Gates_Foundation

Document Sample
Gates_Foundation Powered By Docstoc
					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

philanthrocapitalism revolution in global philanthropy.[4] In 2007 its founders were ranked as the second most generous philanthropists in America.[5] In 2006, the Foundation won the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation.[6]

History
Founders Founded Headquarters Staff Bill & Melinda Gates 1994[1] Seattle, Washington Bill Gates,co-founder and cochair Melinda French Gates, cofounder and co-chair William H. Gates, Sr., co-chair Jeff Raikes, CEO Global Education, Healthcare, Ending poverty Donations and Grants US$35.1 billion 733[2] www.gatesfoundation.org

Area served Focus Method Endowment Employees Website

In 1994, the foundation was formed as the William H. Gates Foundation with an initial stock gift of $94 million. In 1999, the foundation was renamed the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. After a merger with the Gates Learning Foundation in 2000, Gates gave an additional US$126 million.[7][8] During the foundation’s following years, funding grew to US$2 billion. On June 15, 2006, Gates announced his plans to transition out of a dayto-day role with Microsoft, effective July 31, 2008,[9] to allow him to devote more time to working with the foundation. Bill and Melinda Gates, along with the musician Bono, were named by TIME as Persons of the Year 2005 for their charitable work. In the case of Bill and Melinda Gates, the work referenced was that of this foundation. On May 4, 2006, the foundation received the Prince of Asturias award for International Cooperation.[10]

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (B&MGF) is the largest transparently operated[3] private foundation in the world, founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. The primary aims of the foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty, and in America, to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology. The foundation, based in Seattle, Washington, is controlled by its three trustees: Bill Gates, Melinda Gates and Warren Buffett. Other principal officers include Co-Chair William H. Gates, Sr. and Chief Executive Officer Jeff Raikes. It has an endowment of US$35.1 billion as of October 1, 2008.[2] The scale of the foundation and the way it seeks to apply business techniques to giving makes it one of the leaders in the

The Warren Buffett donation
On June 25, 2006, Warren Buffett (then the world’s richest person, estimated worth of US$62 billion as of April 16, 2008) pledged to give the foundation approximately 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares spread over multiple years through annual contributions, worth approximately US$30 billion in 2006.[11] Buffett set conditions so that these contributions do not simply increase the foundation’s endowment, but effectively work as a matching contribution, doubling the Foundation’s annual giving: "Buffett’s gift came with three conditions for the Gates foundation: Bill or Melinda Gates must be alive and active in its administration; it must continue to qualify as a charity; and each

1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
year it must give away an amount equal to the previous year’s Berkshire gift, plus another 5 percent of net assets. Buffett gave the foundation two years to abide by the third requirement."[12] The Gates Foundation received 5% (500,000) of the shares in July 2006 and will receive 5% of the remaining earmarked shares in the July of each following year (475,000 in 2007, 451,250 in 2008).[13][14]

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
The Global Health Program’s other significant grants include The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization The foundation gave The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization a donation of US$750 million on 25 January 2005.[20][21] The Institute for OneWorld Health The foundation gave The Institute for OneWorld Health a donation of nearly US$10 million to support the organization’s work on a drug for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Children’s Vaccine Program The Children’s Vaccine Program, run by the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), received a donation of US$27 million to help vaccinate against Japanese encephalitis on 9 December 2003.[22] University of Washington Department of Global Health The foundation provided approximately US$30 million for the foundation of the new Department of Global Health at the University of Washington in Seattle. The donation promoted three of the Foundation’s target areas: education, Pacific Northwest and global health. The foundation also lead a study to increase access to high education globally. HIV Research The foundation has donated a grand total of US$287 million to various HIV/AIDS researchers. The money was split between sixteen different research teams across the world, on the condition that they share their findings with one another.[23] Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation The foundation gave the Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation more than US$280 million to develop and license an improved vaccine against tuberculosis for use in high burden countries. [24][25]

Activities
To maintain its status as a charitable foundation, it must donate at least 5% of its assets each year.[15] Thus the donations from the foundation each year would amount to over US$1.5 billion at a minimum. The Foundation has been organized, as of April 2006, into four divisions, including core operations (public relations, finance and administration, human resources, etc.), under Chief Operating Officer Cheryl Scott, and three grant-making programs: • Global Health Program • Global Development Program • United States Program Under a probably new program, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation will give hundreds of millions of dollars in the next few years to programs aimed at encouraging saving by the world’s poor, the Wall Street Journal reported[16]. On the 18 December 2008, the William J. Clinton Foundation released a list of all contributors. It included The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which gave between US$10-25 million.[17]

Global Health Program
The President of the Global Health Program is Tachi Yamada. The Gates Foundation has quickly become a major influence upon global health; the approximately US$800 million that the foundation gives every year for global health approaches the annual budget of the United Nations’ World Health Organization (193 nations) and is comparable to the funds given to fight infectious disease by the United States Agency for International Development.[18] The Foundation currently provides 17% (US$86 million in 2006) of the world budget for the attempted eradication of poliomyelitis (polio).[19]

2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Kashmir Earthquake The foundation made a donation of US$500,000 for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.[29] Water, Hygiene and Sanitation The Foundation is giving the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development US$1,200,000 over 3 years to find new, sustainable ways to make water, sanitation and hygiene services safer and more affordable.

Global Development Program
President Sylvia Mathews leads the Global Development Program, which combats extreme poverty through grants such as the following:

Financial Services for the Poor
Grameen Foundation A $1.5 million grant allows Grameen Foundation to make more microloans, with the goal of helping five million additional families and successfully freeing 50 percent of those families from poverty within five years.[26]

United States Program
Under President Allan Golston, the United States Program has made grants such as the following:

Agricultural Development
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) The Gates Foundation has partnered with the Rockefeller Foundation to enhance agricultural science and smallfarm productivity in Africa, building on the Green Revolution which the Rockefeller Foundation spurred in the 1940s and 1960s. The Gates Foundation has made an initial $100 million investment in this effort, to which the Rockefeller foundation has contributed $50 million.

U.S. Libraries
In 1997, the foundation introduced a U.S. Libraries initiative with a goal of "ensuring that if you can get to a public library, you can reach the Internet." The foundation has given grants, installed computers and software, and provided training and technical support in partnership with public libraries nationwide. Most recently, the foundation gave a $12.2-million grant to the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) to assist libraries in Louisiana and Mississippi on the Gulf Coast, many of which were damaged or destroyed by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

Global Libraries
Official site: Part of CLIR.org

Education
D.C. Achievers Scholarships The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation announced March 22, 2007 a $122 million initiative to send hundreds of the District of Columbia’s poorest students to college.[31] Gates Cambridge Scholarships Donated US$210 million in October 2000 to help outstanding graduate students outside of the United Kingdom study at the University of Cambridge. Approximately 100 new students every year are funded.[32] Gates Millennium Scholars Administered by the United Negro College Fund the foundation donated US$1.5 billion for scholarships to high achieving minority students.[33]

Global Special Initiatives
The Foundation’s Special Initiatives include responses to catastrophes as well as learning grants, which are used to experiment with new areas of giving. Currently, the Foundation is exploring water, hygiene and sanitation as a new focus within Global Development. Indian Ocean Earthquake The foundation made total grant donations of US$3 million to various charities to help with the aid effort for victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake. These charities include: • CARE international • International Rescue Committee • Mercy Corps • Save the Children • World Vision

3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
NewSchools Venture Fund The Foundation contributed US$30 million to help NewSchools to manage more charter schools, which aim to prepare students in historically underserved areas for college and careers. Strong American Schools On April 25th, 2007, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation joined forces with the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation pledging a joint $60 million to create Strong American Schools, a nonprofit project responsible for running ED in 08, an initiative and information campaign aimed at encouraging 2008 presidential contenders to include education in their campaign policies.[34] Texas High School Project[35] University Scholars Program Donated US$20 million in 1998 to endow a scholarship program at Melinda Gates’ alma mater, Duke University.[36] The program provides full scholarships to about 10 members of each undergraduate class and one member in each class in each of the professional schools (Schools of Medicine, Business, Law, Divinity, Environment, and Nursing), as well as to students in the Graduate School pursuing doctoral degrees in any discipline. Graduate and professional school scholars serve as mentors to the undergraduate scholars, who are chosen on the basis of financial need and potential for interdisciplinary academic interests. Scholars are chosen each spring from new applicants to Duke University’s undergraduate, graduate, and professional school programs. The program features seminars to bring these scholars together for interdisciplinary discussions and an annual spring symposium organized by the scholars. Washington State Achievers Scholarship The Washington State Achievers program encourages schools to create cultures of high academic achievement while providing scholarship support to select college-bound students.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
William H. Gates Public Service Law Program This program awards five full scholarships annually to the University of Washington School of Law. Scholars commit to working in relatively lowpaying public service legal positions for at least the first five years following graduation.[37]

Pacific Northwest
Rainier Scholars Donated US$1 million Computer History Museum Donated US$15 million to the museum in October, 2005.[38]

Lifespan
In October 2006 the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was split into two entities: the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust, which manages the endowment assets and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which "... conducts all operations and grantmaking work, and it is the entity from which all grants are made."[39][40] Also announced was the decision to "... spend all of [the Trust’s] resources within 50 years after Bill’s and Melinda’s deaths."[41][42][43][44] This would close the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust and effectively end the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In the same announcement it was reiterated that Warren Buffett "... has stipulated that the proceeds from the Berkshire Hathaway shares he still owns at death are to be used for philanthropic purposes within 10 years after his estate has been settled."[41] The plan to close the Foundation Trust is in contrast to most large charitable foundations that have no set closure date. This is intended to lower administrative costs over the years of the Foundation Trust’s life and ensure that the Foundation Trust not fall into a situation where the vast majority of its expenditures are on administrative costs, including salaries, with only token amounts contributed to charitable causes.[42]

Criticism
Seattle Times quotes:[45]

4

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“ As with all good parodies, there’s a ” grain of truth in a fake news story on the Web that says Bill Gates could face another antitrust investigation — this time for "monopolistic charity practices." "The danger isn’t in what people do tell you — it’s in what they don’t," departing foundation CEO Patty Stonesifer warned in the 2007 annual report. In other words, Stonesifer says, the Gates Foundation needs honest feedback and criticism to help it figure out how best to improve the health of the world’s poor, boost food production in Africa and improve schools in the U.S. Honesty can be hard to come by, though, when you’re handing out staggering amounts of cash.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
boost higher education, help needy students and strike a blow against racism, but he blew it. If Bill Gates had been able to chat with Teddy Roosevelt before launching his breathtaking $1.5-billion program of college scholarships, America would be a better place. Unless significantly amended, Gates’ ’minority’ scholarships will further inflame racial tensions, delay the achievement of a colorblind society and subvert the cherished virtue of reward by merit. The Gates Millennium Scholarships for thousands of high school seniors over the next 20 years are intended to produce more scientists, engineers, doctors and educators from among American minorities, who, he claims, are woefully underrepresented in college. His commitment to arbitrarily preferred groups is bound to increase racial resentment. Gates’ vague concept of ’diversity’ confuses the laudable diversity of cultural talents that strengthens the nation with the selfconscious racial diversity that divides it by breeding arrogance and envy."[50]

Investments
The foundation invests the assets that it has not yet distributed, with the exclusive goal of maximizing the return on investment. As a result, its investments include companies that have been criticized for worsening poverty in the same developing countries where the Foundation is attempting to relieve poverty. These include companies that pollute heavily and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world.[46] In response to press criticism, the foundation announced in 2007 a review of its investments to assess social responsibility.[47] It subsequently cancelled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.[48]

Diversion of health care resources
In a January/February 2007 Foreign Affairs article, Laurie Garrett claims that many charitable organizations, among whom the Gates Foundation is prominent, harm global health by diverting resources from other important local health care services.[51] For example, by paying relatively high salaries at AIDS clinics, the foundation diverts medical professionals from other parts of developing nations’ health care systems; the health care systems’ ability to provide care diminishes (except in the area the foundation funds) and the charities may do more harm than good. Similar findings were reported in a December 2007 Los Angeles Times investigation.[52]

Diversity
The Gates Millennium Scholars fund, according to its official website’s frequently asked questions section, only provides scholarships to African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Pacific Islander American or Hispanic American applicants.[49] An op-ed by Ernest W. Lefever, published in the Los Angeles Times on November 1, 1999, criticized the program for its exclusion of Caucasians: "America’s most celebrated college dropout had a great opportunity to

Population control and abortion
The Foundation has also come under criticism from pro-life conservatives because it distributes money to groups that sponsor population control and family planning.[53]

5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

See also

[13] FORTUNE Magazine: How Buffett’s giveaway will work - June 25, 2006 • Corporate social responsibility [14] http://berkshirehathaway.com/donate/ • Impact maximization bmgfltr.pdf • Innovative Vector Control Consortium [15] SaveWealth.com Private Family • List of wealthiest foundations Foundations • Medicines for Malaria Venture [16] Bloomberg.com: Latin America • PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative [17] Contributor Information to the William J. • Philanthropy Clinton Foundation • Rockefeller Foundation [18] Gates Foundation out to break the cycle • Social entrepreneurship of disease, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 8 • Social responsibility December 2003 • Social enterprise [19] http://www.polioeradication.org/content/ • Socially responsible investing general/HistContributionWebMay06.pdf • STAND UP [20] GAVI Alliance (2005-01-24). Gates Foundation, Norway Contribute $1 Billion to Increase Child Immunization in Developing Countries. Press release. [1] http://www.gatesfoundation.org/about/ http://www.gavialliance.org/ Pages/foundation-timeline.aspx media_centre/press_releases/ [2] ^ Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Fact 2005_01_24_en_pr_newfunds.php. Sheet, http://www.gatesfoundation.org/ Retrieved on 2007-10-24. about/Pages/foundation-fact-sheet.aspx, [21] Thomson, Iain (2005-01-25), Bill Gates retrieved on 2008-11-29 gives $750m to help African children, [3] On May 11, 2006 The Economist http://www.vnunet.com/vnunet/news/ reported that the Stichting INGKA 2126576/bill-gates-gives-750m-helpFoundation is technically the world’s african-children, retrieved on largest private foundation while also 2007-10-24 alleging that the foundation’s primary [22] Program for Appropriate Technology in purposes are tax avoidance and Health (2003-12-09). Children’s Vaccine anti-takeover protection for the home Program Receives Grant From Bill & furnishings retail group IKEA.[1] Melinda Gates Foundation to Combat [4] http://www.economist.com/surveys/ Japanese Encephalitis. Press release. displaystory.cfm?story_id=5517656 http://web.archive.org/web/ [5] The 50 most generous Americans 20031221215749/ [6] Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation http://childrensvaccine.org/html/ [7] http://www.gatesfoundation.org/about/ rel-031209.htm. Retrieved on Pages/foundation-timeline.aspx 2007-10-24. [8] http://www.computerworld.com/action/ [23] BBC News (2006-07-20), Gates gives article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9101858&intsrc=news_ts_head $287m to HIV research, [9] Microsoft PressPass (June 15, 2006). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/ "Microsoft Announces Plans for July americas/5197082.stm, retrieved on 2008 Transition for Bill Gates". Microsoft 2007-10-24 PressPass. http://www.microsoft.com/ [24] Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation presspass/press/2006/jun06/ Announcement (12 Feb 2004), Gates 06-15CorpNewsPR.mspx. Foundation Commits $82.9 Million to [10] Announcements - Bill & Melinda Gates Develop New Tuberculosis Vaccines, Foundation http://www.globalhealth.org/news/ [11] "Warren Buffett gives away his fortune". article/4134 Fortune (Time Warner via [25] Nightingale, Katherine (19 Sept 2007), CNNMoney.com (money.cnn.com)). Gates foundation gives US$280 million to March 5, 2008. http://money.cnn.com/ fight TB, http://www.scidev.net/en/news/ 2006/06/25/magazines/fortune/ gates-foundation-gives-us280-million-tocharity1.fortune/index.htm. Retrieved on fight-tb.html 2007-12-10. [26] Grameen Foundation (2006-08-29). [12] [2] [3] [4] Gates Foundation Awards $1.5 Million to

Notes and references

6

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Grameen Foundation. Press release. http://www.grameenfoundation.org/ resource_center/newsroom/ news_releases/~story=168. Retrieved on 2007-10-26. [27] http://www.nature.com/news/2008/ 080130/full/451511f.html Gates foundation gives cash for agriculture in Africa [28] Nature 456, 563-568 (2008) | doi:10.1038/456563a Agronomy: Five crop researchers who could change the world [5] [29] http://www.interaction.org/newswire/ detail.php?id=4465 Pakistan Earthquake Homeless Number May Surpass Tsunami [30] [6], cmu.edu [31] Bill Gates Gives $122M for D.C. Scholarships.. March 23, 2007. [32] gates.scholarships.cam.ac.uk [33] [7], gmsp.org [34] Billionaires Start $60 Million Schools Effort [35] Texas High School Project [36] scholarship program, Duke University [37] Gates Public Service Law | UW School of Law - Public Service [38] BBC News (2005-10-17), Gates cheers on computer museum, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/ 4350972.stm, retrieved on 2007-10-24 [39] Gates Foundation Announces That It Doesn’t Plan to Operate Forever [40] About the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Trust [41] ^ Announcements - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation [42] ^ The Chronicle, 11/29/2006: Gates Foundation Announces That It Doesn’t Plan to Operate Forever [43] Gates foundation to spend all assets within 50 years of trustees’ deaths [44] Gates Foundation Sets Its Lifespan [45] Not many speak their mind to Gates Foundation, Seattle Times August 3, 2008 [46] Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation, Los Angeles Times, 7 January 2006

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
[47] Gates Foundation to review investments, The Seattle Times, 10 January 2007 [48] [Gates Foundation to maintain its investment plan], The Austin Statesman, 14 January 2007 [49] See "What are the eligibility criteria for the GMS program?" [50] Times Archives: Bill Gates’ ’Diversity’ Subverts Merit [51] The Challenge of Global Health Foreign Affairs, January/February 2007 [52] Piller, Charles; Smith, Doug (December 16, 2007), "Unintended victims of Gates Foundation generosity", Los Angeles Times, http://www.latimes.com/news/ nationworld/nation/la-nagates16dec16,0,6256166,full.story?coll=lahome-center [53] Warren Buffett Donation to Bill Gates’ Foundation Means Millions for Abortion

External links
• "Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (gatesfoundation.org). http://www.gatesfoundation.org/. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. • "Foundation Fact Sheet". Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation(gatesfoundation.org). http://www.gatesfoundation.org/ about/Pages/foundation-factsheet.aspx. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. • The Foundation Center: Top 100 US Foundations by asset size Gates Foundation ranked number one. • New York Times Updated news on the Foundation. • Gates, Rockefeller foundations join to fight hunger in Africa 2006 Seattle PostIntelligencer article. • TIME’s 2005 "Persons of the Year" Bill & Melinda Gates, and Bono. • Dark cloud over good works of Gates Foundation January, 2007 LA Times investigative article by Charles Piller, Edmund Sanders and Robyn Dixon. • Strong American Schools/ED in 08

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_%26_Melinda_Gates_Foundation" Categories: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Bill Gates, Foundations based in the United States, Biomedical research foundations, Rockefeller Foundation, Organizations established in 2000

7

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 23:09 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

8


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:30
posted:5/20/2009
language:English
pages:8