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					      JOSE L CAMPOS
     YANET ESPINOZA
 SANJEEWA DEVANARAYANA
Good luck in your
 new homeland!

  Welcome to
   America!
When immigrants came to
 America, some people thought
 they were very brave. Other
 people thought the immigrants
 were very foolish.
            INTRODUCTION
 Legal immigration
   Family reunification rules
   Specific employment based quotas
   refugees
 Illegal immigration
   By crossing the border without valid immigration
    documents; or
   By entering with a valid visa and then remaining
    in the country after their visas expire.
              Immigration Today

 U.S. Population Clock as of Oct 15, 2008
 305,419,048 people living in the US (Apprx.)
 37.5 million of them are immigrants. (Apprx.)
 12 million of these immigrants lack legal status
 9.7 million of these immigrants have a status other than
  citizen or
 undocumented. Most are Lawful Permanent Residents
 15.8 million of these immigrants are citizens
 ���� For the last 3 years the immigrant portion of the US
  has remained at 12%
 ���� Only 3.5% of the US population is undocumented
Where do they come from?
States of residence, 2006
Actual and Projected U.S. Population Increase

• Actual and Projected U.S.
Population Increase, 1960 to 2050
             Main Arguments

IL-LEGAL IMMIGRATION DOES HELP
THE US ECONOMY



  Would you say that immigration
  helps the United States more than it
  hurts it, or immigration hurts the
  United States more than it helps it?
States with Most Undocumented
           Immigrants
Growth Rates , 2000-2010
40
       34.1      33.3
35
30
25
20
15                        12.9
10
 5                                  2.8
 0
     Hispanics   Asians   Blacks   Whites
           Who is hurt by illegal
             immigration?
• Uneducated
  Americans
• Poor or lower
  class Americans
• U.S. tax payers
   IMMIGRANT AND TAXES

Immigrants pay income, property, sales,
and taxes at the federal and state level

In 2002, illegal immigrants added a net
surplus of $463 billion to Social Security
             Immigrants & Crime

Immigrants lower crime rates
1st generation immigrants 45% less likely to
commit violence than 3rd generation
Americans.

During 1990s when immigration highest,
crime dropped the most
–Los Angeles it dropped 45%
Why: motivation to work, ambition and desire not to be deported
 Immigrants and the US work force


Illegal immigrants as a percentage of total
   employees :
• 24% of farm workers
• 20% of cooks
• 28% of drywall installers
• 36% of insulation workers
          Share undocumented immigrant workers
Percent                by industry
 25


 20


 15                                                                            Overall Proportion
                                                                                        4.9
 10


  5


  0
       Priv.
       House      Food       Ag.       Furniture   Const.   Textiles   Food    Admin Hotels Other mfg.
       holds      mfg.                 mfg.                            Svcs.   &
                                                                               Support
  Source: Pew Hispanic Center (2005)
            Foreign-born share of employment
                        by sector
Farming, fishing, and forestry
        occupations

Building and grounds cleaning
 and maintenance operations

  Construction and extraction
         occupations


      Production occupations


Food preparation and serving
    related occupations


                        Total


Protective service occupations


            Legal occupations
  Source:
  BLS (2006)
                                 0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35      40
                                                                       Percent
     Immigrants are more mobile,
    responsive to economic growth
• More likely come in good times, leave in bad times
   – Flexibility allows for faster economic growth,
     more efficient use of resources
   – Lower unemployment
• Some immigrant groups are even more mobile
  once here
   – Move to where the jobs are
      • Fewer regional discrepancies in growth
         – Lower unemployment, regional
           convergence
       Job-based green cards remain
              in short supply
   Thousands
   800

   700
             Temp Work Visas
   600       Job-Based Green Cards
   500

   400

   300

   200

   100

      0
          1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: Department of Homeland Security, Department of State
              Skilled flows pro-cyclical
                     H1-B petitions approved for initial employment

 Thousands
 250
                                                     Peak

 200

                                                                                 Post-recession
 150


 100


   50


    0
         92     93    94    95     96     97   98   99   '00   '01   '02   '03    '04   '05   '06


Source: Department of Homeland Security
                  Immigrants work more
                      Labor Force Participation: Men
Percent
   100

     90

     80

     70

     60

     50

     40
          Undocumented Migrants      Legal Immigrants   Natives


Source: Pew Hispanic Center (2005)
Who benefits from l-Illegal immigration?

•   You
•   Big business
•   U.S. economy
•   Farm owners
•   US Govt.
   Effects of immigration on US
           Corporations
• Immigration has effects similar to trade
  – Greater specialization, efficiency
  – More choice, innovation
     Production Increases.
• Who benefits?
     • US GDP increase
     • Exports Increase
  – Consumers
• Prices of certain goods and services fall
   What is your Opinion My fellow
            Legal Aliens?

Do you believe that immigrants take away
 US jobs and Hurt the economy
                    OR

Immigrants takes the jobs that natives don’t
  want to do?
                                 of



     Negative           effect             immigration




in the




                U. S.                 economy
          Immigration to the United States
               in the 20th Century
Thousands of legal
   immigrants
                                   Immigration to the United States
                                        in the 20th Century
                     * Excluding IRCA conversions
                     Source: Immigration Naturalization Service




                           * Excluding IRCA conversions
                     Source: Immigration Naturalization Service
    Negative Economic Impact of Immigration
Facts:

•     Immigrants have less education
•     Earn less than native U.S. citizens
•     Households headed by immigrants have more children
      compare to U.S. citizens.
•     The average Immigrants pays less in taxes
•     Receive more in social services
              e.g.       Cash public assistance in 1995
                        Immigrants Native U.S. citizens
                             5.8%             4.5%
                                  •Welfare assistance




Source: Michael Fix and Jeffrey Passel, “The Scope and Impact of Welfare Reform’s Immigrant Provisions,”
Discussion Papers, The Urban Institute, January 2002.
Immigrants reduce the wages of U.S. citizens

August 2003 report by Pia M. Orrenius and Madeline Zavodny,
researchers at the Federal Reserve Banks of Dallas and Atlanta

• Annual wages of low-skilled native workers are about 2.4% below where
  they would be otherwise as a result of the presence of immigrant
  workers.

Studies by Harvard economist George Borjas, an outspoken
advocate of stronger immigration restrictions concludes that:

 Between 1980 and 2000 immigration increase the labor supply of
  working men by 11%
 Immigration reduced the average annual earning of native born-men by
  estimated $1,700 or 4%
 and by 7.4% for native workers without a high school diploma.
How much do immigrants contribute to the overall economy?

  The foreign-born make up only 11.3 percent of the U.S. population and
  14 percent of the labor force.




Source: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, “U.S. Immigration and Economic Growth: Putting Policy on Hold,” Southwest Economy
Issue 6, November/December 2003, available online at www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/2003/swe0306a.html
(derived from data from the U.S. Census Bureau).
     Portion of employment growth in each job category
    attributed to foreign-born workers from 1996 to 2000




                                                            Unauthorized immigrants:
                                                            19 % of farming working
                                                            17 % of cleaning occupation
                                                            12 % of construction workers
                                                            11 % food preparation
                                                             8 % production
                                                             4.3% unauthorized




Source: Abraham T. Mosisa, “The Role of Foreign-born Workers in the U.S. Economy," Monthly Labor Review, May 2002, pp. 4–14
                  Immigration creates costs

• The availability of low-cost immigrant labor may remove the incentive for
  employers to adopt new technologies

• As a border-county policymaker, Santa Cruz County supervisor Manuel
  Ruiz offered a unique perspective on the costs of immigration:
     Costs associated with illegal border crossings:
     - Autopsy and investigative costs when immigrants die
       (21 people died crossing the border into Santa Cruz County in
        2007)
     - Incarceration, prosecution and defense costs associated with
       prosecuting immigrants who commit crimes

• The hospital in Santa Cruz County spent approximately $1 million in
  2007 treating undocumented immigrants who were unable to pay
                                        Cont…


•   The impact of immigration on California is more negative because immigrant
    households in the state:
    (a) are more numerous relative to the native population,
    (b) have more children, causing them to make greater use of public education,
    (c) and earn lower incomes, leading them to have lower tax payments and
        greater use of public assistance. (health care and other social services)

•   increase in the consumption of publicly provided goods and services, such as
    public schools
            The US illegal immigration
Other negative impact on government expenditures
• Education: Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR)
  study shows that:
      Unauthorized immigrant cost $3.2 billion
      Native-born US citizen children of unauthorized immigrant cost
      $4.5 billion
• Healthcare (emergency medical service):
  California Hospital Association spends approximately:
      $500 million p/year on undocumented immigrants and
      $300 million birth and prenatal care for children of
      undocumented immigrants
• Prison costs:
      California Department of Corrections spend
      $730 million (2005-2006 budget and get reimbursed for
                   10%-12% of this cost from Federal Government)
                          Cont….
• The number of illegal immigrants in U.S. is estimated between 7
  and 20 million.

• Undocumented workers generally don't pay income taxes but do
  use schools and other government services

• Those who lack a high school diploma and teenagers looking for
  summer positions are finding it difficult to acquire employment
  due to competition from illegal immigrants.

• Taxes: the failure of illegal immigrants to contribute to the tax
  pool, coupled with those who employ illegal immigrants and do
  not pay unemployment insurance, social security, medicare.
                               Cont…..
• Harvard's George Borjas says the average American's wealth is
  increased by less than 1 % because of illegal immigration.

• Healthcare :
    No social security number
    No driver license

• Unemployment Rates

• Food Supplies:
  the food supply needs are figured in the US based upon the census data

•   Overall, low-skill workers -- regardless of their immigration status --
    Dennis Hoffman, director of the Seidman Research Institute at the W. P.
    Carey School consume more in services than they pay in taxes.
                Conclusion
• Both sides there are winners and losers
• Depend in you situation
  – If you are owner of company, educated,
    customers you are in the winner situatition
  – If you are educated, low skill and other you
    are in the losing side
                          REFERENCE

• Pia M. Orrenius and Madeline Zavodny, “Does Immigration Affect
  Wages? A Look at Occupational-Level Evidence,” Federal Reserve
  Bank of Dallas Research Department, Working Paper 0302, August
  2003.
• http://www.immigrationline.org/publications.asp?pubid=491
• http://stlouisfed.org/publications/re/2006/d/pages/immigration.html
• http://www.prb.org/Articles/2008/pewprojections.aspx
• http://www.dallasfed.org/research/papers/2003/wp0302.pdf.
• http://immigration.procon.org/viewresource.asp?resourceID=842
• http://www.legalcybertips.com/immigration/What-Kinds-of-
  Problems-Do-Illegal-Immigrants-Cause.htm
• lhttp://www.bls.gov/

				
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