Extrasolar_planet

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Extrasolar planet

Extrasolar planet
The first confirmed radial velocity detection was made in 1995, revealing a gas giant planet in a four-day orbit around the nearby Gtype star 51 Pegasi. The frequency of detections has tended to increase on an annual basis since then.[1] It is estimated that at least 10% of sun-like stars have planets, and the true proportion may be much higher.[3] The discovery of extrasolar planets sharpens the question of whether some might support extraterrestrial life.[4] Currently Gliese 581 d, the fourth planet of the red dwarf star Gliese 581 (approximately 20 light years from Earth), appears to be the best example yet discovered of a possible terrestrial exoplanet that orbits within the habitable zone surrounding its star. Although initial measurements suggested that Gliese 581 d resided outside the so-called "Goldilocks Zone", additional measurements place it firmly within.[5]

Planet Fomalhaut b (inset against Fomalhaut’s interplanetary dust cloud) imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope’s coronagraph (NASA photo)

History of detection
HR 8799 (center blob) with infrared images of planets HR 8799d (bottom), HR 8799c (upper right), and HR 8799b (upper left) An extrasolar planet, or exoplanet, is a planet beyond our Solar System, orbiting a star other than our Sun. As of April 2009, 347 exoplanets are listed in the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.[1] The vast majority have been detected through radial velocity observations and other indirect methods rather than actual imaging.[1] Most announced exoplanets are massive gas giant planets thought to resemble Jupiter, but this is a selection effect due to limitations in detection technology. Projections based on recent detections of much smaller worlds suggest that lightweight, rocky planets will eventually be found to outnumber extrasolar gas giants.[2] Extrasolar planets became a subject of scientific investigation in the mid-19th century. Many astronomers supposed that such planets existed, but they had no way of knowing how common they were or how similar they might be to the planets of the Solar System.

Retracted discoveries
Unconfirmed until 1988, extrasolar planets have long been assumed possible, and speculation on planets circling around the fixed stars dates to at least the early 18th century, with Isaac Newton’s "General Scholium" (1713), which has "And if the fixed Stars are the centers of other like systems, these, being form’d by the like wise counsel, must be all subject to the dominion of One" (trans. Motte 1729). Claims about detection of exoplanets have been made from the 19th century. Some of the earliest involve the binary star 70 Ophiuchi. In 1855 Capt. W. S. Jacob at the East India Company’s Madras Observatory reported that orbital anomalies made it "highly probable" that there was a "planetary body" in this system.[6] In the 1890s, Thomas J. J. See of the University of Chicago and the United States Naval Observatory stated that the orbital anomalies proved the existence of a dark body in the 70 Ophiuchi system with a 36-year period around one of the stars.[7] However, Forest Ray Moulton soon published

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Extrasolar planet
The first published discovery to have received subsequent confirmation was made in 1988 by the Canadian astronomers Bruce Campbell, G. A. H. Walker, and S. Yang.[12] Their radial-velocity observations suggested that a planet orbited the star Gamma Cephei. They remained cautious about claiming a true planetary detection, and widespread skepticism persisted in the astronomical community for several years about this and other similar observations. It was mainly because the observations were at the very limits of instrumental capabilities at the time. Another source of confusion was that some of the possible planets might instead have been brown dwarfs, objects that are intermediate in mass between planets and stars. The following year, additional observations were published that supported the reality of the planet orbiting Gamma Cephei,[13] though subsequent work in 1992 raised serious doubts.[14] Finally, in 2003, improved techniques allowed the planet’s existence to be confirmed.[15] In early 1992, radio astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced the discovery of planets around another pulsar, PSR 1257+12.[16] This discovery was quickly confirmed, and is generally considered to be the first definitive detection of exoplanets. These pulsar planets are believed to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation, or else to be the remaining rocky cores of gas giants that survived the supernova and then spiralled into their current orbits. On October 6, 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the first definitive detection of an exoplanet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star (51 Pegasi).[17] This discovery was made at the Observatoire de HauteProvence and ushered in the modern era of exoplanetary discovery. Technological advances, most notably in high-resolution spectroscopy, led to the detection of many new exoplanets at a rapid rate. These advances allowed astronomers to detect exoplanets indirectly by measuring their gravitational influence on the motion of their parent stars. Several extrasolar planets were eventually also detected by observing the variation in a star’s apparent luminosity as a planet passed in front of it.

Our solar system compared with the system of 55 Cancri a paper proving that a three-body system with those orbital parameters would be highly unstable.[8] During the 1950s and 1960s, Peter van de Kamp of Swarthmore College made another prominent series of detection claims, this time for planets orbiting Barnard’s Star.[9] Astronomers now generally regard all the early reports of detection as erroneous. In 1991, Andrew Lyne, M. Bailes and S.L. Shemar claimed to have discovered a pulsar planet in orbit around PSR 1829-10, using pulsar timing variations.[10] The claim briefly received intense attention, but Lyne and his team soon retracted it.[11]

Confirmed discoveries

Our inner solar system superimposed behind the orbits of the planets HD 179949 b, HD 164427 b, Epsilon Reticuli Ab, and Mu Arae b (all parent stars are in the center)

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To date, 347 exoplanets have been found,[1] including a few that were confirmations of controversial claims from the late 1980s. The first system to have more than one planet detected was Upsilon Andromedae. Twenty such multiple-planet systems are now known. Among the known exoplanets are four pulsar planets orbiting two separate pulsars. Infrared observations of circumstellar dust disks also suggest the existence of millions of comets in several extrasolar systems.

Extrasolar planet
• Astrometry consists of precisely measuring a star’s position in the sky and observing the ways in which that position changes over time. If the star has a planet, then the gravitational influence of the planet will cause the star itself to move in a tiny circular or elliptical orbit about their common center of mass (see animation on the right). • Variations in the speed with which the star moves towards or away from Earth — that is, variations in the radial velocity of the star with respect to Earth — can be deduced from the displacement in the parent star’s spectral lines due to the Doppler effect.[18] This has been by far the most productive technique used. • A pulsar (the small, ultradense remnant of a star that has exploded as a supernova) emits radio waves extremely regularly as it rotates. Slight anomalies in the timing of its observed radio pulses can be used to track changes in the pulsar’s motion caused by the presence of planets. • If a planet crosses (or transits) in front of its parent star’s disk, then the observed brightness of the star drops by a small amount. The amount by which the star dims depends on its size and on the size of the planet. • Microlensing occurs when the gravitational field of a star acts like a lens, magnifying the light of a distant background star. Possible planets orbiting the foreground star can cause detectable anomalies in the lensing event light curve. • Disks of space dust surround many stars, and this dust can be detected because it absorbs ordinary starlight and re-emits it as infrared radiation. Features in dust disks may suggest the presence of planets. • In an eclipsing double star system, the planet can be detected by finding variability in minima as it goes back and forth. It is the most reliable method for detecting planets in binary star systems. • Like the phase of the Moon and Venus, extrasolar planets also have phases. Orbital phases depends on inclination of the orbit. By studying orbital phases scientists can calculate particle sizes in the atmospheres of planets. • Stellar light becomes polarized when it interacts with atmospheric molecules, which could be detected with a

Detection methods
Planets are extremely faint light sources compared to their parent stars. At visible wavelengths, they usually have less than a millionth of their parent star’s brightness. In addition to the intrinsic difficulty of detecting such a faint light source, the parent star causes a glare that washes it out. For those reasons, current telescopes can only directly image exoplanets under exceptional circumstances. Specifically, it may be possible when the planet is especially large (considerably larger than Jupiter), widely separated from its parent star, and hot so that it emits intense infrared radiation. The vast majority of known extrasolar planets have been discovered through indirect methods:

Diagram showing how an exoplanet orbiting a larger star could produce changes in position and velocity of the star as they orbit their common center of mass.

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polarimeter. So far, one planet has been studied by this method. Almost all known extrasolar planet candidates have been found using ground-based telescopes. However, many of the methods can yield better results if the observing telescope is located above the restless atmosphere. COROT (launched in December 2006) and Kepler, (launched in March 2009) are the only active space mission dedicated to extrasolar planet search. Hubble Space Telescope and MOST have found or confirmed a few planets. There are many planned or proposed space missions such as New Worlds Mission, Darwin, Space Interferometry Mission, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and PEGASE.

Extrasolar planet

The star 55 Cancri is the star with the most confirmed planets found around any star known (excluding the Sun) and may contain more planets. The planet 55 Cancri f (artist’s conception pictured) is currently the only planet with the designation "f". planet was discovered, it was designated PSR B1257+12 A (simply because the planet was closer than the other two).[19] Some nomenclatures (generally in science fiction) use Roman numerals in the order of planets’ positions from the star, but for the above reason, this is not practical. If the planet orbits in a non-circumbinary system, the letter of the star is added to the name. If the planet orbits the primary star of the system, and the secondary stars were either discovered after the planet or are relatively far form the primary star and planet, the name is usually omitted. For example, Tau Boötis b orbits in a binary system, but because the secondary star was both discovered after the planet and very far from the primary star and planet, the term "Tau Boötis Ab" is rarely to never used. However (in the cases of 16 Cygni Bb and 83 Leonis Bb), if the planet orbits a secondary star of the system, the star’s name is always used. Some planets have received unofficial (informal) names that can be compared to the planets of the Solar system. The most noted planets that have been given names include: Osiris (HD 209458 b), Bellerophon (51 Pegasi b), and Methuselah (PSR B1620-26 b). The International Astronomical Union (IAU) currently has no plans to officially name extrasolar planets, considering it impractical.[20]

Nomenclature
The most common way of naming extrasolar planets is almost the same as binary stars, except that a lowercase letter is used for the planet instead of the uppercase letter for stars. A lowercase letter is placed after the star name, starting with "b" for the first planet found in the system (51 Pegasi b). The next planet found in the system could be labeled the next letter in the alphabet. For instance, any more planets found around 51 Pegasi would be catalogued as "51 Pegasi c" and then "51 Pegasi d", and so on. If two planets are discovered around the same time, the closest one to the star gets the next letter, while the last planet would get the last letter. For example, in the Gliese 876 system, the most recently discovered planet is referred to as Gliese 876 d, despite the fact that it is closer to the star than Gliese 876 b and Gliese 876 c. The suffix "a" was intended to refer specifically to the primary, as opposed to the system as a whole, but this did not catch on. At present, the planet 55 Cancri f (being the fifth planet found in the 55 Cancri system) is the only planet to have "f" in its name, the highest letter currently in use. Only two planetary systems have planets that are named "unusual". Before the discovery of 51 Pegasi b in 1995, two pulsar planets (PSR B1257+12 B and PSR B1257+12 C) were discovered from pulsar timing of their dead star. Being that there was no official way of naming planets at the time, they were called "B" and "C" (similar to how planets are named today). However, uppercase letters were used, most likely because of the way binary stars were named. When a third

Definition
According to the International Astronomical Union’s working definition of "planet," a planet must orbit a star.[21] However, the current IAU definition for planet only accounts for

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our own solar system and all extrasolar planets were excluded from this definition for now.[22] The "working" definition for extrasolar planets was established in 2001 (and last modified in 2003) with the following criteria: “ 1. Objects with true masses below ” the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (currently calculated to be 13 Jupiter masses for objects of solar metallicity) that orbit stars or stellar remnants are "planets" (no matter how they formed). The minimum mass/size required for an extrasolar object to be considered a planet should be the same as that used in our Solar System. 2. Substellar objects with true masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", no matter how they formed nor where they are located. 3. Free-floating objects in young star clusters with masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are not "planets", but are "sub-brown dwarfs" (or whatever name is most appropriate). There have also been reports of free-floating planetary-mass objects (ones not orbiting any star), sometimes called "rogue planets" or "interstellar planets". Such objects are not discussed in this article since they are outside the working definition of "planet". Some of these may have formed as a planet around a star, but were subsequently ejected from that planetary system.

Extrasolar planet
or have planets that are themselves of lower mass and hence harder to detect.[23] Recent observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that stars of spectral category O, which are much hotter than our Sun, produce a photo-evaporation effect that inhibits planetary formation.[24] Stars are composed mainly of the light elements hydrogen and helium. They also contain a small fraction of heavier elements such as iron, and this fraction is referred to as a star’s metallicity. Stars of higher metallicity are much more likely to have planets, and the planets they have tend to be more massive than those of lower-metallicity stars.[3]

Measured properties
Most known extrasolar planet candidates have been discovered using indirect methods and therefore only certain physical and orbital parameters can be determined. The radial velocity method provides all orbital elements except for inclination, including orbital period, semi-major axis, Orbital eccentricity, angular distance, longitude of periastron, time of periastron and semi-amplitude. The unknown inclination results in unknown mass and therefore usually only the minimum mass is given. In some cases it may be a much more massive object such as brown dwarf or red dwarf star instead. However, if the planet’s orbit is nearly perpendicular to sky (inclination close to 90°), the planet can be seen transiting its star and therefore its true mass and radius can be measured. Furthermore, astrometric observations and dynamical studies in multiple planet systems can be used to constrain the mass of a planet. Spectroscopic measurements during the transit can be used to study a transiting planet’s atmospheric composition.[25] Secondary transit (occurs when the planet is behind the star) can be used for direct detection of infrared radiation from the planet. In addition, infrared observations can be used to study heat patterns on the surface of a closely orbiting planet.

General properties
Stellar characteristics
Most known exoplanets orbit stars roughly similar to our own Sun, that is, main-sequence stars of spectral categories F, G, or K. One reason is simply that planet search programs have tended to concentrate on such stars. But even after taking this into account, statistical analysis suggests that lower-mass stars (red dwarfs, of spectral category M) are either less likely to have planets

Selection effect
The vast majority of exoplanets detected so far have high masses. As of August 2008, all but twelve of them have more than ten times the mass of Earth.[1] Many are considerably more massive than Jupiter, the most massive planet in the Solar System. However, these

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Extrasolar planet
Solar System orbits around the Sun. Again, that is mainly an observational selection effect. The radial-velocity method is most sensitive to planets with such small orbits. Astronomers were initially very surprised by these "hot Jupiters", but it is now clear that most exoplanets (or, at least, most high-mass exoplanets) have much larger orbits, some located in habitable zones where suitable for liquid water and life. It appears plausible that in most exoplanetary systems, there are one or two giant planets with orbits comparable in size to those of Jupiter and Saturn in our own Solar System. The eccentricity of an orbit is a measure of how elliptical (elongated) it is. Most known exoplanets have quite eccentric orbits. This is not an observational selection effect, since a planet can be detected about a star equally well regardless of the eccentricity of its orbit. The prevalence of elliptical orbits is a major puzzle, since current theories of planetary formation strongly suggest planets should form with circular (that is, non-eccentric) orbits. One possible theory is that small companions such as T dwarfs (methane-bearing brown dwarfs) can hide in such solar systems and can cause the orbits of planets to be extreme.[27] This is also an indication that our own Solar System may be unusual, since all of its planets except for Mercury do follow basically circular orbits.[3]

All extrasolar planets discovered by radial velocity (blue dots), transit (red) and microlensing (yellow) to 31 August 2004. Also shows detection limits of forthcoming space- and ground-based instruments. high masses are in large part due to an observational selection effect: all detection methods are much more likely to discover massive planets. This bias makes statistical analysis difficult, but it appears that lowermass planets are actually more common than higher-mass ones, at least within a broad mass range that includes all giant planets. In addition, the fact that astronomers have found several planets only a few times more massive than Earth, despite the great difficulty of detecting them, indicates that such planets are fairly common.[3] According to 2008 data from the Harps (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher) spectrograph instrument in Chile, about one star in 14 may have gas giant planets, while one in three probably has rocky planets of below 30 Earth masses.[26] Many exoplanets orbit much closer around their parent star than any planet in our own

Unanswered questions

This planetary habitability chart shows where life might exist on extrasolar planets based on our own Solar System and life on Earth. Note, Europa in our Solar System is outside the habitable zone but is suspected to be harboring hidden ocean, thereby allowing for life. Many unanswered questions remain about the properties of exoplanets, such as the details of their composition and the likelihood

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of possessing moons. The recent discovery that several surveyed exoplanets lacked water showed that there is still much more to be learned about the properties of exoplanets. Another question is whether they might support life. Several planets do have orbits in their parent star’s habitable zone, where it should be possible for Earth-like conditions to prevail. Most of those planets are giant planets more similar to Jupiter than to Earth; if these planets have large moons, the moons might be a more plausible abode of life. Detection of life (other than an advanced civilization) at interstellar distances, however, is a tremendously challenging technical task that will not be feasible for many years, even if such life is commonplace.

Extrasolar planet
and Didier Queloz in Nature on October 6, 1995.[17] Astronomers were initially surprised by this "hot Jupiter" but soon set out to find other similar planets with great success.

Other notable discoveries
Since that time, other notable discoveries have included:

1996 to 2006

Exoplanets are common
Over 300 exoplanets are known in early 2009 and more are continually discovered. Dr. Alan Boss of the Carnegie Institution of Science estimates there may be a “hundred billion” terrestrial planets in our Milky Way Galaxy alone. Dr Boss believes many could have simple lifeforms and there could be thousands of civilizations in our galaxy. Dr. Boss guesses that each sun-like star has on average one Earth-like planet. Recent work at Edinburgh University tried to quantify how many intelligent civilizations might be out there. The research suggested there could be thousands of them. [28] Exoplanets, by year of discovery 1996, 47 Ursae Majoris b This Jupiter-like planet was the first long-period planet discovered, orbiting at 2.11 AU from the star with the eccentricity of 0.049. There is a second companion that orbits at 3.39 AU with the eccentricity of 0.220 ± 0.028 and a period of 2190 ± 460 days. 1998, Gliese 876 b The first planet found that orbits around a red dwarf star (Gliese 876). It orbits closer to the star than Mercury is to the Sun. More planets have subsequently been discovered closer to the star.[29] 1999, Upsilon Andromedae The first multiple-planetary system to be discovered around a main sequence star. It contains three planets, all of which are Jupiter-like. Planets b, c, d were announced in 1996, 1999, and 1999 respectively. Their masses are 0.687, 1.97, and 3.93 MJ; they orbit at 0.0595, 0.830, and 2.54 AU respectively.[30] In 2007 their inclinations were determined as non-coplanar. 1999, HD 209458 b This exoplanet, originally discovered with the radial-velocity method, became the first exoplanet to be seen transiting its parent star. The transit detection conclusively confirmed the existence of

Notable extrasolar planets
First discoveries
The first milestone in the discovery of extrasolar planets was in 1992, when Wolszczan and Frail published results in the journal Nature indicating that pulsar planets existed around PSR B1257+12.[16] Wolszczan had discovered the millisecond pulsar in question in 1990 at the Arecibo radio observatory. These were the first exoplanets ever verified, and they are still considered highly unusual in that they orbit a pulsar. The first verified discovery of an exoplanet (51 Pegasi b) orbiting a main sequence star (51 Pegasi) was announced by Michel Mayor

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the planets suspected to be responsible for the radial velocity measurements.[31] 2001, HD 209458 b Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope announced that they had detected the atmosphere of HD 209458 b. They found the spectroscopic signature of sodium in the atmosphere, but at a smaller intensity than expected, suggesting that high clouds obscure the lower atmospheric layers.[32] In 2008 the albedo of its cloud layer was measured, and its structure modeled as stratospheric. 2001, Iota Draconis b The first planet discovered around the giant star Iota Draconis, an orange giant. This provides evidence for the survival and behavior of planetary systems around giant stars. Giant stars have pulsations that can mimic the presence of planets. The planet is very massive and has a very eccentric orbit. It orbits on average 27.5% further from its star than Earth does from the Sun.[33] In 2008 the system’s origin would be traced to the Hyades cluster, alongside Epsilon Tauri.

Extrasolar planet
about 5,600 light years from Earth in the constellation Scorpius. This is the only planet known to orbit around a stellar binary; one of the stars in the binary is a pulsar and the other is a white dwarf. The planet has a mass twice that of Jupiter, and is estimated to be 13 billion years old.[34] 2004, Mu Arae c In August, a planet orbiting Mu Arae with a mass of approximately 14 times that of the Earth was discovered with the European Southern Observatory’s HARPS spectrograph. Depending on its composition, it is the first published "hot Neptune" or "super-Earth".[35]

Infrared image of 2M1207 (bluish) and 2M1207b (reddish). The two objects are separated by less than one arc second in Earth’s sky. Image taken using the European Southern Observatory’s 8.2 m Yepun Very Large Telescope 2004, 2M1207 b The first planet found around a brown dwarf. The planet is also the first to be directly imaged (in infrared). According to an early estimate, it has a mass 5 times that of Jupiter; other estimates give slightly lower masses. It orbits at 55 AU from the brown dwarf. The brown dwarf is only 25 times as massive as Jupiter. The temperature of the gas giant planet is very high (1250 K), mostly due to gravitational contraction.[36] In late 2005, the parameters were revised to

Artist’s impression of the pulsar planet PSR B1620-26 b (discovered in 2003); it is over 12.5 billion years old, making it the oldest known extrasolar planet. 2003, PSR B1620-26 b On July 10, using information obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope, a team of scientists led by Steinn Sigurdsson confirmed the oldest extrasolar planet yet. The planet is located in the globular star cluster M4,

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orbital radius 41 AU and mass of 3.3 Jupiters, because it was found that the star is closer to Earth than was originally believed. In 2006, adust disk was found around 2M1207, providing evidence for active planet formation.[37] 2005, Gliese 876 d In June, a third planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 876 was announced. With a mass estimated at 7.5 times that of Earth, it is currently the secondlightest known exoplanet that orbits an ordinary main-sequence star. It may be rocky in composition. The planet orbits at 0.021 AU with a period of 1.94 days.[38] 2005, HD 149026 b In July, a planet with the largest core known was announced. The planet, HD 149026 b, orbits the star HD 149026, and has a core that was then estimated to be 70 Earth masses (as of 2008, 80-110), accounting for at least twothirds of the planet’s mass.[39]

Extrasolar planet
gravitational microlensing, and is estimated to have a mass of 5.5 times that of Earth, making it the least massive known exoplanet to orbit an ordinary main-sequence star. Prior to this discovery, the few known exoplanets with comparably low masses had only been discovered in orbits very close to their parent stars, but this planet is estimated to have a relatively wide separation of 2.6 AU from its parent star.[40][41] 2006, HD 69830 Has a planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets. It is the first triple planetary system without any Jupiter-like planets discovered around a Sun-like star. All three planets were announced on May 18 by Lovis. All three orbit within 1 AU. The planets b, c and d have masses of 10, 12 and 18 times that of Earth, respectively. The outermost planet, d, appears to be in the habitable zone, shepherding the asteroid belt.[42]

2007 to 2009
2007, HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b On February 21, 2007, NASA and Nature released news that HD 209458 b and HD 189733 b were the first two extrasolar planets to have their spectra directly observed.[43][44] This was long seen as the first mechanism by which extrasolar but non-intelligent life forms could be searched for, by way of influence on a planet’s atmosphere. A group of investigators led by Dr. Jeremy Richardson of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center were first to publication, in the February 22 issue of Nature. Richardson et al. spectrally measured HD 209458 b’s atmosphere in the range of 7.5 to 13.2 micrometres. The results defied theoretical expectations in several ways. The spectrum had been predicted to have a peak at 10 micrometres which would have indicated water vapor in the atmosphere, but such a peak was absent, indicating no detectable water vapor. Another, unpredicted peak was observed at 9.65 micrometres, which the investigators attributed to clouds of silicate dust, a phenomenon not previously observed. Another unpredicted peak occurred at 7.78

Artist’s impression of the planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (with surface temperature of approximately −220 °C), orbiting its star 20,000 light years (117.5 quadrillion miles) from Earth; this planet was discovered with gravitational microlensing. 2006, OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb On January 25, the discovery of OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb was announced. This is the most distant and probably the coldest exoplanet found to date. It is believed that it orbits a red dwarf star around 21,500 light years from Earth, towards the center of the Milky Way galaxy. It was discovered using

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micrometres, which the investigators did not have an explanation for. A separate team led by Mark Swain of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory also separately analyzed the Richardson team’s data and indicated that their findings were similar. They had submitted their results to Astrophysical Journal Letters. A team led by Carl Grillmair of NASA’s Spitzer Science Center made the observations of HD 189733 b, and their results were pending publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters at the time of the news release. On July 11, 2007, the findings by the Spitzer Science Center were published in the Nature: Spectral imprints of water vapor were found by the Spitzer Space Telescope, thus representing the first solid evidence of water on an extrasolar planet.[45] 2007, Gliese 581 c

Extrasolar planet
previous occasions, Gliese 581 was looked at as a potential candidate for extraterrestrial intelligence, but both examinations revealed no proof. The confirmation of the exoplanet’s position was determined using the HARPS instrument on the European Southern Observatory’s 3.6-meter telescope, by applying the radial velocity detection method. 2007, Gliese 436 b This planet was one of the first Neptunemass planets discovered, in August 2004. In May 2007, a transit was found, revealed as the smallest and least massive transiting planet yet at 22 times that of Earth. Its density is consistent with a large core of an exotic form of solid water called "hot ice", which would exist, despite the planet’s high temperatures, because the planet’s gravity causes water to be extremely dense.[49] 2007, XO-3b A 13.24 Jupiter-mass planet is the most massive transiting planet ever found, and most massive extrasolar planet found to date, just above the brown dwarf limit at 13.00 MJ. The planet would have radius of 1.92 times Jupiter, the largest of any known extrasolar planets. The planet takes only 3.19 days to orbit the star. The orbit has an unusually high eccentricity (0.22) for such a short period planet.[50] 2007, TrES-4 The largest-diameter and lowest-density exoplanet to date, TrES-4 is 1.7 times Jupiter’s diameter but only 0.84 times its mass, giving it a density of just 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter—about the same as balsa wood. It orbits its primary closely and is therefore quite hot, but stellar heating alone does not appear to explain its large size.[51] 2008, OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lb and OGLE-2006-BLG-109Lc On February 14, the discovery of the, until now, most similar Jupiter-Saturn planetary system constellation was announced, with the ratios of mass, distance to their star and orbiting time

Artist’s Impression of Gliese 581 c Announced on Space.com on April 24, 2007, at 4:23pm ET, it has been determined that this exoplanet could support liquid water and possibly life.[46] While evidence of liquid water has not been detected, the position of this planet—being in a position that might be within the host star’s habitable zone—would allow for water to exist in its liquid state. However, subsequent habitability studies[47][48] indicate that the planet likely suffers from a runaway greenhouse effect similar to Venus, rendering the presence of liquid water impossible. These studies suggest that the third planet in the system, Gliese 581 d, is more likely to be habitable. Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer with the SETI institute, stated that on two

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similar to that of Jupiter-Saturn. This can be important for possible life in a solar system as Jupiter and Saturn have a stabilizing effect to the habitable zone by sweeping away large asteroids from the habitable zone.[52]

Extrasolar planet
masses and with periods between 4 to 20 days. It is speculated that this may be the first multi-planetary system without any known gas giants. All three terrestrial planets were discovered by the HARPS spectrograph in La Silla, Chile.[54] These three worlds were amongst the first seven confirmed of a panel of 45 candidate planets detected by the HARPS spectrograph on May 28, 2008. The discoveries represented a significant increase in the numbers of known super-earths. Based on this, astronomers now suggest that such lowmass planets may outnumber the Jupiterlike planets by 3 to 1.[2] While more data are needed to confirm the remaining candidates, some news media picked up the story. 2008; Fomalhaut b On November 13, NASA and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory announced the discovery of an extrasolar planet orbiting just inside the debris ring of the A class star Fomalhaut (Alpha Piscis Austrini). This was the first extrasolar planet to be directly imaged by an optical telescope.[55] The mass of Fomalhaut b is estimated to be 3 times the mass of Jupiter.[56][57] 2008; HR 8799 On November 13, the same day as Fomalhaut b, the discovery of three planets orbiting HR 8799 was announced. This was the first direct image of multiple planets. Christian Marois of the National Research Council of Canada’s Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics and his team used the Keck and Gemini telescopes in Hawaii. The Gemini images allowed the international team to make the initial discovery of two of the planets with data obtained on October 17, 2007. Then, on October 25, 2007, and in the summer of 2008 the team confirmed this discovery and found a third planet orbiting even closer to the star with images obtained at the Keck II telescope. A review of older data taken in 2004 with the Keck II telescope revealed that the three planets were visible on these images. Their masses and separation are approximately 10 MJ

An artist’s conception of extrasolar planet HD 189733 b 2008, HD 189733 b On March 20, follow up studies to the first spectral analyses of an extrasolar planet were published in the scientific journal Nature, announcing evidence of an organic molecule found on an extrasolar planet for the first time. In 2007 water vapor was already detected in the spectrum of HD 189733 b, but new analyses showed not only water vapor, but also methane existing in the atmosphere of the giant gas planet. Although conditions on HD 189733 b are too harsh to harbor life, it still is the first time a key molecule for organic life was found on an extrasolar planet.[53] 2008, HD 40307 On June 16, Michel Mayor announced a confirmed planetary system with three super-Earths orbiting this K-type star. Their masses are between 4 to 9 Earth

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
@ 24 AU, 10 MJ @ 38 AU and 7 MJ @ 68 AU.[57][58] 2009; COROT-Exo-7b On 2009-02-03, the European Space Agency announced the discovery of a planet orbiting the star COROT-Exo-7. Although the planet orbits its star at a distance less than 0.02 AU, its diameter is estimated to be around 1.7 times that of Earth, making it the smallest superEarth yet measured. Due to its extreme closeness to its parent star, it is believed to have a molten surface at a temperature of 1000–1500 °C.[59] It was discovered by the French COROT satellite. 2009; Gliese 581 e On 2009-04-21, the European Space Agency announced the discovery of a fourth planet orbiting the star Gliese 581. Although the planet orbits its star at a distance less than 0.03 AU, its mass is estimated to be a minimum of 1.9 times that of Earth, making it the lightest extrasolar planet yet detected.[5] • Planetary system • Extrasolar moon

Extrasolar planet

Habitability
• Planetary habitability • Extraterrestrial life • Extraterrestrial liquid water

Studies
• Exoplanetology • Astrobiology

Astronomers
• Geoffrey Marcy – co-discoverer with R. Paul Butler of more exoplanets than anyone else • R. Paul Butler – co-discoverer with Geoffrey Marcy of more exoplanets than anyone else • Debra Fischer – co-discoverer with Geoffrey Marcy and R. Paul Butler of more exoplanets than anyone else • Aleksander Wolszczan – co-discoverer of PSR B1257+12B and C, the first ever discovered exoplanets, with Dale Frail • Dale Frail – co-discoverer of PSR B1257+12B and C, the first ever discovered exoplanets, with Aleksander Wolszczan • Michel Mayor – co-discoverer of 51 Pegasi b, the first ever discovered exoplanet orbiting a Sun-like star, with Didier Queloz • Didier Queloz – co-discoverer of 51 Pegasi b, the first ever discovered exoplanet orbiting a Sun-like star, with Michel Mayor • Stephane Udry – co-discoverer of Gliese 581c, the most Earth-like planet

Discovery firsts

See also
Lists
• List of extrasolar planets • List of extrasolar planet extremes • List of unconfirmed exoplanets

Classifications
• • • • • • • • • • • • Appearance of extrasolar planets Pulsar planet Super-Earth Hot Neptune Hot Jupiter Eccentric Jupiter Gas giant Goldilocks planet Terrestrial planet Chthonian planet Ocean planet Desert planet

Observatories
• • • • • • • • • • Methods of detecting extrasolar planets Geneva Extrasolar Planet Search Anglo-Australian Planet Search California & Carnegie Planet Search Systemic (amateur extrasolar planet search project) HATNet Project (HAT) Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES) SuperWASP (WASP) XO Telescope (XO) Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE)

Systems
• Binary star • Hypothetical planet • Interstellar planet

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Title First planet discovered. Planet PSR B1257+12 B PSR B1257+12 C Star PSR B1257+12

Extrasolar planet
Year Notes 1992 First pulsar planets, first super-earths. • The planet around Gamma Cephei was already suspected in 1988. • HD 114762 b was discovered in 1989, but was not confirmed as a planet before 1996. 1992 First planets discovered, first superearths. 1995

First discovery by a method First planet discovered via pulsar timing. PSR B1257+12 B PSR B1257+12 C PSR B1257+12

First planet 51 Pegasi b discovered via radial velocity. First planet discovered via transit. OGLE-TR-56 b

51 Pegasi

OGLE-TR-56

2002 • The first discovered transiting planet was HD 209458 b, which had already been discovered.

First planet discovered via gravitational lensing.

OGLE-2003-BLG-235L b

OGLE-2003-BLG-235L/ 2004 MOA-2003-BLG-53L

First directly 2M1207 b imaged planet. (infrared) First imaged planet orbiting a ’normal’ star. (infrared) First planet Fomalhaut b directly imaged by visible light First discovery by system type First planet PSR B1257+12 B discovered in a PSR B1257+12 C solitary star system.

2M1207

2004 First planet found around brown dwarf 2008 First planet orbiting a Sun-like star[60]

1RXS J160929.1-210524

Fomalhaut

2008 First planet orbiting an ABO star.

PSR B1257+12

1992 First extrasolar planets discovered • HD 114762 b was discovered in 1989, but was not confirmed as a planet before 1996.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
First "freeS Ori J053810.1-023626 floating" planet (S Ori 70) discovered.

Extrasolar planet
2004 Has mass of 3 MJupiter, needs confirmation. • Free-floating objects are not usually considered planets.

First planet 55 Cancri b discovered in a multiple star system.

55 Cancri

1996 55 Cnc has distant red dwarf companion. • The planet around Gamma Cephei was already suspected in 1988. • Gamma Cephei Ab is the first relatively close binary with a planet. 1993 Orbits a pulsar and a white dwarf.

First planet PSR B1620-26 b discovered in a circumbinary orbit. First multiple planet system discovered. First planet in star cluster. First pulsar planet discovered. PSR B1257+12 A PSR B1257+12 B PSR B1257+12 C PSR B1620-26 b

PSR B1620-26

PSR B1257+12

1992 A pulsar planetary system. 1993 Located in Messier 4

PSR B1620-26

First discovery by star type PSR B1257+12 B PSR B1257+12 C PSR B1257+12 1992

First known 51 Pegasi b planet orbiting a main sequence star. (Sun-like) First known Fomalhaut b planet orbiting an ABO star. (blue-white star) First known Gliese 876 b planet orbiting a red dwarf. First known Iota Draconis b planet orbiting a giant star. First known PSR B1620-26 b planet orbiting a white dwarf.

51 Pegasi

1995 First hot jupiter.

Fomalhaut

2008 First extrasolar planet discovered by visible light image.

Gliese 876

1998

Iota Draconis

2002 • Aldebaran b was announced in 1997, but has not been confirmed. 1993 • GD 66 b was announced in 2007, but has not been confirmed

PSR B1620-26

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
First known 2M1207 b planet orbiting a brown dwarf. First "freeS Ori J053810.1-023626 floating" planet (S Ori 70) discovered. 2M1207

Extrasolar planet
2004 First directly imaged planet. 2004 Has mass of 3 MJupiter, needs confirmation. • Free-floating objects are not usually considered planets.

Firsts by planet type First hot jupiter. 51 Pegasi b 51 Pegasi 1995 First planet discovered orbiting a main sequence star. 2004 First four-planet system discovered.

First terrestri- Mu Arae c al planet orbiting a main sequence star. First superearth orbiting a main sequence star. Gliese 876 d

Mu Arae

Gliese 876

2005 Orbits a red dwarf star.

First icy planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb OGLE-2005-BLG-390L 2006 Orbits a red dwarf orbiting a main star. sequence star. Other firsts First transiting HD 209458 b planet. HD 209458 1999 • OGLE-TR-56 b is the first planet found by transit method. 2008

First multiplanet system directly imaged.

HR 8799 b HR 8799 c HR 8799 d

HR 8799

• Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

Websites
• Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia • Planetary Society Catalog of Exoplanets

Missions
• COROT – current ESA mission to detect extrasolar planets — launched in 2006 • Kepler Mission – launched in 2009 • PEGASE – launch between 2010–2012 • Space Interferometry Mission – launch between 2015–2016 • New Worlds Mission – launch in 2013 • Terrestrial Planet Finder – no launch date • Darwin (ESA) – launch in 2015

References
[1] ^ Schneider, Jean. "Interactive Extrasolar Planets Catalog". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. http://exoplanet.eu/catalog.php. [2] ^ "Rock planets outnumber gas giants". msn. 2008-05-28. http://tech.uk.msn.com/news/ article.aspx?cp-documentid=8402161. Retrieved on 2008-05-28. [3] ^ Marcy, G.; Butler, R.; Fischer, D.; et.al. (2005). "Observed Properties of Exoplanets: Masses, Orbits and

Books
• Distant Wanderers

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Metallicities". Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement 158: 24 – 42. doi:10.1143/PTPS.158.24. http://ptp.ipap.jp/link?PTPS/158/24. [4] "Terrestrial Planet Finder science goals: Detecting signs of life". JPL Terrestrial Planet Finder website. http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF/ tpf_signsOfLife.cfm. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. [5] ^ Mayor et al. (2009). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets,XVIII. An Earth-mass planet in the GJ 581 planetary system". Astronomy and Astrophysics. http://obswww.unige.ch/~udry/ Gl581_preprint.pdf. [6] Jacob, W.S. (1855). "On Certain Anomalies presented by the Binary Star 70 Ophiuchi". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 15: 228. [7] See, Thomas Jefferson Jackson (1896). "Researches on the Orbit of F.70 Ophiuchi, and on a Periodic Perturbation in the Motion of the System Arising from the Action of an Unseen Body". The Astronomical Journal 16: 17. doi:10.1086/102368. [8] Sherrill, Thomas J. (1999). "A Career of controversy: the anomaly OF T. J. J. See" (PDF). Journal for the history of astronomy 30. http://www.shpltd.co.uk/ jha.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. [9] van de Kamp, Peter (August 1969). "Alternate dynamical analysis of Barnard’s star". The Astronomical Journal 74: 757–759. doi:10.1086/ 110852. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/ 1969AJ.....74..757V. Retrieved on 2007-08-27. [10] Bailes, M.; Lyne, A.G.; Shemar, S.L. (1991). "A planet orbiting the neutron star PSR1829-10". Nature 352: 311 – 313. doi:10.1038/352311a0. http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/ DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v352/ n6333/abs/352311a0.html. [11] Lyne, A.G.; Bailes, M. (1992). "No planet orbiting PS R1829-10". Nature 355 (6357): 213. doi:10.1038/355213b0. http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/ DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v355/ n6357/abs/355213b0.html. [12] Campbell, B.; Walker, G. A. H.; Yang, S. (1988). "A search for substellar companions to solar-type stars".

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Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 331: 902 – 921. doi:10.1086/166608. http://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nphiarticle_query?bibcode=1988ApJ...331..902C. [13] Lawton, A. T.; Wright, P. (1989). "A planetary system for Gamma Cephei?". British Interplanetary Society, Journal 42: 335 – 336. http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/nphbib_query?1989JBIS...42..335L&db_key=AST&nosetc [14] Walker, G. A. H.; Bohlender, D. A.; Walker, A. R.; Irwin, A. W.; Yang, S. L. S.; Larson, A. (1992). "Gamma Cephei Rotation or planetary companion?". Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters 396 (2): L91 – L94. doi:10.1086/186524. http://adsbit.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nphiarticle_query?bibcode=1992ApJ...396L..91W. [15] Hatzes et al. (2003). "A Planetary Companion to Gamma Cephei A". The Astrophysical Journal 599 (2): 1383 – 1394. doi:10.1086/379281. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/ full/10.1086/379281. [16] ^ Wolszczan, A.; Frail, D. A. (1992). "A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12". Nature 355: 145 – 147. doi:10.1038/355145a0. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v355/n6356/abs/355145a0.html. [17] ^ Mayor, Michel; Queloz, Didier (1995). "A Jupiter-mass companion to a solartype star". Nature 378: 355 – 359. doi:10.1038/378355a0. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v378/n6555/abs/378355a0.html. [18] An especially simple and inexpensive method for measuring radial velocity is “externally dispersed interferometry.” See the following Web site: http://www.spectralfringe.org/EDI/ . See also: Erskine, Edelstein, Harbeck and Lloyd, “Externally dispersed interferometry for planetary studies,” in Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets II, Daniel R. Coulter, ed., Proceedings of the SPIE *, vol. 5905, pages 249-260 (2005). (14 page extract). (* SPIE = Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers; renamed: International Society for Optical Engineering) [19] "Extrasolar Planets". http://www.users.muohio.edu/weaksjt/. Retrieved on 2008-07-10.

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[31] Henry et al. (2000). "A Transiting "51 Peg-like" Planet". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 529 (1): L41 – L44. doi:10.1086/312458. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/ full/10.1086/312458. [32] Charbonneau et al. (2002). "Detection of an Extrasolar Planet Atmosphere". The Astrophysical Journal 568 (1): 377 – 384. doi:10.1086/338770. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/ full/10.1086/338770. [33] Frink et al. (2002). "Discovery of a Substellar Companion to the K2 III Giant Iota Draconis". The Astrophysical Journal 576 (1): 478 – 484. doi:10.1086/341629. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/ full/10.1086/341629. [34] Sigurdsson, S.; Richer, H.B.; Hansen, B.M.; Stairs I.H.; Thorsett, S.E. (2003). "A Young White Dwarf Companion to Pulsar B1620-26: Evidence for Early Planet Formation". Science 301 (5630): 193 – 196. doi:10.1126/science.1086326. PMID 12855802. [35] "Fourteen Times the Earth - ESO HARPS Instrument Discovers Smallest Ever Extra-Solar Planet". ESO website. http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/ press-rel/pr-2004/pr-22-04.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-07. [36] Konacki, M. (2005). "Astronomers Confirm the First Image of a Planet Outside of Our Solar System". ESO. http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/ press-rel/pr-2005/pr-12-05.html. [37] Mohanty, Subhanjoy; R. Jayawardhana, N. Huelamo, E. Mamajek (2006). "The Planetary Mass Companion 2MASS1207-3932 B: Temperature, Mass and Evidence for an Edge-On Disk". American Astronomical Society. http://www.abstractsonline.com/viewer/ viewAbstract.asp?CKey=%7B78F3A334-676D-4934-9 BE1BB2FFF667%7D&MKey=%7B233E8D64-F679-4 A562-2F5589F2C771%7D&AKey=%7BAAF9AABAB0FF-4235-8AEC-74F22FC76386%7D&SKey=%7B66 F16F-4160-87CA-19158B707AE3%7D. Retrieved on 2008-07-17. [38] Rivera et al. (2005). "A 7.5 Me Planet Orbiting the Nearby Star GJ 876". The Astrophysical Journal 634 (1): 625 – 640. doi:10.1086/491669. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/ full/10.1086/491669.

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[39] Sato, B.; Fischer, D.; Henry, G.; Laughlin, G.; Butler, R.; Marcy, G.; Vogt, S.; Bodenheimer, P.; Ida, S.; Toyota, E.; Wolf, A.; Valenti, J.; Boyd, L.; Johnson, J.; Wright, J.; Ammons, M.; Robinson, S.; Strader, J.; McCarthy, C.; Tah, K.; Minniti, D. (2005). "The N2K Consortium II: A Transiting Hot Saturn around HD 149026 with a Large Dense Core". The Astrophysical Journal 633: 465 – 473. doi:10.1086/449306. [40] J.-P. Beaulieu; D.P. Bennett; P. Fouque; A. Williams; M. Dominik; U.G. Jorgensen; D. Kubas; A. Cassan; C. Coutures; J. Greenhill; K. Hill; J. Menzies; P.D. Sackett; M. Albrow; S. Brillant; J.A.R. Caldwell; J.J. Calitz; K.H. Cook; E. Corrales; M. Desort; S. Dieters; D. Dominis; J. Donatowicz; M. Hoffman; S. Kane; J.-B. Marquette; R. Martin; P. Meintjes; K. Pollard; K. Sahu; C. Vinter; J. Wambsganss; K. Woller; K. Horne; I. Steele; D. Bramich; M. Burgdorf; C. Snodgrass; M. Bode; A. Udalski; M. Szymanski; M. Kubiak; T. Wieckowski; G. Pietrzynski; I. Soszynski; O. Szewczyk; L. Wyrzykowski; B. Paczynski (2006). "Discovery of a Cool Planet of 5.5 Earth Masses Through Gravitational Microlensing". Nature 439: 437 – 440. doi:10.1038/nature04441. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v439/n7075/full/nature04441.html. [41] "Kiwis help discover new planet". One News. 2006-01-26. http://tvnz.co.nz/view/ page/411419/653815. Retrieved on 2006-05-07. [42] "Trio of Neptunes and their belt". 2006-05-18. http://www.eso.org/public/ outreach/press-rel/pr-2006/ pr-18-06.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-09. [43] NASA’s Spitzer First To Crack Open Light of Faraway Worlds Spitzer.caltech.edu 2007-02-21 Retrieved on 2008-07-17 [44] A spectrum of an extrasolar planet Nature.com 2007-02-01 Nature 445, 892-895 (22 February 2007); doi:10.1038/nature05636 Retrieved on 2008-07-17 [45] ’Clear Signs of Water’ on Distant Planet at Space.com [46] Ker Than (2007-04-24). "Major Discovery: New Planet Could Harbor Water and Life". http://www.space.com/ scienceastronomy/

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070424_hab_exoplanet.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-24. [47] Selsis et al. (2007). "Habitable planets around the star Gl 581?". Astronomy and Astrophysics 476: preprint. doi:10.1051/ 0004-6361:20078091. http://arxiv.org/ abs/0710.5294. [48] von Bloh et al. (2007) "The Habitability of Super-Earths in Gliese 581". Astronomy & Astrophysics 476:1365-1371. http://www.aanda.org/ index.php?option=article&access=bibcode&bibcode= Retrieved on 2008-07-20. [49] Fox, Maggie (2007-05-16). "Hot "ice" may cover recently discovered planet". Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/ scienceNews/idUKN1621607620070516. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. [50] Krull et al. (2007-05-30). XO-3b: A Massive Planet in an Eccentric Orbit Transiting an F5V Star. http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/0712.4283. Retrieved on 2008-01-02. [51] "Largest Known Exoplanet Discovered". SPACE.com. 2007-08-06. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/ 070806_largest_exoplanet.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. [52] "Solar System Like Ours Found". SPACE.com. 2008-02-14. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/ 080214-planets-found.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-19. [53] "Key Organic Molecule Detected at Extrasolar Planet". SPACE.com. 2008-03-20. http://www.space.com/ scienceastronomy/080319-extrasolarmethane.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-20. [54] "Trio of ’super-Earths’ discovered". BBC news. 2008-06-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 1/hi/sci/tech/7457307.stm. Retrieved on 2008-06-17. [55] "From afar, the first optical photos of an exoplanet". AFP. 2008-11-13. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iAPPiKC8oJh3qqkV2ZsF09HmmCA. [56] "Hubble Directly Observes a Planet Orbiting Another Star". http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/ hubble/science/fomalhaut.html. Retrieved on November 13 2008. [57] ^ John Timmer. "Three planets directly observed orbiting distant star". http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/ 20081113-two-reports-detail-imaging-of-

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extrasolar-planets.html. Retrieved on November 13 2008. [58] "Exoplanets finally come into view". BBC News. 2008-11-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 1/hi/sci/tech/7725584.stm. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. [59] "ESA Portal - COROT discovers smallest exoplanet yet, with a surface to walk on". Esa.int. 2009-02-03. http://www.esa.int/ esaCP/SEM7G6XPXPF_index_0.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-23. [60] Exoplanet ’circles normal star’, BBC News Online, September 15, 2008

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www.planetarybiology.com. http://www.planetarybiology.com/ exoexplorer_planets/. • "exoExplorer: a free Windows application for visualizing exoplanet environments in 3D". www.planetarybiology.com. http://www.planetarybiology.com/ exoexplorer/. News • Exoplanets Exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City • First direct image of an exoplanet from universetoday.com • 6–8 Earth-Mass Planet Discovered orbiting Gliese 876 • Newfound World Shatters Distance Record from space.com • Oldest Known World from space.com • Earth Sized Planets Confirmed from space.com • Sunshade to Look for Distant Life from news.bbc.co.uk • Planet 3x Earth’s size found also from news.bbc.co.uk • "On the possible correlation between the orbital periods of extrasolar planets and the metallicity of the host stars". Wiley Interscience. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/ journal/118763068/ abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved on 2008-08-20. • John T. Trauger & Wesley A. Traub (2007). "A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet". Nature 446: 771–773. doi:10.1038/nature05729. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v446/n7137/full/nature05729.html. • Mark R. Swain, Gautam Vasisht & Giovanna Tinetti (2008). "The presence of methane in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet". Nature 452: 329–331. doi:10.1038/nature06823. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v452/n7185/full/nature06823.html. • Artie P. Hatzes & Günther Wuchter (2005). "Astronomy: Giant planet seeks nursery place". Nature 436: 182–183. doi:10.1038/436182a. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v436/n7048/full/436182a.html. • Didier Queloz (2006). "Extrasolar planets: Light through a gravitational lens". Nature 439: 400–401. doi:10.1038/439400a.

External links
• University of California Planet Search Project • The Geneva Extrasolar Planet Search Programmes • PlanetQuest distributed computing project • SuperWASP Wide Angle Search for Planets Resources • NASA’s PlanetQuest • PlanetQuest 3D Atlas of extrasolar planets within 400 light years of our Solar System • Planetquest Flash • Beyond Our Solar System by NASA’s Solar System Exploration • German Center for Exo-Planet Research Jena/Tautenburg • Astrophysical Institute & University Observatory Jena (AIU) • The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia • exosolar.net 3D Flash StarMap (2000 Stars and all known Exoplanets) • Table of known planetary systems • Extrasolar Planet XML Database • Andrew Collier Cameron, Extrasolar planets, Physics World (January 2001). • searchable dynamic database of extrasolar planets and their parent stars • List of important exoplanets • Extrasolar Planets – D. Montes, UCM • Extrasolar Visions • Exoplanets at Paris Observatory • "Exoplanet Habitable Zone Candidates: exoplanets in terms of their historical chances for residing in the habitable zone". www.planetarybiology.com. http://www.planetarybiology.com/ hz_candidates/. • "Exoplanets in relation to host star’s current habitable zone".

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v439/n7075/full/439400a.html. • Robin M. Canup and William R. Ward (2006). "A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets". Nature 441: 834–839. doi:10.1038/ nature04860. http://www.nature.com/ nature/journal/v441/n7095/abs/ nature04860.html. • Chih-Hao Li, Andrew J. Benedick, Peter Fendel, Alexander G. Glenday, Franz X. Kärtner, David F. Phillips, Dimitar Sasselov, Andrew Szentgyorgyi & Ronald L. Walsworth (2008). "A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1–cm s-1". Nature 452: 610–612. doi:10.1038/ nature06854. http://www.nature.com/ nature/journal/v452/n7187/full/ nature06854.html. • Giovanna Tinetti, Alfred Vidal-Madjar, Mao-Chang Liang, Jean-Philippe Beaulieu,

Extrasolar planet
Yuk Yung, Sean Carey, Robert J. Barber, Jonathan Tennyson, Ignasi Ribas, Nicole Allard, Gilda E. Ballester, David K. Sing & Franck Selsis (2007). "Water vapour in the atmosphere of a transiting extrasolar planet". Nature 448: 169–171. doi:10.1038/nature06002. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v448/n7150/full/nature06002.html. • "Radio Detection of Extrasolar Planets: Present and Future Prospects" (PDF). NRL, NASA/GSFC, NRAO, Observatoìre de Paris. http://www.ece.vt.edu/swe/lwa/ memo/lwa0013.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-10-15. • Stuart J. Weidenschilling & Francesco Marzari (1996). "Gravitational scattering as a possible origin for giant planets at small stellar distances". Nature 384: 619–621. doi:10.1038/384619a0. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v384/n6610/abs/384619a0.html.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extrasolar_planet" Categories: Astronomical objects, Extrasolar planets, Lists of planets, Planets, SETI, Types of planet This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 14:34 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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