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									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gujarati language

Gujarati language
Gujarati ??????? Gujǎrātī Pronunciation Spoken in /gudʒ.(ə)’ɾɑ̈t̪i/

Jinnah, the "father of Pakistan," and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the "iron man of India."


India, Pakistan, South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, U.S., UK, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Canada, Zambia, Zimbabwe 46.1 million[1] 26 Indo-European Indo-Iranian Indo-Aryan Western Indo-Aryan Gujarati Gujarati script

Total speakers Ranking Language family

Writing system Official status Official language in Regulated by Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3

Gujarat (India)[1][2] No official regulation

gu guj guj
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi sharing a laugh together in Bombay in 1944, for ill-fated political talks. These two prime political figures of the Indian subcontinent in the 20th century were Gujaratis and thus native speakers of the Gujarati language. For Jinnah, Gujarati did not factor beyond that of a mother tongue. He was neither born nor raised in Gujarat[3], and Gujarat did not end up a part of Pakistan, the state he espoused. He went on to advocate for solely Urdu in his politics. For Gandhi, Gujarati served as a medium of literary expression. He helped to inspire a renewal in its literature[4], and in 1936 he introduced the current spelling convention at the Gujarati Literary Society’s 12th meeting[5]. Gujarati (also having been variously spelled as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, Guujaratee, Gujrathi, and Gujerathi[6][1]) is a modern Indo-Aryan language evolved from Sanskrit. The traditional practice is to differentiate the IA languages on the basis of three historical stages[6]: 1. Old IA (Vedic and Classical Sanskrit) 2. Middle IA (various Prakrits and Apabhramshas) 3. New IA (modern languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, etc.) Another view accords successive family, tree splits, in which Gujarati is assumed to have

Gujarati (??????? Gujǎrātī?) is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater IndoEuropean language family. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its chief language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. There are about 46.1 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Along with Romany and Sindhi, it is among the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
English hand seven eight snake Sanskrit hasta sapta aṣṭā sarpa Prakrit hattha satta aṭṭha sappa Gujarati hāth sāt āṭh sāp

Gujarati language
[10] [11] [12] [13]

separated from other IA languages in four stages[7]: 1. IA languages split into Northern, Eastern, and Western divisions based on the innovate characteristics such as stops becoming voiced in the Northern (Skt. danta "tooth" > Punj. dānd) and dental and retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal in the Eastern (Skt. sandhya "evening" > Beng. śājh).[8] 2. Western, into Central and Southern. 3. Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, and Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the basis of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani.[6] 4. Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani through development of such characteristics as auxiliary ch- and the possessive marker -n- during the 15th century.[9] The principal changes from Sanskrit are the following[7]: • Phonological • Loss of phonemic length for vowels • Change of consonant clusters to geminate and then to single consonants (with compensatory vowel length) • Morphological • Reduction in the number of compounds • Merger of the dual with plural • Replacement of case affixes by postpositions • Development of periphrastic tense/voice/mood constructions • Syntax • Split ergativity • More complex agreement system Gujarati is then customarily divided into the following three historical stages[6]: Old Gujarati (1100 — 1500 AD), ancestor of Gujarati and Rajasthani,[4] was spoken by the Gurjars in northern Gujarat and western Rajasthan. Texts of this era display characteristic Gujarati features such as direct/oblique noun forms, postpositions, and auxiliary verbs.[7] It had 3 genders as Gujarati does today, and by around the time of 1300 CE a fairly standardized form of this language

emerged. While generally known as Old Gujarati, some scholars prefer the name of Old Western Rajasthani, based on the argument that Gujarati and Rajasthani were not yet distinct at the time. Also factoring into this preference was the belief that modern Rajasthani sporadically expressed a neuter gender, based on the incorrect conclusion that the [ũ] that came to be pronounced in some areas for masculine [o] after a nasal consonant was analogous to Gujarati’s neuter [ũ].[14] A formal grammar of the precursor to this language was written by Jain monk and eminent scholar Hemachandra Suri in the reign of Rajput king Siddharaj Jayasinh of Anhilwara (Patan). Major works were written in various genres, for the most part in verse form, such as[15]: • rāsa, predominantly didactic narrative, of which the earliest known is Śālibhadrasūri’s Bhārateśvarabāhubali (1185). • phāgu, in which spring time is celebrated, of which the earliest is Jinapadmasūri’s Sirithūlibadda (ca. 1335). The most famous is the Vasantavilāsa, of unknown scholarship, which is undeterminedly dated to somewhere in fourteenth or fifteenth century, or possibly earlier. • bārmāsī, describing natural beauty during each of the twelve months. • ākhyāna, in which different sections are each in a single metre. Narasimha Mehta (c. 1414 — 1480) is traditionally viewed as the father of modern Gujarati poetry. By virtue of its early age and good editing, an important prose work is the fourteenth-century commentary of Taruṇaprabha, the Ṣaḍāvaśyakabālabodhavr̥tti.[15] Middle Gujarati (1500 — 1800 AD), split off from Rajasthani, and developed the phonemes ɛ and ɔ, the auxiliary stem ch-, and the possessive marker -n-.[16] Major phonological changes characteristic of the transition between Old and Middle Gujarati are[15]: • i, u develop to ə in open syllables


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• dipthongs əi, əu change to ɛ and ɔ in initial syllables and to e and o elsewhere • əũ develops to ɔ̃ in initial syllables and to ű in final syllables These developments would have grammatical consequences. For example, Old Gujarati’s instrumental-locative singular in -i was leveled and eliminated, having become the same as Old Gujarati’s nominative-accusative singular in -ə.[15] Modern Gujarati (1800 AD — ). A major phonological change was the deletion of final ə’s, such that the modern language has consonant-final words. Grammatically, a new plural marker of -o developed.[15] In literature, the third quarter of the 19th century saw a series of milestones for Gujarati, which previously had had verse as its dominant mode of literary composition.[17] • 1840s, personal diary composition; Nityanondh, Durgaram Mahetaji. • 1851, first essay; Maniaḷī Maḷvāthi thātā Lābh, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave. • 1866, first novel; Karaṇ Ghelo, Nandashankar Mehta. • 1866, first autobiography; Mārī Hakīkat, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.

Gujarati language
in Leicester, Coventry and Bradford. A considerable population exists in North America as well. A portion of these numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, under increasing discrimination and policies of Africanisation in their newly-independent resident countries (especially Uganda, where Idi Amin expelled 50 000 Asians), were left with uncertain futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports, settled in the UK.[4][18] Besides being spoken by the Gujarati people, non-Gujarati residents of and migrants to the state of Gujarat also count as speakers, among them the Kutchis (as a literary language)[4], the Parsis (adopted as a mother tongue), and Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan.

Official status
Gujarati is one of the 22 and 14 regional languages cially recognized in the India. See also: States of India by official languages of India. It is offistate of Gujarat, Gujarati speakers

The accepted standard dialect is the speech of the area from Baroda to Ahmedabad and north.[15] Ethnologue lists the following dialects and subdivisions.[1] • Standard Gujarati • Saurashtra Standard • Nagari • Bombay Gujarati • Patnuli • Gamadia • Gramya • Surti • Anavla • Bhathla • Machi • Eastern Broach Gujarati • Charotari • Patidari • Vadodari • Amdavadi • • Patani • Parsi • Kathiyawadi • Jhalawadi • Sorathi • Holadi • Gohilwadi • Bhavnagari

Demographics and Distribution

Map of Gujarat Of the approximately 46 million speakers of Gujarati, roughly 45.5 million reside in India, 150 000 in Uganda, 250 000 in Tanzania, 50 000 in Kenya and roughly 100 000 in Pakistan.[1] There is also a large Gujarati community in Mumbai, India. The United Kingdom has 300 000 speakers, many of them situated in the London areas of Wembley, Harrow and Newham and


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Vowels Front Close Mid Open i e ɛ ə ɑ Consonants Bilabial Nasal Plosive Affricate Fricative Tap or Flap Approximant • Mer • Kharva • Khakari • Tarimukhi • Ghisadi ʋ s ɾ l ɭ j m p pʰ b bʱ Labiodental Dental/ Alveolar n t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ d̪ʱ Retroflex ɳ ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɖʱ tʃ tʃʰ ʃ dʒ dʒʱ Post-alv./ Palatal Central

Gujarati language

Back u o ɔ



k g kʰ gʱ


Categorization and Sources
These are the three general categories of words in modern Indo-Aryan: tatsam, tadbhav, and loanwords.[20]

Closely related languages
Kutchi, also known as Khojki, is often referred to as a dialect of Gujarati, but most linguists consider it closer to Sindhi.

?????? tadbhav, "of the nature of that". Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit (old Indo-Aryan), and this category pertains exactly to that: words of Sanskritic origin that have demonstratively undergone change over the ages, ending up characteristic of modern Indo-Aryan languages specifically as well as in general. Thus the "that" in "of the nature of that" refers to Sanskrit. They tend to be non-technical, everyday, crucial words; part of the spoken vernacular. Below is a table of a few Gujarati tadbhav words and their Old IndoAryan sources:

Phonology Writing system
Similar to other Nāgarī writing systems, the Gujarati script is an abugida. It is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of Devanāgarī script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a small number of modifications in the remaining characters. Gujarati and closely related languages, including Kutchi, can be written in the Arabic or Persian scripts. This is traditionally done by many in Gujarat’s Kutch district.

?????? tatsam, "same as that". While Sanskrit eventually stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it changed into Middle Indo-Aryan, it was nonetheless standardized and retained as a literary and liturgical language for long after. This category consists of these borrowed words of (more or less) pure Sanskrit character. They serve to enrich Gujarati and modern Indo-Aryan in its formal, technical, and religious vocabulary. They are


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Old Indo-Aryan I falls, slips causes to move school attains to, obtains tiger equal, alike, level all Tatsam lekhak vijetā vikǎsit jāgǎraṇ Tatsam karma Work — Dharmic religious concept of works or deeds whose divine consequences are experienced in this life or the next. aham khasati arpayati nayaśālā prāpnoti vyāghra sama sarva English writer winner developed awakening Gujarati hũ khasvũ āpvũ niśāḷ pāmvũ vāgh samũ sau Gujarati lakhnār jītnār vikǎselũ jāgvānũ to move to give

Gujarati language
[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26]

right, sound

[27] [28]

Tadbhav kām work [without any religious connotations].

kṣetra Field — Abstract sense, such as a field of knowledge or activ- khetar field [in agriity; khāngī kṣetra → private sector. Physical sense, but of highcultural er or special importance; raṇǎkṣetra → battlefield. sense]. recognizable by their Sanskrit inflections and markings; they are thus often treated as a separate grammatical category unto themselves. Many old tatsam words have changed their meanings or have had their meanings adopted for modern times. ??????? prasāraṇ means "spreading", but now it’s used for "broadcasting". In addition to this are neologisms, often being calques. An example is telephone, which is Greek for "far talk", translated as ?????? durbhāṣ. Though most people just use ??? phon and thus neoSanskrit has varying degrees of acceptance. So, while having unique tadbhav sets, modern IA languages have a common, higher tatsam pool. Also, tatsams and their derived tadbhavs can also co-exist in a language; sometimes of no consequence: dharmadharam, other times with differences in meaning, with the former holding a "higher" one: What remains are words of foreign origin (videśī), as well as words of local origin that cannot be pegged as belonging to any of the three prior categories (deśaj). The former consists mainly of Persian, Arabic, and English, with trace elements of Portuguese and Turkish. While the phenomenon of English loanwords is relatively new, Perso-Arabic has a longer history behind it. Both English and Perso-Arabic influences are quite nation-wide phenomena, in a way paralleling tatsam as a common vocabulary set or bank. What’s more is how, beyond a transposition into general Indo-Aryan, the Perso-Arabic set has also been assimilated in a manner characteristic and relevant to the specific Indo-Aryan language it’s being used in, bringing to mind tadbhav.

India was ruled for many a century by Persian-speaking Muslims. As a consequence Indian languages were changed greatly, with the large scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One fundamental adoption was Persian’s conjunction "that", ke. Also, while tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically continuous to Gujarati, it is essentially of a differing grammar (or language), and that in comparison while Perso-


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NOUNS MASC fāydo gain, advantage, benefit humlo attack dāvo claim NEU FEM

Gujarati language

A [30] khānũ compartment P [31] kharīdī purchase(s), P [32] tājũ shopping A [34] makān house, building A [38] nasīb A [42] śaher luck city A [35] śardī A [39] bāju P [43] cījh P [47] jindgī English man, mortal place, land <adjectival suffix> closed, fastened cold side thing life P [36] judũ P [40] najīk


P [33]

different, P [37] separate near

P [41]

natījo result, outcome gusso anger Persian marǎd stān ī band

P [44] kharāb bad P [48] lāl red

A [45]

P [46] medān plain INDO-ARYAN martya sthān īya bandh

P [49]

Arabic is etymologically foreign, it has been in certain instances and to varying degrees grammatically indigenized. Owing to centuries of situation and the end of Persian education and power, (1) Perso-Arabic loans are quite unlikely to be thought of or known as loans, and (2) more importantly, these loans have often been Gujarati-ized. dāvo - claim, fāydo - benefit, natījo - result, and humlo - attack, all carry Gujarati’s masculine gender marker, o. khānũ - compartment, has the neuter ũ. Aside from easy slotting with the auxiliary karvũ, a few words have made a complete transition of verbification: kabūlvũ to admit (fault), kharīdvũ - to buy, kharǎcvũ to spend (money), gujarvũ - to pass. The last three are definite part and parcel. Below is a table displaying a number of these loans. Currently some of the etymologies are being referenced to an Urdu dictionary, so it should be noted that Gujarati’s singular masculine o corresponds to Urdu ā, neuter ũ groups into ā as Urdu has no neuter gender, and Urdu’s Persian z is not upheld in Gujarati and corresponds to j or jh. In contrast to modern Persian, the pronunciation of these loans into Gujarati and other Indo-Aryan languages, as well as that of Indian-recited Persian, seems to be in line with Persian spoken in Afghanistan and Central Asia, perhaps 500 years ago[29]. Lastly, Persian, being part of the Indo-Iranian language family as Sanskrit and Gujarati are,

met up in some instances with its cognates[50]: Zoroastrian Persian refugees known as Parsis also speak an accordingly Persianized form of Gujarati.[51]


śrī sarasvatī fruṭ jyuś sɛnṭar - "Shri Saraswati Fruit Juice Centre". Note that "Fruit Juice Centre" is in English. A Sanskritic alternative would be phaḷnā rasno kendra. It (kendra in particular) would however sound quite pedantic and out of place. With the end of Perso-Arabic inflow, English became the current foreign source of new vocabulary. English had and continues to have a considerable influence over Indian languages. Loanwords include new innovations and concepts, first introduced directly through British colonialism, and then streaming in on the basis of continued Anglosphere dominance in the post-colonial period. Besides the category of new ideas is the category of English words that already have Gujarati counterparts which end up replaced or


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gujarati language

bâṅk helo halo hālo

bank hello







rabbar eraser room

ṭorc flashlight dôkṭar āis ice krīm cream rôbaṭ

hôspiṭal hospital sṭeśan station sāykal (bi)cycle rum aspitāl ṭeśan ispitāl āṇṭī1 auntie ticket pākīṭ sleṭ wallet kavar envelope noṭ slate hoṭal hotel pārṭī

aṅkal1 uncle

banknote skūl school party ṭren train


minaṭ minute ṭikiṭ miniṭ ṭikaṭ Gujarati istrī mistrī ² sābu cāvī tamāku kobī kāju pāũ baṭāko anānas pādrī aṅgrej(ī) nātāl


Meaning iron(ing) carpenter soap key tobacco cabbage cashew bread potato pineapple ’father’ English christmas

Portuguese estirar1 mestre³ sabão chave tabaco couve caju pão batata ananás padre inglês natal one. Though often inexplicable, gender assignment may follow the same basis as it is expressed in Gujarati: vowel type, and the nature of word meaning. • 1 These English forms are often used (prominently by NRIs) for those family friends and elders that aren’t actually uncles and aunts but are of the age.

existed alongside with. The major driving force behind this latter category has to be the continuing role of English in modern India as a language of education, prestige, and mobility. In this way, Indian speech can be sprinkled with English words and expressions, even switches to whole sentences.[52] See Hinglish, Code-switching. In matters of sound, English alveolar consonants map as retroflexes rather than dentals. Two new characters were created in Gujarati to represent English /æ/’s and /ɔ/’s. Levels of Gujarati-ization in sound vary. Some words don’t go far beyond this basic transpositional rule, and sound much like their English source, while others differ in ways, one of those ways being the carrying of dentals. See Indian English. As English loanwards are a relatively new phenomenon, they adhere to English grammar, as tatsam words adhere to Sanskrit. Though that isn’t to say that the most basic changes have been underway: many English words are pluralized with Gujarati o over English "s". Also, with Gujarati having 3 genders, genderless English words must take

The smaller foothold the Portuguese had in wider India had linguistic effects. Gujarati took up a number of words, while elsewhere the influence was great enough to the extent that creole languages came to be (see Portuguese India, Portuguese-based creole languages#India and Sri Lanka). Comparatively, the impact of Portuguese has been greater on coastal languages[53] and their loans tend to be closer to the Portuguese originals[54]. The source dialect of these loans imparts an earlier pronunciation of ch as an affricate instead of the current standard of [ʃ].[29] 1 "Lengthen".

Common occupational surname.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gujarati language
Marathi tanken, or tanka "reservoir of water, tank." Perhaps from Skt. tadaga-m "pond, lake pool," and reinforced in later sense of "large artificial container for liquid" (1690) by Port. tanque "reservoir," from estancar "hold back a current of water," from V.L. *stanticare (see stanch). But others say the Port. word is the source of the Indian ones.[57]

Gujarati is a head-final, or left-branching language. Adjectives precede nouns, direct objects come before verbs, and there are postpositions. The word order of Gujarati is SOV, and there are three genders and two numbers. There are no definite or indefinite articles. A verb is expressed with its verbal root followed by suffixes marking aspect and agreement in what is called a main form, with a possible proceeding auxiliary form derived from to be, marking tense and mood, and also showing agreement. Causatives (up to double) and passives have morphological basis’.[58]

A newspaper extract written in Parsi Gujarati, in or before 1892. It is about Englishmen who speak French.[19]

Sample Text


Loans into English
Bungalow— “ 1676, from Gujarati bangalo, from Hindi bangla "low, thatched house," lit. "Bengalese," used elliptically for "house in the Bengal style."[55] ” Gujarati sample (Sign about Gandhi’s hut) Gujarati script — ????????? ??????-????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??.??-?-?????? ??.?-?-???? ???? ????? ????? ???. ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???. ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? ??????? ???.

Coolie— “ 1598, "name given by Europeans to ” hired laborers in India and China," from Hindi quli "hired servant," probably from kuli, name of an aboriginal tribe or caste in Gujarat.[56] c.1616, "pool or lake for irrigation or drinking water," a word originally brought by the Portuguese from India, ult. from Gujarati tankh "cistern, underground reservoir for water," ”

Tank— “


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
gāndhījī-n-ī gandhiji–GEN–FEM jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc jhū̃pṛ-ī-Ø hut–FEM–SG pachī gāndhījī-e ahī̃ āmb-ā-Ø-n-ā

Gujarati language
Karāṛī karadi vṛkṣ nīce

world famous khajūr-ī-Ø-n-ā̃

dandi march after gandhiji–ERG here mango–MASC.OBL–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL tree under chaṭiy-ā̃-n-ī ek jhū̃pṛ-ī-Ø-mā̃ tā. 14 4 1930thī tā.

palmdate–FEM–SG–GEN–NEUT.OBL bark–NEUT.PL.OBL–GEN–FEM.OBL one hut–FEM–SG–in date 14 4 date 1930–from nivās kar-y-o ha-t-o . dāṇḍīmā̃ chaṭhṭhī epril-e śarū


residence.MASC.SG.OBJ.NOM do–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG kānūn bhaṅg-n-ī law laṛat-Ø-ne te-m-ṇe

dandi–in sixth ahī̃-thī

April–at started do–PA veg āp-ī

break–GEN–FEM.OBL fight.FEM.OBJ–SG–ACC 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG here–from speed–OBJ give–CONJUN ha-t-ī . ahī̃-thī-j te-m-ṇe dharāsaṇā-n-ā



here–from–INTENSIFIER 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG dharasana–GEN–MAS səŋkəlp bɾiʈiʃ ʋɑjsəɾɔjne pət̪ɾə ləkʰine ʤəɽ̃ɑʋjot̪o. t̪ɑ.__t̪ʰi me ____ni ɾɑt̪nɑ bɑɾ ʋɑgjɑ pəʧʰi ɑ st̪ʰəɭet̪ʰi bɾiʈiʃ səɾkɑɾe t̪ɛmni d̪ʱəɾpəkəɽ kəɾit̪i. Simple gloss — gandhiji’s hut-karadi world famous dandi march after gandhiji here mango’s tree under palm date’s bark’s one hut-in date.14-4-1930-from date.4-5-1930 until residence done was. dandi-in sixth april-at started done salt law break’s fight(-to) he here-from speed gave country wide made was. here-from he dharasana’s salt’s mounds towards march doing’s self’s resolve british viceroy-to letter written-having notified was. date.4-from may 1930’s night’s twelve struck after this place-at-from british government his arrest done was. Transliteration and detailed gloss — Translation (by Wikipedia) — Gandhiji’s hut-Karadi After the world-famous Dandi March Gandhiji resided here in a date palm

??.??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ???. Transliteration — gāndhījīnī jhū̃pṛī-Karāṛī jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījīe ahī̃ āmbānā vr̥kṣ nīce khajūrīnā̃ chaṭiyā̃nī ek jhū̃pṛīmā̃ tā.14-4-1930thī tā.4-5-1930 sudhī nivās karyo hato. dāṇḍīmā̃ chaṭhṭhī eprile śarū karelī nimak kānūn bhaṅgnī laṛatne temṇe ahī̃thī veg āpī deś vyāpī banāvī hatī. ahī̃thīj temṇe dharāsaṇānā mīṭhānā agaro taraph kūc karvāno potāno saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôyne patra lakhīne jaṇāvyo hato. tā.4thī me 1930nī rātnā bār vāgyā pachī ā sthaḷethī briṭiś sarkāre temnī dharpakaṛ karī hatī. Transcription (IPA) — gɑn̪d̪ʱiʤini ʤʱũpɽi-kəɾɑɽi ʤəg pɾəsɪd̪d̪ʱ ɖɑɳɖi kuʧ pəʧʰi gɑn̪d̪ʱiʤie ə̤j̃ ɑmbɑnɑ ʋɾʊkʃ niʧe kʰəʤuɾnɑ̃ ʧʰəʈijɑ̃ni ek ʤʱũpɽimɑ̃ t̪ɑ _________t̪ʰi t̪ɑ._______ sud̪ʱi niʋɑs kəɾjot̪o. ɖɑɳɖimɑ̃ ʧʰəʈʰʈʰi epɾile ʃəɾu kəɾeli nimək kɑnun bʱəŋgni ləɽət̪ne t̪ɛmɳe ə̤j̃t̪ʰi ʋeg ɑpi deʃ ʋjɑpi bənɑʋit̪i. ə̤j̃t̪ʰiʤ t̪ɛmɳe d̪ʱəɾɑsəɽ̃ɑnɑ miʈʰɑnɑ əgəɾo t̪əɾəf kuʧ kəɾʋɑno pot̪ɑno


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
mīṭh-ā-n-ā agar-o taraph kūc

Gujarati language


salt–NEUT.SG.OBL–GEN–MASC.PL mound.MASC–PL towards march.MASC.SG do–INF–OBL–GEN–MASC.SG REFL–GE saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôy-Ø-ne patra lakh-īne jaṇ-āv-y-o


resolve.MASC.SG.OBJ.ACC British viceroy.OBJ–SG–DAT letter write–CONJUNCTIVE know–CAUS–PERF–MASC.SG b 4-thī me 1930-n-ī rāt-Ø-n-ā bār vāg-y-ā pachī ā


4-from may 1930–GEN–FEM.OBL night.FEM–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL twelve strike–PERF–OBL after 3.PROX place–a sarkār-e te-m-n-ī dharpakaṛ kar-Ø-ī ha-t-ī .

government–ERG 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–GEN–FEM arrest.FEM.SG.OBJ.ACC do–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM bark hut underneath a/the mango tree, from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930. From here he gave speed to and spread countrywide the anti-Salt Law struggle, started in Dandi on April the 6th. From here, writing in a letter, he notified the British Viceroy of his resolve of marching towards the salt mounds of Dharasana. The British government arrested him at this location, after twelve o’clock on the night of the 4th of May, 1930. Translation (provided at location) — Gandhiji’s hut-Karadi Here under the mango tree in the hut made of palm leaves (khajoori) Gandhiji stayed from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930 after the world famous Dandi march. From here he gave impetus to the civil disobedience movement for breaking the salt act started on April 6 at Dandi and turned it into a nation wide movement. It was also from this place that he wrote a letter to the British viceroy expressing his firm resolve to march to the salt works at Dharasana. This is the place from where he was arrested by the British government after midnight on May 4, 1930. • Indic script IMEs (keyboard layouts) and other Indic-language software by Microsoft - Windows.

See also
• Languages of India • List of national languages of India • List of Indian languages by total speakers

[1] ^ Gordon 2005 [2] Dwyer 1995, p. 5 [3] Timeline: Personalities, Story of Pakistan. ""Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)"". person.asp?perid=P009. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. [4] ^ Dalby 1998, p. 237 [5] Mistry 1997, p. 654 [6] ^ Mistry 2001, pp. 274 [7] ^ Mistry 2003, p. 115 [8] Mistry 1997, pp. 654-655 [9] Mistry 1997, p. 655 [10] Turner 1966, p. 811. Entry 14024. [11] Turner 1966, p. 760. Entry 13139. [12] Turner 1966, p. 41. Entry 941. [13] Turner 1966, p. 766. Entry 13271. [14] Smith, J.D. (2001) "Rajasthani." Facts about the world’s languages: An encyclopedia of the world’s major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates. pp. 591-593. [15] ^ Cardona & Suthar 2003, p. 661 [16] Mistry 2003, pp. 115-116 [17] Yashaschandra, S. (1995) "Towards Hind Svaraj: An Interpretation of the Rise of Prose in Nineteenth-Century Gujarati

Common Words, Phrases, and Idioms Software
• Lipikaar - The indic script typing tool with support for Gujarati through a Windows desktop executable or Firefox Extension.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gujarati ??? ??? ??????, ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? (?????) ???? ?? ???????? ????? Transliteration English kem cho? namaste, namaskār tame gujarātī bolo cho? How are you? Greetings Do you speak Gujarati? Notes The Gujarati greeting. Formal pan-Hindu greetings.

Gujarati language

The pronoun tame and the os following bol and ch are honorific. cf. French’s vous parlez.

hũ gujarātī bolũ I speak chũ Gujarati mane gujarātī I know (boltā) āvṛe che (how to speak) Gujarati aṅgrejī sārũ English Good Traditional Portuguese loan; ??????? iṅgliś is also well understood. The end vowel ũ signifies that this adjective is variable. It agrees with what it describes. The root is sār and the appropriate agreement vowel is slotted in behind it. Right now that vowel is singular neuter ũ, default for when the variable is alone and not describing (agreeing with) something. Arabic loan. tamārũ "Your" is honorific. cf. French’s votre.



Bad What is your name? My name is ___ What is ___ called in Gujarati? Yes No Bye Eh?, Right?, Isn’t it? That’s it!, Enough!, Just... What happened? I like ___

?????? ??? tamārũ nām śũ ??? ??? che? ????? ??? ___ ?? mārũ nām ___ che

Name is a neuter noun.

?????????? gujarātīmā̃ ___(??) ??? ___(ne) śũ ?????? kevāy? ??, ????? ??, ???? ???? ??? hā, hā̃jī nā, nājī āvjo ne?

In increasing formality. lit. Do come



Persian loan.

??? ?????

śũ thayũ?

??? ___ ??? mane ___ game ?? che ?????? ???????? keṭlā̃ vāgyā̃?

lit. to me ___ is (being) likeable.

What time lit. How many did it strike? is it?


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
??????? sambhāḷjo Take care Don’t lit. Do not eat my head bother me

Gujarati language

????? mārũ māthũ na ????? ? ?? khā ... ?? ? ??????? ??? ke na pūchvānī vāt

... that you lit. an un-ask-able talk or a talk not to (be) ask(ed) wouldn’t believe it

Literature." Social Scientist. Vol. 23, No. 10/12. pp. 41-55. [18] Dwyer 1995, p. 273 [19] Tisdall 1892, p. 148 [20] Snell, R. (2000) Teach Yourself Beginner’s Hindi Script. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 83-86. [21] Turner 1966, p. 44. Entry 992. [22] Turner 1966, p. 203. Entry 3856. [23] Turner 1966, p. 30. Entry 684. [24] Turner 1966, p. 401. Entry 6969. [25] Turner 1966, p. 502. Entry 8947. [26] Turner 1966, p. 706. Entry 12193. [27] Turner 1966, p. 762. Entry 13173. [28] Turner 1966, p. 766. Entry 13276. [29] ^ Masica 1991, p. 75 [30] Platts 1884, p. 776 [31] Platts 1884, p. 486 [32] Platts 1884, p. 489 [33] Platts 1884, p. 305 [34] Tisdall 1892, p. 168 [35] Platts 1884, p. 1057 [36] Platts 1884, p. 653 [37] Tisdall 1892, p. 170 [38] Platts 1884, p. 519 [39] Platts 1884, p. 1142 [40] Tisdall 1892, p. 160 [41] Tisdall 1892, p. 177 [42] Platts 1884, p. 1123 [43] Tisdall 1892, p. 184 [44] Platts 1884, p. 471 [45] Tisdall 1892, p. 172 [46] Platts 1884, p. 771 [47] Tisdall 1892, p. 175 [48] Tisdall 1892, p. 169 [49] Platts 1884, p. 947 [50] Masica 1991, p. 71 [51] Tisdall 1892, p. 15 [52] Masica 1991, pp. 49-50 [53] Masica 1991, p. 49 [54] Masica 1991, p. 73 [55] Bungalow. Online Etymology Dictionary. [56] Coolie. Online Etymology Dictionary. [57] Tank. Online Etymology Dictionary. [58] Mistry 2001, pp. 276-277

• Belsare, M.B. (1904) An etymological Gujarati-English Dictionary. • Deshpande, P.G. (1974) Gujarati-English Dictionary. Ahmadabad: University Granth Nirman Board. • Deshpande, P.G. (1982) Modern EnglishGujarati Dictionary. Bombay: Oxford University Press. • Deshpande, P.G. & Parnwell, E.C. (1977) Oxford Picture Dictionary. EnglishGujarati. Oxford University Press. • Deshpande, P.G. (1988) Universal EnglishGujarati Dictionary. Bombay: Oxford University Press. • Mehta, B.N. & Mehta, B.B. (1925) The Modern Gujarati-English Dictionary. • Platts, J.T. (1884), written at London, A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, W. H. Allen & Co, < platts/>. • Suthar, B. (2003) Gujarati-English Learner’s Dictionary (1 Mb) • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1966), written at London, A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, Oxford University Press, < dictionaries/soas/>.

• Cardona, George (1965), A Gujarati Reference Grammar, University of Pennsylvania Press. • Taylor, G.P. (1908), written at New Delhi, The Student’s Gujarati Grammar, Asian Educational Services. • Tisdall, W.S. (1892), A Simplified Grammar of the Gujarati Language, < simplifiedgramma00tisdiala>.

• Dave, Jagdish (1995), Colloquial Gujarati (2004 ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0415091969. • Dwyer, Rachel (1995), written at London, Teach Yourself Gujarati, Hodder and


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stoughton, < publications.html>. • Lambert, H.M. (1971), Gujarati Language Course, Cambridge University Press.

Gujarati language

Old Gujarati

• Bender, E. (1992) The Salibhadra-DhannaCarita: A Work in Old Gujarati Critically Edited and Translated, with a Grammatical Analysis and Glossary. Phonology American Oriental Society: New Haven, • Dave, T.N. (1931), "Notes on Gujarati Conn. ISBN 0-940490-73-0 Phonology", Bulletin of the School of • Brown, W.N. (1938), "An Old Gujarati Text Oriental Studies 6 (3): 673-678, of the Kalaka Story", Journal of the < American Oriental Society 58 (1): 5-29, sici?sici=1356-1898%281931%296%3A3%3C673%3ANOGP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W>. < • Firth, J.R. (1957), "Phonetic Observations sici?sici=0003-0279%28193803%2958%3A1%3C5%3A on Gujarati", Bulletin of the School of • Dave, T.N. (1935) A Study of the Gujarati Oriental and African Studies 20 (1): Language in the XVth Century. The Royal 231-241, < Asiatic Society. ISBN 0947593306 sici?sici=0041-977X%281957%2920%3A1%2F3%3C231%3APOOG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P>. • Tessitori, L.P. (1914-1916) "Notes on the • Mistry, P.J. (1997), "Gujarati Phonology", Grammar of Old Western Rajasthani." written at Winona Lake, in Kaye, A.S, Indian Antiquary. 43-45. Phonologies of Asia and Africa, Eisenbrauns. Other • Pandit, P.B. (1961), "Historical Phonology • Gajendragadkar, S.N. (1972), written at of Gujarati Vowels", Language 37 (1): Bombay, Parsi Gujarati, University of 54-66, < Bombay. sici?sici=0097-8507%28196101%2F03%2937%3A1%3C54%3AHPOGV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R>. • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005), • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1921), "Gujarati "Gujarati", written at Dallas, Ethnologue: Phonology", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Languages of the World (15th ed.), SIL Society: 505-544. International. • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1915), "Indo-Aryan • Masica, Colin (1991), written at Nasals in Gujarati", Journal of the Royal Cambridge, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Asiatic Society: 1033-1038. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521299442, Overviews < • Cardona, George & Babu Suthar (2003), books?id=J3RSHWePhXwC&printsec=frontcover&dq= "Gujarati", in Cardona, George & Dhanesh aryan+languages>. Jain, The Indo-Aryan Languages, • Mistry, P.J. (1996), "Gujarati Writing", in Routledge, ISBN 9780415772945, Daniels & Bright, The World’s Writing < Systems, Oxford University Press. books?id=jPR2OlbTbdkC&pg=PA659&dq=indoaryan+languages&sig=69z4DJxBuD4SPTTINIbzK_YW6ac>. • Dalby, Andrew (1998), "Gujarati", written at New York, Dictionary of languages: the Linguistic resources definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, • UCLA Language Materials Project: ISBN 0231115687. Gujarati • Mistry, P.J. (2003), "Gujarati", written at • Ratilal Chandaria’s Online Language Oxford, in Frawley, William, International Resources Encyclopedia of Linguistics, vol. 2 (2nd • Gujarati Wiktionary ed.), Oxford University Press. • Website for reading Gujarati Literature • Mistry, P.J. (2001), "Gujarati", in Garry, Online Jane & Carl Rubino, An encyclopedia of • Gujarati English Dictionary the world’s major languages, past and • Online Gujarati Type Pad with Gujarati present, New England Publishing Spell Checker Associates. • Gujarati script and alphabets

External links


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gujarati language
• SBS Gujarati Radio (Australia) • Gujarati Kavita and Gazals • The South Asian Literary Recordings Project, The Library of Congress. Gujarati Authors.

• • • • Gujarati Language and Literature Gujarati Language and Literature A brief history of the Gujarati language Gujarati Writers Guild UK

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