The Quality Assurance Company
A member of the SevenPlus Network Europe
PROGRAMME CYCLE MANAGEMENT
A SYSTEMIC APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT
OF INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
A guide prepared for the
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE PEOPLE DIMENSION IN DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENT CO-
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMIC ALIGNMENT 10
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 13
DYNAMICS / STRUCTURE OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION 14
QUALITY STANDARDS FOR TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION 15
GETTING STARTED ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
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STEP 3: THE OBJECTIVES TO BE ACHIEVED BY EACH STAKEHOLDER
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THE APPROACH ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
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THE PROCESS ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
PLAN OF OPERATIONS ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
PROJECT STEERING ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
TABLES ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
FEEDBACK — A BASIS FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENTERROR! BOOKMARK
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Aims and Objectives of the Guide
Our aims in preparing the Guide were to:
• Create awareness of some of the conceptual issues which have limited the impact of
development assistance programmes over recent decades;
• Clarify the issues of ownership, impact and sustainability of results in the context of
• Provide tools for ensuring the continuous improvement of future programmes.
After studying this Guide you should be able to:
• Understand the critical role played by people in the development co-operation
• Appreciate the need for the participation of all stakeholder organisations involved
during the planning, implementation and follow-up phases;
• Analyse problems in a given situation, assess different options and decide on a
viable course of action.
The method focuses on people as well as on the processes to be used by them to achieve
the desired results for society. It does this through the use of neuro-linguistic techniques
combined with Zielorientierte projekt planung (ZOPP) and Project Cycle Management
These tools and techniques allow people to experience and fully associate themselves
with each situation (present and future), and to understand the subjective perception of
the other stakeholders about the issues under discussion.
OOPP – Ownership-oriented (project) planning – emphasises the importance of
people’s beliefs, values and emotional intelligence which condition their action and
behaviour when working on the project. It also emphasises how a change in an
organisation’s activities may require changes to its mission, values, processes and so on.
It applies a systemic approach to development activities. In particular, it:
• Provides techniques for people to function from an internal state of excellence and
enhances their leadership qualities
• Defines an iterative and participatory improvement process
• Contains techniques for understanding other people’s motivation and working traits
• Provides skills and techniques for effective and meaningful communication for the
clarification of issues and the establishment of good relational skills
• Enables viewing a given situation from different perspectives (dreamer, realist, critic)
and different time frames (past, present and future).
This guide can be used:
I) By those responsible for the management of the development process - i.e.,
enterprises, local institutions, government - within a country in order to:
• identify, formulate and/or implement their own development programme; and
to identify external factors affecting the implementation of their programmes;
• Identify and determine the need for support from other organisations (e.g.,
support to enterprises from local institutions, government) or support to the
latter from external development co-operation agencies.
II) By multi- and bilateral co-operation agencies and non-governmental organisations
(NGOs) in order to:
• Assess the relevance and sustainability of client’s development programme.
• decide whether to support the client and whether this support should be to:
• analyse a given situation;
• formulate the client’s programme;
• implement the client’s programme;
• monitor and evaluate the project implementation.
• Identify, formulate, monitor and evaluate the technical co-operation support
service provided to the client institution.
THE PEOPLE DIMENSION IN DEVELOPMENT AND
In principle, development co-operation agencies recognise:
• that developing countries (people in Government, institutions and enterprises)
are responsible for the management of the identification, formulation and
implementation of their own development programmes; and
• that their leaders, managers and staff are responsible for the provision of
technical co-operation in the identification, formulation and/or
implementation of those programmes, so as to have a sustainable impact on
the capacity-building process of the local institutions2.
In other words, the role of a development co-operation agency is to help people in a
country to help themselves; to help them to embrace change - provided that they do want
to change. Change - like development - implies learning; the two go hand-in-hand
towards ownership of a change process that is not imposed from outside. It requires
leadership in the country by people who want to drive their own development process.
Today, the development co-operation community focuses on the importance of local
ownership of the development process and on the need: to respect that by using
participatory approaches; to promote self-help; to achieve tangible and sustainable
results - notably in building national capacities to get ‘things’ done.
Unfortunately, reality is somewhat different: we have provided a lot of advice on
policies, strategies, techniques, technology, methods, training as well as equipment,
materials etc.. And yet the results and overall impact has been far less than expected by
The authors of the Report on Global Governance described what is at stake: world development, world
peace and economic, social and environmental equilibrium. Governments’ role is the creation of so-called
enabling environment as defined by each situation.
The political leaders at the G-7 Summit (Halifax Declaration 1995) and so many others recognised that:
primary responsibility for development lies with the developing countries; multi- and bilateral international co-
operation is essential to support national efforts and have crucial role to play by providing intellectual
leadership and policy advice. They also stressed the importance of improving the quality (impact,
sustainability) of the services provided; involving the people in the solutions of their own problems; the use
of participatory approaches.
This impact is measured through the ability of local institutions to improve the situation of the beneficiaries,
i.e. to achieve the objective of their development programmes.
Foreign experts / consultants often take over the driving seat and end up by leading the
development process leaving local people on the sidelines to watch what they do and with
little strengthened capacity to sustain results produced by the foreign experts.
There are many reasons for this state of affairs. For example:
• Experts’ services/outputs are not specifically linked to the constraints faced by
a client to achieving his goals - enabling him to do something better in the
future; in other words, the purpose has not been defined with any degree of
• It is faster for experts to do it themselves; they use the tools they know best
regardless of their effectiveness in enabling the client to overcome his/her
• There are deadlines to be met; the expert wants to make sure that he / she is
given another assignment;
• The urge to be always “in control” - meaning that the expert will do what he is
used to doing and does best; he / she is not open to new initiatives, adapting to
local conditions, curiosity, experimenting;
• Little or no knowledge of people’s perspective of the world, in terms of
beliefs, values, capabilities, wants etc..
• The emphasis is on training rather than also on learning.
The Issue: How to reach the desired outcomes?
If we want to see local ownership and sustainable results, we have to look first at
ourselves to make sure that we do practice what we preach and whether we are /have the
people with the mind-set that will permit them to achieve the results - that is, when
people (partners) in developing countries will say about a development project: “We did
For this purpose, we need to be aware of our mission, how what we think of ourselves
(identity) shapes what we believe in and is important for us (beliefs and values); these in
turn influence the knowledge and skills we possess (capabilities) and what we say and do
(behaviour) - which determine the results we achieve in our work (environment).
We also have to go beyond the provision of methods and techniques - to focus on people
in recipient countries who want to improve their situation - and who will do so by
changing behaviour / attitude / mind-set as part of their improvement process to produce
better results for their company, institution or country... and for themselves personally.!
All human beings have a built-in drive to learn, take pride in their work, experiment and
improve; there is a positive side to all human behaviour. The question is how to make the
best use of the resources human beings possess.
Fig. 1: A Simple Quality System
All work on management has focused on various and many techniques and processes
which - when correctly used - will enable you to produce better results (increased
productivity, competitiveness etc..). Unfortunately, the map is not the territory - and in
the same way, good planning techniques are not synonymous with good results.
More often than not, leaders and managers complain that their people do not apply those
techniques/ processes properly; or that they do not have the “right” mind-set,
“behaviour,” “attitude towards their work”, etc.. Some of the key questions to be asked
• How do leaders and managers get themselves into the “right” state of mind ?
• How are they capable of motivating their people so that they do have the
necessary attitude, behaviour etc. towards their work ?
• How can their communication be effective so that it elicits the desired
response from the people working with them ?
Leadership and communication by people at all levels in a system (organisation, public
/ private sector institutions, company, government, etc..) are crucial to success of
development and development co-operation. It is people who drive policy and strategy,
management of staff, financial and other resources, and decide and use processes to
produce the planned results; the quality of the results will depend on the quality of their
inter-action between all the people involved in the system (see EFQM: European Model
for Business Excellence).
How people function - what do we know about:
• their mental models (filters of how they see the world, and how those images
influences the way they act and take decisions) 3;
• their capacity to create the results they most desire and the working /
organisational environment in which those results can be achieved; this
implies being aware of their sense of self (identity), beliefs and values, skills /
capabilities, their everyday behaviour towards others in their work
• their sense of commitment and belonging; having a common understanding or
creating a vision of the future which is shared by others; sharing of principles
according to which they can achieve their tasks.
• teams’ learning capacity to drive a movement towards the achievement of the
desired future situation whereby the knowledge of the whole is greater than
that of the sum of that of the individuals in the team.
The mental models of staff of a development co-operation agency would have to include
the beliefs and values inherent to Total Quality Management, Best Practice, etc. and be
shown in practice through their attitude, behaviour and recognition that:
• problems are best solved by the people in the country who are working /
coping with them;
• people’s willingness to change, skills, achievement, contributions has a higher
value than status, position, compliance with rules and procedures;
• problems can be reframed and treated as opportunities;
• mistakes should be tolerated;
• and above all, that it is people who drive institutions and enterprises.
Hence the importance of an atmosphere of trust and confidence being established at both
institution and people levels. This assumes that foreign experts believe and understand
• The meaning of communication is the response you get - not what you say;
• There are no resistant people; only ineffective communicators;
• If you do what you have always done, you will get what you have always got;
• There is no such thing as failure - only feedback, the basis for continuous
Some people want to move away from the present situation without necessarily having established what they
want to move towards; for small business entrepreneurs, the strategy is one of struggling to survive with limited goals
in life. They are generally on the ‘effect’ rather than the ‘cause’ side of events, or with little possibility or willingness to
influence them. Experience shows that motivation is important for them to carry out a situation analysis / needs
assessment - and to imagine or get a feeling for their situation in a couple of years’ time. Other small and medium
businesses know what they want their future situation to be like.
It takes time and a minimum knowledge of Neuro-linguistics and psychology to establish rapport, understand
others beliefs and value systems, and create an atmosphere of trust and confidence. More often than not, we have to
discuss many issues related to the family and community which are not directly related to the general problem area
identified. Yet, it is a necessary process.
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMIC ALIGNMENT
You produce your best performance (at work or at play) when you are aligned at five
1. Environment: Where you work? When?
2. Behaviour: What you do while working? (Within environment).
3. Capabilities: How you do it? (Knowledge, competence and skills guiding
4. Beliefs/values: Why you do it? (Motivation, permission,).
5. Identity: Who are you? (Overall purpose shaping beliefs and values
through our sense of self).
If any level is not aligned with the others, you will not produce your best performance
“Ownership” is the feeling you have when you are at “one” with yourself and with
what you are doing—aligned at five levels:
• Identity — Your sense of self, mission in life determines to a great extent your.....
• Beliefs and values — What you believe to be true about development and how
that development is important to you. These influence your.....
• Capabilities/skills — What you are willing to do... With the knowledge,
experience, skills which are part of you as a result of your beliefs, values and
identity. These condition your.....
• Behaviour/action — How you apply your skills and your other resources every
day and are authorised to do so in your ....
• Work environment — How you relate to others in your enterprise or
organisation in a mutually supportive way in line with your beliefs, values and
identity... and contribute to the well-being of your family, community, etc.
Organisations also produce their best performance when they and their staff are aligned at
these 5 levels. In order to learn about the kind of organisation you work in and how you
relate to it, please answer the following questions:
Purpose: Does the organisation have a vision and mission?
Does it have an identity of its own?
Do the people that work in it feel a sense of belonging?
Values and culture: What is important for the organisation?
Have the principles for running it been identified, documented and
communicated to and accepted by the staff, clients and potential
approaches: What skills does the organisation possess (i.e. its staff) and
how are they different from its competitors?
How effective is its leadership?
What policies, strategies, processes/procedures are required to
produce the desired results (products, services)?
What resources does it have at its disposal?
Daily work practice: What do people do in this organisation?
What is happening on a day-to-day basis?
What training or retraining is required?
Environment: Where is the organisation located in relation to its clients?
What office space is available?
What equipment do we have?
What partnerships has it established?
In what kind of socio-cultural environment does it operate?
How do you relate to your organisation at each of the 5 levels? Are there any levels
where there are “conflicts” or differences between your own profile and that of your
organisation? What might you be able to do about it?
SYSTEMIC 5–LEVEL ALIGNMENT BETWEEN PEOPLE AND
Performance excellence is achieved when people and organisations are
aligned in themselves (vertical) and with each other (horizontal):
• Identity • Purpose (vision and mission)
• Beliefs and values • Organisational culture, values
• Capabilities, skills • Enabling approaches
• Behaviour / action • Daily work practice
• Work environment: relational, • Environment - larger system in
physical which it operates
People and organisations: learning and improvement for
Traditionally, learning and improvement require remembering facts and figures and their
implications, methods, techniques. When improvement is sustained, people utilise the
feedback obtained—not only to improve their capabilities and skills—but more
importantly to re-assess the beliefs and values regarding the subject of learning and
When you have gone through the stages of learning and reach the stage of “unconscious
competence4”, you have full ownership of what you have learned; you have taken on new
beliefs / values about your work — there is increased sense of responsibility, motivation
and commitment. This is then reflected in the organisation’s overall performance and
contributes to the community’s development.
THE LEARNING, IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS DOES NOT
TAKE PLACE ONLY AT THE SKILLS LEVEL
Org values Org values (new)
Enabling approaches Enabling approaches
Daily work practice Daily work practice
Work environment Work environment
The four stages in a learning or change process are:
• Unconscious incompetence
• Conscious incompetence
• Conscious competence
• Unconscious competence
DYNAMICS / STRUCTURE OF DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
SITUATION 2004: SITUATION
Demand for drugs
is increasing Demand for drugs
END USERS: END USERS:
• Daily work • Daily work
• Environment • Environment
• Enabling • Enabling
• Values • Values
• Mission / Vision • Mission / Vision
SUPPORTING ORGS: SUPPORTING ORGS:
• Daily work practice • Daily work practice
• Environment • Environment
• Enabling approaches • Enabling approaches
• Values, org culture • Values, org culture
• Mission / Vision • Mission / Vision
UNODC and others: UNODC and others:
• Daily work • Daily work
• Environment • Environment
• Enabling • Enabling
• Values, org culture • Values, org culture
• Mission / vision • Mission / vision
QUALITY STANDARDS FOR TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION
TRANSPARENCY: The clarity and traceability of all activities, processes, procedures,
relations and statements with regard to content and responsibility.
ACCOUNTABILITY: The personal responsibility for activities, processes, procedures,
relations and statements in accordance with defined roles and functions.
Note: The responsible person may act as a member of a team or a committee representing an
organization or part of it. The responsibility will remain with the individual person according to
his/her job description.
RELEVANCE: The direct verifiable means-end relation of an activity and/or a process
and/or an objective to a higher level objective and/or the direct verifiable linkage of a
purpose to a problem or a set of problems.
DEMAND ORIENTATION/CLIENT ORIENTATION/CUSTOMER ORIENTATION:
That specific aspect of relevance to felt needs clearly stated by the client and the
beneficiaries themselves. That feature of an activity, process, project/programme output
or service that bears on its ability to satisfy needs felt by the client and the beneficiaries.
COST-EFFECTIVENESS: The ratio of cost of inputs to purpose (impact).
SUSTAINABILITY: The ex-ante defined and/or actual period where the achieved
purpose (improved situation of the beneficiaries) of a project/programme or a service can
be maintained by the beneficiaries on their own.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION: That feature of a project/programme purpose that improves
satisfaction of basic needs such as food, clothing, housing, health and education.
GENDER ORIENTATION: That feature of the totality of project/programme outputs
aiming at equal chances for men and women.
ENVIRONMENTAL COMPATIBILITY: That feature of a process that natural resources
used or destroyed by implementing this process can be counterbalanced by the renewal
capacity of nature without damaging living conditions.