Golf by zzzmarcus

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A golfer in his backswing Highest governing body First played Clubs Characteristics Contact Category Ball Olympic No Outdoor Golf ball 1900, 1904[1] R&A USGA 15th century 14 or fewer

Golf is a sport in which players using many types of clubs including woods, irons, and putters, attempt to hit balls into each hole on a golf course in the lowest possible number of strokes. Golf is one of the few ball games that does not use a standardized playing area; rather the game is played on golf "courses", each one of which has a unique design and typically consists of either 9 or 18 holes. Golf is defined in the Rules of Golf as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules". Golf competition is generally played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known simply as stroke play, or for the lowest score on the most individual holes during a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play.

The origin of golf is unclear and open to debate however the most accepted golf history

theory is that golf (as practised today) originated from Scotland in the 12th century, with shepherds knocking stones into rabbit holes in the place where the famous Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews now sits.[2] Scholars have claimed references to a form of golf from hieroglyphs found on stone tablets dating to ancient Egyptian Pharaohs. Chui Wan ("chui" or ? means striking and "wan" or ? means small ball in Chinese)[3], a game consisting of driving a ball with a stick into holes in the ground, was first mentioned in Dōngxuān Records (Chinese: ???), a Chinese book of 11th century, and Chinese professor Ling Hongling of Lanzhou University claims that the game was brought to Europe by the Mongols in the 12th and 13th centuries.[4] It is also believed that golf is originated from another ancient Chinese game "Ji-jou (??)"[5]. A Dutch game was mentioned on 26 February 1297 in a city called Loenen aan de Vecht. Here they played a game with a stick and leather ball. Whomever hit the ball into a target several hundreds of metres away the most number of times, won. The Scottish game of goulf (variously spelled) was mentioned in two 15th century laws prohibiting its play. Some scholars have suggested that this refers to another game, which is more akin to bandy, shinty or hurling than golf.[6] There are also reports of even earlier accounts of a golf like game from continental Europe.[7] However, these earlier games are more accurately viewed as ancestors of golf, and the modern game as we understand it today originated and developed in Scotland: The earliest permanent golf course originated there, as did the very first written rules, the establishment of the 18-hole course, and the first golf club memberships. The first formalized tournament structures also emerged there and competitions were arranged between different Scottish cities. Over time, the modern game spread to England and the rest of the world. The oldest playing golf course in the world is The Musselburgh Old Links Golf Course.[8] Evidence has shown that golf was played here in 1672 although Mary, Queen of Scots reputedly played there


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in 1567. In 1646 King Charles I of England, whilst held captive by the Scots in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was reported to entertain himself by playing golf in Shieldfield.[9] As stated, golf courses have not always had eighteen holes. The St Andrews Links occupy a narrow strip of land along the sea. As early as the 15th century, golfers at St Andrews, in Fife, established a customary route through the undulating terrain, playing to holes whose locations were dictated by topography. The course that emerged featured eleven holes, laid out end to end from the clubhouse to the far end of the property. One played the holes out, turned around, and played the holes in, for a total of 22 holes. In 1764, several of the holes were deemed too short, and were therefore combined. The number was thereby reduced from 11 to nine, so that a complete round of the links comprised 18 holes. Due to the status of St Andrews as the golf capital, all other courses chose to follow suit and the 18-hole course remains the standard today.[10]

Golf Foundation. The NGF reported that the number who played golf at all fell from 30 to 26 million over the same period.[11].

Golf course

The famous 17th hole of the TPC at Sawgrass Stadium Course. Golf is played in an area of land designated a golf course. A course consists of a series of holes, each with a teeing area marked by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway, rough and other hazards, and the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin (flagstick) and cup. Different levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the tee-off point to the green, some of the holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog’s knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards, and vice versa; rarely, a hole’s direction can bend twice, and is called a "double dogleg". A typical golf course consists of eighteen holes, but many smaller courses may only have nine.[12][13] Early Scottish golf courses were are mostly laid out on links land, soil covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches[14]. This gave rise to the term golf links, particularly applied to seaside courses and those built on naturally sandy soil inland.


Golf course on the western coast of India. In 2005, Golf Digest calculated that the countries with most golf courses per capita, starting with the best endowed were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with fewer than 500,000 people were excluded). Apart from Sweden, all of these countries have English as the majority language, but the number of courses in new territories is increasing rapidly. For example, the first golf course in the People’s Republic of China opened in 1984, but by 2008 there were 376. In the United States, number of people who play golf 25 times or more per year decreased from 6.9 million in 2000 to 4.6 million in 2005,[11] according to the National

Play of the game
Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A round typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout. On a nine-hole course, a standard round consists of two successive nine-hole rounds.


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Term on scoreboard -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 Specific term Condor Albatross Eagle Birdie Par Bogey Double Bogey Triple Bogey Quadruple Bogey Definition four strokes under par three strokes under par two strokes under par one stroke under par strokes equal to par one stroke over par two strokes over par three strokes over par four strokes over par


Playing a hole on the golf course consists of hitting a ball from a tee on the teeing box (a marked area designated for the first shot of a hole, a tee shot), and once the ball comes to rest, striking it again. This process is repeated until the ball is in the cup. Once the ball is on the green (an area of finely cut grass) the ball is usually putted (hit along the ground) into the hole. The goal of resting the ball in the hole in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by hazards, such as bunkers and water hazards.[12] In most typical forms of gameplay, each player plays his/her ball until it is holed. Players can walk or drive in motorized carts over the course, either singly or with others, sometimes accompanied by caddies who carry and manage the players’ equipment and give them advice.[15]

A hole is classified by its par; the number of strokes a skilled golfer should require to complete play of the hole.[12] For example, a skilled golfer expects to reach the green on a par-four hole in two strokes (This would be considered a Green in Regulation or GIR): one from the tee (the "drive") and another, second, stroke to the green (the "approach"); and then roll the ball into the hole in two putts for par. A golf hole is either a par-three, -four or -five, rarely -six, very rarely -seven.

and 630 meters/476–690 yards. The slope of the course (uphill or downhill) can also affect the par rating. If the tee-to-green distance on a hole is predominantly downhill, it will play shorter than its physical length and may be given a lower par rating and the opposite is true for uphill holes. Par ratings are also affected by factors such as the placement of hazards or the shape of the green which can sometimes affect the play of a hole such that it requires an extra stroke to avoid playing into hazards.[17] Eighteen hole courses may have four parthree, ten par-four, and four par-five holes, though other combinations exist and are not less worthy than courses of par 72. Many major championships are contested on courses playing to a par of 70, 71, or 72. In some countries, courses are classified, in addition to the course’s par, with a course classification describing the play difficulty of a course and may be used to calculate a golfer’s playing handicap for that given course (c.f. golf handicap).[18]

In every form of play, the goal is to play as few strokes per round as possible. Scores for each hole can be described as follows:[12]

Basic forms of golf
Match play
In match play, two players (or two teams) play each hole as a separate contest against each other. The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (tied). The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other. In the case that one

The key factor for classifying the par of a hole is the tee-to-green distance. A typical length for a par-three hole ranges between 91-224 meters/100–250 yards; for a par-four hole, between 225-434 meters/251–475 yards; and for a par-five hole, between 435


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team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over. At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the match is said to be "dormie", and is continued until the leader increases the lead by one hole or ties any of the remaining holes, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie with the lead player’s opponent winning all remaining holes. When the game is tied after the predetermined number of holes have been played, it may be continued until one side takes a one-hole lead.[12]

tournament (1 point for a bogey, 2 points for a par, 3 points for a birdie, 4 points for an eagle). The points achieved for each hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total points score, and the player with the highest score wins.[12]

Team play
• A foursome (defined in Rule 29) is played between two teams of two players each, in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it. For example, if players A and B form a team, A tees off on the first hole, B will play the second shot, A the third, and so on until the hole is finished. On the second hole, B will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole), then A plays the second shot, and so on. Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play.[19] • A four-ball (Rules 30 and 31) is also played between two teams of two players each, but every player plays his/her own ball and for each team, the lower score on each hole is counted. Four-balls can be played as match play or stroke play.[20] There are also popular unofficial variations on team play: • In scramble (also known as ambrose or best shot), each player in a team tees off on each hole, and the players decide which shot was best. Every player then plays his/her second shot from within a clublength of where the best shot has come to rest, and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished. In a champagne scramble, each player in a team tees off on each hole. The best drive is used and all players play their own ball from this spot. In best ball, each player plays the hole as normal, but the lowest score of all the players on the team counts as the team’s score.[21] • In a greensome, also called modified alternate shot, both players tee off, and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. The play then alternates as in a foursome.[22] • A variant of greensome is sometimes played where the opposing team chooses which of their opponent’s tee shots the opponents should use. The player who did not shoot the chosen first shot plays the second shot. Play then continues as a greensome.

Stroke play
In stroke play, the score achieved for each and every hole of the round or tournament is added to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins. (Stroke play is the game most commonly played by professional golfers.) If there is a tie after the regulation number of holes in a professional tournament, a playoff takes place between all tied players. Playoffs are either sudden death or employ a pre-determined number of holes, anywhere from three to a full eighteen. In sudden death, a player who scores lower on a hole than all of his opponents wins the match. If at least two players remain tied after such a playoff using a pre-determined number of holes, then play continues in sudden death format, where the first player to win a hole wins the tournament.

Other forms of golf
In a skins game, golfers compete on each hole, as a separate contest. Played for prize money on the professional level or as a means of a wager for amateurs, a skin, or the prize money assigned to each hole, carries over to subsequent holes if the hole is tied (or halved). If you come to the end of the round and there are still skins left over, play continues until the final skin has been decided.

Stableford scoring
In stableford the player gains points for the score achieved on each hole of the round or


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• There is also a form of starting called shotgun, which is mainly used for tournament play. A shotgun start consists of groups starting on different holes, allowing for all players to start and end their round at the same time.

Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (R&A), which was founded 1754 and the United States Golf Association (USGA). By agreement with the R&A, USGA jurisdiction on the enforcement and interpretation of the rules is limited to the United States and Mexico. The national golf associations of other countries use the rules laid down by the R&A and there is a formal procedure for referring any points of doubt to the R&A. The decisions on the Rules of Golf are based on formal case decisions by the R&A and USGA and are revised and updated every other year. The underlying principle of the rules is fairness. As stated on the back cover of the official rule book: Play the ball as it lies, play the course as you find it, and if you cannot do either, do what is fair. Some rules state that: • Every player is entitled and obliged to play the ball from the position where it has come to rest after a stroke, unless a rule allows or demands otherwise (Rule 13-1). • A player must not accept assistance in making a stroke (Rule 14-2) • The condition of the ground or other parts of the course may not be altered to gain an advantage, except in some cases defined in the rules • A ball may only be replaced by another during play of a hole if it is destroyed (Rule 5-3), lost (Rule 27-1), or unplayable (Rule 28), or at some other time permitted by the Rules. The player may always substitute balls between the play of two holes.[24] • If a ball is in a bunker, the player can play the ball as it lies within the bunker without incurring any penalty strokes. The player can also, under penalty of one stroke, deem the ball unplayable, and drop the ball inside the bunker (Rule 28).[25] The player cannot test the condition of the bunker, nor can he/she touch the ground within the bunker with his/her hand or a club. The penalty for grounding is two strokes in stroke play, or loss of hole in match play (Rule 13-4).[25] • If a ball is in a water hazard, the player may play the ball as it lies or, under penalty of one stroke, play a ball from where it was originally hit; or, under penalty of one stroke, drop a ball at any point, as far back as the player chooses, on a line that keeps the last point at which

Handicap systems
A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer’s ability to play golf over the course of 18 holes. Handicaps can be applied either for stroke play competition or match play competition. In either competition, a handicap generally represents the number of strokes above par that a player will achieve on an above average day (i.e., when playing well). In stroke play competition, the competitor’s handicap is subtracted from their total "gross" score at the end of the round, to calculate a "net" score against which standings are calculated. In match play competition, handicap strokes are assigned on a hole-byhole basis, according to the handicap rating of each hole (which is provided by the course). The hardest holes on the course receive the first handicap strokes, with the easiest holes receiving the last handicap strokes. Calculating a handicap is often complicated, but essentially it is representative of the average over par of a number of a player’s previous above average rounds, adjusted for course difficulty. Legislations regarding the calculation of handicaps differs among countries. For example, handicap rules may include the difficulty of the course the golfer is playing on by taking into consideration factors such as the number of bunkers, the length of the course, the difficulty and slopes of the greens, the width of the fairways, and so on. Handicap systems are not used in professional golf. Professional golfers often score several strokes below par for a round and thus have a calculated handicap of 0 or less, meaning that their handicap results in the addition of strokes to their round score. Someone with a handicap of zero or less is often referred to as a scratch golfer.

Rules and regulations
The rules of golf [23][24] are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by the


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the ball entered the hazard between the player, and the hole. (Rule 26-1).[25] If a ball is in a lateral water hazard, in addition to the options for a ball in a water hazard, the player may under penalty of one stroke, drop a ball within two club lengths of the point of entry into the hazard; or, under penalty of one stroke, drop a ball on the opposite side of the hazard no closer to the hole (Rule 26-1).[25] There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers.[26] Essentially, anybody who has ever received payment or compensation for giving instruction or played golf for money is not considered an amateur and may not participate in competitions limited solely to amateurs. However, amateur golfers may receive expenses which comply with strict guidelines and they may accept non-cash prizes within the limits established by the Rules of Amateur Status. In addition to the officially printed rules, golfers also abide by a set of guidelines called golf etiquette. Etiquette guidelines cover matters such as safety, fairness, easiness and pace of play, and a player’s obligation to contribute to the care of the course. Though there are no penalties for breach of etiquette rules, players generally follow the rules of golf etiquette in an effort to improve everyone’s playing experience.


Golf clubs are used to hit a golf ball. Each club is composed of a shaft with a lance (grip) on the top end and a clubhead on the bottom. Woods, are used for long-distance fairway shots; irons, the most versatile class, are used for a variety of shots, and putters, are used to roll the ball into the cup. Only 14 clubs are allowed in a player’s bag at one time during a stipulated round. Violation of this rule can result in disqualification. Golf balls have "dimples" that decrease aerodynamic drag by increasing turbulence behind the ball in motion, which allows the ball to fly farther. [27] A tee is used for resting the ball on top of for an easier shot; allowed only for the first stroke of each hole. Many golfers wear golf shoes with metal or plastic spikes designed to increase traction thus allowing for longer and more accurate shots. A golf bag is used to transport golf clubs. Golf bags have several pockets designed for carrying various equipment and supplies such as tees, balls, and gloves required over the course of a round of golf. Golf bags can be carried, pulled on a two-wheel pull cart or harnessed to a motorized golf cart during play. Golf bags have both a hand strap and shoulder strap for carrying, and sometimes have retractable legs that allow the bag to sit upright when at rest.

Penalties are incurred in certain situations. They are counted towards a player’s score as if they were an extra swing or swings at the ball. Strokes are added for rules infractions, or for hitting one’s ball into an unplayable situation. A lost ball or a ball hit out of bounds result in a penalty of one stroke and distance. (Rule 27-1) A one stroke penalty is assessed if a players equipment causes the ball to move, or the removal of a loose impediment causes the ball to move. (Rule 18-2) If a golfer makes a stroke at the wrong ball (Rule 19-2), or hits a fellow golfer’s ball with a putt (Rule 19-5), the player incurs a two stroke penalty. Most rule infractions lead to stroke penalties, but also can lead to disqualification. Disqualification could be from cheating, signing for a lower score, or from rules infractions that lead to improper play.[25]

Swing mechanics
• Golfers start with the non-dominant side of the body facing the target. • At address the body and club are positioned parallel to the target line. • A more open stance is used for shorter distance shots except putting and a more closed stance for long distance shots. • The feet are shoulder width apart for middle irons and putters, narrower for short irons and wider for long irons and woods. • The ball is positioned in the center of the players stance for short irons and putters, more to the front for middle irons and even more for long irons and woods. • All of the weight is on the front foot for short irons, most on the front foot for middle irons and putters, and equally on both feet for long irons and woods. • The golfer chooses a grip.


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• The golfer chooses a swing appropriate to the distance • The full swing is used in long to mid distance shots. The golfer adjusts his/ her swing to fit the circumstances of the play such as distance to the green, lie of the ball and location of the hazards. The face of the club starts on ground (except in a hazard in which it is not permitted). For the right-handed golfer it consists of a "backward swing" to the dominant side, a "forward swing" back to the middle (where the ball is hit), and a "follow-through" to the nondominant side. • The chip is used in mid to short distance shots. The goal of the chip is to land the ball safely on the green with minimal roll. A swing that does not turn the shoulders gives more control over the flight path. Extra weight on the forward foot helps the golfer to come down on the ball resulting in a higher loft on the ball. • The putt is used for putting the ball in the hole or closer to the hole (as in lagging) from the green or the fringe of the green. The golfer adjusts his/her putt to fit the circumstances of the play such as distance to the hole and slope of the green. The club goes straight back and straight through along the same path like a pendulum.


Professional golf
The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals (pros), and only compete in local competitions. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full time on international "tours". Many club and teaching professionals working in the golf industry start as caddies or a general interest in the game, finding employment at golf courses and eventually moving on to certifications in their chosen profession. These programs include independent institutions and universities, and those that eventually lead to a Class A golf professional certification.

Golf tours
There are at least twenty professional golf tours, each run by a PGA or an independent tour organization, which is responsible for arranging events, finding sponsors, and regulating the tour. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in most of its events, and also invites non-members to compete in some of them. Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive, and most professional golfers never achieve it. The most widely known tour is the PGA Tour, which tends to attract the strongest fields, outside the four Majors and the three World Golf Championships events. This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA Tour events have a first prize of at least US $800,000. The European Tour, which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America, ranks second to the PGA Tour in worldwide prestige. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA Tour and European Tour. The other leading men’s tours include the Japan Golf Tour, the Asian Tour (Asia outside Japan), the PGA Tour of Australasia, and the Sunshine Tour (for Southern Africa, primarily South Africa). These four tours, along with the PGA and European Tours, are full members of the trade body of the world’s main tours, the International Federation of PGA Tours. Two other tours, the Canadian Tour and the Tour de las Américas (Latin America), are associate members of the Federation. All of these tours, except for the Tour de las Américas, offer points in the Official

Golf instruction involves the teaching and learning of the game of golf. Proficiency in teaching golf instruction requires not only technical and physical ability, but also knowledge of the rules and etiquette of the game. In some countries, golf instruction is best performed by teachers certified by the Professional Golfers Association. Some top instructors who work with professional golfers have become quite well-known in their own right. Instructors use a combination of physical conditioning, mental visualization, classroom sessions, club fitting, driving range instruction, on-course play under real conditions, and review of videotaped swings in slow motion to teach golf.


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World Golf Rankings to golfers who make the cut in their events. Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. There are several senior tours for men 50 and older, the best known of which is the U.S.-based Champions Tour. There are six principal tours for women, each based in a different country or continent. The most prestigious of these is the United States based LPGA Tour. All of the leading professional tours for under-50 players have an official developmental tour, in which the leading players at the end of the season will earn a tour card on the main tour for the following season. Examples include the Nationwide Tour, which feeds to the PGA Tour, and the Challenge Tour, which is the developmental tour of the European Tour. The Nationwide and Challenge Tours also offer Official World Golf Rankings points.

The major championships are the four most prestigious men’s tournaments of the year. In chronological order they are: The Masters, the U.S. Open, The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open) and the PGA Championship.[28] The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia since its inception in 1934. It is the only major championship that is played at the same course each year.[29] The U.S. Open and PGA Championship are played at courses around the United States, while The Open Championship is played at courses in the UK.[30][31][32] The number of major championships a player accumulates in his career has an impact on his stature in the sport. Jack Nicklaus is considered to be the greatest golfer of all time, largely because he has won a record 18 professional majors, or 20 majors in total if his two U.S. Amateurs are included. Tiger Woods, who may be the only golfer in the foreseeable future likely to challenge Nicklaus’s record, has won 14 professional majors (17 total if his three U.S. Amateurs are included), all before the age of 33. (To put this total in perspective, Nicklaus had won 11 professional majors and two U.S. Amateurs by his 33rd birthday, and did not win his 15th professional major until he was 35.) Woods also came closest to winning all four current majors in one season (known as a Grand Slam completed first by Bobby Jones) when he won them consecutively across two seasons: the 2000 U.S. Open, Open Championship, and PGA Championship; and the 2001 Masters. This feat has been frequently called the Tiger Slam. Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters, the four Majors were the U.S. Open, the U.S. Amateur, the Open Championship, and the British Amateur. These were the four that Bobby Jones won in 1930 to become the only player ever to have earned a Grand Slam.

Men’s major championships

Women’s major championships
Women’s golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The list of majors recognised by the dominant women’s tour, the LPGA Tour in the U.S., has changed several times over the years, with the last change in 2001. Like the PGA Tour, the (U.S.) LPGA[33] has

Tiger Woods; currently ranked the number one male golfer in the world


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LPGA of Japan Tour, does not recognise any of the U.S. LPGA or European majors as it has its own set of three majors. However, these events attract little notice outside Japan.

Senior major championships
Senior (50-and-over) men’s golf does not have a globally agreed upon set of majors. The list of senior majors on the U.S.-based Champions Tour has changed over the years, but always by expansion. The Champions Tour now recognises five majors: the Senior PGA Championship, the U.S. Senior Open, the Senior British Open, The Tradition and the Senior Players Championship. Of the five events, the Senior PGA is by far the oldest, having been founded in 1937. The other events all date from the 1980s, when senior golf became a commercial success as the first golf stars of the television era, such as Arnold Palmer and Gary Player, reached the relevant age. The Senior British Open was not recognised as a major by the Champions Tour until 2003. The European Seniors Tour recognises only the Senior PGA and the two Senior Opens as majors. However, the Champions Tour is arguably more dominant in global senior golf than the U.S. LPGA is in global women’s golf.

Lorena Ochoa; currently ranked the number one female golfer in the world four majors: the Kraft Nabisco Championship, the LPGA Championship, the U.S. Women’s Open and the Women’s British Open. Only the last of these is also recognised by the Ladies European Tour. The other event that it recognises as a major is the Evian Masters, which is not considered a major by the LPGA (but is co-sanctioned as a regular LPGA event). However, the significance of this is limited, as the LPGA is far more dominant in women’s golf than the PGA Tour is in mainstream men’s golf. For example, the BBC has been known to use the U.S. definition of "women’s majors" without qualifying it. Also, the Ladies’ Golf Union, the governing body for women’s golf in the UK and Republic of Ireland, states on its official website that the Women’s British Open is "the only Women’s Major to be played outside the U.S."[34] For many years, the Ladies European Tour tacitly acknowledged the dominance of the LPGA Tour by not scheduling any of its own events to conflict with the three LPGA majors played in the U.S., but that changed in 2008, with the LET scheduling an event opposite the LPGA Championship. The second-richest women’s tour, the

• Asian Games • Olympic Games

See also
• Golf glossary • List of golfers • List of men’s major championships winning golfers • Golfers with most PGA Tour wins • Golfers with most European Tour wins • Golfers with most Japan Golf Tour wins • Presidents Cup • Ryder Cup • Solheim Cup • Lexus Cup • The Golf Channel • Walker Cup • 2009 in golf • Golf Digest • Golf Magazine • Golf World


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• Golfers with most Asian Tour wins • Golfers with most LPGA major championship wins • Golfers with most LPGA Tour wins • Golfers with most Champions Tour major championship wins • Golfers with most Champions Tour wins • PGA of America • Hickory Golf • LINKS The Best of Golf • Travel + Leisure Golf • Golf Video Games • Variations of golf • Golf portal


[1] "Olympic sports of the past". Olympic Movement. sports/past/index_uk.asp. Retrieved on 2009-03-29. [2] "Golf History @ ABC-of-Golf". golf-history.asp. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [3] [1] [4] [5] [2] [6] [7] "Golf - Scots as inventors: a popular fallacy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2008. article-222218/golf. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [8] "The Oldest Playing Golf Course in the World". Retrieved on 2008-07-11. [9] A Descriptive and Historical Account of the Town and County of Newcastle - By Eneas Mackenzie - page 34 [10] "St. Andrews Links: History". history/the_old_course.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.

[11] ^ Paul Vitello (2008-02-21). "More Americans Are Giving up Golf". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 02/21/nyregion/ 21golf.html?em&ex=1203829200&en=9c9070c4064 Retrieved on 2008-07-07. [12] ^ "Golf". Encarta. encyclopedia_761570500/Golf.html#p2. [13] "Hill den Park - 9 Hole Golf Course". www.hilden golfcourse.html. [14] Online Etymology Dictionary definition of the word Links [15] "Caddie". Encarta. dictionary_1861593951/caddie.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. [16] Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Par". golfterms/g/bldef_par.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-08. [17] Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ - What are the Yardage Guidelines for Par-3s, Par-4s and Par-5s?". faq_parlengths.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-08. [18] Kelley, Brent. "Golf FAQ: What is Slope Rating?". hfaq_sloperate.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-08. [19] Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Foursomes". golfterms/g/bldef_foursomes.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. [20] Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Fourball". golfterms/g/bldef_fourball.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. [21] Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Scramble". golfterms/g/bldef_scramble.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. [22] Kelley, Brent. "Definition of Greensome". golfterms/g/bldef_greensome.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. [23] "The Rules of Golf". United States Golf Association. playing/rules/rules_of_golf.html#. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[24] ^ "Rules of Golf" (PDF). The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. RoG2004.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [25] ^ 2008-2011 Rules of Golf (free download) [26] "Amateur Status". United States Golf Association. playing/amateur_status/ amateur_status.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [27] Nicholls, David (February 1998). "History of the Golf Club". ~byzantium/golf/ghistory.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. [28] "Golf Majors". Retrieved on 2007-12-17. [29] "Golf Majors: The Masters Golf Tournament". masters-golf-tournament.php. Retrieved on 2007-12-17. [30] "Golf Majors: The Open Championship". Retrieved on 2007-12-17. [31] "Golf Majors: The US Open Tournament".

Golf Retrieved on 2007-12-17. [32] "Golf Majors: The PGA Championship". Retrieved on 2007-12-17. [33] There are several bodies known as the "LPGA", each based in a different country or continent. The U.S. LPGA is the only one without a geographic identifier in its name, as it was the first to be founded. Typically, if the term "LPGA" is used without an identifier, it refers to the U.S. body. [34] "Women’s British Open breaks new ground at St Andrews". Ladies’ Golf Union. championships/women__s_british_open/. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.

External links
• The R&A, St Andrews • International Association of Golf Club Presidents • International Golf Federation (IGF) • Golf News from Sky Sports • PGA of America • PGA Tour • USGA: United States Golf Association • Golf Venues

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