English _ Arabic Morphology

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					              English & Arabic Derivation

Derivation is the process of forming words from bases or roots
by the addition of affixes, by internal phonetic change often with
a change in the form class of a word. The words with which
derivational suffixes combine is an arbitrary matter. The
derivational paradigm is a set of related words composed of the
same base morpheme and all the derivational affixes that can
go with this base. e.g.: employ, employer, employment,
employee, employed, under-employment, unemployment,
unemploy; beauty, beautiful, beautify, beautification, beautician.
1. English Derivation
In English, derivatives are formed by the use of affixes of one
type or another.
1.1 Prefixation
The vast majority of English prefixes are class-maintaining.
There are 2 types of prefixes:
(i) Class-changing prefixes are those that change the word
    class (part of speech): a- asleep, ablaze, ashore; be-
    bedazzled, becalm, befriend, bewitch; en- enslave, enlarge,

(ii) Class-maintaining prefixes are those that do not change
     the word class (part of speech): unjust, uncover; non-stop;
     incomplete; discomfort, anemia, amoral; decompose,
     misunderstand, malnutrition; pseudonym; supernatural;
     outperform, submarine; overdo; cooperate; underestimate;
     hyper-active; counter-balance; anti-aircraft, pro-American;
     inter-; trans-; pre-; post-; ex-; re; uni-; mon-; bi-; di-; tri-;
     multi-; poly-; auto-; neo-; semi-; vice-.

Meaning of prefixes
Negation prefixes:
    o a-: amoral, atypical, anemia
    o un- : unsuccessful

     o   non- : non-stop
     o   in- : inaccurate
     o   dis- : disconnect
     o   de-: decompose, decapacitate, desensitize .

Reversative prefixes:
    o un- : unfasten, unload
    o de- : decompose
    o dis- : discomfort

pejorative prefixes:
     o mis-: mismanage, misunderstand; mislead
     o mal-: malnutrition , malfunction.
     o pseudo- : pseudonym

prefixes of degree/size
     o super- : supernatural, superexcellent,
     o out- : outperform; longer outlive
     o sur- : surcharge
     o over- : overexercise
     o under- : underestimate
     o hyper- : hyperactive
     o hypo- : hypotension
     o ultra- : ultra-sound, ultra
     o mini-: minibus, minicomputer, minidress.

Prefixes of attitude:
     o co- : co-worker, co-oeducation
     o counter-: counter-balance , counter-act,
     o anti- : anti-aircraft, antibiotic, anti-Semitic
     o pro- : on the side of, e.g.: pro-Arab.

Locative adjectives:
    o sub- : subterranean
    o super- : superimpose
    o inter- : intermix , intercellular.
    o trans- : trans-world, trans-Atlantic, trans-continental,

Prefixes of time and order:
     o fore- : before, e.g.: forecast
     o pre-: before, e.g.: pre-historic, pre-natal, pre-
       registration, pre-conference.
     o post- : after, e.g.: post-graduate
     o ex- : former, e.g.: ex-wife, ex-president.
     o re- : again, back, e.g.: re-unite, return

Number prefixes:
   o uni- : one, e.g.: uni-cellular
   o mono- : one, e.g.: monlingual
   o bi- : two, e.g.: binocular
   o di- : two, e.g.: disyllabic
   o tri- : three, e.g.: tripod
   o multi- : many, e.g.: multicultural
   o poly- : many, e.g.: polyglot

1.2 Suffixation
In many cases, a derivational suffix changes the part of speech
of the word to which it is added. There are 2 types of suffixes:

(i) Class-maintaining suffixes produce a derived form of the
same class such as:
      o -hood, manhood;
      o -al; economical;
      o -hood, childhood;
      o -ship, friendship;
      o -ics, linguistics;
      o -ess, tigress;
      o -ette, *kitchentte, *cigarette, *flannette, *usherette;
      o -let, *booklet, *piglet;
      o -ing, *paneling;
      o -ful, spoonful;
      o -(i )an, politician;
      o -ite, *socialite;
      o -ese, Lebanese;

    o   -ist, artist;
    o   -ism, criticism.

(ii) Class-changing suffixes that produce a derived form of
another class, such as:
     verb-forming derivational affixes:
      o -fy, beautify;
      o -ate, fabricate;
      o -en, harden, strengthen;
      o -ize, industrialize.

   noun-forming derivational affixes:
    o -(i)an: politician, Shakespearian, Shakespearean,
    o -age: breakage, drainage,
    o -al: action, e.g.: *refusal ,rental ,arrival
    o -ance, entrance;
    o -ant, informant;
    o -ation, coordination, organization;
    o -ee, trainee; examinee, refugee
    o -er, -or, -ant: agentive and instrumental, e.g.: teacher,
      inhabitant, informant, New Yorker, actor, donator,
    o -ese, Lebanese; Chinese.
    o -ful : the amount which N contains, e.g.: N, spoonful,
    o -ics: statistics; linguistics ;politics..
    o -ing, reading, *building;
    o -ion: impression, depression, possession.
    o -ism, criticism, socialism ,communism, Zionism
    o -ist: dentist, geologist, cardiologist.
    o -ite, *socialite; maronite; Shiite
    o -ity: humanity, productivity; sensitivity;
    o -ment, employment; arrangement
    o -ness: happiness, loudness, madness
    o -ocracy, democracy;
    o -th: width ,length.
    o -ure, pressure;

 Adjective-forming derivational affixes:
  o -(i)an: pertaining to, e.g.: politician, Shakespearian,
    Shakespearean, technician; nationality, e.g.: European,
  o -able, -ible: able, worthy to, e.g.: comprehensible,
    edible, breakable, combustible, flammable;
  o -al, -ical, -ial, -ic, -an, -ern : logical, economical, partial,
    synthetic, European, western
  o -ary, -ory : secondary, primary, introductory
  o -ate : *affectionate, passionate, compassionate.
  o -ative, comparative;
  o -ed: curved; granulated; isolated;
  o -ern, western;
  o -ese : nationality, e.g.: Lebanese ; Siamese;
  o -ful, beautiful;
  o -ial, partial,
  o -ible, edible;
  o -ic, synthetic; economic
  o -ical, economical; physical
  o -ish, yellowish, Irish, chidish;
  o -ist: member of a party, e.g.: socialist ; communist;
  o -ite: member of community, faction/type e.g.: *socialite,
    maronite; shiite
  o -itive, additive;
  o -ive, -ative, -itive: possessive, comparative, additive.
  o -ly, manly, daily;
  o -ory, introductory; explanatory.
  o -ous, -eous -ious, -y, -ful: joyous, envious, courteous
    gloomy, beautiful
  o -y, gloomy;

 Adverb-forming derivational affixes:
  o -ly, quickly;
  o -ward(s), backwards;
  o -wise, moneywise, *crabwise.

Many English words change their vowels or final consonants
when they are followed by certain derivational suffixes as in:
decide, decision; flame, flammable; concede concession.

Meaning of Suffixes:
   Occupational suffixes:
    o -ster : person engaged in, e.g., *gangster.
    o -eer : an occupation or activity, e.g.: mountaineer,
    o -er : inhabitant, e.g.: New Yorker.

   Diminutive or feminine:
    o -let : booklet, leaflet, piglet.
    o -ess: tigress
    o -ette: kitchenette.

   Status, domain suffixes:
    o -hood: neighborhood; manhood, parenthood
    o -ship: scholarship, friendship;
    o -ocracy: democracy, bureaucracy, aristocracy;
    o -dom: kingdom, freedom,
    o -(e)ry: bravery; refinery, machinery

1.4 Transaltion from English
 To figure out the meaning of a word, we can analyze the
   word into its constituent parts. We divide the word into the
   two parts of which it seems to have been composed. e.g.:
   un-valu-able; counter-product-ive.
2. Arabic Derivation
Derivation from existing Arabic roots has always been
considered the most natural way to create new vocabulary.
Arabic has 3 main types of derivation:

2.1 Root modification (‫:)االثذاي‬
It involves a change in the position of the root consonants and
the retention of the original meaning, as in:
                                                   ّ ٔ ، ‫ٔؼك ، ٔٙك‬   o

                                                         ‫ثٍُ ، ثٍت‬   o
                               ‫خذع خذف خضع خضي خض خضَ اخضس خ ّع‬      o
                                         *anxietyٛ‫ؽدت ؽدٓ ؽد‬         o
                                 *perforate, excavate; ‫ٔمت ٔمش‬       o
                                              bore into; ‫ٔخش ٔخض‬     o
                                            eat holes into‫ٔخشة‬       o
                                                  cut off; ً‫ثزش ثز‬   o
                                            to be numb‫خذس خذي‬        o
                                                        ‫٘شع ٘شٚي‬     o
                             adhere, stick‫ٌضة ٌضَ ٌضج ٌضق ٌصك‬        o
        punch‫ ٌىض ٚوض‬punch; ُ‫ ٌى‬hit, slap; ُ‫ ٌؽ‬hit; ‫ٌؽظ ٌؽؼ ٌؽغ‬      o

2.2 Metathesis (‫:)اٌمٍت / االؽزمبق اٌىج١ش‬
It involves a change in the position of the root consonants and
the retention of the original meaning:
                                                         ‫خزة خجز‬     o
                                                        ‫صٚج خٛص‬      o
                                                          ‫ٌؽُ ٌّػ‬    o
                                                       ‫ٚؽت ٚثؼ‬       o
                                                     ‫اٚؽبة اٚثبػ‬     o

2.2 Simple Derivation ) ‫)االؽزمبق اٌصغ١ش‬
Many Arabic words are formed from a root consisting of three
consonants and a set of vowels that alternate with the root
consonants and that act rather like an affix. Here the radical
consonants are not changed in any way, but are derived from
and built upon. Different sets of patterns are used in that
process. Derived verbs and derived nouns are produced by
lengthening a vowel, doubling C2, doubling C3, adding a prefix
or infix. Some of the derivational patterns used in deriving the
different kinds of nouns and verbs are listed below:

(i) Examples of Derived Nouns:
     Agents )ً‫وبرت ، لبسٜء ، ػبًِ ، صبٔغ ، عبئك ، ػبٌُ :)اعُ فبػ‬
     Patients (‫ِذسٚط ، ِغّٛع ، ِمشٚء ، ِىزٛة ، ِفَٙٛ :)اعُ ِفؼٛي‬

‫‪‬‬   ‫اعُ (‪nouns that express the doing of the action once‬‬
    ‫خٍغخ ، سِ١خ ، صذِخ ، صفؼخ ، ظشثخ ، ٌؽّخ ، ؽسٕخ ، دٚسح ، :)ِشح - فؼٍخ‬
     ‫ٔظشح ، ٚلفخ، خٌٛخ ، ثٛسح ، فٛسح ، ٔفخخ ، ػعخ ، وذِخ ، صؼمخ ، صشػخ،‬

‫‪‬‬   ‫‪nouns that indicate the manner of doing what is‬‬
    ‫:) اعُ ٘١ئخ- فؼٍخ(‪expressed by a verb‬‬
                                                    ‫خ‬      ‫ؽ‬       ‫ل‬
                                          ‫ِزٍْخ ، ِشثخ ، ٍِغخ ، ِ١زخ‬

‫‪‬‬                                     ‫ِ‬
    ‫:)اعُ صِبْ، اعُ ِىبْ - ِفؼً(‪nouns of place and time‬‬
    ‫ٍِزمٝ، ِؾشق، ِغشة، ِٛػذ، ِص١ف ، ِ١ؼبد، ِؼًّ، ِصٕغ، ِشوض، ِىزت،‬
    ‫ِؼٙذ، ِؤعغخ، ِصٍسخ، ٍِّىخ، عٍؽٕخ ِمبؼؼخ ِسبفظخ اِبسح اداسح ٚصاسح‬
    ‫ٚوبٌخ عفبسح ِؤعغخ خّؼ١خ ساثؽخ خبِؼخ اٌذٚي لٕصٍ١خ خّٙٛس٠خ ، دٚل١خ ،‬

‫‪‬‬   ‫ٔمبثخ صسبفخ ردبسح زذادح ٔدبسح صشافخ ػّبسح ‪nouns of occupation‬‬
    ‫ِالزخ صٕبػخ فالزخ عمب٠خ زدبِخ سلبثخ ؼجبثخ ز١بوخ خ١بؼخ‬

‫‪‬‬                                                             ‫ف‬
    ‫ٔؾبسح، ػصبسح :) ُؼبٌخ( ‪small pieces that you can throw away‬‬
    ‫ثشادح، زثبٌخ، لصبصخ، لؽبػخ‬
‫‪‬‬   ‫ِفؼبي ، ِفؼٍخ ، ( ‪nouns of instruments, appliances, tools‬‬
    ‫ِؾشغ ، ِجعغ ، ِدٙش، سافؼخ ، ؽبزٕخ ، :)فبػٍخ ، ِفؼبي ، فبػٛي ف ّبٌخ ِفؼً‬
    ‫لبرفخ زبفٍخ ، ؼبئشح ، ِجشاح ، ِىٛاح، عّبػخ ، دثبعخ ، ػصبسح ، غغبٌخ ، عخبْ‬
     ‫، ِذِشح ، ِٕفبش ، ِسشن ، ٌِٛذ ، صبٌِٛخ‬

‫‪‬‬                                             ‫ف‬
    ‫ٌؼبة، صذاع، صوبَ، صزبس، :) ُؼبي( ‪nouns of flow and diseases‬‬
    ‫عؼبي، ٔىبف، ٘ضاي، سػبف، خزاَ، دٚاس، ػصبة اٌزٙبة، اززمبْ ، اخزالي ،‬
    ‫ازّشاس، أغذاد، أزفبش، اػزالي، اػٛخبج، اعٙبي، اِغبن.‬

‫‪‬‬                                                    ‫ؼ‬        ‫ٕ‬
    ‫خ ّاس، ث ّبي ، ث ّبء ، :)ف ّبي( ‪constant occupation or behavior‬‬  ‫م‬     ‫ض‬
                    ‫ّ‬                             ‫ال‬     ‫ذ د‬            ‫ع‬
     ‫س ّبَ ، ز ّاد، ٔ ّبس، ف ّذ، فٕبْ، ٌجبْ، زّبي، ػذاء، ع ّبْ، خشاذ، ؼ١بس،‬

‫‪‬‬   ‫)االعّبء إٌّغٛثخ( ‪relative adjectives‬‬
                        ‫ٟ‬      ‫ٞ‬       ‫ٟ‬      ‫ٟ‬      ‫ٟ‬      ‫ٞ‬      ‫ٞ‬
    ‫ِصش ّ، خٛ ّ، زغ ّ، ػمٍ ّ، ل١بع ّ، خ١ش ّ، ؼبئف ّ، ع١ّٕبئٟ، وٙشثبئٟ،‬
    ‫صٕبػٟ ٘دِٟٛ اس٘بثٟ رٍمبئٟ ّ٘دٟ ػذٚأٟ أزبخٟ ػمالٟٔ ِصشفٟ اثزذائٟ‬
    ‫رؼٍ١ّٟ ٚؼٕٟ لِٟٛ ارسبدٞ رىبٍِٟ رىبفٍٟ أؾبئٟ ٕ٘ذعٟ خبِؼٟ ٔفؽٟ رؼب٘ذٞ‬
      ‫رىبٍِٟ ِفشدارٟ ِؼٍِٛبرٟ ؽجبثٟ ثشاِدٟ ؼالثٟ ِٕظّبرٟ اِّٟ (اُِ) ػمبئذٞ‬
‫‪‬‬   ‫اٌّصذس اٌصٕبػٟ‪abstract nouns of quality‬‬

      ‫أغبٔ١خ ؼبئف١خ صٙ١ٛٔ١خ ػٍّبٔ١خ و١ف١خ سٚزبٔ١خ سثٛث١خ ؽبػش٠خ خّؼ١خ أزبخ١خ‬
      ‫ػمٍ١خ و١ف١خ ؽ١ٛػ١خ اِجشاؼٛس٠خ رار١خ ارسبد٠خ أذفبػ١خ د٠ّٛلشاؼ١خ أزٙبص٠خ‬
      ‫اٌٚٛ٠خ افعٍ١خ رٍمبئ١خ ّ٘د١خ أزبخ١خ صالز١خ اعزبر٠خ ِؼٍِٛبر١خ ِٕذٚث١خ‬
                                   ‫اٌٛ٘بث١خ رار١خ ِٛظٛػ١خ ردش٠ذ٠خ أغ١بث١خ ازم١خ‬

                           ١       ‫ف‬
      the diminutive )ًّ ‫اٌزصغ١ش ( ُؼ١ًْ ، فؼ‬
                                                                  ٙ‫و‬     ١
       ، ‫وز ّت ، ُ َ١ْشة ، ٔد١ُ ، ثٛ٠عخ ، ار٠ٓ ، ؽؼ١شاد دِٛ٠خ ، زٛ٠صالد، ٔٛ٠خ‬
                                          ‫خج١ً ، ٔٙ١ش، رٔ١ت ، ثص١الد اٌؾؼش‬

(ii) Examples of Derived Verbs
     ًّ َ implies the following:
          o an act done with great violence (intensive), such as:
              ‫ش‬     ‫ؽ غ‬         ‫م‬      ‫ف‬      ‫ش‬      ‫ز‬      ‫ض‬
             ‫ِ ّق ، ؽ ّة ، خ ّذ ، ص ّك ، ؽ ّك ، ل ّغ و ّش، ظ ّة‬

         o   an act done during a long time (temporally extensive)
                      ٛ      ‫ى‬
             as in : ‫ث ّٝ ، ؼ ّف‬

         o   an act done to/by a number of individuals
                                              ‫ز‬      ّ      ‫ش‬      ٛ
             (numerically extensive) as in ، ‫ِ ّد ، ف ّق ، خ ّغ ، ؽ ّذ‬
              ، ‫خ ّة‬

         o                                              ‫ز‬      ‫ؼ‬      ‫ش‬
             causative or factive signification as in: ‫ف ّذ ، ظ ّف ، و ّت‬
                 ٍ      ّ
              ، ُّ‫ز ًّ ، ػ‬

         o                               ‫ذ‬      ‫ز‬
             declarative or estimative: ‫و ّة ، ص ّق‬

         o   making or doing of, or being occupied with the thing
             expressed by the noun from which it is derived: ، ‫خ ّؼ‬
                 ١    ٛ           ٍ ١         ٍ     ‫ش‬
              ، ُّ ‫ِ ّض ، خّذ ، ز ّبٖ عُّ ػٍ١ٗ ، ل ّط خ‬

         o                               ٛ      ‫ؼ‬      ‫ش‬      ‫ش‬
             movement towards a place ، ‫:ؽ ّق ، غ ّة ، ص ّذ ، ص ّة‬
             ً‫ٚ ّٗ ، ألذَ ، أدثش، ألج‬

      ‫ػ‬
      ًَ ‫ فب‬implies reciprocity
                            ِ       ‫ر‬
        َٚ‫الؼف ، خبًِ ، لبرً ، ٘بخُ ، صبسع ، وب َت ، ػب ًَ ، عبثك ؽبسن ، لب‬

      ‫أؼ‬
      ًَ ْ‫ َف‬indicates the following:

    o                                       ٙ       ‫د‬        ّْ
        movement towards a place ‫أ٠ َٓ ، أْٔ َذ ، أرْ َُ ، أْٔدَذ‬
    o   entering upon a period of time ‫اصجر ، اِغٝ ، اؽزٝ ، أصبف‬
    o                                             ٓ         ّْ
        getting into a state or condition ‫أْٚسق ، أث َش ، أع ّ ، أْٔدت‬
    o   acquiring a quality ‫أثْؽأ ، أعْشع‬
    o   obtaining or having something ‫أٚسق، أفٍظ ، أخذة ، ألفش‬

 َ َ َ‫ رف‬expresses the following:
  ً‫َ ؼ‬
                                            ‫مؽ رؼظ رىج‬         ‫َفش‬
        o the idea of intensiveness‫ر َ ّق ، ر َ َغ ، َ َ َُ ، َ َ َش‬
        o the idea of reflexiveness: ٝٔ‫رغّغ ، رزجغ ، رؼشف، رجٕٝ رأًِ ، رأ‬
            ٓ١‫، رىٍُ ، رفٛق ، رؾُّ ، رسمك ، رج‬

   ً‫ رفبػ‬expresses the following:
       o the idea of reflexiveness ً‫رجبػذ ، رجبسن ، رؼبٌٝ ، رشاِٝ ، رغبف‬
           ‫، رّبٚد ، رؼبِٝ ، ردبً٘ ، رّبسض‬
       o reciprocity ‫رفبػً رغبِغ ثٗ إٌبط، رغبلؽذ االِؽبس، رذاسوذ االخجبس‬
       o actions that take place bit by bit or by successive
          efforts: ‫رغبلػ اٌؾؼش، رسبًِ فٟ اٌّؾٟ ، رذاػٝ اٌجٕبء ، رّبعه‬
          ‫رؼبٚٔذ اٌّشأح‬

   ً‫ أفؼ‬expresses an act to be done in reference to him,
    or an effort to be produced by him: ، ‫أؾ ّ ، أىغش، أىؾف‬       ‫ك‬
    ‫أمٍت ، أمؽغ ، أؽفأ ، أؽٍك أؼذَ ، أؾؽش، ٔصٙش، أخفط ، أصذع‬

    ً‫زؼ‬
     َ َ َ ْ‫ اف‬expresses reflexiveness: ، ‫افزشق ، افزشػ ، اعزّغ ، اوزغت‬
    ً‫اٌزّظ ، اػزشض ، اِزأل ، اغزغً ، اػزٍٝ ، اؽزؼ‬

   ً‫ؼ‬
    ّ َ ْ‫ اف‬is mainly used to express colors or to show
                         ‫ي‬     ‫ط‬     ّ      ّ      ‫ق‬       ّ      ّ
    intensiveness: ، ّ ٛ‫ازّش ، اصفش ، اصس ّ ، اخعش ، اعٛد ، اث١ ّ ، از‬
    ّ ٚ‫اص‬

    ‫َؼ‬
    ًَ ْ‫ اعزف‬expresses the following:
    o taking, seeking, asking for or demanding: ، ٍُ‫اعزغمٝ ، اعزؼ‬
         ْ‫اعزغفش اعزغبس ، اعزأر‬
    o reflexiveness ٌٝٛ‫اعزمبَ ، اعزس١ب ، اعزىبْ ، اعز‬

‫‪‬‬   ‫‪A bilateral root, expressing a sound or movement is‬‬
    ‫‪repeated to indicate the repetition of that sound or‬‬
     ‫ثأثأ صشصش ٚعٛط غشغش صٌضي خؾخؼ خٍدً ثشثش ثشثش خشخش خشخش ؽشؽش‬
      ‫صشصش فشفش وشوش لٙمٗ دٌذي خٍخً عٍغً صٍصً غٍغً لٍمً فٍفً دِذَ صِضَ‬
                           ‫ؽّؾُ وّىُ ًٍِّ ٌؼٍغ دغذؽ ثمجك، ٌفٍف، وفىف، لٍمً‬

‫‪‬‬   ‫‪Quadiliteral verbs are formed from nouns of more than‬‬
    ‫:‪three letters, some of them are foreign words‬‬
      ‫ش‬        ‫ٕ‬    ‫ش‬      ‫ز د َ ّْ عٛ ٛ‬                    ‫ِْ س‬
    ‫ثغًّ زٛلً زّذي عش َٓ ٔمْ َش ثغْ َٓ ؽ ّش ػٍ َٓ َ ّق ث ّة فْٙ َط ل ّٓ وْٙ َة‬
     ‫ث ْف‬         ‫َغ ثؽ‬                ‫ص ش ػّ‬                     ‫٘‬       ‫ش‬      ‫ِْ جْش‬
    ‫ثش َح و َ َد لؽْ َْ َِزْ َت عؼَْٛد ِ ّشػ ّة َ ّٓ (ػّبْ) فٍْ َف َ١ْ َش وشْ َٓ رٍ َٓ‬
     ‫ش‬                  ‫ِى َ١‬          ‫ٕ‬
    ‫اوْغَذ ا ّٓ دلْ َغ عفَذ ٘ذْسَج لغْ َش ثغْ َش ِغْ َػ رٍفض َ١ْ َٓ ٍِْ َٓ (ٍِ١ْٛ) ر ّن‬
                                               ‫ز‬        ‫ؽ‬              ‫ٍْ‬   ‫ش‬       ‫٠‬
                                       ‫ز‬         ‫َ ز‬ ‫د‬            ‫ّ‬           ‫ش‬
                                       ‫(رشو١ب) اِْ َن فشٔظ أٌْ َٓ ٔدٍض ٌ١ضس َوـْ َش اعْزَ َ‬