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Republic of Cyprus Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Greek) Kypriakí Dimokratía Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti (Turkish) Population - 1.1.2009 estimate - Density GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita
Flag Coat of arms
801,622 85/km2 (85th) 221/sq mi 2008 estimate $22.703 billion (107th) $29,830 (29th) 2008 estimate $24.943 billion (86th) $32,772 (26th) 29 (low) (19th) ▲ 0.912 (high) (30th) Euro2 (EUR) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) left .cy3 357
Anthem: Υμνος είς την Ελευθερίαν Ýmnos eis tīn Eleutherían Hymn to Liberty1
GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita Gini (2005) HDI (2008) Currency Time zone - Summer (DST) Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code
1 2 3
Also the national anthem of Greece. Before 2008, the Cypriot pound. The .eu domain is also used, shared with other European Union member states.
Location of Cyprus (dark orange)
– on the European continent (light orange & white) – in the European Union (light orange) Capital (and largest city) Official languages Ethnic groups Demonym Government President Nicosia (Λευκωσία, Lefkoşa)
35°08′N 33°28′E / 35.133°N 33.467°E / 35.133; 33.467
Greek and Turkish 77% Greek, 18% Turkish, 5% other (2001 est.) Cypriot Presidential republic Dimitris Christofias from the United Kingdom 16 August 1960 1 October 1 May 2004 9,251 km2 (167th) 3,572 sq mi negligible
Independence - Date - Independence Day EU accession Area - Total Water (%)
Cyprus (Greek: Κύπρος, transliterated: Kýpros, [ˈcipɾo̞s]; Turkish: Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Greek: Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía, [cipɾiaˈci ðimo̞kɾaˈtia]; Turkish: Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is a Eurasian island country situated in the eastern Mediterranean, south of Turkey, west of Lebanon, Syria, and Israel, east of Greece, and north of Egypt. Cyprus is the third largest Mediterranean island and one of the most popular tourist destinations, attracting over 2.4 million tourists per year. A former British colony, it became an independent republic in 1960 and a member of the Commonwealth in 1961. The Republic of Cyprus is one of the advanced economies in the region, and has been a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004. In 1974, following years of intercommunal violence between ethnic Greeks and Turks and an attempted coup d’état by Greek Cypriot nationalists aimed at annexing the island to Greece and engineered by the military junta then in power in Athens, Turkey invaded and occupied one third of the island. This led to the displacement of thousands of Cypriots and the
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establishment of a separate Turkish Cypriot political entity in the north. This event and its resulting political situation are matters of ongoing dispute. The Republic of Cyprus, the internationally recognised state, has de jure sovereignty over the entire island of Cyprus and its surrounding waters except small portions that are allocated by treaty to the United Kingdom as sovereign military bases. The island is de facto partitioned into four main parts: • the area under the effective control of the Republic of Cyprus, comprising about 59% of the island’s area in the south; • the Turkish-occupied area in the north, calling itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, covering about 36% of the island’s area and recognised only by Turkey; • the United Nations-controlled Green Line, separating the two, covering about 3% of the island’s area; and • two British Sovereign Base Areas (Akrotiri and Dhekelia), covering about 3% of the island’s area.
The gymnasium in Salamis, outside the city of Famagusta.
The name Cyprus has a somewhat uncertain etymology. One suggestion is that it comes from the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree (Cupressus sempervirens), κυπάρισσος (kypárissos), or even from the Greek name of the henna plant (Lawsonia alba), κύπρος (kýpros). Another school suggests that it stems from the Eteocypriot word for copper. Georges Dossin, for example, suggests that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper (zubar) or for bronze (kubar), from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for the metal through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum. Cyprus is also called "the island of Aphrodite or love", since in Greek mythology, the goddess Aphrodite, of beauty and love, was born in Cyprus. The Old Assyrian expression for "far sunny island" was kypeř-až ṇ-itiṣ, which was many times literally translated to Greek as kyperus nytis, or kyprezu-nytys which meant (in Old Cretan dialect) "southern sunny island". It is then related to that the Cretan people named it so, and that the results were a "southern sunny island", "Kipriuznyt". Another possibility is that the Phoenicians named it "Kỹiprii Uűzta" (Orange Island), the name resurfaced during Roman times and they thought it was named after one of their emperors, and named it "Ciprea Augusta". Over time, Augusta banished and Ciprea was left.
Temple to Apollon Ilatis outside the city of Limassol
Kourion Theatre outside the city of Limassol Cyprus is the mythical birthplace of Aphrodite, Adonis and home to King Cinyras, Teucer and Pygmalion. The earliest confirmed site of human activity is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled, village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with
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the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. There were several fluxes of population and settlement as well as newcomers to the island during the Neolithic age, although earthquakes caused the infrastructure to fail around 3800 BC. Several waves of incoming peoples followed, including some from Asia minor which strengthened the metal working crafts on the island, although finds from this time are rare those finds are of high quality. The Bronze Age was heralded by the arrival of Anatolians who came to the island around 2400 BC. The Mycenaean Greeks first reached Cyprus around 1600 BC, with settlements dating from this period scattered all over the island. Another wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place in the period 1100-1050 BC, with the island’s predominantly Greek character dating from this period. Several Phoenician colonies were founded in the 8th century BC, like KartHadasht meaning ’New Town’, near present day Larnaca and Salamis. Cyprus was conquered by Assyria in 709 BC, before a brief spell under Egyptian rule and eventually Persian rule in 545 BC. Cypriots, led by Onesilos, joined their fellow-Greeks in the Ionian cities during the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt in 499 BC against the Achaemenid Empire. The island was brought under permanent Greek rule by Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies of Egypt following his death. Full Hellenisation took place during the Ptolemaic period, which ended when Cyprus was annexed by the Roman Republic in 58 BC. Cyprus was one of the first stops in apostle Paul’s missionary journey.
Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus. despite stiff resistance by the inhabitants of Nicosia and Famagusta. 20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted. The Ottomans applied the millet system and allowed religious authorities to govern their own non-Muslim minorities, but at the same time invested the Eastern Orthodox Church as a mediator between Christian Cypriots and the authorities granting it not only religious but political and economic powers. Heavy taxation led to rebellions, resulting in approximately twenty-eight bloody uprisings taking place between 1572 and 1668, forcing the Sultans to intervene. The first large scale census of the Ottoman Empire in 1831, counting only men, showed 14,983 Muslims and 29,190 Christians. By 1872, the population of the island had risen to 144,000 comprising 44,000 Muslims and 100,000 Christians.
In 395, Cyprus became part of the Byzantine Empire, who lost control of the island to the Arabs in 649 before reclaiming it in 966. Richard I of England captured the island in 1191 during the Third Crusade, using it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens. A year later Guy of Lusignan purchased the island from the Templars to compensate for the loss of his kingdom. The Republic of Venice seized control of the island in 1489 after the abdication of Queen Caterina Cornaro. She was the widow of James II who was the last Lusignan king of Cyprus. Using it as an important commercial hub, the Venetians soon fortified Nicosia; the current capital city in Cyprus, with its famous Venetian Walls. Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus. In 1539 the Ottomans destroyed Limassol and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta, Nicosia, and Kyrenia.
Ottoman and British rule
In 1570, a full scale conquest under Piyale Pasha with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control, Historic map of Cyprus by Ottoman Empire’s Kaptan Pasha, Piri Reis
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Administration, but not sovereignty, of the island was ceded to the British Empire in 1878 with the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878). The island would serve Britain as a key military base in its colonial routes. By 1906, when the Famagusta harbour was completed, Cyprus was a strategic naval outpost overlooking the Suez Canal, the crucial main route to India which was then Britain’s most important colony. Following World War I and the Ottoman alliance with the Central powers, the United Kingdom annexed the island. In 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, the nascent Turkish republic relinquished any claim to Cyprus and in 1925 it was declared a British Crown Colony. Many Greek Cypriots fought in the British Army during both world wars, in the hope that Cyprus would eventually be united with Greece. In January 1950 the Eastern Orthodox Church organised a referendum, which was boycotted by the Turkish Cypriot community, where over 90% voted in favour of "enosis", meaning union with Greece. Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. In 1955 the EOKA organisation was founded, seeking independence and union with Greece through armed struggle. At the same time the TMT, calling for Taksim, or partition, was established by the Turkish Cypriots as a counterweight. Turmoil on the island was met with force by the British who started openly favouring Turks in police and administration as part of a divide-and-conquer policy.
installed by the Greek Junta as president of Cyprus. Although a nationalist, he did not declare union with Greece and proclaimed that Cyprus would remain independent and non-aligned.  Yet the Turkish government was uneasy about the de facto situation, so they protested and, unsuccessfully, sought British intervention. Seven days later Turkey invaded Cyprus claiming a right, under the Zurich and London agreements, to intervene in order to restore constitutional order. The Greeks announced the formation of a new EOKA paramilitary group to resist the invaders but this proved counter-productive, hastening the expulsions of Greeks from Turkish-held areas. Heavily outnumbered, the Greek forces were unable to resist the Turkish advance. The Ayia Napa area was only saved from occupation because it lay behind the British Sovereign Base area, which the Turks were cautious not to invade. International pressure led to a ceasefire and at that point 37% of the land fell within the Turkish occupation zone, 170,000 Greek Cypriots were evicted from their homes in the north with 50,000 Turkish Cypriots following the opposite path. In 1983 Turkish Cypriots unilaterally proclaimed independence, which was only recognised by Turkey. As of today, there are 1,534 Greek Cypriots and 502 Turkish Cypriots missing as a result of the fighting. The events of the summer of 1974 dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Around 100,000 settlers from Turkey are believed to be living in the north in violation of the Geneva Convention and various UN resolutions. Following the invasion and the capture of its northern territory by Turkish troops, the Republic of Cyprus announced that all of its ports of entry in the north are closed, as they are effectively not under its control.
In August 16,1960, Cyprus attained independence after an agreement in Zürich and London between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey. Britain retained two Sovereign Base Areas in Akrotiri and Dhekelia while government posts and public offices were allocated by ethnic quotas giving the minority Turks a permanent veto, 30% in parliament and administration, and granting the 3 mother-states guarantor rights. In 1963 inter-communal violence broke out, partially sponsored by both "motherlands" with Turkish Cypriots in some areas withdrawing into enclaves and Greek Cypriot leader Archbishop Makarios III calling for constitutional changes as a means to ease tensions. The United Nations was involved, and the United Nations forces in Cyprus (UNICYP) deployed at flash points.
The Greek military government in power in Greece in the early 1970s became dissatisfied with the policy of Makarios in Cyprus and the lack of progress towards Enosis. Partly for this reason, and partly as a distraction from domestic opposition, the junta organised a coup in Cyprus on 13 July 1974. Nikos Sampson was forcefully Modern Nicosia Since de facto, though not de jure, partition of the Republic, the north and south have followed separate paths. The Republic of Cyprus is a constitutional democracy that has reached great levels of prosperity, with a
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booming economy and good infrastructure. It is part of the UN, the European Union and several other organisations by whom it is recognised as the sole legitimate government of the whole island. The area of the island not under effective control of the Republic of Cyprus, Northern Cyprus, is dependent on help from Turkey. The last major effort to settle the Cyprus dispute was the Annan Plan. It gained the support of the Turkish Cypriots but was rejected by the Greek Cypriots. In July 2006, the island served as a safe haven for people fleeing Lebanon due to the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah. In March 2008, a wall that for decades had stood at the boundary between the Greek Cypriot controlled side and the UN buffer zone was demolished. The wall had cut across Ledra Street in the heart of Nicosia and was seen as a strong symbol of the island’s 32-year division. On 3 April 2008, Ledra Street was reopened in the presence of Greek and Turkish Cypriot officials. • Elections in Cyprus • Legislative: 2001 · 2006 • Presidential: 2008 • Districts • Foreign relations of Cyprus • Politics of the European Union See also Politics of Northern Cyprus
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Politics portal Cyprus is a Presidential republic. The head of state and of the government is the President, who is elected by a process of Universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislative. The 1960 Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches, as well as a complex system of checks and balances, including a weighted powersharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots. The executive, was headed by a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions. Legislative power rested on the House of Representatives, also elected on the basis of separate voters’ rolls. Since 1964, following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant. Turkish Cypriots refuse to establish the state of affairs before the invasion of Cyprus in their attempt to de jure partition the Republic of Cyprus. This is evident in the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations report at the time. The Turkish Cypriot leaders have adhered to a rigid stand against any measures which might involve having members of the two communities live and work together, or which might place Turkish Cypriots in situations where they would have to acknowledge the authority of Government agents. Indeed, since the Turkish Cypriot leadership is committed to physical and geographical separation of the communities as a political goal, it is not likely to encourage activities by Turkish Cypriots which may be interpreted as demonstrating the merits of an alternative policy. The result has been a seemingly deliberate policy of self-segregation by the Turkish Cypriots In 1974 Cyprus was divided de facto into the Greek Cypriot controlled southern two-thirds of the island and the Turkish controlled northern third. The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in 1983 as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus but have not been recognised by any country in the world, except Turkey. In 1985, the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. All foreign governments (except Turkey), as well as the United Nations, recognise the sovereignty
The Presidential Palace (Residence) in Nicosia. Cyprus
This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of Cyprus Constitution Cyprus dispute Annan Plan referendum President • Dimitris Christofias • House of Representatives • Political parties • • • •
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Map of Cyprus Districts Famagusta Kyrenia Larnaca Limassol Nicosia Paphos Greek name Αμμόχωστος (Ammochostos) Κερύvεια (Keryneia) Λάρνακα (Larnaka) Λεμεσός (Lemesos) Λευκωσία (Lefkosia) Πάφος (Pafos) Turkish name Gazimağusa Girne
Larnaka/İskele Limasol/Leymosun Lefkoşa Baf/Gazibaf
About this image of the Republic of Cyprus over the whole island of Cyprus. The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Maronite, Latin and Armenian minorities. 24 seats are allocated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964. The political environment is dominated by the communist AKEL, the liberal conservative Democratic Rally, the centrist Democratic Party, the social-democratic EDEK and the centrist EURO.KO. On 17 February 2008 Dimitris Christofias of the AKEL was elected President of Cyprus and the first electoral victory without being part of a wider coalition. This made Cyprus one of only three countries in the world to currently have a democratically elected communist government, the others being Moldova and Nepal, and the only European Union member state currently under communist leadership. Christofias took over government from Tassos Papadopoulos of the Democratic Party who had been in office since February 2003.
Pyrgos, a Greek Cypriot exclave on Morphou Bay Pyrgos is a de facto exclave of the government-controlled part of the island. It is the only Greek Cypriot town located on the TRNC-controlled Morphou Bay.
The constant focus on the division of the island can sometimes mask other human rights issues. Prostitution is rife in both the government-controlled and the Turkish-controlled regions, and the island as a whole has been criticised for its role in the sex trade as one of the main routes of human trafficking from Eastern Europe. The regime in the North has been the focus of occasional freedom of speech criticisms regarding heavy-handed treatment of newspaper editors. Domestic violence legislation in the Republic remains largely unimplemented, and it has not yet been passed into law in the North. Reports on the mistreatment of domestic staff, mostly immigrant workers from developing countries, are sometimes reported in the Greek Cypriot press, and are the subject of several campaigns by the anti-racist charity KISA.
The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts: Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol and Paphos.
Exclaves and enclaves
Cyprus has four exclaves, all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou. The third is the Dhekelia Power Station, which is divided by a British road into two parts. The northern part is an exclave, like the two villages, whereas the southern part is located by the sea and therefore not an exclave, although it has no territorial waters of its own. The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos, connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor, and in that sense the buffer zone turns the southeast corner of the island, the Paralimni area, into a de facto, though not de jure, exclave.
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European Union, and the Cypriot government adopted the currency on 1 January 2008. Oil has recently been discovered in the seabed between Cyprus and Egypt, and talks are underway between Lebanon and Egypt to reach an agreement regarding the exploration of these resources. The seabed separating Lebanon and Cyprus is believed to hold significant quantities of crude oil and natural gas. The economy of the Turkish-occupied area is dominated by the services sector, including the public sector, trade, tourism and education, with smaller agriculture and light manufacturing sectors. The economy operates on a free-market basis, although it continues to be handicapped by the political isolation of Turkish Cypriots, the lack of private and governmental investment, high freight costs, and shortages of skilled labor. Despite these constraints, the economy turned in an impressive performance in 2003 and 2004, with growth rates of 9.6% and 11.4%. The average income in the area is $5,000 per capita, and the Turkish government has pledged to increase this to $12,000 through investment and aid. Growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish new lira and by a boom in the education and construction sectors. The island has witnessed a massive growth in tourism over the years and as such the property rental market in Cyprus has grown along side. Added to this is the capital growth in property that has been created from the demand of incoming investors and property buyers to the island. 
The Cypriot National Guard is the main military institution of the Republic of Cyprus. It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. The land forces of the Cypriot National Guard comprise the following units: • First Infantry Division (Ιη Μεραρχία ΠΖ) • Second Infantry Division (ΙΙα Μεραρχία ΠΖ) • Fourth Infantry Brigade (ΙVη Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ) • Twentieth Armored Brigade (ΧΧη ΤΘ Ταξιαρχία) • Third Support Brigade (ΙΙΙη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ) • Eighth Support Brigade (VIIIη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ) The air force includes the 449th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (449 ΜΑΕ) - operating SA-342L and Bell 206 and the 450th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (450 ME/P) operating Mi-35P, BN-2B and PC-9. Current Senior officers include Supreme Commander, Cypriot National Guard: Lt. Gen. Konstantinos Bisbikas, Deputy Commander, Cypriot National Guard: Lt. Gen. Savvas Argyrou and Chief of Staff, Cypriot National Guard: Maj. Gen. Gregory Stamoulis.
Cypriot euro coins. The Cypriot economy is prosperous and has diversified in recent years. According to the latest IMF estimates, its per capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power) is, at $28,381, just above the average of the European Union. Cyprus has been sought as a base for several offshore businesses for its highly developed infrastructure. Economic policy of the Cyprus government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union. Adoption of the euro as a national currency is required of all new countries joining the
Population growth (numbers for the entire island, excluding in recent years some 150,000 Turkish immigrants residing in Northern Cyprus). According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December 1960 and covering the entire island, Cyprus had a total population of 573,566, with Greek Cypriots comprising 77% of the island’s population and Turkish Cypriots 18% (other nationals accounted for the remaining 5%). According to the last census covering the entire island (April 1973), the population of Cyprus was 631,778 with the
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Greeks, immigrating after the fall of the Eastern Bloc), Bulgaria, Romania, and Eastern European states. By the end of 2007, about 124,000 immigrants settled in Cyprus, the three largest groups being 37,000 Greeks, 27,000 Britons, and 10,000 Russians. The island is also home to a Maronite minority of 6,000, an Armenian minority of around 2,000, and refugees mainly from Serbia, Palestine, and Lebanon. There is also a Kurdish minority present in Cyprus. Outside Cyprus there is a significant and thriving Cypriot diaspora in other countries, within the United States, the United Kingdom, Greece and Australia hosting the majority of migrants who left the island after the de facto division in 1974. Specifically in the United Kingdom it is estimated that there are 150,000 Cypriots.
Population structure. Turkish Cypriots estimated at 19% of the total (about 120,000). The subsequent censuses conducted in 1976-2001 after the de facto division of the island covered only the population in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus government, and the number of Turkish Cypriots residing in Northern Cyprus was estimated by the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Service based on population growth rates and migration data. In the last census of 2001 carried out by the Republic of Cyprus, the population in the area controlled by the government was 703,529. The number of Turkish Cypriots residing in Northern Cyprus was estimated by the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Service at 87,600, or 11% of the reported total. The latest available estimates by the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Service put the island’s population at the end of 2006 at 867,600, with 89.8% (778,700) in the government controlled area and 10.2% (88,900) Turkish Cypriots in Northern Cyprus. However, the Republic of Cyprus estimate of Turkish Cypriots does not represent the total population of Northern Cyprus. In addition, the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Service also estimated that 150,000-160,000 Turkish immigrants (described as “illegal settlers” in the Republic of Cyprus Statistical Abstract 2007, footnote on p. 72) were living in Northern Cyprus, bringing the de facto population of Northern Cyprus to about 250,000. This estimate produced by the Republic of Cyprus matches the results of the 2006 population census carried out by the ’government’ of Northern Cyprus, which gives 265,100 as the total population of TRNC. The total population of Cyprus is thus slightly over 1 million, comprising 778,700 in the territory controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus and 265,100 in the territory controlled by the government of TRNC. Cyprus has seen a large influx of guest workers from countries such as Thailand, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, as well as major increases in the numbers of permanent Russian, British or other EU residents. Sizeable communities from Russia and Ukraine (mostly Pontic
Church of Ayios Lazaros in Larnaca Most Greek Cypriots are members of the Greek Orthodox Church, whereas most Turkish Cypriots are Muslim. According to Eurobarometer 2005, Cyprus is one of the most religious countries in the European Union, along with Malta, Romania, Greece, and Poland. It is also one of only five EU states that have an official state religion (Cypriot Orthodox Church, the other four states being Malta, Greece, Denmark, and United Kingdom (Church of England)). In addition to the Christian Orthodox and Muslim communities, there are also small Bahá’í, Jewish, Protestant (including Pentecostal), Roman Catholic, Maronite (Eastern Rites Catholic) and Armenian Apostolic communities in Cyprus.
Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education. The high quality of instruction can be attributed to a large extent to the above-average competence of the teachers but also to the fact that nearly 7% of the GDP is spent on education which makes Cyprus one of
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Students from overseas are also increasing. Universities in the north side of Cyprus include: • Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta • Near East University, Nicosia (North) • Girne American University, Girne • European University of Lefke, Lefke • Cyprus International University, Nicosia (North) • Middle East Technical University, North Cyprus Campus, Guzelyurt
Pancyprian Gymnasium, the oldest functioning high school in Cyprus. the top three spenders of education in the EU along with Denmark and Sweden. State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions. However, the value of a state high-school diploma is limited by the fact that the grades obtained account for only around 25% of the final grade for each topic, with the remaining 75% assigned by the teacher during the semester, in a minimally transparent way. Cypriot universities (like universities in Greece) ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes. While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take. The majority of Cypriots receive their higher education at Greek, British, Turkish, other European and North American universities. It is noteworthy that Cyprus currently has the highest percentage of citizens of working age who have higher-level education in the EU at 30% which is ahead of Finland’s 29.5%. In addition 47% of its population aged 25–34 have tertiary education, which is the highest in the EU. The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with 78.7% studying in a university outside Cyprus. Private colleges and state-supported universities have been developed. • University of Cyprus: Established in 1989 • The Cyprus Academy of Art: Established in 1995 and offers the only EDEXCEL Accredited Diploma in Foundation Studies in Cyprus. • Cyprus University of Technology: Started in 2007 • European University - Cyprus: Established in 1961 as Cyprus College and changed its name in 2007 • University of Nicosia: Established in 1981 and formerly known as Intercollege; It changed to its present name in 2007. There are a total of 5,000 students at the Nicosia, Limassol and Larnaca campuses • Frederick University Notable artists include Rhea Bailey, Mihail Kkasialos, Ioannis Kissonergis, Theodoulos Gregoriou, Helene Black, George Skoteinos, Kalopedis family, Nicos Nicolaides, Stass Paraskos, Arestís Stasí, Telemachos Kanthos, Adamantios Diamantis, Konstantia Sofokleous and Chris Achilleos.
The traditional folk music of Cyprus has many common elements with Greek mainland and island folk music, including dances like the sousta, syrtos, zeibekikos, tatsia, and the kartsilamas. The instruments commonly associated with Cyprus folk music are the violin ["fkiolin"], the lute ["laouto"], the accordion, and the Cyprus flute "pithkiavlin". There is also a form of musical poetry known as "chattista", which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. Composers associated with traditional music in Cyprus include Evagoras Karageorgis, Marios Tokas, Solon Michaelides, Savvas Salides. Pop music in Cyprus is generally influenced by the Greek pop music "Laïka" scene, with several artists such as Anna Vissi and Evridiki earning widespread popularity. Cypriot rock and "Éntekhno" rock music is often associated with artists such as Michalis Hatzigiannis and Alkinoos Ioannidis. Metal also has a following in Cyprus, represented by bands such as Armageddon, Winter’s Verge, RUST and Blynd Rev. 16:16.
Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria, an epic poem probably composed in the later seventh century BC and attributed to Stasinus. The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry. The Cypriot Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic philosophy. Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages. Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Voustronios, refer to the period under French domination (15th century). Poèmes d’amour written in medieval Greek Cypriot date back from 16th century. Some of them are actual translations of poems written by
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Petrarch, Bembo, Ariosto and G. Sannazzaro. Modern literary figures from Cyprus include the poet and writer Kostas Montis, poet Kyriakos Charalambides, poet Michalis Pasardis, writer Nicos Nicolaides, Stylianos Atteshlis, Altheides and also Demetris Th. Gotsis. Dimitris Lipertis and Vasilis Michaelides are folk poets who wrote poems mainly in the Cypriot-Greek dialect. Lawrence Durrell lived on Cyprus for a time, and wrote the book Bitter Lemons concerning his time there, which book in 1957 won the second Duff Cooper Prize. The majority of the play Othello by William Shakespeare is set on the island of Cyprus. Cyprus also figures in religious literature, most notably in Acts of the Apostles, according to which the Apostles Barnabas and Paul preached on the island.
Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients in Cypriot cuisine. Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra, green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils. The commonest among fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines, nectarines, mespila, blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, hazelnut. An important aspect of Greek Cypriot cuisine is the meze. This is a meal comprising a broad range of Cypriot dishes - each one a small portion, allowing the diner to sample a good proportion of the restaurant’s menu in a single meal. A typical meze will consist of local bread, tashi (a local variety of tahini), Greek salad, natural yoghurt, taramasalata, olives, kalamari, keftedes, fish (fried or grilled), fried lountza, dolmades, halloumi (grilled or fried),souvlakia (pork and chicken), sheftalia, lamb chop, chips, stifado (usually beef, but sometimes rabbit or octopus), afelia, followed by fresh fruit of the season. Exactly what you get will depend on the season and will vary from restaurant to restaurant. In years gone by, a meze would be delivered very slowly, allowing the diners to chat and drink for several hours whilst picking at each dish, but these days (perhaps due to tourists misinterpreting this deliberately slow service as poor service) it is more usual for the dishes to be presented at a more conventional pace. Coffee along with a Cyprus brandy usually complete the meal.
Slices of fresh halloumi cheese with mint leaves packed in the center. Halloumi, a popular cheese made from a mixture of goat’s and sheep’s milk, originates from Cyprus, and is commonly served sliced, either fresh or grilled, as an appetiser. Seafood and fish dishes of Cyprus include squid, octopus, red mullet, and sea bass. Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and kolokassi. Other traditional delicacies of the island are meat marinated in dried coriander, seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as lountza (smoked pork loin), charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki (pork and chicken cooked over charcoal), and sheftalia (minced meat wrapped in mesentery). Pourgouri (bulgur, cracked wheat) is the traditional carbohydrate other than bread.
Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium Governing bodies of sport in Cyprus include the Cyprus Automobile Association, Cyprus Badminton Federation, Cyprus Basketball Federation, Cyprus Cricket Association, Cyprus Football Association, Cyprus Rugby Federation and the Cyprus Volleyball Federation. Marcos Baghdatis is one of the most successful tennis players in international stage. He reached the Wimbledon semi-final in 2006. Also Kyriakos Ioannou a Cypriot high jumper born in Limassol achieved a jump of 2.35 m at the 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics held in Osaka, Japan, in 2007 winning the bronze medal
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Football is by far the most popular spectator sport. Notable teams include APOEL Nicosia FC, Anorthosis Famagusta FC, AC Omonia, Apollon Limassol, Nea Salamina Famagusta, AEK Larnaca and AEL Limassol. Stadiums or sports venues in Cyprus include the GSP Stadium (the largest in Cyprus), Makario Stadium, Neo GSZ Stadium, Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, Ammochostos Stadium and Tsirion Stadium. The Cyprus Rally is also on the World Rally Championship sporting calendar.
eurozone; so it can not be used in any other country but only in Cyprus.
The Cyprus Government Railway ceased operation on the 31st December 1951, the remaining modes of transport are by road, sea, and air. Of the 10,663 km (6,626 mi) of roads in the Greek Cypriot area as of 1998, 6,249 km (3,883 mi) were paved, and 4,414 km (2,743 mi) were unpaved. As of 1996 the Turkish Cypriot area had a similar ratio of paved to unpaved, with approximately 1,370 km (850 mi) of paved road and 980 km (610 mi) unpaved. Cyprus is one of only four EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road, a remnant of British colonisation, the others being Ireland, Malta and the United Kingdom. Motorways • A1 Nicosia to Limassol • A2 connects A1 near Pera Chorio with A3 by Larnaca • A3 Larnaca to Agia Napa • A5 connects A1 near Kofinou with A3 by Larnaca • A6 Pafos to Limassol • A9 Nicosia to Astromeritis
Cyprus: Newspapers include the Phileleftheros, Politis (Cyprus), Simerini, Cyprus Mail, the Cyprus Observer, Famagusta Gazette, Cyprus Today, Cyprus Weekly, Financial Mirror, Haravgi and Makhi. TV channels include ANT1 Cyprus, Alfa TV, CNC Plus TV, Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation, Lumiere TV, Middle East Television, Mega Channel Cyprus and Sigma TV. In the north: TV: BRT 1, BRT 2, Kibris Genc TV, Avrasya Tv, Kanal T, AS TV, Kibris TV, Ada TV, Kibrisli TV + all of mainland Turkey’s TV channels are available by analog and satellite. Newspapers: Kibris Gazetesi, Halkin Sesi, Cyprus Observer, Cyprus Times, Cyprus Daily, Gunes, Dialog, Havadis.
A1 Highway - Limassol In 1999, Cyprus had six heliports and two international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. Nicosia International Airport has been closed since 1974 and although Ercan airport was still in use it was only for flights from Turkey. Since 2006 Ercan International Airport has been mentioned in talks between Britain, United States and the EU for direct flights, with the EU sanctioning the opening, however International flights direct are still unavailable. Public transport in Cyprus is limited to privately run bus services (except in Nicosia), taxis, and ’shared’ taxi services (referred to locally as service taxis). Per capita private car ownership is the 5th highest in the world. In 2006 extensive plans were announced to improve and
The €5 Accession of Cyprus to the Eurozone commemorative coin minted in 2008. In Cyprus, the euro was introduced in 2008. Three different designs were selected for the Cypriot coins. To commemorate this event, a €5 collector coin was also issued. This coin is a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all of the
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Number of licensed vehicles Vehicle Category Private vehicles Taxis Rental cars Buses Light trucks (lighter than 40 tonnes) Heavy trucks (over 40 tonnes) Motorcycles (2 wheels) Motorcycles (3 wheels) Scooters TOTAL 2001 270,348 1,641 8,080 3,003 107,060 10,882 12,956 42 28,987 442,999 2002 277,554 1,559 8,509 2,997 106,610 11,182 14,983 41 25,252 448,687 2003 291,645 1,696 9,160 3,275 107,527 12,119 16,009 43 25,464 466,938 2004 324,212 1,770 9,652 3,199 105,017 12,808 16,802 55 24,539 498,054 2005
344,953 1,845 8,336 3,217 105,327 13,028 16,836 558 22,987 517,087
telecommunications companies have emerged including MTN, Cablenet, TelePassport, OTEnet Telecom and PrimeTel.
The island nation Cyprus is member of: Australia Group,CN, CE, CFSP, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ITUC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO,ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO. Paphos International Airport. expand bus services and restructure public transport throughout Cyprus, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank. The main harbours of the island are Limassol harbour and Larnaca harbour, which service cargo, passenger, and cruise ships.
International rankings See also
• • • • • • • Turkish Republic of North Cyprus List of Cyprus-related articles List of Cyprus-related topics List of international rankings Outline of Asia Outline of Cyprus Outline of geography
Urban hospitals include: • Nicosia New General Hospital • Nicosia Old General Hospital • Makario Hospital (Nicosia) • Limassol New General Hospital • Limassol Old General Hospital • Larnaca New General Hospital • Larnaca Old General Hospital • Paphos General Hospital
• Hitchens, Christopher (1997). Hostage to History: Cyprus from the Ottomans to Kissinger. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-189-9. • Brewin, Christopher (2000). European Union and Cyprus. Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-24-0. • Dods, Clement (ed.) (1999). Cyprus: The Need for New Perspectives. The Eothen Press. ISBN 0-906719-23-2. • Durrell, Lawrence (1957). Bitter Lemons. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571201-55-5. • Faustmann, Hubert and Nicos Peristianis (2006). Britain and Cyprus: Colonialism and Post-Colonialism, 1878-2006. Bibliopolis. ISBN 978-3-93392-536-7.
Cyta, the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most Telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. However, following the recent liberalisation of the sector, a few private
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Organization State of World Liberty Project United Nations Development Programme Survey State of World Liberty Index Human Development Index 2006 Human Development Index 2004 Human Development Index 2000 Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005 Satisfaction with Life Index Index of Economic Freedom Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2006 Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2005 Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index 2005 Corruption Perceptions Index 2004 Global Competitiveness Report GDP per capita Environmental Sustainability Index 2005 Labor strikes Globalisation Index 2006 Globalisation Index 2005 Globalisation Index 2004 Ranking 9 out of 159 29 out of 177 29 out of 177 29 out of 177 23 out of 111 49 out of 178 20 out of 157
The Economist University of Leicester Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Reporters Without Borders Transparency International
30 out of 168 25(tied) out of 168 37 out of 163 37 out of 158 36 out of 145 46 out of 125 31 out of 180 not ranked not ranked not ranked
World Economic Forum International Monetary Fund Yale University/Columbia University Nationmaster A.T. Kearney / Foreign Policy
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• Tocci, Nathalie (2004). EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?. Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-4310-7. • Anastasiou, Harry (2008). Broken Olive Branch: Nationalism Ethnic Conflict and the Quest for Peace in Cyprus. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815631960.
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 "A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Globalisation Index 2004" (PDF). A.T. Kearney/FOREIGN POLICY. www.atkearney.com. 2004. http://www.atkearney.com/ shared_res/pdf/2004G-index.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. • This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies. • This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook. • Official Cyprus Government Web Site • Embassy of Greece, USA – Cyprus: Geographical and Historical Background
• Cyprus information from the United States Department of State includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports • Cyprus at the Open Directory Project • The UN in Cyprus • Top of the class - Cyprus Internet Directory • "The Cyprus Conflict" An extensive educational web site dedicated to the Cyprus Conflict Official publications • The British government’s Foreign Affairs Committee report on Cyprus. • Letter by the President of the Republic, Mr Tassos Papadopoulos, to the U.N. Secretary-General, Mr Kofi Annan, dated 7 June, which circulated as an official document of the U.N. Security Council • Legal Issues arising from certain population transfers and displacements on the territory of the Republic of Cyprus in the period since 20 July 1974 • Address to Cypriots by President Papadopoulos (FULL TEXT) • The Republic of Cyprus Press and Information Office, Aspects of the Cyprus Problem • www, By (2009-01-06). "Noitiki Antistasis". Noitikiantistasis.com. http://www.noitikiantistasis.com/ wordpress. Retrieved on 2009-01-06. Non-affiliated news website focusing mainly on the effect of globalisation and foreign interests on the Cyprus problem • European Court of Human Rights Case of Cyprus v. Turkey (Application no. 25781/94)
• Wikimedia Atlas of Cyprus Cyprus travel guide from Wikitravel Government • Cyprus High Commission Trade Centre - London • Cypriot Diaspora Project • Republic of Cyprus - English Language • Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus • Press and Information Office • Annan Plan at annanplan.com • Chief of State and Cabinet Members • Cyprus Elections to European Parliament General information • Cyprus entry at The World Factbook • Cyprus from UCB Libraries GovPubs