G8 by zzzmarcus


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Group of Eight

Canada Prime Minister Stephen Harper France President Nicolas Sarkozy Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel Italy Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi President of the G8 for 2009 Japan Prime Minister Taro Aso Russia President Dmitry Medvedev United Kingdom Prime Minister Gordon Brown United States President Barack Obama Also represented European Union Commission President José Manuel Barroso Council President Mirek Topolánek

year, such as the G7/8 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G8 foreign ministers, or G8 environment ministers. Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 rotates through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and determines which ministerial meetings will take place. Lately, both France and the United Kingdom have expressed a desire to expand the group to include five developing countries, referred to as the Outreach Five (O5) or the Plus Five: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. These countries have participated as guests in previous meetings, which are sometimes called G8+5. Recently, France, Germany, and Italy are lobbying to include Egypt to the O5 and expand the G8 to G14.[2]

The concept of a forum for the world’s major industrialized democracies emerged following the 1973 oil crisis and subsequent global recession. In 1974 the United States created the Library Group, an informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan and France. In 1975, French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet. The six leaders agreed to an annual meeting organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). The following year, Canada joined the group at the behest of Germany’s Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and U.S. President Gerald Ford[3] and the group became the ’Group of Seven’ -or G7. The European Union is represented by the President of the European Commission and the leader of the country that holds the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The President of the European Commission has attended all meetings since it was first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977[4] and

The Group of Eight (G8, and formerly the G6 or Group of Six) is a forum, created by France in 1975, for governments of eight nations of the northern hemisphere: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; in addition, the European Union is represented within the G8, but cannot host or chair.[1] "G8" can refer to the member states or to the annual summit meeting of the G8 heads of government. The former term, G6, is now frequently applied to the six most populous countries within the European Union (see G6 (EU)). G8 ministers also meet throughout the


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the Council President now also regularly attends. Following 1994’s G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group’s summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) - or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of United Kingdom Prime Minister Tony Blair and US President Bill Clinton[5], Russia formally joined the group in 1997, resulting in the Group of Eight, or G8.

known as the G8+5, created during the 2005 Gleneagles, Scotland summit, that is attended by finance and energy ministers from all eight member countries in addition to the five "Outreach Countries": Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa. In June 2005, justice ministers and interior ministers from the G8 countries agreed to launch an international database on pedophiles.[6] The G8 officials also agreed to pool data on terrorism, subject to restrictions by privacy and security laws in individual countries.[7]

Structure and activities

Global warming and energy
At the Heiligendamm Summit in 2007, the G8 acknowledged a proposal from the EU for a worldwide initiative on energy efficiency. They agreed to explore, along with the International Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 along with China, India, South Korea and the European Community established the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, at the Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan holding 2008 G8 Presidency, in Aomori. [8] G8 Finance Ministers, whilst in preparation for the 34th Summit of the G8 Heads of State and Government in Toyako, Hokkaido, met on the 13 and 14 June 2008, in Osaka, Japan. They agreed to the “G8 Action Plan for Climate Change to Enhance the Engagement of Private and Public Financial Institutions.” In closing, Ministers supported the launch of new Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) by the World Bank, which will help existing efforts until a new framework under the UNFCCC is implemented after 2012. [9]

Leaders of the G8 on 7 June 2007, in Heiligendamm, Germany The G8 is intended to be an informal forum, and it therefore lacks an administrative structure like those for international organizations, such as the United Nations or the World Bank. The group does not have a permanent secretariat, or offices for its members. In 2008, the president of the European Union Commission participated as an equal in all summit events. The presidency of the group rotates annually among the member countries, with each new term beginning on 1 January of the year. The country holding the presidency is responsible for planning and hosting a series of ministerial-level meetings, leading up to a mid-year summit attended by the heads of government. Japan held the G8 presidency in 2008, Italy is the 2009 president, and Canada will be president in 2010. The ministerial meetings bring together ministers responsible for various portfolios to discuss issues of mutual or global concern. The range of topics include health, law enforcement, labor, economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice and interior, terrorism, and trade. There are also a separate set of meetings

The Annual Summit
The annual G8 leaders summit is attended by eight of the world’s most powerful heads of government. However, as noted by commentators the G-8 summit is not the place to flesh out the details of any difficult or controversial policy issue in the context of a three-day event. Rather, the meeting is to bring a range of complex and sometimes inter-related issues. The G8 summit brings leaders together not so they can dream up quick fixes, but to talk and think about them together.[10] The G8 summit is an international event which is observed and reported by news


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by nominal GDP[17] (Russia isn’t one of the 9 largest economies by nominal GDP but has the 7th largest real GDP; Canada was 8th in 2006 but in 2007 it lost 8th place to Spain, as it did in 2003,[17] prompting the previous government headed by José María Aznar to request Spain’s entrance in the G8). The 2nd and 3rd largest oil producers (USA and Russia) and the country with the 2nd largest reserves (Canada) are in the G8.[18] Seven of the nine largest nuclear energy producers are in the G8[19] (USA, France, Japan, Russia, Germany, Canada, UK). The 7 largest donors to the UN budget are in the G8[20] (US, Japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada).

At the 34th G8 Summit at Toyako, Hokkaido, formal photo during Tanabata matsuri event for world leaders -- Silvio Berlusconi (Italy), Dmitry Medvedev (Russia), Angela Merkel (Germany), Gordon Brown (UK), Yasuo Fukuda (Japan), George Bush (US), Stephen Harper (Canada), Nicolas Sarkozy (France), José Barroso (EU) -- July 7, 2008. media, but the G8’s relevance is unclear.[11] The member country holding the G8 presidency is responsible for organising and hosting the year’s summit, held for three days in mid-year; and for this reason, Tony Blair and the United Kingdom accumulated the lion’s share of the credit for what went right (and wrong) at Gleneagles in 2005. Similarly, Yasuo Fukuda and Japan hope to garner the greater part of the credit for what went well (and what did not) at the Hokkaido Summit in 2008. Each of the 34 G8 summit meetings could have been called a success if the events had been re-framed as venues to generate additional momentum for solving problems at the other multilateral conferences that meet throughout the year. The G8 summit sets the stage for what needs to be done and establishes an idea of how to do it, even if that idea is, at best, rough and patchy.[10] The summits have also been the site of numerous, large-scale anti-globalization protests.

Cumulative influence of member nations
Together the eight countries making up the G8 represent about 14% of the world population, but they represent about 65% of the Gross World Product[21] as measured by gross domestic product, being all 8 nations within the top 12 countries according to the CIA World Factbook. (see the CIA World Factbook column in List of countries by GDP (nominal)), the majority of global military power (seven are in the top 8 nations for military expenditure[22]), and almost all of the world’s active nuclear weapons.[23] In 2007, the combined G8 military spending was US$850 billion. This is 72% of the world’s total military expenditures. (see List of countries and federations by military expenditures) Four of the G8 members United Kingdom, United States of America, France and Russia together account for 96-99% of the world’s nuclear weapons. (see List of states with nuclear weapons)

G8 member facts
Seven of the nine leading export countries are in the G8[14] (Germany, US, Japan, France, Italy, UK, Canada). The UK, the USA, Canada, France, and Germany have nominal per capita GDP over US$40,000 dollars.[15] Five of the seven largest stock exchanges by market value are in G8 countries[16] (US, Japan, UK, France, Canada). The G8 countries represent 7 of the 9 largest economies

Criticism and demonstrations
As the annual summits are extremely high profile, they are subject to extensive lobbying by advocacy groups and street demonstrations by activists. The best-known criticisms centre on the assertion that members of G8 are responsible for global issues such as poverty in Africa and developing countries due to debt and trading policy, global warming due to carbon


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Date 1st Host country Host leader Location held Website Notes G6 Summit


November 15–17, France 1975 June 27–28, 1976 May 7–8, 1977 July 16–17, 1978 June 28–29, 1979 June 22–3, 1980 July 20–21, 1981 June 4–6, 1982 May 28–30, 1983

Valéry Gis- Rambouillet card d’Estaing San Juan, Puerto Rico


United Gerald R. States Ford

Canada joins the group, forming the G7 President of the European Commission is invited to join the annual G-7 summits


United James London Kingdom Callaghan West Helmut Germany Schmidt Japan Bonn, North RhineWestphalia



Masayoshi Tokyo Ōhira Francesco Venice Cossiga Pierre E. Trudeau Montebello, Quebec





8th 9th


François Versailles Mitterrand Williamsburg, Virginia London Bonn, North RhineWestphalia Tokyo Venice

United Ronald States Reagan United Margaret Kingdom Thatcher West Helmut Germany Kohl Japan Italy Yasuhiro Nakasone Amintore Fanfani Brian Mulroney

10th June 7–9, 1984 11th May 2–4, 1985 12th May 4–6, 1986 13th June 8–10, 1987 14th June 19–21, 1988 15th July 14–16, 1989


Toronto, Ontario


François Paris Mitterrand

16th July 9–11, United George H. Houston, 1990 States W. Bush Texas


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17th July 15–17, 1991 18th July 6–8, 1992 19th July 7–9, 1993 20th July 8–10, 1994 21st June 15–17, 1995 22nd June 27–29, 1996 United John Kingdom Major Helmut Germany Kohl Japan Italy London


Munich, Bavaria

Kiichi Tokyo Miyazawa Silvio Naples Berlusconi Jean Chrétien Jacques Chirac Halifax, Nova Scotia Lyon International organizations’ debut to G8 Summits periodically. The invited ones here were: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.[12]



23rd June 20–22, 1997 24th May 15–17, 1998 25th June 18–20, 1999 26th July 21–23, 2000

United Bill States Clinton

Denver, Colorado

Russia joins the group, forming G8

United Tony Blair Birmingham, Kingdom England Gerhard Germany Schröder Japan Yoshiro Mori Cologne, North RhineWestphalia Nago, Okinawa



First Summit of the G-20 major economies at Berlin Formation of the G8+5 starts, when South Africa was invited. Since then, it has been invited to the Summit annually without interruption. Also, with permission from a G8 leader, other nations were invited to the Summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization was also invited for the first time, too.[12] Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali and El Salvador accepted their invitations here.[12] Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani is shot and killed by police.


27th July 20–22, 2001


Silvio Genoa Berlusconi



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28th June 26–27, 2002 29th June 2–3, 2003 Jean Chrétien Jacques Chirac Kananaskis, Alberta Évian-lesBains

Russia gains permission to officially host a G8 Summit. The G8+5 was unofficially made, when China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa were invited to this Summit for the first time. Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included: Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Switzerland.[12] A record number of leaders from 12 different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen and Uganda.[12] The G8+5 was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed over 50 people on the London Underground and a bus. Nations that were invited for the first time were Ethiopia and Tanzania. The African Union and the International Energy Agency made their debut here.[12] First G8 Summit on Russian soil. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO made their debut here.[12] A record seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this Summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States made their debut here.[12] Nations that accepted their G8 Summit invitations for the first time are: Australia,




30th June 8–10, 2004

United George W. Sea Island, States Bush Georgia


31st July 6–8, 2005

United Tony Blair Gleneagles, Kingdom Scotland


32nd July 15–17, 2006

Russia Vladimir Putin

Strelna, St. Petersburg


33rd June 6–8, 2007

Angela Germany Merkel

Heiligendamm, [11] MecklenburgVorpommern

34th July 7–9, 2008


Yasuo Fukuda

Toyako (Lake Toya), Hokkaido



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Indonesia and South Korea.[12] 35th July 8-10, 2009 Italy Silvio L’Aquila Berlusconi
[13] [13]


This summit was originally planned to be in La Maddalena (Sardinia), but was moved to L’Aquila as a way of showing Prime Minister Berlusconi’s desire to help the region of L’Aquila after the earthquake that hit it on the 6 April 2009. Official website is now online.

36th 2010 Canada 37th 2011 France 38th 2012 39th 2013 40th 2014 41st 2015 Germany 42nd 2016 43rd 2017 44th 2018 Canada Japan Italy United States United Kingdom Russia

Huntsville, Ontario TBD TBD


Protesters try to stop members of the G8 from attending the summit during the 27th G8 summit in Genoa, Italy by burning vehicles on the main route to the summit dioxide emission, the AIDS problem due to strict medicine patent policy and other issues related to globalization. During the 31st G8 summit in Scotland, 225,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid.

Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8.[24] Of the anti-globalization movement protests, one of the largest and most violent occurred for the 27th G8 summit [15]. Since that G8 Summit and the subsequent September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States occurred months apart in the same year, the G8 have gathered at some forms of remote locations every year since then. The 7 July 2005 London bombings were timed to coincide with the 31st G8 summit in Scotland. The group has also been criticized for its membership, which critics argue has now become unrepresentative of the world’s most powerful economies since Canada was overtaken by China, India, Brazil, Spain, Mexico and South Korea by PPP adjusted GDP.[25] Furthermore, Russia was allowed into the group despite only being in 11th place in terms of nominal GDP.


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See also
• 34th G8 summit (information on the most recent summit) • Anti-globalization • BRIC • Developing 8 Countries (D8) • Eight-Nation Alliance (G8 in the 19th century) • Forum for the Future G8 meeting on Middle East reform • G7 • G8 research group—University of Toronto, Canada • G8+5 Climate Change Dialogue • G11, a group of eleven developing countries • G20 developing nations • G20 industrial nations • G33 • J8 • List of countries and federations by military expenditures • List of countries by GDP • List of G8 summit resorts • N-11 • Senior G8 leader • World Social Forum

Official G8 sites of member states (not summit specific)
• Canada • United Kingdom • History of the G8 —UK government site

References Footnotes
[1] ^ The EU has the privileges and obligations of membership but does not host/chair summits. It is represented by the Commission and Council Presidents. 967. "EU and the G8". European Commission. http://www.deljpn.ec.europa.eu/union/ showpage_en_union.external.g8.php. Retrieved on 2007-09-25. [2] http://www.themedialine.org/news/ news_detail.asp?NewsID=22988 [3] G8: The Most Exclusive Club in the World, Thomas S. Axworthy, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Foundation of Canada, Toronto, Undated.Accessed07-12-2008. [4] "EU and the G8". European Union. http://www.deljpn.ec.europa.eu/union/ showpage_en_union.Harry.g8.php. Retrieved on 2006-07-17. [5] "Russia — Odd Man Out in the G-8", Mark Medish, The Globalist, 02-24-2006.Accessed: 07-12-2008 [6] G8 to launch international pedophile database David Batty June 18, 2005 The Guardian [7] G8 to pool data on terrorism Martin Wainwright June 18, 2005 The Guardian [8] The International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). June 8, 2008. [9] CLIMATE-L.ORG: G8 Finance Ministers Support Climate Investment Funds [10] ^ Feldman, Adam. "What’s Wrong With The G-8," Forbes (New York). July 7, 2008. [11] Lee, Don. "On eve of summit, G-8’s relevance is unclear," Los Angeles Times. July 6, 2008 [12] ^ Kirton, John. [http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/scholar/ kirton-performance-080717.pdf "A Summit of Substantial Success: The Performance of the 2008 G8"; page 88

Notes, links, and references
External links
Further information: 34th G8 summit • G8 Information Centre, G8 Research Group, University of Toronto • G8: The World Can’t Wait!, "Oxfam International G8 Blog", oxfam.org • "Special Report: G8", Guardian Unlimited • "Profile: G8", BBC News • "We are deeply concerned. Again", New Statesman, 4 July 2005, —G8 development concerns since 1977 • "G8 Dossier" by the Internationalist Review, —On-line dossier with analysis, photo series and links on G8 protests • FACTBOX - Climate Change High on G8 Agenda In Japan (Planet Ark). • G8 Reaches Tentative Climate Change Deal. • Anti G8, Anti globalization Forum at www.3monkeyz.net • Financial rescue plans from G7 and EU countries, 12 October 2008


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and 89] G8 Information Centre — requirements. http://en.wikipedia.org/ University of Toronto July 17, 2008. wiki/Nuclear_power_by_country. [13] http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/ [20] "united nations". report of the committee england/london/8014341.stm on contributions. http://en.wikipedia.org/ [14] "exports". cia factbook. wiki/United_Nations. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ [21] United Nations Development Programme the-world-factbook/rankorder/ [22] "World Wide Military Expenditures". 2078rank.html. GlobalSecurity.org. [15] "nominal GDP per capita". cia factbook. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ world/spending.htm. Retrieved on List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita. 2007-12-10. [16] "stock exchange". securities exchange [23] "The G8 and the Nuclear Industry". The commission. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Campaign for Nuclear Phaseout. June List_of_stock_exchanges. 2002. http://www.cnp.ca/resources/ [17] ^ "nominal gdp". imf, world bank, cia g8-and-nuclear.html. Retrieved on factbook. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 2007-11-28. List_of_countries_by_past_GDP_(nominal). [24] David Miller "Spinning the G8", Zednet, [18] "oil reserves". US energy information May 13th 2005. administration. http://en.wikipedia.org/ [25] http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ wiki/Oil_reserves#Proved_reserves. DATASTATISTICS/Resources/ [19] "nuclear power". world nuclear power GDP_PPP.pdf reactors 2007-08 and uranium

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