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Edinburgh

Edinburgh
City of Edinburgh
Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann Scots: Embra

Coordinates: 55°56′58″N 3°9′37″W / 55.94944°N 3.16028°W / 55.94944; -3.16028 Sovereign state Constituent country Lieutenancy area Admin HQ Founded Burgh Charter City status Government - Type - Governing body - Lord Provost - MSPs United Kingdom Scotland Edinburgh Edinburgh City Centre 7th century 1125 1889 Unitary Authority, City City of Edinburgh Council George Grubb 6 Kenny MacAskill (SNP) Sarah Boyack (L) Malcolm Chisholm (L) Mike Pringle (LD) Margaret Smith (LD) David McLetchie (Con) 5 Alistair Darling (L) Gavin Strang (L) Nigel Griffiths (L) Mark Lazarowicz (L) John Barrett (LD) 100.00 sq mi (259 km2) 471,650 4,716/sq mi (1,820.9/km2) Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0) British Summer Time (UTC+1) EH 0131 GB-EDH 00QP NT275735 UKM25 www.edinburgh.gov.uk

Edinburgh from the Scott Monument

- MPs:

Logo of the City Council

Area - Total Population (2007 est.) - Total - Urban Density Time zone - Summer (DST) Postcode Area code(s) ISO 3166-2 ONS code OS grid reference NUTS 3 Website

Coat of arms

Nickname(s): "Auld Reekie", "Athens of the North" Motto: "Nisi Dominus Frustra" "Without the Lord, everything is in vain"

Edinburgh shown within Scotland

Edinburgh ˈɛdɪnb(ə)rə ; (Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, a position it has held since 1437. It is the seventh largest city in the United Kingdom and the second largest Scottish city, after Glasgow. The City of Edinburgh Council is one of Scotland’s 32 local government council areas. Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. Owing to its rugged setting

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and vast collection of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe. The city forms part of the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km2) rural area. Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city.[1] In the 2008 mid year population estimates, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 471,650[2]. Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. Other notable events include the Hogmanay street party (31 December), Burns Night (25 January), St. Andrew’s Day (30 November), and the Beltane Fire Festival (30 April). The city attracts 1 million overseas visitors a year, making it the second most visited tourist destination in the United Kingdom, after London.[3]

Edinburgh
the murder of St. Oswald King of Northumbria, Edinburgh fell under the control of the Danelaw.

Hereford Mappa Mundi, featuring Edinburgh in 1300. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Danelaw, the Scots captured the position. Then in the 12th century a small town flourished at the base of the castle known as Edinburgh, along side which another community rose up to the East around the Abbey of Holyrood, known as Holyrood. Together in the 13th century these became Royal Burghs. As a consequence of Edinburgh’s earlier Anglo-Saxon rule, Edinburgh and the Border counties lay in a disputed zone between England and Scotland, England claiming all Anglo-Saxon Domains as English territory, and Scotland claiming all territory as far south as Hadrian’s Wall. The result was a long series of border wars and clashes, which often left Edinburgh Castle under English control. It was not until the 15th century, when Edinburgh remained for the most firmly under Scottish control, that King James IV of Scotland undertook to move the Royal Court from Stirling to Holyrood, making Edinburgh by proxy Scotland’s capital. As Edinburgh remained under Scottish rule, with the nearby port and Royal Burgh of Leith, Edinburgh flourished both economically and culturally. In 1603, following King James VI’s accession to the English and Irish thrones, James VI instituted the first executive Parliament of Scotland which met in the Great Hall of Edinburgh Castle, later finding a home in the Tolbooth, before moving to purpose-built Parliament House, Edinburgh, which is now home to the Supreme Courts of Scotland. In 1639 disputes over the planned merger, between the Presbyterian Church and the Anglican Church, and the demands by Charles I, to reunify the divided St. Giles’ Cathedral, led to the Bishops’ Wars, which in turn led to the English Civil War, and the eventual occupation of Edinburgh by the Commonwealth forces of Oliver Cromwell. In the 1670s King Charles II commissioned the rebuilding of Holyrood Palace. 1732

History
Further information: Timeline of Edinburgh history and Etymology of Edinburgh During its pre-history in the Iron and Bronze Ages, humans existed in the area around Holyrood, Craiglockhart Hill and the Pentland Hills, leaving traces of primitive stone settlements.[4] At the time of its actual foundation, it was a part of the Kingdom of Northumbria, an Anglian kingdom on the east side of Great Britain, spanning from the Humber Estuary to the Firth of Forth.[5] The area surrounding Castle Rock, then known as "Lookout Hill," became the foundation point.[5] On the hill Edwin of Northumbria a powerful Christian king founded the fortress to secure the northern part of his territory against invasion.[5] This fortress was known in the Brythonic language as Din Eidyn, which means "Edwin’s fort" after the king.[5][6][7][8][9] As the fortress grew, many houses were relocated towards the ridge of Castlehill. A layout began to form, when householders would be given the option to be granted a "toft" or stretch of garden behind the ridge.[10] The name eventually developed through the English language into first Edwinesburch and then into Edinburgh, the name it is known by today.[5] After

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saw Lord Lyon King of Arms grant a coat of arms to the Town Council, a modified version of which is used today as the city’s official emblem. During the last Jacobite rebellion, Edinburgh was occupied by Jacobite forces, after the retreat of Jacobite forces from Derby it was reoccupied by British forces under the command of the Prince William, Duke of Cumberland.

Edinburgh

Edinburgh today for development, the houses increased in height instead. Buildings of 11 stories were common, and there are records of buildings as high as 14 stories, and thus are thought to be the pioneers for the modern-day skyscraper. Many of the stone-built structures can still be seen today in the old town of Edinburgh. In the 19th century, Edinburgh, like many cities, industrialised, but most of this was undertaken in Leith, which meant that Edinburgh as a whole did not grow greatly in size. Glasgow soon replaced it as the largest and most prosperous city in Scotland, becoming the industrial, commercial and trade centre, while Edinburgh remained almost purely Scotland’s intellectual and cultural centre, which it remains to this day as one of the greatest cultural centres of the UK and the world.

An 1802 illustration of Edinburgh from the west. Following the defeat of Jacobites there was a long period of reprisals and pacification. At this time, the Hanoverian monarch wished to stamp his identity on Edinburgh and new developments to the north of the castle were named in honour of the King and his family; George Street, Frederick Street, Hanover Street, Queen Street, Princes Street, Castle Street and with control of the ‘Rose’ of England and the ‘Thistle’ of Scotland these names were also allocated to streets. The original plan for this build was to be constructed in the form of King James VI’s Union Flag and this shape can be detected when viewing the layout of the aforementioned streets from above. Out of the mess left behind by the consequences of the Jacobite rebellion came a number of Scottish intellectuals, many from Edinburgh, including Adam Smith, who felt it was time to put the history of the Clans of Scotland behind them and that this was a time for Scotland to modernise. They promoted the idea of Britishness, and led Great Britain and the British Empire into a golden age of economic and social reform and prosperity. It was during this period, that Edinburgh expanded beyond the limits of its city walls, with the creation of the New Town, following the draining of the Nor Loch, which has since become Princes Street Gardens. Edinburgh became a major cultural centre, earning it the nickname Athens of the North because of the Greco-Roman style of the New Town’s architecture, as well as the rise of the Scottish/British intellectual elite in the city, who were increasingly leading both British and European intellectual thought. Edinburgh is particularly noted for its fine architecture, especially from the Georgian period. In 17th-century Edinburgh, a defensive city wall defined the boundaries of the city. Due to the restricted land area available

Nicknames
The city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie[11] (Scots for Old Smoky), because when buildings were heated by coal and wood fires, chimneys would spew thick columns of smoke into the air. The colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has also been used[12] as in Robert Garioch’s Embro to the Ploy[13] Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North and Auld Greekie for its intellectual history, with the Old Town of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis.[14] Edinburgh is also known by several Latin names; Aneda or Edinensis, the latter can be seen inscribed on many educational buildings.[15][16][17][18][19] Edinburgh has also been known as Dunedin, deriving from the Scottish Gaelic, Dùn Èideann. Dunedin, New Zealand, was originally called "New Edinburgh" and is still nicknamed the "Edinburgh of the South". The Scots poets Robert Burns and Robert Fergusson sometimes used the city’s Latin name, Edina. Ben Jonson described it as Britain’s other eye,[20] and Sir Walter Scott referred to the city as yon Empress of the North.[21]

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Edinburgh
Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is divided into areas that generally encompass a park (sometimes known as "[[links]"), a main local street (i.e. street of local retail shops), a high street (the historic main street, not always the same as the main local street, such as in Corstorphine) and residential buildings. In Edinburgh many residences are tenements, although the more southern and western parts of the city have traditionally been more affluent and have a greater number of detached and semi-detached villas. The historic centre of Edinburgh is divided into two by the broad green swath of Princes Street Gardens. To the south the view is dominated by Edinburgh Castle, perched atop the extinct volcanic crag, and the long sweep of the Old Town trailing after it along the ridge. To the north lies Princes Street and the New Town. The gardens were begun in 1816 on bogland which had once been the Nor Loch. To the immediate west of the castle lies the financial district, housing insurance and banking buildings. Probably the most noticeable building here is the circular sandstone building that is the Edinburgh International Conference Centre.

Panorama of the Old Town and Southside of Edinburgh from the Nelson monument. The term panorama was originally coined by the Irish painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh.

Areas
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh* UNESCO World Heritage Site

Old Town
Type Criteria Reference Region** Inscription history Inscription 1995 (19th Session) Cultural ii, iv 728 Europe and North America

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. ** Region as classified by UNESCO.

View of the Old Town The Old Town has preserved its medieval plan and many Reformation-era buildings. One end is closed by the castle and the main artery, the Royal Mile, leads away from it; minor streets (called closes or wynds) lead downhill on either side of the main spine in a herringbone pattern. Large squares mark the location of markets or surround public buildings such as St. Giles’ Cathedral and the Law Courts. Other notable places nearby include the Royal Museum of Scotland, Surgeons’ Hall and McEwan Hall. The street layout is typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities, and where the castle perches on top of a rocky crag (the remnants of an extinct volcano) the Royal Mile runs down the crest of a ridge from it. Due to space restrictions imposed by the narrowness of the "tail", the Old Town became home to

Map of the city, showing New and Old Towns

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some of the earliest "high rise" residential buildings. Multi-storey dwellings known as lands were the norm from the 1500s onwards with ten and eleven stories being typical and one even reaching fourteen stories. Additionally, numerous vaults below street level were inhabited to accommodate the influx of (mainly Irish) immigrants during the Industrial Revolution. These continue to fuel legends of an underground city to this day. Today there are tours of Edinburgh which take you into the underground city, Edinburgh Vaults.[22]

Edinburgh
Academy Building were built on The Mound, and tunnels to Waverley Station driven through it. The New Town was so successful that it was extended greatly. The grid pattern was not maintained, but rather a more picturesque layout was created. Today the New Town is considered by many to be one of the finest examples of Georgian architecture and planning in the world.

South side
A popular residential part of the city is its south side, comprising a number of areas including St Leonards, Marchmont, Newington, Sciennes, The Grange, Edinburgh "South side" is broadly analogous to the area covered by the Burgh Muir, and grew in popularity as a residential area following the opening of the South Bridge. These areas are particularly popular with families (many well-regarded state and private schools are located here), students (the central University of Edinburgh campus is based around George Square just north of Marchmont and the Meadows, and Napier University has major campuses around Merchiston & Morningside), and with festival-goers. These areas are also the subject of fictional work: Ian Rankin’s Inspector Rebus lives in Marchmont and worked in St Leonards; and Morningside is the home of Muriel Spark’s Miss Jean Brodie. Today, the literary connection continues, with the area being home to the authors J. K. Rowling, Ian Rankin, and Alexander McCall Smith.

New Town

View of the New Town The New Town was an 18th century solution to the problem of an increasingly crowded Old Town. The city had remained incredibly compact, confined to the ridge running down from the castle. In 1766 a competition to design the New Town was won by James Craig, a 22-year-old architect. The plan that was built created a rigid, ordered grid, which fitted well with enlightenment ideas of rationality. The principal street was to be George Street, which follows the natural ridge to the north of the Old Town. Either side of it are the other main streets of Princes Street and Queen Street. Princes Street has since become the main shopping street in Edinburgh, and few Georgian buildings survive on it. Linking these streets were a series of perpendicular streets. At the east and west ends are St. Andrew Square and Charlotte Square respectively. The latter was designed by Robert Adam and is often considered one of the finest Georgian squares in the world. Bute House, the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland, is on the north side of Charlotte Square. Sitting in the glen between the Old and New Towns was the Nor’ Loch, which had been both the city’s water supply and place for dumping sewage. By the 1820s it was drained. Some plans show that a canal was intended, but Princes Street Gardens were created instead. Excess soil from the construction of the buildings was dumped into the loch, creating what is now The Mound. In the mid-19th century the National Gallery of Scotland and Royal Scottish

Leith
Leith is the port of Edinburgh. It still retains a separate identity from Edinburgh, and it was a matter of great resentment when, in 1920, the burgh of Leith was merged[23] into the county of Edinburgh. Even today the parliamentary seat is known as ’Edinburgh North and Leith’. With the redevelopment of Leith, Edinburgh has gained the business of a number of cruise liner companies which now provide cruises to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Leith also has the Royal Yacht Britannia, berthed behind the Ocean Terminal and Easter Road, the home ground of Hibernian.

Viewpoints
The varied terrain of the city includes several summits which command sweeping views over Edinburgh. To the southeast of central Edinburgh stands the eminence known as Arthur’s Seat, overlooking Holyroodhouse and the Old Town beside it. The crag is a collection of side vents of the main volcano on which Edinburgh is built. The volcano slipped and tipped sideways, leaving these vents as the highest points for kilometres around. Arthur’s Seat is now part of Holyrood Park, originally owned by the monarch and part of the grounds of the Palace of Holyroodhouse. It contains the United

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Destinations from EDINBURGH Dunfermline Livingston Biggar Peebles Kirkcaldy North Berwick Musselburgh Jedburgh

Edinburgh

Geography
Climate
Like much of the rest of Scotland, Edinburgh has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are especially mild, considering that Moscow, Labrador and Newfoundland lie on the same latitude, with daytime temperatures rarely falling below freezing. Summer temperatures are normally moderate, with daily upper maxima rarely exceeding 22 °C. The proximity of the city to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. Given Edinburgh’s position between the coast and hills, it is renowned as a windy city, with the prevailing wind direction coming from the south-west which is associated with warm, unstable air from the Gulf Stream that can give rise to rainfall - although considerably less than cities to the west, such as Glasgow. Indeed, Edinburgh receives a lower annual precipitation total than most UK cities outside the south-east of England. Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but colder. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Vigorous Atlantic depressions - sometimes called European windstorms can affect the city between October and May. The Scott Monument Kingdom’s largest concentration of geological SSSIs. It was in Edinburgh that James Hutton produced his pioneering work on scientific geology. To the northeast, overlooking the New Town, is Calton Hill. Recently shortlisted as one of the best views in Britain, it is topped by an assortment of buildings and monuments: two observatories, Nelson’s Monument (a tower dedicated to Admiral Horatio Nelson), the old Royal High School (once almost the home of a devolved Scottish Assembly), and the unfinished National Monument, which is modelled on the Parthenon from the Athenian Acropolis and is nicknamed "Edinburgh’s Disgrace". The nickname of the city, "Athens of the North", also hails partly from this monument. Calton Hill plays host to the Beltane Fire Festival on 30 April each year. The Royal Observatory rests on Blackford Hill, the third and southernmost viewpoint of the city.

Distances Geology
Some 350 and 400 million years ago, the cores of several volcanic vents in the area cooled and solidified to form tough basalt volcanic plugs. Later, during the last ice age, glaciers moving from west to east eroded the area to its current conformation. Louis Agassiz, who first

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N W E

Edinburgh

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Panoramic view of Edinburgh from the top of Arthur’s Seat

Demography

Edinburgh Castle, as viewed from Princes Street proposed the scientific theory of ice ages, used evidence from Blackford Glen to support the theory.

Old Town
Castle Rock is one such plug, which during ice ages sheltered the softer rock to the east forming a mile-long tail of material to the east, creating a distinctive crag and tail formation. This structure, along with a ravine to the south and a swampy valley to the north, formed an ideal natural fortress and recent excavations found material dating back to the Late Bronze Age, around 850 BC.[25] Over the last few hundred years, the area occupied by this geological feature has come to be known as the Old Town. Edinburgh Castle stands on the crag, and the Royal Mile follows the narrow crest of the steep-sided tail, descending from the castle to meet general ground level at Holyrood Palace. The Grassmarket and Cowgate run east–west through the ravine to the south, while the swamp of the Nor Loch has now been drained to form Princes Street Gardens, and accommodates Edinburgh Waverley railway station.

Royal Mile At the United Kingdom Census 2001, Edinburgh had a population of 448,624, a rise of 7.1% on 1991.[28] Estimates in 2008 placed the total resident population at 471,650 split between 227,922 males and 243,728 females.[30] This makes Edinburgh the second largest city in Scotland after Glasgow.[28] According to the European Statistical agency, Eurostat, Edinburgh sits at the heart of a Larger Urban Zone covering 665 square miles (1,724 sq km) with a population of 778,000.[31] Edinburgh has a higher proportion of those aged between 16 and 24 than the Scottish average, but has a lower proportion of those classifed as elderly or preschool.[30] Over 95% of Edinburgh respondents classed their ethnicity as White in 2001, with those identifying

Arthur’s Seat
Like the castle rock on which Edinburgh Castle is built, Arthur’s Seat was formed by an extinct volcano system of the Carboniferous period, which was eroded by a glacier moving from west to east during the Quaternary, exposing rocky crags to the west and leaving a tail of material swept to the east.[26] This is how the Salisbury Crags formed and became teschenite cliffs between Arthur’s Seat and the city centre.[27]

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as being Indian and Chinese at 1.6% and 0.8% of the population respectively.[32] In 2001, 22% of the population were born outside Scotland with the largest group of migrants coming from England at 12.1%.[32] Since the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, a large number of migrants from the accession states such as Poland, Lithuania and Latvia have settled in the city, with many working in the service industry.[33] There is evidence of human habitation on Castle Rock from as early as 3,000 years ago.[34] A census conducted by the Edinburgh presbytery in 1592 estimated a population of 8,000 scattered equally north and south of the High Street which runs down the spine of the ridge leading from the Castle.[35] In the 18th and 19th Centuries, the population began to expand rapidly, rising from 49,000 in 1751 to 136,000 in 1831 primarily due to rural out-migration.[36] As the population swelled, overcrowding problems in the Old Town, particularly in the cramped tenements that lined the present day Royal Mile and Cowgate, were exacerbated.[36] Sanitary problems and disease were rife.[36] The construction of James Craig’s masterplanned New Town from 1766 onwards witnessed the migration of the professional classes from the Old Town to the lower density, higher quality surroundings taking shape on land to the north.[37] Expansion southwards from the Royal Mile/Cowgate axis of the Old Town saw more tenements being built in the 19th Century, giving rise to present day areas such as Marchmont, Newington and Bruntsfield.[38] Early 20th Century population growth coincided with lower density suburban development in areas such as Gilmerton, Liberton and South Gyle. As the city expanded to the south and west, detached and semi detached villas with large gardens replaced tenements as the predominant building style. Nonetheless, the 2001 census revealed that over 55% of Edinburgh’s population live in tenements or high rise flats compared to the Scottish average of 33.5%.[39]

Edinburgh

Pipers emerging from Edinburgh Castle during the Edinburgh Military Tattoo different shows being staged in 2006, in 261 venues. Comedy is now one of the mainstays of the Fringe, with numerous notable comedians getting their ’break’ here, often through receipt of the Perrier Award. In 2008 the largest comedy venues on the Edinburgh Fringe launched as a festival within a festival, labelled the Edinburgh Comedy Festival. Already at its inception it was the largest comedy festival in the world.[40] Alongside these major festivals, there is also the Edinburgh Art Festival, Edinburgh International Film Festival (moved to June from 2008), the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival. The Edge Festival (formerly known as T on the Fringe), a popular music offshoot of the Fringe, began in 2000, replacing the smaller Flux and Planet Pop series of shows. Tigerfest is an independent music festival which ran concurrently with the Fringe in 2004 and 2005 before moving to a May slot in 2006. Running concurrently with the summer festivals, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo occupies the Castle Esplanade every night, with massed pipers and fireworks. The Edinburgh International Science Festival is held annually in April and is one of the most popular science festivals in the world.

Culture
Festivals
Culturally, Edinburgh is best known for the Edinburgh Festival, although this is in fact a series of separate events, which run from the end of July until early September each year. The longest established festival is the Edinburgh International Festival, which first ran in 1947. The International Festival centres on a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras. The International Festival has since been taken over in both size and popularity by the Edinburgh Fringe. What began as a programme of marginal acts has become the largest arts festival in the world, with 1867

Celebrations
Equally famous is the annual Hogmanay celebration. Originally simply a street party held on Princes Street and the Royal Mile, the Hogmanay event has been officially organised since 1993. In 1996, over 300,000 people attended, leading to ticketing of the main street party in later years, with a limit of 100,000 tickets. Hogmanay now covers four days of processions, concerts and fireworks, with the actual street party commencing on New Year’s Eve. During the street party Princes Street is accessible by ticket only, allowing access into Princes Street where there are live bands playing, food and drink stalls, and a clear view of the castle and fireworks. Alternative tickets

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Edinburgh
Boswell, Robert Louis Stevenson, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and Sir Walter Scott all lived and worked in Edinburgh. J K Rowling, author of the Harry Potter novels, is a resident of Edinburgh. Edinburgh has also become associated with the crime novels of Ian Rankin; and the work of Leith native Irvine Welsh, whose novels are mostly set in the city and are often written in colloquial Scots. Edinburgh is also home to Alexander McCall Smith and a number of his book series. Edinburgh has also been declared the first UNESCO City of Literature.

Music, theatre and film
A Viking longship being burnt during Edinburgh’s annual Hogmanay celebrations. are available for entrance into the Princes Street Gardens concert and Ceilidh, where well known artists perform and ticket holders are invited to participate in traditional Scottish Ceilidh dancing. The event attracts thousands of people from all over the world. On the night of 30 April, the Beltane Fire Festival takes place on Edinburgh’s Calton Hill. The festival involves a procession followed by the re-enactment of scenes inspired by pagan spring fertility celebrations. The Edinburgh Festival Theatre Outside festival season, Edinburgh continues to support a number of theatres and production companies. The Royal Lyceum Theatre has its own company, while the King’s Theatre, Edinburgh Festival Theatre, and Edinburgh Playhouse stage large touring shows. The Traverse Theatre presents a more contemporary programme of plays. Amateur theatre companies productions are staged at the Bedlam Theatre, Church Hill Theatre, and the King’s Theatre amongst others. Youth Music Theatre: UK has a regional office in the city. The Usher Hall is Edinburgh’s premier venue for classical music, as well as the occasional prestige popular music gig. Other halls staging music and theatre include The Hub, the Assembly Rooms and the Queen’s Hall. The Scottish Chamber Orchestra is based in Edinburgh. Edinburgh has two repertory cinemas, the Edinburgh Filmhouse, and the Cameo, and the independent Dominion Cinema, as well as the usual range of multiplexes. Edinburgh has a healthy popular music scene. Occasional large gigs are staged at Murrayfield and Meadowbank, whilst venues such as the Corn Exchange and the Liquid Room cater for smaller events. Edinburgh is also home to a flourishing group of contemporary composers such as Nigel Osborne, Peter Nelson, Lyell Cresswell, Haflidi Hallgrimsson, Edward Harper, Robert Crawford, Robert Dow, and John McLeod[41]

Museum of Scotland

Museums and libraries
Edinburgh is home to a large number of museums and libraries, many of which are national institutions. These include the Museum of Scotland, the Royal Museum, the National Library of Scotland, National War Museum of Scotland, the Museum of Edinburgh, Museum of Childhood and the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

Literature and philosophy
Edinburgh has a long literary tradition, going back to the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh’s Enlightenment produced philosopher David Hume and the pioneer of political economy, Adam Smith. Writers such as James

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whose music is also heard regularly on BBC Radio 3 and throughout the UK. Edinburgh is also home to several of Scotland’s galleries and organisations dedicated to contemporary visual art. Significant strands of this infrastructure include: The Scottish Arts Council, Inverleith House, Edinburgh College of Art, Talbot Rice Gallery (University of Edinburgh), The Travelling Gallery, Edinburgh Printmakers, WASPS, Artlink, Edinburgh Sculpture Workshop, Doggerfisher, Stills, Collective Gallery, Out of the Blue, The Embassy, Magnifitat, Sleeper, Total Kunst, OneZero, Standby, Portfolio Magazine, MAP magazine, Edinburgh’s One O’Clock Gun Periodical and Product magazine and the Edinburgh Annuale.

Edinburgh

Princes Street Queen Street. Stockbridge and the waterfront at Leith are also increasingly fashionable areas, with a number of pubs, clubs and restaurants. Like many other cities in the UK, Edinburgh has numerous nightclubs that play popular and chart music. The underground nightclub scene playing music such as Techno, House, Electronica, Drum & Bass and Dubstep however has suffered in recent years with the closure of Wilkie House, The Venue, La Belle Angele (destroyed in the Cowgate fire), Luna (formerly eGo) and The Hive (formerly the Honeycomb). Faith (formerly Wilkie House), Cabaret Voltaire, The Bongo Club, The Caves and Studio 24 are some of the main nightclub venues in the city. The Liquid Room is currently undergoing a full re-fit after being damaged by the fire that destroyed an Indian Restaurant which was situated behind it in December 2008. It is expected to reopen within the year.

Visual arts

The National Gallery of Scotland Edinburgh is home to Scotland’s five National Galleries. The national collection is housed in the National Gallery of Scotland, located on the Mound, and now linked to the Royal Scottish Academy, which holds regular major exhibitions of painting. The contemporary collections are shown in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, and the nearby Dean Gallery. The Scottish National Portrait Gallery focuses on portraits and photography. The council-owned City Arts Centre shows regular art exhibitions. Across the road, The Fruitmarket Gallery offers world class exhibitions of contemporary art, featuring work by British and international artists with both emerging and established international reputations.

Nightlife and Shopping
Edinburgh has a large number of pubs, clubs and restaurants. The traditional areas were the Grassmarket, Lothian Road and surrounding streets, Rose Street and its surrounds and the Bridges. In recent years George Street in the New Town has grown in prominence, with a large number of new, upmarket public houses and nightclubs opening, along with a number on the parallel

Jenners Department Store

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There are two dedicated gay clubs in Edinburgh, CC Blooms and GHQ; several other club venues have LGBT nights. A fortnightly publication, The List, is dedicated to life in Edinburgh and around, and contains listings of all nightclubs, as well as music, theatrical and other events. The List also regularly produces specialist guides such as its Food and Drink guide and its guide to the Edinburgh Festivals. There are also many competing magazines that can be found for free such as Flash Edinburgh, Gig Guide and The Skinny. Edinburgh has a wide variety of shops, from upmarket department stores to a large number of charity shops. Princes Street is the main shopping area in the city centre, playing host to an extremely wide range of stores from souvenir shops, from chains such as Boots and H&M and institutions like Jenners. George Street, lying north of Princes Street, is home to a number of upmarket chains and independent stores. The St. James Centre, at the eastern end of George Street and Princes Street, hosts a substantial number of national chains including a large John Lewis. Multrees Walk, adjacent to the St. James Centre, is a recent addition to the city centre, hosting brands such as Louis Vuitton, Emporio Armani, Mulberry and Calvin Klein, with Harvey Nichols anchoring the development. Edinburgh also has substantial retail developments outside the city centre. These include The Gyle and Hermiston Gait in the west of the city, Straiton Retail Park and Fort Kinnaird in the south and east, and Ocean Terminal to the north, on the Leith waterfront. The Royal Yacht Britannia lies in dock here next to the centre.

Edinburgh

Easter Road Stadium

Tynecastle Stadium Hearts and Hibs and both teams currently play in the Scottish Premier League. Hibs play at Easter Road Stadium, which straddles the former boundary between Edinburgh and Leith, while Hearts play at Tynecastle Stadium in Gorgie. Edinburgh was also home to senior sides St Bernard’s, Ferranti Thistle and Leith Athletic. Most recently, Meadowbank Thistle played at Meadowbank Stadium until 1995, when the club moved to Livingston, shedding their old name and becoming Livingston F.C.. The Scottish national team has sometimes played at Easter Road and Tynecastle. Non-league sides include Spartans and Edinburgh City, who play in the East of Scotland League along with Civil Service Strollers F.C., Lothian Thistle F.C., Edinburgh University A.F.C., Edinburgh Athletic F.C., Tynecastle F.C., Craigroyston F.C. and Heriot-Watt University F.C.. Edinburgh United F.C. plays in the Scottish Junior Football Association, East Region.

Edinburgh Zoo
Edinburgh Zoo is a non-profit zoological park located in Corstorphine. The land lies on Corstorphine Hill and provides extensive views of the city. Built in 1913, and owned by the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, it receives over 600,000 visitors a year, which makes it Scotland’s second most popular paid-for tourist attraction, after Edinburgh Castle.[42] As well as catering to tourists and locals, the Zoo is involved in many scientific pursuits, such as captive breeding of endangered animals, researching into animal behaviour, and active participation in various conservation programs around the world.[43] The Zoo is the only zoo in Britain to house polar bears and koalas, as well as being the first zoo in the world to house and to breed penguins.

Sport
Football
Edinburgh has two professional football clubs - Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian. They are known locally as

Other sports
The Scotland national rugby union team plays at Murrayfield Stadium, which is owned by the Scottish Rugby

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Union and is also used as a venue for other events, including music concerts. Edinburgh’s professional rugby team, Edinburgh Rugby, play in the Celtic League at Murrayfield. It is the largest capacity stadium in Scotland. Raeburn Place is notable for holding the first rugby international game between Scotland and England. Murrayfield Stadium, due to its size, the surrounding green space, and its reasonable proximity to the city centre, has been chosen as the host of the 2009 Super League Magic Weekend ahead of the previous host, the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff. The Scottish cricket team, who represent Scotland at cricket internationally and in the C&G Trophy, play their home matches at The Grange. The Edinburgh Capitals are the latest of a succession of ice hockey clubs to represent the Scottish capital. Previously Edinburgh was represented by the Murrayfield Racers and the Edinburgh Racers. The club play their home games at the Murrayfield Ice Rink and are the sole Scottish representative in the Elite Ice Hockey League.

Edinburgh
including the Royal Commonwealth Pool and the Meadowbank Stadium. In American football, the Scottish Claymores played WLAF/NFL Europe games at Murrayfield, including their World Bowl 96 victory. From 1995 to 1997 they played all their games there, from 1998 to 2000 they split their home matches between Murrayfield and Glasgow’s Hampden Park, then moved to Glasgow full-time, with one final Murrayfield appearance in 2002. The city’s most successful non-professional team are the Edinburgh Wolves who currently play at Meadowbank Stadium. The Edinburgh Marathon has been held in the city since 2003 with more than 13,000 taking part annually. Edinburgh also plays host to Scotland’s 2nd largest Handball team. Formed in the southside in 2002, Gracemount Edinburgh Handball Club have a very quickly growing youth setup as well as a large senior mens team. The club is a member of the Scottish Handball Association and competes regularly in domestic competition, with the aim to compete in lower level European tournaments in the coming years. As Handball is still very much a growing sport in the UK, there are no professional teams as of yet. Edinburgh has a speedway team, the Edinburgh Monarchs, which currently is based at the Lothian Arena in Armadale, West Lothian. They have operated there since 1997. Speedway was introduced to Edinburgh at the Marine Gardens Stadium in Seafield Road and it operated 1928–31 and 1938–39. The Edinburgh team of 1930 operated in the Northern League. In 1948 speedway returned to the city at Old Meadowbank. The Monarchs operated there 1948–54 as members of the National League Division Two. Training events were staged at Old Meadowbank occasionally from 1957–59. Two Students Charities events were staged one in 1959 and the other in 1960. Between 1960–67 the Monarchs were members of the Provincial League and from 1965 members of the British League. Following a 10-year gap the Monarchs returned to Powderhall Stadium and raced there 1977–95. A training track operated at the Gyle in the late 1960s. Between 1949 and 1951 Edinburgh was the home track of Australian rider Jack Young who won the World Championship in 1951. The Honourable Society of Edinburgh Boaters, Scotland’s only punting society, used to ply the waters of the Union Canal from a base at Hermiston House. The Society staged several regattas and engaged in the annual Scottish Boat Race against Cambridge University Dampers Club with mixed success.

The Heart of Midlothian The Edinburgh Diamond Devils is a baseball club claiming its first Scottish Championship in 1991 as the "Reivers." 1992 saw the team repeat as national champions, becoming the first team to do so in league history and saw the start of the club’s first youth team, the Blue Jays. The name of the club was changed in 1999. Edinburgh has also hosted various national and international sports events including the World Student Games, the 1970 British Commonwealth Games, the 1986 Commonwealth Games and the inaugural 2000 Commonwealth Youth Games. For the Games in 1970 the city built major Olympic standard venues and facilities

Economy
Edinburgh has the strongest economy of any city in the UK outside London. The strength of Edinburgh’s economy is reflected by its GVA per capita, which was

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Edinburgh
the Scottish average.[46] Banking has been a part of the economic life of Edinburgh for over 300 years with the invention of capitalism in the city, with the establishment of the Bank of Scotland by an act of the original Parliament of Scotland in 1695. Their headquarters are on the Mound, overlooking Princes Street. Today, together with the burgeoning financial services industry, with particular strengths in insurance and investment underpinned by the presence of Edinburgh based firms such as Scottish Widows and Standard Life, Edinburgh has emerged as Europe’s sixth largest financial centre.[47] The Royal Bank of Scotland, which is the fifth largest in the world by market capitalisation, opened their new global headquarters at Gogarburn in the west of the city in October 2005; their registered office remains in St. Andrew Square. Manufacturing has never had as strong a presence in Edinburgh compared with Glasgow; however brewing, publishing, and nowadays electronics have maintained a foothold in the city. While brewing has been in decline in recent years, with the closure of the McEwan’s Brewery in 2005, Caledonian Brewery remains as the largest, with Scottish and Newcastle retaining their headquarters in the city. Tourism is an important economic mainstay in the city. As a World Heritage Site, tourists come to visit such historical sites as Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse and the Georgian New Town. This is augmented in August of each year with the presence of the Edinburgh Festivals, which bring in large numbers of visitors, generating in excess of £100m for the Edinburgh economy.[48] As the centre of Scotland’s devolved government, as well as its legal system, the public sector plays a central role in the economy of Edinburgh with many departments of the Scottish Government located in the city. Other major employers include NHS Scotland and local government administration.

Edinburgh Park

Edinburgh Financial District

Governance

Bank of Scotland HQ measured at £28,238 in 2005.[44] The economy of Edinburgh and its hinterland has recently been announced as one of the fastest growing city regions in Europe. Education and health, finance and business services, retailing and tourism are the largest employers.[45] The economy of Edinburgh is largely based around the services sector — centred around banking, financial services, higher education, and tourism. Unemployment in Edinburgh is low at 1.9%, which has been consistently below

Scottish Parliament

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Edinburgh
the local constituencies, Edinburgh South West, is represented by Alistair Darling the current UK Chancellor of the Exchequer.[56]

Transport

Edinburgh City Chambers is the headquarters of the City of Edinburgh Council. Following local government reorganisation in 1996, Edinburgh constitutes one of the 32 Unitary Authorities of Scotland.[49] Today, the City of Edinburgh Council is the administrative body for the local authority and has its powers stipulated by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.[50] Like all other unitary and island authorities in Scotland, the council has powers over most matters of local administration such as housing, planning, local transport, parks, economic development and regeneration.[50] The council is composed of 58 elected councillors, returned from 17 multi-member electoral wards in the city.[51] Each ward elects three or four councillors by the single transferable vote system, to produce a form of proportional representation. Following the 2007 Scottish Local Elections the incumbent Labour Party lost majority control of the council, after 23 years, to a Liberal Democrat/SNP coalition.[52] Since 2007, the council has operated a committee structure, headed by the Lord Provost, who chairs the full council and acts as a figurehead for the city.[53] The Provost, currently George Grubb, also serves as ex officio the Lord Lieutenant of the city.[54] A Leader and Executive, appointed by the full council, are responsible for the day-to-day running of the city administration. Jenny Dawe has been the Council Leader since May 2007. Councillors are also appointed to sit on the boards of public bodies such as Lothian and Borders Police and the Forth Estuary Transport Authority.[53] In terms of national governance, Edinburgh is represented in the Scottish Parliament. For electoral purposes, the city area is divided between six of the nine constituencies in the Lothians electoral region.[55] Each constituency elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) by the first past the post system of election, and the region elects seven additional MSPs, to produce a form of proportional representation.[55] Edinburgh is also represented in the House of Commons by 5 Members of Parliament elected from single member constituencies by the plurality system. One of

Edinburgh Airport

One of Lothian Buses fleet on Princes Street.

A train entering the Edinburgh Waverley railway station Edinburgh Airport is the principal international gateway to the city, handling almost 9 million passengers in 2008. In anticipation of rising passenger numbers, the airport operator BAA outlined a draft masterplan in 2006 to

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provide for the expansion of the airfield and terminal building.[57] The possibility of building a second runway to cope with an increased number of aircraft movements has also been mooted.[57] As an important hub on the East Coast Main Line, Edinburgh Waverley is the primary railway station serving the city. With more than 14 million passengers per year, the station is the second busiest in Scotland behind Glasgow Central.[58] Waverley serves as the terminus for trains arriving from London King’s Cross and is the departure point for many rail services within Scotland operated by First ScotRail. To the west of the city centre lies Haymarket railway station which is an important commuter stop. Opened in 2003, Edinburgh Park station serves the adjacent business park located in the west of the city and the nearby Gogarburn headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Edinburgh Crossrail connects Edinburgh Park with Haymarket, Waverley and the suburban stations of Brunstane and Newcraighall in the east of the city.[59] Lothian Buses operate the majority of city bus services within the City and to surrounding suburbs, with the majority or routes running via Princes Street. Services further afield operate from the Edinburgh Bus Station off St Andrew’s Square. Lothian, as the successor company to the City’s Corporation Trams, also operates all of the City’s branded public tour bus services, the night bus network and airport buses.[60] Lothian’s Mac Tours subsidiary has one of the largest remaining fleets of ex-London Routemaster buses in the UK, many converted to open top tour buses.[61] In 2007, the average daily ridership of Lothian Buses was over 312,000 - a 6% rise on the previous year.[60] In order to tackle traffic congestion, Edinburgh is now served by six park and ride sites on the periphery of the city at Sheriffhall, Ingliston, Riccarton, Inverkeithing (in Fife) and Newcraighall. A new facility at Straiton opened in October 2008. A referendum of Edinburgh residents in February 2005 rejected a proposal to introduce congestion charging in the city. Edinburgh has been without a tram system since 16 November 1956.[62] However, following parliamentary approval in 2007, construction began on a new Edinburgh tram network in early 2008, which has lead to major disruption to transport services. The first stage of the project is expected to be operational by July 2011[63] and will see trams running from the airport in the west of the city, through the centre of Edinburgh and down Leith Walk to Ocean Terminal and Newhaven.[64] The next phase of the project will see trams run from Haymarket through Ravelston and Craigleith to Granton on the waterfront.[64] Future proposals include; a line going west from the airport to Ratho and Newbridge and a line running along the length of the waterfront.[65]

Edinburgh

Education

University of Edinburgh

The former Craiglockhart Hydropathic Building now forms part of the Napier University campus. There are four universities in Edinburgh with over 100,000 students studying in the city.[66] Established by Royal Charter in 1583, the University of Edinburgh is one of Scotland’s ancient universities and is the fourth oldest in the country after St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen.[67] Originally centred around Old College the university expanded to premises on The Mound, the Royal Mile and George Square.[67] Today, the King’s Buildings in the south of the city contain most of the schools within the College of Science and Engineering. In 2002, the medical school moved to purpose built accommodation adjacent to the new Edinburgh Royal Infirmary at Little France. Edinburgh University has strengths in medicine, law, engineering, chemistry, physics, english, veterinary science and informatics.[67] The university was voted 23rd in the world and 5th in Europe overall in the 2008 Times Higher Education Supplement. In the 1960s Heriot-Watt University and Napier Technical College were established.[67] Heriot-Watt traces its origins to 1821, when a school for technical education of the working classes was opened.[68] Based

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in Riccarton to the west of the city, Heriot-Watt specialises in the disciplines of engineering, business, mathematics.[69] Napier College was renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986 and gained university status in 1992.[70] Napier University has campuses in the south and west of the city, including the former Craiglockhart Hydropathic and Merchiston Tower.[70] It is home to the Screen Academy Scotland. Further education colleges in the city include Telford College, opened in 1968, and Stevenson College, opened in 1970. The Scottish Agricultural College also has a campus in south Edinburgh. Awarded university status in January 2007, Queen Margaret University was founded in 1875, as The Edinburgh School of Cookery and Domestic Economy, by Christian Guthrie Wright and Louisa Stevenson.[71] Other notable institutions include the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh which were established by Royal Charter, in 1506 and 1681 respectively. The Trustees Drawing Academy of Edinburgh was founded in 1760 - an institution that became the Edinburgh College of Art in 1907.[72] There are 18 nursery, 94 primary and 23 secondary schools in Edinburgh administered by the city council.[73] In addition, the city is home to a large number of independent, fee-paying schools including George Heriot’s School, Fettes College, Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh Academy and Stewart’s Melville College.

Edinburgh
Midlothian and East Lothian, and is the headquarters of NHS Lothian, making it a centric focus for Edinburgh and its hinterland. The Royal Edinburgh Hospital specialises in mental health, it is situated in Morningside. The Royal Hospital for Sick Children is located in Sciennes Road; it is popularly known as the ’Sick Kids’.

Religious communities

Hospitals
The three spires of St Mary’s Cathedral

Christianity
The Church of Scotland claims the largest membership of any religious denomination in Edinburgh. Its most important and historical church is St Giles’ Cathedral; others include Greyfriars Kirk, Barclay Church, Canongate Kirk and St Andrew’s and St George’s Church. In the south east of the city is the 12th century Duddingston Kirk. The Church of Scotland Offices are located in Edinburgh, as is the Assembly Hall and New College on The Mound. The Roman Catholic Church also has a sizeable presence in the city. Its notable structures include St Mary’s Cathedral at the top of Leith Walk, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, St Patrick’s, St. Columba’s, St. Peter’s and Star of the Sea. The Roman Catholic community in Edinburgh is part of the Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh, which is led by Keith Cardinal O’Brien, considered to be the leader of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland. The Free Church of Scotland (Reformed and Presbyterian) has congregations on the Royal Mile and

The Edinburgh Royal Infirmary is the main public hospital for the city. See also: List of hospitals in Edinburgh Hospitals in Edinburgh include the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, which includes Edinburgh University Medical School, and the Western General Hospital, which includes a large cancer treatment centre. There is one private hospital, Murrayfield Hospital, owned by Spire Healthcare. The Royal Infirmary is the main Accident & Emergency hospital not just for Edinburgh but also

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Crosscauseway; its offices and training college are located on the Mound. The Scottish Episcopal Church is part of the Anglican Communion. Its centre is the resplendent St Mary’s Cathedral, Palmerston Place in the west end.

Edinburgh
Ronnie Corbett, a comedian and actor, best known as one of The Two Ronnies;[78] and Dylan Moran, the Irish comedian. Famous city artists include the portrait painters Sir Henry Raeburn, Sir David Wilkie and Allan Ramsay. Historians such as Douglas Johnson and Arthur Marwick had roots here. The city has produced or been home to musicians that have been extremely successful in modern times, particularly Ian Anderson, frontman of the band Jethro Tull; Wattie Buchan, lead singer and founding member of punk band The Exploited; Shirley Manson, lead singer for the band Garbage; The Proclaimers, a musical ensemble of two brothers; the Bay City Rollers; Boards of Canada and Idlewild.

St. Giles’ Cathedral In addition, there are a number of independent churches situated throughout the city; these churches tend to have a high percentage of student congregants and include Destiny Church, Charlotte Chapel, Carrubbers Christian Centre and Bellevue Chapel.

Other faiths
Edinburgh Central Mosque - Edinburgh’s main mosque and Islamic Centre is located on Potterow on the city’s southside, near Bristo Square. It was opened in the late 1990s and the construction was largely financed by a gift from King Fahd of Saudi Arabia.[74] The first recorded presence of a Jewish community in Edinburgh dates back to the late 17th century. Edinburgh’s Orthodox synagogue is located in Salisbury Road, which was opened in 1932 and can accommodate a congregation of 2000. A Liberal congregation also meets in the city. There is also a Sikh Gurdwara and Hindu Mandir in the city which are both located in the Leith district.

Sir Walter Scott Edinburgh is the hometown of the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Tony Blair, who was born in the city and attended Fettes College;[79] Robin Harper the co-convener of the Scottish Green Party; and John Witherspoon, the only clergyman to sign the United States Declaration of Independence, and later president of Princeton University.[80] On the more sinister side, famous criminals from Edinburgh’s history include Deacon Brodie, pillar of society by day and burglar by night, who is said to have influenced Robert Louis Stevenson’s story, the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde; the murderers Burke and Hare, who provided fresh corpses for anatomical dissection by the famous surgeon Robert Knox; and Major Weir a notorious warlock. Scotland has a rich history in science and engineering, with Edinburgh contributing its fair share of famous names. James Clerk Maxwell, the founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, was

Notable residents
Famous authors of the city include Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes, Ian Rankin, author of the Inspector Rebus series of crime thrillers, J. K. Rowling, the author of Harry Potter, who wrote her first book in an Edinburgh coffee shop (Nicolson’s Cafe,[75][76] the Elephant House and Black Medicine), Adam Smith, economist, born in Kirkcaldy, and author of The Wealth of Nations, Walter Scott, the author of famous titles such as Rob Roy and Ivanhoe, Robert Louis Stevenson, creator of Treasure Island and the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Edinburgh has been home to the actor Sir Sean Connery, famed as the first cinematic James Bond;[77]

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Country Germany France Italy New Zealand Canada USA China Ukraine Denmark Japan Poland City or municipality Munich Nice Florence Dunedin Vancouver San Diego Xi’an Kiev Aalborg Kyoto Prefecture Kraków Subdivision Bavaria Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Tuscany Otago British Columbia California Shaanxi Kiev Oblast Nordjylland Kansai Lesser Poland Voivodeship • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Edinburgh
Date of agreement 1954 1958 1964 1974 1977 1977 1985 1989 1991 1994 1995

born here and educated at the Edinburgh Academy and University of Edinburgh, as was the telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell.[81] Other names connected to the city include Max Born, physicist and Nobel laureate; Charles Darwin, the biologist who discovered natural selection; David Hume, a philosopher, economist and historian; James Hutton, regarded as the "Father of Geology"; John Napier inventor of logarithms;[82] chemist and one of the founders of thermodynamics Joseph Black; pioneering medical researchers Joseph Lister and James Young Simpson; chemist and discoverer of the element nitrogen, Daniel Rutherford; mathematician and developer of the maclaurin series, Colin Maclaurin and Ian Wilmut, the geneticist involved in the cloning of Dolly the sheep just outside Edinburgh. The stuffed carcass of Dolly the sheep is now on display in the National Museum of Scotland. The lighthouse engineering family, the Stevenson family was based in Edinburgh.

Edinburgh Waterfront Edinburgh Zoo EH postal area Fresh Air (Edinburgh) Lothian and Borders Police National Archives of Scotland Politics in Edinburgh Scottish Enlightenment Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh Timeline of Edinburgh history Transport in Edinburgh Edinburgh Comedy Festival Catacombs of Edinburgh

Sources
Notes
[1] "Conservation in Edinburgh". The City of Edinburgh Council. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/ Environment/Planning_buildings_i_i_/Built_heritage/ CEC_conservation_in_edinburgh_. Retrieved on 2007-05-20. [2] GROS Mid-2008 population estimates Scotland : population estimates by sex, age and administrative area [3] "Overseas Visitors to the UK - Top Towns Visited 2005". VisitBritain. http://www.tourismtrade.org.uk/Images/ TopTowns2005_tcm12-24666.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. [4] Coghill, Hamish Lost Edinburgh pp.1/2. [5] ^ Campbell, Edinburgh: A Cultural and Literary History, 5. [6] Blackie, Geographical Etymology: A Dictionary of Placenames Giving Their Derivations, 68. [7] Davies, Europe: A History, 87. [8] Swanton, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 126. [9] Jordan-Bychkov, The European Cultural Area, 243. [10] Coghill, Hamish Lost Edinburgh p.3.

Twinning arrangements
The City of Edinburgh has entered into 11 international twinning arrangements since 1954.[83]. Most of the arrangements are styled as ’Twin Cities’, but the agreement with Kraków is designated as a ’Partner City’.[83] The agreement with the Kyoto Prefecture, concluded in 1994, is officially styled as a ’Friendship Link’, reflecting its status as the only region to be twinned with Edinburgh.[83]

See also
• • • • • • Areas of Edinburgh Cockburn Association (Edinburgh Civic Trust) Dean Cemetery Duke of Edinburgh Economy of Edinburgh Edinburgh congestion charge

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Edinburgh

[11] Scottish Vernacular Dictionary http://download.edinburgh.gov.uk/ [12] Embro, Embro - the hidden history of Edinburgh in Census_2001_City_Comparisons/ its music CCTable2EthnicComp.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-13. [13] Makars Literary Tour | Robert Garioch [33] Orchard, Pam; Szymanski, A. and Vlahova, N. [14] Stoppard, Tom. Jumpers, Grove Press, 1972, p. 69. (2007-12-20). "A Community Profile of EU8 Migrants in [15] ORBIS LATINUS: Letter A Edinburgh and an Evaluation of their Access to Key [16] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Services". Scottish Government. List_of_Latin_place_names_in_the_British_Isles http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2007/12/ [17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivas_Schola_Regia 18150102/0. Retrieved on 2009-02-28. [18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ [34] Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005) p21 Royal_High_School_(Edinburgh) [35] Lynch, M. (2001), p219 [19] Pharmaceutical Latin Abbreviations [36] ^ Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005), p9 [20] The Cambridge Companion to Ben Jonson, [37] Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005) p46 retrieved 17 April 2007 [38] Robinson, P. in Edwards, B. & Jenkins, P. (2005), p46 [21] Marmion A Tale of Flodden Field by Walter Scott, [39] "Edinburgh Comparisons - Dwellings". City of Edinburgh retrieved 17 April 2007 Council. http://download.edinburgh.gov.uk/ [22] Donald Campbell (2003). Edinburgh: A cultural and Census_2001_City_Comparisons/CCTable4Dwellings.pdf. literary history. Oxford: Signal Books. ISBN Retrieved on 2009-02-08. 1-902669-73-8. [40] "Edinburgh Comedy Festival 2008 Introduction". Official [23] The Story of Leith XXXIII. How Leith was Governed site of the Edinburgh Comedy Festival. [24] World Meteorological Organization "World http://www.edcomfest.com/index.aspx. Retrieved on Meteorological Organization" (in English). World 2008-02-04. Meteorological Organization. [41] John McLeod: Composer http://www.worldweather.org/010/c00033.htm World [42] "Zoo Beginnings". Edinburgh Zoo website. Meteorological Organization. Retrieved on 03 10 2009. http://www.edinburghzoo.org.uk/ [25] Excavations within Edinburgh Castle by Stephen T. SnippetAccess.aspx?id=349&pid=79&pageIndex=4. Driscoll & Peter Yeoman, Society of Antiquaries of Retrieved on 2007-06-15. Scotland Monograph Series no.12 1997 [43] "Animals & Conservation". Edinburgh Zoo website. [26] Stuart Piggott (1982). Scotland before History. Edinburgh http://www.edinburghzoo.org.uk/ University Press. ISBN 0-85224-470-3. PageAccess.aspx?id=23. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. [27] "Holyrood Park Geology". Department of Geography, [44] "Regional GVA - NUTS3 GVA (1995-2005) Data". ONS. University of Edinburgh. http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/ http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/ arthurseat/geology/geology.html. Retrieved on theme_economy/ 2007-07-20. GVA_NUTS3_Excel_Tables_1995-2005.xls. Retrieved on [28] ^ "Edinburgh Comparisons - Population and Age 2008-11-18. Structure". City of Edinburgh Council. [45] "Edinburgh City of Learning". Learning Towns and http://download.edinburgh.gov.uk/ Cities. http://www.lifelonglearning.co.uk/learningcities/ Census_2001_City_Comparisons/ s10-edin.htm. Retrieved on 2007-03-23. CCTable1Population.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. [46] "Unemployment Bulletin September 2008". City of [29] "Comparative Population Profile - Edinburgh Locality". Edinburgh Council. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/ Scotland’s Census Results Online (SCROL). internet/city_living/city_facts_and_figures/ http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/ CEC_unemployment. Retrieved on 2008-11-18. profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainArea=edinburgh&mainLevel=Locality. [47] "Information for Journalists". Edinburgh Brand. Retrieved on 2009-01-31. http://www.edinburghbrand.com/news/information/. [30] ^ "Mid-2008 Population Estimates Scotland". General Retrieved on 2007-03-23. Register Office for Scotland, 2008. http://www.gro[48] "2004 Festival Economic Impact Study results". scotland.gov.uk/files2/stats/gros-mid-2008-populationEdinburgh Festival Fringe. 2005-10-14. estimates-scotland-population-estimates-by-sex-agehttp://www.edfringe.com/story.html?id=923. Retrieved and-administrative-area/j1075008.htm. Retrieved on on 2007-03-23. 2009-04-28. [49] "Schedule 1 - New Local Government Areas - Local [31] "Urban Audit City Profiles - Edinburgh". Eurostat. Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994". Office of Public http://www.urbanaudit.org/ Sector Information (OPSI). 1994-11-03. CityProfiles.aspx?CityCode=UK007C&CountryCode=UK. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1994/ Retrieved on 2009-01-31. ukpga_19940039_en_16#sch1. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. [32] ^ "Edinburgh Comparisons - Ethnicity, Country of Birth [50] ^ "Chapter 6 - Functions - Local Government etc & Migration". City of Edinburgh Council. (Scotland) Act 1994". Office of Public Sector Information

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(OPSI). 1994-11-03. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/ acts1994/ukpga_19940039_en_4#pt1-ch6. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. [64] "Find Your Local Councillor". City of Edinburgh Council. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/council/ council_business/councillor_database/ [65] CEC_find_your_local_councillor. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. "Council Business - Rt Hon. George Grubb". City of Edinburgh Council. 2007-05-17. [66] http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/Council/ Council_Business/Lord_Provost/ CEC_the_rt_hon_george_grubb. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. [67] ^ "How the council works". City of Edinburgh Council. 2007-05-11. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/ council/council_business/how_the_council_works/ [68] CEC_how_the_council_works. Retrieved on 2008-06-20. "How the council works". City of Edinburgh Council. 2007-05-11. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/ [69] council/council_business/how_the_council_works/ CEC_how_the_council_works. Retrieved on 2009-01-14. ^ "Scottish Parliament election results 2007". Elections [70] Office - City of Edinburgh Council. 2007-05-03. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/Council/ Elections/Results/results_May_2007/ [71] CEC_scottish_parliament_election_results_edinburgh_. Retrieved on 2009-01-14. "About Us - Rt Hon. Alistair Darling MP". HM Treasury. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/ [72] minprofile_darling.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-14. ^ "Edinburgh Airport Master Plan". British Airports Authority (BAA). July 2006. http://www.edinburghairport.com/assets/B2CPortal/ [73] Static%20Files/Edimasterplanv2_single.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-05-25. "Edinburgh Waverley". Network Rail. [74] http://www.networkrail.co.uk/aspx/807.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-05-25. "Edinburgh CrossRail project". Scottish Government. [75] 2001-12-04. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/ 2001/12/729. Retrieved on 2008-05-25. ^ "Lothian Buses - The Company". Lothian Buses. 2008. [76] http://www.lothianbuses.com/company.php. Retrieved on 2009-03-21. "Edinburgh Bus Tours - History on the move". Lothian Buses. 2008. http://www.edinburghtour.com/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=148&Itemid=156. [77] Retrieved on 2009-03-21. Wiseman, Richard Joseph Stewart (2005). Edinburgh’s Trams: The Last years. Catrine: Stenlake Publishing. [78] pp. Pg. 2-3. ISBN 184033343X. "Edinburgh Tram Project Contracts Closure and Infrastructure Construction Commences". City of Edinburgh Council. 2008-05-13. [79] http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/servlet/ QsProtected?IDC=CEC/Corporate_Services/

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[83] ^ "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh Council. http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/city_living/ CEC_twin_and_partner_cities. Retrieved on 2009-01-16.

References
• Campbell, Donald (2003). Edinburgh: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books. ISBN 1902669738.

External links
• • • • Edinburgh at the Open Directory Project City of Edinburgh Council Edinburgh - The official Tourist Board Edinburgh travel guide from Wikitravel

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edinburgh" Categories: Host cities of the Commonwealth Games, British capitals, Districts of Scotland, Edinburgh, Trading posts of the Hanseatic League, Capitals in Europe, Port cities and towns in Scotland, Scottish names, Unitary authorities of Scotland, Lieutenancy areas of Scotland This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 03:38 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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