban
                                            areas (e.g. single ticketing, linking timed transfer of trips using „Automated
                                            Vehicle Location System‟ (AVLS is already installed in KL) assisted con-
                                            trol, real time public transport information system for general public access
                                            and operation by the operator, etc.)
                                            The installation of ITS is rather easily implemented as this is a develop-
                                            ment of an existing infrastructure making benefits from this rather easily
                                            obtainable. Thus installation of ITS is recommended to be implemented in
                                            a short time horizon and to be managed by the RTA.
                                            RTA will bring together all the public transport operators in the same plat-
                                            form for implementing a single ticketing, integrated operation and linked
                                            timed transfer of passengers among different transit operators/lines. For
                                            Klang Valley(KV) it would be utilization of existing IT IS project and other
                                            electronic data generated by the electronic ticketing system. However, new
                                            addition of AVLS and automated passenger counting (APC) devices may
                                            be necessary even in KV in order to arrive at an advanced public transport
                                            system(APTS) for the region. But for the other two regions in the initial
                                            phase i.e. Penang, JB, a sizable investment is necessary as the ITS hard-
                                            ware installation for these cities has not been started yet. Only cost-
                                            effective ITS installation should be made in these regions based on the ex-
                                            periences of KV. Also some of the hardware and communication system
                                            are in overlap with the ITS elements for general road traffic. The specific
                                            ITS needs for APTS are GPS/sensor/radar based AVLS system for
                                            bus/train, APC units for bus/train, data communication system and the
                                            software at APTS section of TMC for analyzing the acquired data and pro-
                                            ducing output suitable for operation monitoring and action plans for opera-
                                            tors.
                                            Budget: RM 100-200 mill.[KV<10 – 40 mill>; Penang & JB each <40-80
                                            mill>]
                                      b.    Encourage the use of the existing inter-modal terminals in the larger urban
                                            areas by improving physical linkages between the transport modes (e.g.
                                            covered/guided walkways, park and ride facilities, bus stops integration
                                            and beautification, etc.).
                                            The improvements mentioned are assessed to be easily implementable
                                            through cooperation between the RTA and road department /or local au-
                                            thorities.



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                                            Budget: RM 100-200 mill. For three regions.
                               Step 2b – Implementation of Improvements – Intermediate Term
                                      a.    Development of a state-of-the-art Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system in the
                                            larger urban areas. Compared to LRT the BRT holds obvious benefits:
                                                  20 km of BRT lines equals cost of 1 km of elevated LRT
                                                  Higher capacity than LRT system (experienced in Latin American cit-
                                                   ies)
                                                  Cost recovery possible with BRT, whereas very difficult with LRT
                                                  High-efficiency and/or alternative fuel technology readily available for
                                                   BRT (e.g. HEV, fuel cells, biodiesel, NGV, etc.)
                                            A BRT system requires dedicated infrastructure, but the system can be
                                            managed in a flexible way, so that separate bus lanes outside peak hours
                                            also can be serving conventional buses and taxis (possible also private ve-
                                            hicles). In this way implementing BRT also would have positive influence
                                            on the growing congestions faced in the urban areas.
                                            A satisfying service would require a necessary range of BRT lines to be
                                            approx. 1,000 km in as many cities of Malaysia as possible on the basis of
                                            some set guidelines over 9th MP period. It is important that the BRT are be-
                                            ing planned and integrated with existing transport systems (e.g. LRT and
                                            commuter rail within Klang Valley); this could be ensured when managed
                                            by the RTA. As the implementation of BRT requires construction works,
                                            this should be coordinated together with road department /or local authori-
                                            ties as appropriate for a certain location. Because the regional implementa-
                                            tion may extend over jurisdictions of local Majlis, Highway authority and
                                            private road concessionaire. RTA will also administer the bidding process
                                            for award of operation and fare collection concession; set the bus technol-
                                            ogy/capacity/efficiency standards for the concessionaire for acquiring the
                                            right fleet. It may also set an action plan/incentives for upgrad-
                                            ing/converting the existing bus fleets to BRT fleet standard and thus inte-
                                            grating the existing operators with BRT initiatives. Independent fare collec-
                                            tion concessionaire like the car parking concessionaire would be responsi-
                                            ble for day-to-day fare collection and deposition in bank. Bus operators
                                            might be compensated against the minimum Bus-km of travel per bus at a
                                            mutually agreed rate subject to running of the buses meeting certain stan-
                                            dards set by RTA. RTA will only concentrate on further improvement and
                                            monitoring of the services.
                                            BRT can be implemented within a 1 to 3 years time period.
                                            Budget: RM 10 bill. For 1000km @ RM10mill/Km


                                      b.     Development of urban pedestrian path network to support the transit user
                                             accessibility. The use of modal shifts can be encouraged by following im-
                                             provements:
                                                  Enhance sidewalk network within all LRT/BRT stops in those cities.
                                                   This may include widening sidewalk, creating a buffer between side-
                                                   walk and the road, erecting a shaded covering or trees for shading, and
                                                   ensuring continuity of walkway for comfortable and safe accessibility
                                                   between/among transit systems, neighborhood and office/commercial
                                                   areas
                                                  Establishment of an overall network to improve connectivity by design
                                                   “walking routes” through high density urban areas (for example, in



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                                                   KL it should be easy and convenient to walk from Petaling Street to
                                                   Central Market, to Masjid Jamek, to Dataran Merdaka)
                                                  Improve pedestrian facilities in commercial areas of satellite town-
                                                   ships. Even if public transport is not accessible, commuters, shoppers,
                                                   etc. should be able to leave private vehicles in one location and access
                                                   multiple services by foot (e.g. banking, restaurants, offices, shopping,
                                                   etc.)
                                                  Pedestrian priority should be emphasized by maintaining low-speed
                                                   traffic, and sufficient pelican/zebra crossings in high-density commer-
                                                   cial zones. Pedestrian flyovers should be avoided except when abso-
                                                   lutely necessary as the existing ones failed to attract mass users
                                             The initiatives above would require formulation of a „pedestrian strategy‟
                                             for the relevant cities, logically facilitated by the RTA in close cooperation
                                             with relevant road authorities, including the one responsible for road traffic
                                             acts, and public safety. RTA will plan the pedestrian network with the
                                             branches of network radiating from the transit lines/stops and spreading
                                             well inside the residential/commercial/industrial neighborhoods. While
                                             RTA will administer the plan and funding the field implementation will be
                                             carried out by Highway authority or local Majlis based on the location.
                                             It would be realistic to implement a well-developed pedestrian network in
                                             major cities in an intermediate term of 5 years within a budget of approx.
                                             RM 1 bill.


 Milestones                           National Milestones in modal split between private and public transport
                                           80:20 by 2007  Saves about 6371 mill car-km travel
                                           70:30 by 2010  Saves about 25348 mill car-km travel
                                           50:50 by 2020  Saves about 792211 mill car-km travel
                                      Formation of Regional Transportation Authorities (RTAs) (2006)
                                      Development of travel demand patterns (O-D) matrix for 10 cities. Transport
                                       authority and local universities will take the initiatives (2006-2007)
                                      Installation of ITS in major cities (2006-2007)
                                      Improvement of existing physical linkages between modes (2006-2007)
                                      Feasibility study for BRT in major cities completed (2007)
                                      Establishment of 1,000 km lines for BRT (2007-2010)
                                      Pedestrian network in major cities (within 2010)


 Final Output/                 1.     Establishment of an overall Transport Body to ensure a coordinated planning of
                                      the public transport in the larger cities. Capacity building in relevant authorities
 Deliverable(s)
                                      through establishment of planning units within existing administrations
                               2.     Improvement of the technical decision supportive basis by analysis of travel
                                      demand patterns
                               3.     Re-establishment of the general reliability of the public transport system in the
                                      country
                               4.     Significant savings in transport sector and national petroleum fuel consumption.




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Appendix B – Programme II

 Programme                      Traffic flow improvement and management by Intelligent Transport System
                                (ITS)
 Programme No.                  2
 Sector                         Transport
 Sub-Sector                     Urban and regional transport, Intelligent transport system, Urban Infrastructure,
                                Urban transport planning


 Period                         5 years (2006 – 2010)
 Estimated Cost                 Short term (within 1 year): RM 3 mill.
                                Intermediate term (within 5 years): RM 500 mill.


 Objectives                          To increase road network capacity and operating speed by optimized traffic
                                      signal operation, ramp metering and corridor demand management.
                                     Considerable reduction in fuel consumption by rapidly growing car popula-
                                      tion through efficient road network operation
                                     To alleviate/control increasing urban congestion, air pollution and safety
                                      problem through ITS assisted traffic management


 Background /                   The transportation sector was the biggest energy user in 2003, consuming ap-
 Rationale                      proximately 41% of the nation‟s energy demand; an increase of 9% from the pre-
                                vious year. The sector‟s share of petroleum consumption was even higher at 67%
                                of all petroleum products. Rising demand compounded with fuel subsidies and a
                                sustained increase in oil prices have set the transport sector on an unsustainable
                                course posing a threat to national energy security.

                                Intelligent transport system (ITS), comprising of an integrated application of ad-
                                vanced information processing, communications, sensor and control technologies
                                and management strategies can improve the functioning of the transport system
                                and result in considerable reductions in congestion and fuel consumption. Japa-
                                nese experience demonstrates that ITS assisted traffic management measures are
                                saving up to 11% in road sector annual fuel consumption.

                                To realize the potential fuel savings through this option, a policy should be put in
                                place to guide a nationwide expansion of ITS to major urban centers and traffic
                                corridors where traffic congestion is a serious concern. The operation of regional
                                installations can be coordinated by a centralized authority to provide valuable
                                information on intercity traffic flows. The first ITS installation in Malaysia, which
                                was made in Klang Valley through the establishment of the traffic management
                                centre (TMC) in Bukit Jalil, should be evaluated and assessed to assist in the de-
                                velopment of an ITS policy and to guide the nationwide expansion.

                                Beneficiaries of a well coordinated ITS infrastructure include regional private car
                                drivers, commercial vehicle operation, efficient truck fleet haulage and public
                                transport operation through dissemination and sharing of data and real time travel
                                information system.




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 Baseline                            Rapid Growth in Vehicle Stock: A vehicle stock size of 12,819,248 (48% of
                                      them are motorcycles) at the end of 2003 with a compounded growth rate of
                                      around 9%
                                     Large Proportion of Cars: About 5.5 million cars, approximately 75% of
                                      them in urban areas
                                     Based on a recent survey on car drivers‟ congestion experience in Klang Val-
                                      ley, it is found that on average each driver loses about 5 hours per week due to
                                      congestion. This would result an annual congestion loss of RM10 billion at an
                                      hourly person time value of RM20 and an additional 1900 mill litres of petrol
                                      consumption in KV alone.
                                     High Transport Demand for Trucks: 73 million veh-km of travel by truck
                                      with average trip length of 21 km and a growth of 9.3%


 Scope                               Focus initially on large urban regions such as Klang Valley, Penang and
                                      Johor Bharu for ITS installation and evaluation
                                     Development of national ITS policy, guideline and standards
                                     Prevalence of ITS furniture to 10 largest Malaysian cities
                                     Intra-regional and inter-regional operation planning and coordination
                                     Human resource development in traffic management and ITS through collabo-
                                      ration between transport authorities and local universities.


 Approach &                     Step 1 – Evaluation of Existing System
 Methodology                    As KL is already provided with an extensive ITS, an obvious approach would be
                                to evaluate the current ITS operations to guide further expansion in Malaysia. This
                                would comprise the following tasks:
                                            Evaluation of existing ITS operation and traffic management in Klang
                                             Valley to assess the installed technologies. Effectiveness of data acquisi-
                                             tion, storage and communication technology and sharing of real
                                             time/offline data among relevant stakeholders should be assessed. Inte-
                                             gration of stakeholders and collaboration among them are also important
                                             for seamless traffic operation planning and management across jurisdic-
                                             tions in a region. Assessing the application of potential operation man-
                                             agement tool such as ramp metering, area-wide demand management and
                                             dynamic route guidance in the existing setup may reveal the shortcom-
                                             ings. This may be followed by a feasibility study of ITS installation needs
                                             in other large cities like Penang and JB
                                            Based on this evaluation a national ITS architecture, guidelines and stan-
                                             dards should be prepared
                                            10 largest Malaysian city regions should be selected for ITS installation


                                Step 2 – Establishing ITS policy and standards
                                A national committee responsible for establishing ITS standards should be setup
                                with members from the RTAs, highway authorities, operators, universities and
                                industries. Using the experience of local study and in line with international stan-
                                dards the committee will formulate ITS policy and standards.
                                The initiatives of step 1 and step 2 would be implemented within a budget of
                                approx. RM 3 mill.




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                                 Step 3 – Development of ITS in Malaysia
                                a.    Installation of ITS and TMC in Malaysian cities
                                            Within two years ITS installations can be targeted for Penang and JB
                                             along with the installation of missing pieces in KV ITS system following
                                             the above developed national ITS policy and standards
                                            Within five years 7 other city regions should be targeted for ITS installa-
                                             tion with parallel development of RTAs and TMCs for them
                                            Local universities and industries should be heavily involved right from
                                             first phase of installation for promoting human resource and industrial
                                             development in ITS sector. This will make the subsequent ITS installa-
                                             tion even cheaper and more readily available
                                            RTAs, local universities and industries should work together for appro-
                                             priate ITS installation, operation and local ITS product development. Ve-
                                             hicle tracking, traffic call center, sensor, RFID, smart card are a few ex-
                                             amples for such research and development. RTAs can use the research
                                             and development fund of ITS projects for developing the above hardware
                                             and software based tool development in joint collaboration with indus-
                                             tries and universities.
                                b.    Development of ITS assisted traffic management strategies


                                            ITS application in signal operation, ramp metering, dynamic route guid-
                                            ance to drivers, prompt incident detection and management, and real time
                                            route based information to travelers can improve traffic flow and save up
                                            to 11% of fuel consumption (experienced in Japan). RTA and TMC pro-
                                            fessionals can take the initiatives in this regard.
                                            For the commercial vehicles and trucks, vehicle sensor and control tech-
                                            nology to enable automatic cruise control can installed. An improved ap-
                                            propriate speed/acceleration pattern through such on-board units can re-
                                            duce fuel consumption by 3-6%. RTAs will take the initiatives in collabo-
                                            ration with the CVOs, truck hauliers and industries.
                                The development of ITS in 10 largest Malaysian cities would be implemented
                                within a budget of approx. RM 500 mill under 9th MP


 Milestones                          Assessment report on existing ITS setup and possible new installation (2006)
                                     National ITS architecture, standard and guidelines (2006-2007)
                                     ITS implementation strategy for 10 largest Malaysian cities (2007)
                                     ITS assisted integrated traffic flow management saving travel delay, fuel
                                      consumption and improving environment and safety (2007-2009)
                                     Local ITS industry development (2007-)


 Final Output/                  5.    Development of a national ITS implementation strategy to ensure a coordi-
                                      nated planning
 Deliverable(s)
                                6.    Establishment of a well-founded ITS in larger Malaysian cities
                                7.    Development of new national ITS industrial market




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Appendix C – Programme III

 Programme                     Increase the use of alternative fuel technologies
 Programme No.                 3
 Sector                        Transport
 Sub-Sector                    Road Transport Fuels
 Period                        15 years (2006 – 2020)
 Estimated Cost                RM 50 mill. (R&D, promotion, infrastructure development)
 Objectives                    To diversify the transport fuel sector by introducing alternative renewable fuels. 3
                               fuel technologies are introduced, each achieving different percentage shares of the
                               total fuel consumption by the year 2020 by targeting specific segments of modes in
                               the sector:
                                           Biodiesel for heavy-duty vehicles, 10% of total diesel consumption
                                           Bioethanol for passenger cars, 5% of total petrol consumption
                                           Further prevalence of NGV for modes on „fixed routes‟ (e.g. buses and
                                            taxis)


 Background /                  The transportation sector was the biggest energy user in 2003, consuming approxi-
 Rationale                     mately 41% of the nation‟s energy demand; an increase of 9% from the previous
                               year. The sector‟s share of petroleum consumption was even higher at 67% of all
                               petroleum products. Rising demand compounded with fuel subsidies and a sustained
                               increase in oil prices have set the transport sector on an unsustainable course posing
                               a threat to national energy security.

                               To reduce energy consumption in this sector, without hindering economic growth
                               and quality of life, a multi-faceted approach must be taken that enhances the supply
                               of energy efficient transportation services, technologies and fuels. Transport infra-
                               structure development and land-use planning must take a long-term view that priori-
                               tizes accessibility over mobility.

                               This programme affects the potential of introducing alternative fuel technologies in
                               the road transport sector. To introduce alternative fuels in even small degrees would
                               help ensuring the national energy security and in the same time have a great positive
                               impact on the environmental problems caused by the transportation sector (emis-
                               sions).



 Baseline                            Rapid Growth in Vehicle Stock: A vehicle stock size of 12,819,248 (48% of
                                      them are motorcycles) at the end of 2003 with a compounded growth rate of
                                      around 9%
                                     Large Proportion of Cars: About 5.5 million cars, approximately 75% of them
                                      in urban areas
                                     High Transport Demand: Yearly 4,667 million car trips in urban areas (Popula-
                                      tion>10,000) resulting approx. 79,339 million veh-km of travel and about 9550
                                      million litres of fuel consumption
                                     High dependence on fossil fuels: Passenger cars, buses and heavy-duty vehicles
                                      consumed a total of more than 14 bill. litres fossil fuel in 2005, of which
                                      approx. 81% was petrol



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 Scope                         The focus is on three alternative fuels:
                                             Biodiesel – introduced in blends of palm diesel and fossil diesel. The tar-
                                              get segment will be heavy-duty vehicles, followed by introduction in
                                              light-duty vehicles
                                             Bioethanol – introduced in low-percentage blends with fossil petrol. The
                                              feedstock for the bioethanol should be empty fruit bunches from the palm
                                              oil industry
                                             Natural Gas – concentrating on a further prevalence of this technology;
                                              primarily for fleets following specific routes in high-density areas (e.g.
                                              buses and taxis) due to the infrastructure limitations


 Approach &                      A well-regulated implementations of the alternative fuel technologies require the
 Methodology                     following steps:
                                 Step 1 – Consensus Building
                                      c.    Organization of network with relevant key institutions ensuring unanimity
                                            for the overall objective for the long-run purpose of the specific fuel tech-
                                            nology. The network should – as minimum – consist of representatives
                                            from the following members:
                                                  Biodiesel and Bioethanol: palm oil industry (R&D), car industry, rele-
                                                   vant authorities responsible for defining and implementing fuel stan-
                                                   dards (Ministry of Transport?)
                                                  NGV: Petronas, distribution companies, refuelling stations, the author-
                                                   ity for issuing operating licenses (Ministry of Public Enterprises), the
                                                   authority for defining and implement fuel standards (Ministry of
                                                   Transport?) and not least the car industry
                                 Step 2 – Establishing Standards
                                      a.    Implementation of fuel standards
                                      b.    Formulation of tax structure on fuels (e.g. implementation of road tax re-
                                            duction schemes)
                                 Step 3 – Formulating Targets
                                           Establish targets for progressive increase of the three alternative fuels in
                                            fuel mix through 2020
                                 Step 4 – Encourage use of alternative fuels
                                           Increase awareness of alternative fuels among general public as well as
                                            companies to generate demand for the alternative fuels (e.g. through mar-
                                            keting campaigns)


 Milestones                          Organisation and start-up of network with relevant key institutions (2006)
                                     Implementing of fuel standards (2007)
                                     Formulation of tax structure (2007)
                                     Encourage the use of alternative fuels (2007-)
                                     Biodiesel target market share milestones
                                             5% displacement of diesel by 2010  saves 190 mill. litres fossil diesel
                                             10% displacement of diesel by 2020  saves 720 mill. litres fossil diesel




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                                     Bioethanol target market share milestones
                                             2% displacement of diesel by 2010  saves 295 mill. litres fossil diesel
                                             5% displacement of diesel by 2020  saves 1.1 bill. litres fossil diesel
                                     NGV target market share milestones4
                                             Extension of the refueling infrastructure from the existing ~50 to a total of
                                              94 (2006-2009)
                                             A target of servicing approx. 57,000 passenger vehicles (2009)


    Final Output/                1.    Fuel standards will be developed with input from key institutions to ensure
    Deliverable(s)                     unanimity for the overall objective for the long-run purpose of the specific fuel
                                       technology. The standards will in that way be in line with the objectives of the
                                       „Five Fuel Diversification Policy‟
                                 2.    Development of new market for the palm oil industry
                                 3.    The use of alternative fuels will be encouraged among consumers by the intro-
                                       duction of tax incentives
                                 4.    In the long run the introduction of alternative fuels will reduce the need to
                                       consume an equivalent amount of the fossil fuels. This will benefit the balance
                                       of trade and conserve foreign exchange for the country




4
    Based on interview with PETRONAS NGV


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Appendix D – Programme IV

 Programme                     Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
 Programme No.                 4
 Sector                        Transport
 Sub-Sector                    Automotive Technology/Manufacturing
 Period                        15 years (2006 – 2020)
 Estimated Cost                  RM 2 mill.
 Objectives                    1.     To increase average vehicle fuel efficiency across the entire vehicle fleet by
                                      establishing fuel efficiency standards disaggregated by vehicle class and by pro-
                                      moting high efficiency vehicle technologies
                               2.     To raise awareness among the general public about high efficiency vehicle tech-
                                      nologies


 Background /                  The transportation sector was the biggest energy user in 2003, consuming approxi-
 Rationale                     mately 41% of the nation‟s energy demand; an increase of 9% from the previous year.
                               The sector‟s share of petroleum consumption was even higher at 67% of all petro-
                               leum products. Rising demand compounded with fuel subsidies and a sustained in-
                               crease in oil prices have set the transport sector on an unsustainable course posing a
                               threat to national energy security.

                               An important strategy in reducing energy consumption in the transportation sector is
                               to support and promote increasingly efficient vehicle technologies. The automotive
                               fleet in Malaysia still consists of predominantly low capacity vehicles, but the trend
                               towards larger more powerful vehicles (as incomes rise), combined with the increas-
                               ing size of the fleet, will further strain the supply of fossil-based transport fuels.

                               There has been little, if any, improvement in fuel efficiency among locally manufac-
                               tured vehicles in recent years. In addition, there is little demand for higher efficiency
                               vehicles among the public. This programme will attempt to address both of these
                               issues by developing realistic but stringent fuel efficiency standards for all vehicles
                               sold in Malaysia, and by raising awareness of high efficiency vehicles technologies
                               among the general public.

 Baseline                            Rapid Growth in Vehicle Stock: A vehicle stock size of 12,819,248 (48% of them
                                      are motorcycles) at the end of 2003 with a compounded growth rate of around
                                      9%
                                     Large Proportion of Cars: About 5.5 million cars, approximately 75% of them in
                                      urban areas. Car registrations growing at 9.23% from 1986-2003
                                     Transport Sector Largest Consumer of Petroleum products: 67% of petroleum
                                      consumption due to demand by transportation sector
                                     Large Proportion of Cars Fueled by Petrol: Between 1999-2002, 99.6% of new
                                      passenger cars registered fueled by petrol, while 0.4% utilized diesel
                                     High Transport Demand: Yearly 4,667 million car trips in urban areas (Popula-
                                      tion>10,000) resulting approx. 79,339 million veh-km of travel
                                     High Transport Demand for Trucks: 73 million veh-km of travel by truck with
                                      average trip length of 21 km and a growth of 9.3%




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 Scope                         Improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency will focus in two areas:
                                     Gradual improvement in average fleet efficiency for all vehicle categories
                                             Cars
                                             Buses
                                             Taxis
                                             Lorries
                                             Motorcycles
                                     Promotion and awareness raising about new high efficiency vehicle technologies
                                             Diesel engines for private cars
                                             Hybrid Electric Vehicles (combination of combustion engine and electric
                                              motor and battery. Potential reduction of fuel consumption by 60% (at
                                              maximum))
                                             Other fuel-saving technologies (e.g. Displacement-on-Demand, Low-
                                              resistance Tyres, Low-heat Gain Glazing, etc.)


 Approach &                      Step 1 – Consensus Building
 Methodology                          a.     Bring together stakeholders for SWOT analysis on establishing fuel effi-
                                             ciency standards for all vehicle classes
                                      b.     Participants should include Ministry of Transport, MITI, CVLB, JPJ, for-
                                             eign and domestic car manufacturers, SIRIM, DOE, and EPU among others
                                 Step 2 – Data Collection
                                      a.     Survey standards proposed in other countries
                                      b.     Project vehicle stock changes and growth
                                      c.     Determine current and forecasted fuel-efficiency of vehicles according to
                                             class (includes information on realistic driving cycles, technological change,
                                             etc.)
                                      d.     Cost-benefit analysis for implementation of new standards over different
                                             scenarios (including fuel savings, increased production costs, administrative
                                             costs, etc.)
                                 Step 3 – Establishing Standards
                                      a.     Finalize incremental changes in standards from present day through 2020
                                      b.     Establish testing procedures, enforcement mechanisms, roles and responsi-
                                             bilities of various stakeholders
                                 Step 4 – Promotion of Awareness of High Efficiency and Fuel-Saving Vehicle Tech-
                                 nologies
                                      a.     Organize (annual?) exhibition to be held in KL, Penang, and Johor Bharu on
                                             high efficiency vehicles. Invite participation from local and foreign car
                                             manufacturers. Purpose is to increase awareness among general public and
                                             generate demand for high efficiency technologies
                                      b.     Establish tax incentive schemes for high efficiency vehicle technologies.
                                             This can also include automotive parts and accessories (e.g. tyres, air condi-
                                             tioning, window glazing, etc.)


 Milestones                           Fuel Efficiency Standards Milestones
                                           Multi-stakeholder meeting for discussion of fuel standards (2006)



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                                           Feasibility study for fuel standards completed (2007)
                                           Testing procedures established (2008)
                                           Standards submitted and approved (2009)
                                      High efficiency automotive technology exhibition held in 3 cities (2007)
                                      Tax incentives for energy saving automotive technologies
                                             Feasibility study completed (2006-2007)
                                             Tax incentives available (2008-2009)


 Final Output/                       Far-sighted vehicle fuel efficiency standards will be developed with input from
 Deliverable(s)                       major stakeholders in a realistic, fair and transparent manner. The standards will
                                      contribute to the Government‟s objectives of reducing fuel consumption by the
                                      transportation sector.
                                     Consumers will be introduced to high efficiency and fuel-saving vehicle tech-
                                      nologies, spurring local demand for these products. The development of local in-
                                      terest may encourage domestic design, production, and supply of such technolo-
                                      gies.
                                     Tax-incentives for high efficiency vehicles will help support demand, and reduce
                                      the cost of fuel price increases for consumers.




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Appendix E – Programme V

 Programme                    Road to Rail Passenger Travel along North-South Corridor
 Programme No.                5
 Sector                       Transport
 Sub-Sector                   Intercity Transport, Rail Transport


 Period                       7 years (2006 – 2012)
 Estimated Cost               Short term: within 1 year: RM 1 mill.
 Objectives                   To encourage higher use of rail transport for intercity passenger travel and hereby
                              reducing the energy consumed per person-km traveled.
                              The programme comes in 2 stages: a campaign to raise people‟s awareness of the rail
                              as an alternative to road, followed up by proposals for improvement plans for attract-
                              ing more passengers.


 Background /                 The transportation sector was the biggest energy user in 2003, consuming approxi-
 Rationale                    mately 41% of the nation‟s energy demand; an increase of 9% from the previous year.
                              The sector‟s share of petroleum consumption was even higher at 67% of all petroleum
                              products. Rising demand compounded with fuel subsidies and a sustained increase in
                              oil prices have set the transport sector on an unsustainable course posing a threat to
                              national energy security.

                              A comparison of energy consumption of various modes shows significant potential of
                              energy savings by shifting from road to rail based passenger transport:
                                   Road transport: approx. 3MJ/person-km in a single occupancy car,
                                   Bus transport: approx. 0.5MJ/person-km for a bus with 20 passengers,
                                   High Speed Train: approx. 0.17MJ/km for a train with 935 passengers (example
                                    from TGV South Korea High Speed Rail)
                              Current demand for intercity rail service is low, partly due to the poor perception of
                              this form of service relative to road transport.
                              There is a tendency to an increased focus on rail based passenger transport in line with
                              9MP (Penang Monorail, improvement works). Public campaigns encouraging a switch
                              from road to rail transport can make a difference and have even been supported by
                              national highway authorities. (see the „Road to Rail Campaign‟ in the UK at
                              http://www.highways.gov.uk/knowledge/798.aspx)
                              A public campaign to increase the attractiveness of rail transport can work hand-in-
                              hand with efforts to improve rail infrastructure and service provided by KTM Bhd. As
                              demand for rail based passenger travel increases, further investments in upgraded
                              infrastructure (e.g. High Speed Train) will be more feasible.

                              The dominant form of passenger and freight transport along the north-south corridor
                              (connecting Singapore, Johor Bharu, Kuala Lumpur, and Penang) is by road, with
                              recent increases in air travel for passengers. Improving the capacity and service qual-
                              ity of the rail connection along this route has potential for significant energy savings.




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 Baseline                          Rapid Growth in Vehicle Stock: A vehicle stock size of 12,819,248 (48% of them
                                    are motorcycles) at the end of 2003 with a compounded growth rate of around 9%
                                   High Transport Demand: North-South corridor served 11,500 million pcu-km of
                                    travel in 2003, with projections for an increase to 16,900 million pcu-km by 2020
                                   Rising Capacity Problems: Increases in peak flows along North-South corridor
                                    will increase congestion and require significant capacity expansion over time


 Scope                        Focus on Kuala Lumpur – Singapore route for passenger service currently provided by
                              KTM Bhd.


 Approach &                   Step 1 – Identification Phase
 Methodology                  Consult relevant parties to determine:
                                           Current public perception of intercity rail service (relative to other modes)
                                           A detailed analysis of both existing and potential users‟ perception of inter-
                                            city travel (this could be done by stated and revealed preference surveys to
                                            know the important choice characteristics of inter-city travel)
                                           Essential infrastructure and service improvements based on passenger‟s
                                            preferences (without which the campaign alone will not be successful)
                                           Timeline for completion of essential improvements
                                           Advantages of current and improved rail service over other modes
                                           Definition of target population
                              The identification phase can be completed within a budget of RM 1 mill.
                              Step 2 – Master Plan
                              The identification phase is to be followed up by a master plan for the line section,
                              where the following issues are being illuminated:
                                           Formulation of targets (e.g. a passenger increase of 25% by year 2015)
                                           Service Improvements (e.g. increase of travel time (higher speed, fewer
                                            stops), higher comfort (new rolling stock) etc.)
                                           Infrastructure Improvement (track alignment, signaling system, train control
                                            systems)
                                            Integration with road and air transport facilities
                              Preparation of master plan for the line section can be completed within a budget of
                              RM 8 mill.
                              Step 3 – Implementation and Promotion
                              The implementation of the master plan should be followed up by promotions based on
                              information obtained during Step 1:
                                           Design promotional material for various media (printed, television and inter-
                                            net)
                                           Determine discounts/promotions etc., for example in cooperation with
                                            road/air operator
                                           Plan VIP launch of service, etc.
                              During and after implementation of campaign monitor and record public response.
                              The physical upgrading of the line section followed up by well-organized promotion
                              campaigns



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 Milestones                   The following milestones can be formulated:
                              a.    Identification Phase, information gathering, assessment etc. (2006-2007)
                              b.    Formulation of targets for the road-to-rail initiative (2007)
                              c.    Preparation of master plan together with relevant parties and stakeholders (2007)
                              d.    Implementation of master plan (2008-2012)
                              e.    Promotion and monitoring campaigns (2012-)


 Final Output/                This programme will determine the current perception of rail service held by the gen-
 Deliverable(s)               eral public as well as the rail service providers plans for addressing legitimate con-
                              cerns.
                              A master plan for the KL-Singapore rail section will be prepared, formulating targets
                              and the necessary improvement proposals for reaching the targets on basis of the pre-
                              vious perception phase.
                              After implementation of the master plan, campaign will be designed and launched that
                              will educate the public on the advantages of using rail over road.
                              Lessons from the campaign can be used to design future campaigns for expanding
                              usage along other intercity routes in Malaysia.




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Appendix F – Programme VI

 Programme                     Improved urban pedestrian network
 Programme No.                 6
 Sector                        Transport
 Sub-Sector                    Urban Infrastructure, Land-use planning
 Period                        15 years (2006 – 2020)
 Estimated Cost                Short-term: within 1 year : RM 500 million
 Objectives                    To reduce the number of intra-city trips by private cars and to decrease traffic con-
                               gestion by enhancing intra-city pedestrian connectivity through improved pedestrian
                               infrastructure and priority.


 Background /                  The transportation sector was the biggest energy user in 2003, consuming approxi-
 Rationale                     mately 41% of the nation‟s energy demand; an increase of 9% from the previous
                               year. The sector‟s share of petroleum consumption was even higher at 67% of all
                               petroleum products. Rising demand compounded with fuel subsidies and a sustained
                               increase in oil prices have set the transport sector on an unsustainable course posing a
                               threat to national energy security.

                               To reduce energy consumption in this sector, without hindering economic growth and
                               quality of life, a multi-faceted approach must be taken that enhances the supply of
                               energy efficient transportation services, technologies and fuels. Transport infrastruc-
                               ture development and land-use planning must take a long-term view that prioritizes
                               accessibility over mobility.

                               The potential is huge for transferring the short intra-city trips in the larger cities from
                               private transport to other kinds of modes, and relative easily obtainable by improving
                               the conditions for pedestrians (in Western countries up to 1/3 of short intra-city trips
                               (< 3 km) in larger urban areas are made by foot or bicycles).

                               Apart from the immediate benefits, e.g. reduction of congestion problems, also in the
                               longer run it is possible to achieve a more attractive environment, as regards both
                               health (less emissions) and social life.

 Baseline                            A vehicle stock size of 12,819,248 (48% of them are motorcycles) at the end of
                                      2003 with a compounded growth rate of around 9%
                                     About 5.5 million cars, approximately 75% of them in urban areas
                                     Modal split of approx. 86% car based and 14% public transport based in urban
                                      areas
                                     Yearly 4,667 million car trips in urban areas (Population>10,000) resulting
                                      approx. 79,339 million veh-km of travel


 Scope                         Improved urban pedestrian network focuses on the following areas:
                                     Improving pedestrian infrastructure including sidewalks, covered walkways, and
                                      zebra crossings
                                     Emphasizing and implementing pedestrian priority in among all agencies respon-
                                      sible for planning, development and management of high-density urban areas




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 Approach &                    Step 1 – Formulation of Policy (within 1 year)
 Methodology                     b.    To define quality targets and strategies for the development of the pedestrian
                                       infrastructure in larger cities a policy must be formulated with participations
                                       from relevant stakeholders – including mapping of the users‟ preferences
                                 c.    Formulation of national design guidelines and standards, e.g. minimum width of
                                       sidewalks (2 m in high-density commercial districts, 1.5 m in lower density ar-
                                       eas, “green” buffer of at least 0.5 m between the sidewalk and road etc.)
                                 Step 2 – Intermediate Term Objectives (within 1-5 years)
                                 a.    Enhance sidewalk network within a radius of 300 m of all LRT stops in Kuala
                                       Lumpur. This may include widening sidewalk, creating a buffer between side-
                                       walk and the road, erecting a shaded covering or trees for shading, and ensuring
                                       continuity of walkway
                                 b.    Enhance sidewalk network within 100 m radius of all major bus stops in KL,
                                       Penang, and JB. Enhancements should include covered waiting/seating area at
                                       the bus stop
                                 c.    Improve overall connectivity by planning “walking routes” through high density
                                       urban areas (for example, in KL it should be easy and convenient to walk from
                                       Petaling Street to Central Market, to Masjid Jamek, to Dataran Merdaka)
                                 d.    Improvement of pedestrian facilities in commercial areas of satellite townships.
                                       Even if public transport is not accessible, commuters, shoppers etc. should be
                                       able to leave private vehicles in one location and access multiple services by
                                       foot (e.g. banking, restaurants, offices, shopping etc.)
                                 e.    Pedestrian priority should be emphasized by maintaining relatively narrow
                                       roadways, low-speed traffic, and sufficient zebra crossings in high-density
                                       commercial zones. Pedestrian flyovers should be avoided except when abso-
                                       lutely necessary


 Milestones                    The following milestones can be set:
                                     Formulation of planning policy (2007)
                                     Composition of design standards (2007)
                                     All LRT stops in KL have upgraded pedestrian infrastructure within 300 m ra-
                                      dius (by 2008)
                                     All major bus stops in Klang Valley, Penang, JB have upgraded pedestrian infra-
                                      structure within 100 m radius (by 2010)
                                     4-5 “walking routes” of at least 2 km in length planned and established, with
                                      upgraded pedestrian infrastructure, for central business districts in KL, Penang,
                                      and JB by 2015 (may also include other cities)


 Final Output/                 The programme will provide a national policy and standard for the development and
 Deliverable(s)                design of pedestrian facilities.
                               In an intermediate term the programme will provide the citizens of the larger Malay-
                               sian cities a well-structured network of pedestrian infrastructure. This will improve
                               both the attractiveness of city spaces (less noise pollution) and general public health
                               (due to less pollution from emissions, increased road safety).




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arger Mala y -
                               sian cities a well-structured network of pedestrian infrastructure. This will improve
                               both the attractiveness of city spaces (less noise pollution) and general public health
                               (due to less pollution fro m emissions, increased road safety).




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