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Intelligence

Intelligence
For "active intelligence" and its collection, see Intelligence (information gathering) and Espionage. For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). "Intellect" redirects here. For other uses, see Intellect (disambiguation). "Human intelligence" redirects here. For human intelligence (HUMINT) in military and espionage contexts, see HUMINT. Intelligence is an umbrella term used to describe a property of the mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and to learn. There are several ways to define intelligence. In some cases, intelligence may include traits such as creativity, personality, character, knowledge, or wisdom. However, most psychologists prefer not to include these traits in the definition of intelligence. Theories of intelligence can be divided into those based on a unilinear construct of general intelligence and those based on multiple intelligences. Francis Galton, influenced by his cousin Charles Darwin, was the first to advance a theory of general intelligence. For Galton, intelligence was a real faculty with a biological basis that could be studied by measuring reaction times to certain cognitive tasks. Galton’s research on measuring the head size of British scientists and ordinary citizens led to the conclusion that head size had no relationship with the person’s intelligence. Alfred Binet and the French school of intelligence believed that intelligence was an average of numerous dissimilar abilities, rather than a unitary entity with specific identifiable properties. The Stanford-Binet intelligence test has been used by both theorists of general intelligence and multiple intelligence.

Definitions
Intelligence comes from the Latin verb intellegere, which means "to understand". By this rationale, intelligence (as understanding) is arguably different from being "smart" (able to adapt to one’s environment). At least two major "consensus" definitions of intelligence have been proposed. First, from Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report of a task force convened by the American Psychological Association in 1995: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person’s intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen somewhat different definitions.[1][2] A second definition of intelligence comes from "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", which was signed by 52 intelligence researchers in 1994: A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not

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Researcher Alfred Binet David Wechsler Cyril Burt Howard Gardner Quotation

Intelligence

Judgment, otherwise called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty of adapting one’s self to circumstances...auto-critique.[4] The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. [5] Innate general cognitive ability[6] To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving—enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product—and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems—and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge.[7] The ability to deal with cognitive complexity[8]

Linda Gottfredson

Sternberg & Salter Goal-directed adaptive behavior[9] merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.[3] Another simple and efficient definition is: the ability to apply knowledge in order to perform better in an environment. Researchers in the fields of psychology and learning have also defined human intelligence: Charles Spearman is generally credited with discovering general intelligence, which he reported in his 1904 American Journal of Psychology article titled "General Intelligence," Objectively Determined and Measured.[10][11][12] Based on the results of a series of studies collected in Hampshire, England, Spearman concluded that there was a common function (or group of functions) across intellectual activities including what he called intelligence (i.e., school rank, which Spearman thought of as “present efficiency” in school courses; the difference between school rank and age, which was conceptualized as “native capacity;” teacher ratings; and peer ratings provided by the two oldest students, which was termed “common sense”) and sensory discriminations (i.e., discrimination of pitch, brightness, and weight). This common function became known as “g” or general intelligence. To objectively determine and measure general intelligence, Spearman invented the first technique of factor analysis (the method of Tetrad Differences) as a mathematical proof of the Two-Factor Theory.[10][13][11] The factor analytic results indicated that every variable measured a common function to varying degrees, which led Spearman to develop the somewhat misleadingly named Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence.[10][13][14] The Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence holds that every test can be divided into a “g” factor and an “s” factor. The g-factor measures the “general” factor or common function among ability tests. The s-factor measures the “specific” factor unique to a particular ability test. Based on a more modern

Theories of intelligence
The most widely accepted theory of intelligence is based on psychometrics testing or intelligence quotient (IQ) tests. However, dissatisfaction with traditional IQ tests has led to the development of a number of alternative theories, all of which suggest that intelligence is the result of a number of independent abilities that uniquely contribute to human performance.

Psychometric approach
Despite the variety of concepts of intelligence, the approach to understanding intelligence with the most supporters and published research over the longest period of time is based on psychometrics testing. Such intelligence quotient (IQ) tests include the Stanford-Binet, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children.

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interpretation of his work, Spearman’s g factor represents the fact that any set of cognitive ability tests, no matter how different, tend to all correlate positively. L. L. Thurstone extended and generalized Spearman’s method of factor analysis into what is called the Centroid method and which became the basis for modern factor analysis.[15][14] Thustone demonstrated that Spearman’s one common factor method (Spearman’s method yielded only a single factor) was a special case of his multiple factor analysis. Thurstone’s research lead him to propose a model of intelligence that included seven orthogonal (unrelated) factors (i.e., verbal comprehension, word fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed and reasoning) referred to as the Primary Mental Abilities.[16][14] In a critical review of the adult testing literature, Raymond B. Cattell found that a considerable percentage of intelligence tests that purported to measure adult intellectual functioning had all of the trappings of using college students in their development.[17] To account for differences between children/adolescents and adults, which past theory did not address, Cattell proposed two types of cognitive abilities in a revision of Spearman’s concept of general intelligence. Fluid intelligence (Gf) was hypothesized as the ability to discriminate and perceive relations (e.g., analogical and syllogistic reasoning), and crystallized intelligence (Gc) was hypothesized as the ability to discriminate relations that had been established originally through Gf, but no longer required the identification of the relation (commonly assessed using information or vocabulary tests). In addition, fluid intelligence was hypothesized to increase until adolescence and then to slowly decline, and crystallized intelligence increases gradually and stays relatively stable across most of adulthood until it declines in late adulthood. With his student John L. Horn, Cattell indicated that Gf and Gc were only two among several factors manifest in intelligence tests scores under the umbrella of what became known as Gf/Gc Theory.[18] General visualization (Gv; visual acuity, depth perception), general fluency (F, facility in recalling words), general speediness (Gs; performance on speeded, simple tasks) were among

Intelligence
several cognitive ability factors added to Gf/ Gc Theory. J. P. Guilford sought to more fully explore the scope of the adult intellect by providing the concept of intelligence with a strong, comprehensive theoretical backing.[19][20] The Structure-of-Intellect model (SI model) was designed as a cross classification system with intersections in the model providing the basis for abilities similar to Mendeleev’s periodic table in chemistry. The three-dimensional cube—shaped model includes five content categories (the way in which information is presented on a test; visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, and behavioral), six operation categories (what is done on a test; evaluation, convergent production, divergent production, memory retention, memory recording, and cognition), and six product categories (the form in which information is process on a test; units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications). The intersection of three categories provides a frame of reference for generating one or more new hypothetical factors of intelligence. A common view is that cognitive abilities are hierarchically arranged with g at the vertex (or top, overlaying all other cognitive abilities). g itself is sometimes considered to be a two part construct, gF and gC, which stand for fluid and crystallized intelligence.[21][22] Carroll expanded this hierarchy into a Three-Stratum theory, also known as the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of cognitive abilities (or simply CHC Theory).[23] Intelligence, as measured by IQ and other aptitude tests, is widely used in educational, business, and military settings due to its efficacy in predicting behavior. g is highly correlated with many important social outcomes - individuals with low IQs are more likely to be divorced, have a child out of marriage, be incarcerated, and need long term welfare support, while individuals with high IQs are associated with more years of education, higher status jobs and higher income.[24] Intelligence is significantly correlated with successful training and performance outcomes, and g is the single best predictor of successful job performance.[25]

Controversies
IQ tests were originally devised specifically to predict educational achievement. The inventors of the IQ did not believe they were measuring fixed intelligence. Despite this,

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critics argue that intelligence tests have been used to support nativistic theories in which intelligence is viewed as a qualitatively unique faculty with a relatively fixed quantity.[26] Critics of the psychometric approach point out that people in the general population have a somewhat different and broader conception of intelligence than what is measured in IQ tests. In turn, they argue that the psychometric approach measures only a part of what is commonly understood as intelligence. Furthermore, skeptics argue that even though tests of mental abilities are correlated, people still have unique strengths and weaknesses in specific areas. Consequently they argue that psychometric theorists overemphasize g. Researchers in the field of human intelligence have encountered a considerable amount of public concern and criticism — much more than scientists in other areas normally receive. A number of critics have challenged the relevance of psychometric intelligence in the context of everyday life. There have also been controversies over genetic factors in intelligence, particularly questions regarding the relationship between race and intelligence and sex and intelligence. Another controversy in the field is how to interpret the increases in test scores that have occurred over time, the so-called Flynn effect. Stephen Jay Gould was one of the most vocal critics of intelligence testing. In his book, The Mismeasure of Man, Gould argued that intelligence is not truly measurable, and also challenged the hereditarian viewpoint on intelligence. Many of Gould’s criticisms were aimed at Arthur Jensen, who responded that his work had been misrepresented,[27] also stating that making conclusions about modern IQ tests by criticizing the flaws of early intelligence research is like condemning the auto industry by criticizing the performance of the Model T.

Intelligence
least eight different components: logical, linguistic, spatial, musical, kinesthetic, naturalist, intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences. He argues that psychometric tests address only linguistic and logical plus some aspects of spatial intelligence; other forms have been entirely ignored. Moreover, the paper-and-pencil format of most tests rules out many kinds of intelligent performance that matter in everyday life, such as social intelligence.[28] Most of theories of multiple intelligences are relatively recent in origin, though Louis Thurstone proposed a theory of multiple "primary abilities" in the early 20th Century.

Triarchic theory of intelligence
Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence proposes three fundamental aspects of intelligence — analytic, creative, and practical — of which only the first is measured to any significant extent by mainstream tests. His investigations suggest the need for a balance between analytic intelligence, on the one hand, and creative and especially practical intelligence on the other.

Emotional intelligence
Daniel Goleman and several other researchers have developed the concept of emotional intelligence and claim it is at least as "important" as more traditional sorts of intelligence. These theories grew from observations of human development and of brain injury victims who demonstrate an acute loss of a particular cognitive function — e.g. the ability to think numerically, or the ability to understand written language — without showing any loss in other cognitive areas.

Empirical evidence
IQ proponents have pointed out that IQ’s predictive validity has been repeatedly demonstrated, for example in predicting important non-academic outcomes such as job performance (see IQ), whereas the various multiple intelligence theories have little or no such support. Meanwhile, the relevance and even the existence of multiple intelligences have not been borne out when actually tested. A set of ability tests that do not correlate together would support the claim that multiple intelligences are independent of each other.

Multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences is based on studies not only on normal children and adults but also by studies of gifted individuals (including so-called "savants"), of persons who have suffered brain damage, of experts and virtuosos, and of individuals from diverse cultures. This led Gardner to break intelligence down into at

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Intelligence
variance. On the other hand, by late adolescence this correlation disappears, such that adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers.[32] Moreover, adoption studies indicate that, by adulthood, adoptive siblings are no more similar in IQ than strangers, while twins and full siblings show an IQ correlation. Consequently, in the context of the nature versus nurture debate, the "nature" component appears to be much more important than the "nurture" component in explaining IQ variance in the general population. There are indications that, in middle age, intelligence is influenced by life style choices (e.g., long working hours[33]). Cultural factors also play a role in intelligence. For example, on a sorting task to measure intelligence, Westerners tend to take a taxonomic approach while the Kpelle people take a more functional approach. For example, instead of grouping food and tools into separate categories, a Kpelle participant stated "the knife goes with the orange because it cuts it"[34]

Evolution of intelligence
Our hominid and human ancestors evolved large and complex brains exhibiting an everincreasing intelligence through a long and mostly unknown evolutionary process. This process was either driven by the direct adaptive benefits of intelligence[29], or − alternatively − driven by its indirect benefits within the context of sexual selection as a reliable signal of genetic resistance against pathogens.[30]

Factors affecting intelligence
Intelligence is an ill-defined, difficult to quantify concept. Accordingly, the IQ tests used to measure intelligence provide only approximations of the posited ’real’ intelligence. In addition, a number of theoretically unrelated properties are known to correlate with IQ such as race, gender and height but since correlation does not imply causation the true relationship between these factors is uncertain. Factors affecting IQ may be divided into biological and environmental.

Ethical issues
Since intelligence is susceptible to modification through the manipulation of environment, the ability to influence intelligence raises ethical issues. Transhumanist theorists study the possibilities and consequences of developing and using techniques to enhance human abilities and aptitudes, and ameliorate what it regards as undesirable and unnecessary aspects of the human condition; eugenics is a social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of intervention.[35] The perception of eugenics has varied throughout history, from a social responsibility required of society, to an immoral, racist stance. Neuroethics considers the ethical, legal and social implications of neuroscience, and deals with issues such as difference between treating a human neurological disease and enhancing the human brain, and how wealth impacts access to neurotechnology. Neuroethical issues interact with the ethics of human genetic engineering.

Biological
Evidence suggests that genetic variation has a significant impact on IQ, accounting for three fourths in adults. Despite the high heritability of IQ, few genes have been found to have a substantial effect on IQ, suggesting that IQ is the product of interaction between multiple genes. Other biological factors correlating with IQ include ratio of brain weight to body weight and the volume and location of gray matter tissue in the brain. Because intelligence appears to be at least partly dependent on brain structure and the genes shaping brain development, it has been proposed that genetic engineering could be used to enhance the intelligence of animals, a process sometimes called biological uplift in science fiction. Experiments on mice have demonstrated superior ability in learning and memory in various behavioural tasks.[31]

Environmental
Evidence suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the

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Intelligence

Other species
Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition. These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, and comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as mathematical and language abilities. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it means the same thing across species (eg. comparing intelligence between literate humans and illiterate animals), and then operationalizing a measure that accurately compares mental ability across different species and contexts. Wolfgang Köhler’s pioneering research on the intelligence of apes is a classic example of research in this area. Stanley Coren’s book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable popular book on the topic.[36] Nonhuman animals particularly noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees, bonobos (notably the language-using Kanzi) and other great apes, dolphins, elephants and to some extent parrots and ravens. Controversy exists over the extent to which these judgments of intelligence are accurate. Cephalopod intelligence also provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of most other notably intelligent life-forms (mammals and birds).

See also
• Active intellect • Educational psychology • Individual differences psychology • Passive intellect • Intellectual giftedness • Systems intelligence • Fertility and intelligence • Race and intelligence • Intelligence quotient • Downing effect • Flynn effect • Artificial Intelligence

References

Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (or AI) is both the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it, through "the study and design of intelligent agents"[37] or "rational agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success.[38] General intelligence or strong AI has not yet been achieved and is a long-term goal of AI research. Among the traits that researchers hope machines will exhibit are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.[37][38]

[1] Neisser, U.; Boodoo, G.; Bouchard Jr, T.J.; Boykin, A.W.; Brody, N.; Ceci, S.J.; Halpern, D.F.; Loehlin, J.C.; Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; Others, (1998). "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns". Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development 1997. http://books.google.com/ books?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&id=gLWnmVbKdLwC& Retrieved on 2008-03-18. [2] Perloff, R.; Sternberg, R.J.; Urbina, S. (1996). "Intelligence: knowns and unknowns". American Psychologist 51. [3] Gottfredson, L.S. (1997). "Foreword to “intelligence and social policy”" (pdf). Intelligence 24 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1016/ S0160-2896(97)90010-6. http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/ reprints/1997specialissue.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. [4] Binet, A. (1905). "The development of the Binet-Simon Scale: New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals (ES Fite, Trans.) In D". Readings in the History of Psychology. NewYork: Appleton-Century-Crofts. http://books.google.ca/ books?id=t2k_X5mWpGkC&pg=PA417&lpg=PA417& Retrieved on 2008-03-18. [5] Wechsler, D (1944). The measurement of adult intelligence. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0195022963. OCLC 219871557 5950992. ASIN = B000UG9J7E [6] Burt, C. (1931). "The Differentiation Of Intellectual Ability". The British Journal of Educational Psychology. [7] Gardner, Howard (1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple

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intelligences. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465025102. OCLC 221932479 27749478 32820474 56327755 9732290. [8] Gottfredson L (1998). "The General Intelligence Factor" (pdf). Scientific American Presents 9 (4): 24–29. http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/ reprints/ 1998generalintelligencefactor.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. [9] Sternberg RJ; Salter W (1982). Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521296870. OCLC 11226466 38083152 8170650. [10] ^ Spearman, C. (1904). ""General intelligence," objectively determined and measured". American Journal of Psychology 15: 201-293. [11] ^ Williams, R. H., Zimmerman, D. W., Zumbo, B. D., and Ross, D. (2003). "Charles Spearman: British behavioral scientist". Human Nature Review 3: 114-118. [12] Lubinski, D. (2004). "Introduction to the special section on cognitive abilities: 100 years after Spearman’s (1904) “‘General Intelligence,’ Objectively Determined and Measured”". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86 (1): 96–111. [13] ^ Spearman, C. (1927). The abilities of man: Their nature and measurement. Oxford, England: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0404061746. [14] ^ Carroll, J. B. (1982). "The measurement of intelligence". in R. J. Sternberg. Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 29-120. ISBN 978-0521296878. [15] Thurstone, L. L. (1934). "The vectors of the mind". Psychological Review 41: 1-32. [16] Thurstone, L. L. (1938). Primary mental abilities. Chicago: University of Chicago. [17] Cattell, R. B. (1943). "The measurement of adult intelligence". Psychological Bulletin 40: 153-193. [18] Horn, J. L., & Cattell, R. B. (1966). "Refinement and test of the theory of fluid and crystallized general intelligences". Journal of Educational Psychology 57: 253-270.

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[19] Guilford, J. P. (1956). "The structure of intellect". Psychological Bulletin 53: 267-293. [20] Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGrawHill. [21] Cattell, R.B. (1963). "Theory Of Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence: A Critical Experiment". Journal of Educational Psychology 54 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1037/ h0046743. [22] Cattell, R.B. (1941). "Some theoretical issues in adult intelligence testing". Psychological Bulletin 38: 592. [23] Carroll, John J. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521387124. OCLC 25629215. [24] Geary, David M. (2004). The Origin of the Mind: Evolution of Brain, Cognition, and General Intelligence. American Psychological Association (APA). ISBN 1591471818. OCLC 217494183 222186498 224277260 224979556 54906982 56659187 57354730 80049339. [25] Ree, M.J.; Earles, J.A. (1992). "Intelligence Is the Best Predictor of Job Performance". Current Directions in Psychological Science 1 (3): 86–89. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10768746. [26] Schlinger, H.D. (2003). "The Myth of Intelligence". The Psychological Record 53 (1): 15–33. http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=5001903843. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. [27] Jensen, A.R. (1982). "The debunking of scientific fossils and straw persons". Contemporary Education Review 1 (2): 121–135. http://www.debunker.com/ texts/jensen.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-18. [28] Gardner, Howard (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: BasicBooks. ISBN 0465026117. OCLC 154990869 42289819. [29] "Flinn, M. V., Geary, D. C., & Ward, C. V. (2005). Ecological dominance, social competition, and coalitionary arms races: Why humans evolved extraordinary intelligence" (PDF). http://web.missouri.edu/~gearyd/ Flinnetal2005.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.

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[30] "Rozsa L 2008. The rise of non-adaptive intelligence in humans under pathogen • Binet A; Simon T (1916/2007). The pressure. Medical Hypotheses, 70, development of intelligence in children. 685-690." (PDF). http://www.zoologia.hu/ Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins (original); list/clever.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-26. Kessinger Publishing (reprint). ISBN [31] Tang YP, Shimizu E, Dube GR, et al 0548307520. (1999). "Genetic enhancement of • Wake, Warren K.; Gardner, Howard; learning and memory in mice". Nature Kornhaber, Mindy L. (1996). Intelligence: 401 (6748): 63–9. doi:10.1038/43432. Multiple perspectives. Fort Worth, TX: PMID 10485705. Harcourt Brace College Publishers. ISBN [32] Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., McClearn, G. 0030726298. OCLC 34414874. E. and McGuffin, P. (2001). Behavioral • Blakeslee, Sandra; Hawkins, Jeff (2004). Genetics (4th Ed.). New York: Freeman. On intelligence. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-7167-5159-3. OCLC 43894450 ISBN 0-8050-7456-2. OCLC 55510125. 61082681 82720630. • Jensen, Arthur (1998). The g factor: The [33] Virtanen M., A. Singh-Manoux, J.E. science of mental ability. New York: Ferrie, D. Gimeno, M.G. Marmot, M. Praeger. ISBN 0275961036. OCLC Elovainio, M. Jokela, J. Vahtera, and M. 231732886 37024184 60202099. Kivimäki (2009). "Long Working Hours • Terman, L (1916). The measurement of and Cognitive Function: The Whitehall II intelligence. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Study". American Journal of ISBN 0405064802. OCLC 1111319. Epidemiology 169 (5): 596–605. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Terman/ doi:10.1093/aje/kwn382. terman1.htm. ASIN B000H5DEOM [34] Glick (1975) reported in Resnick, L. (1976). The Nature of Intelligence. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. • APA Task Force Examines the Knowns and [35] Osborn, F. (1937). "Development of a Unknowns of Intelligence - American Eugenic Philosophy". American Psychological Association, Press release Sociological Review 2 (3): 389–397. • IQ Since "The Bell Curve" by Christopher doi:10.2307/2084871. F. Chabris - Commentary magazine http://links.jstor.org/ • The cognitive-psychology approach vs. sici?sici=0003-1224(193706)2%3A3%3C389%3ADOAEP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L. psychometric approach to intelligence Retrieved on 2008-03-20. American Scientist magazine [36] Coren, Stanley (1995). The Intelligence • History of Influences in the Development of Dogs. Bantam Books. ISBN of Intelligence Theory and Testing 0-553-37452-4. OCLC 30700778. Developed by Jonathan Plucker at Indiana [37] ^ Goebel, Randy; Poole, David L.; University Mackworth, Alan K. (1997) (pdf). Scholarly journals and societies Computational intelligence: A logical • Intelligence (journal homepage) approach. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford • International Society for Intelligence University Press. pp. 1. ISBN Research (homepage) 0195102703. http://www.cs.ubc.ca/

Further reading

External links

spider/poole/ci/ch1.pdf. [38] ^ Canny, John; Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0137903952. OCLC 51325314 60211434 61259102.

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